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Automotive Research Center

HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC
● Dynamics and Control of
NEWS & EVENTS

Vehicles
● RESEARCH ❍ Vehicle Mass

● CONTACT
Estimation

Dynamics and Control of Vehicles


❍ VEHSim - Internet-

The goal of this Thrust Area is the development of fundamental control and design tools to enhance the safety and
Distributed

performance of ground vehicles through modeling and computer simulation. This focus is partitioned into 1)
❍ Terrain
modeling tool development for efficient, accurate robust control and design and 2) control system design. The
Characterization
techniques are applied to vehicle handling, steering, ride mobility, inter- or shared operability, remote piloting,
❍ Tire Energy
active vehicle safety, power management control of hybrid systems including fuel cells.
Efficiency

The motivation for the first focus area, modeling tool development, is that the modeling and simulation process
❍ Mass & CG Height

remains a greatly under-utilized tool for vehicle system design and control. This is because models are time
Estimation

consuming to develop, expensive to parameterize (statistically or otherwise), time consuming to solve (especially in
❍ Electro-Thermal

optimal design scenarios), often difficult to integrate with models developed by others, difficult to quantify their
Battery Dynamics

accuracy and range of validity, and finally difficult to properly document. The motivation for the second focus area,
❍ Terrain Models
control system design, is the development of performance enhancing and safety enhancing systems with innovative
Implications on
control algorithms. These can only be developed if the models are first available (first focus area) and if suitable
Reliability
control synthesis techniques are developed. Hence, our goal is to create control system algorithms that can be

❍ Analysis of TC SOFC
efficiently and effective used by vehicles designers for improving vehicle performance.

Engines

Thrust Area Leader : Prof. Jeffrey L. Stein, stein@umich.edu


● Human Centered Modeling &
TARDEC Leader :Dr. Paramsothy "Jay" Jayakumar, paramsothy.jayakumar@us.army.mil
Simulation

● High Performance Structures ● Optimal Sensor Package Selection for Off-Road Vehicle Mass Estimation

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● VEHSim: An Integrated Vehicle, Engine, and Human Driver Simulation Platform


and Materials

- Extension to Internet-Distributed HIL Simulation


● Advanced and Hybrid

● Stochastic Approach to Terrain Characterization


Powertrains

● Energy Efficiency Study of Tires in Off-Road Conditions


● Vehicle System Integration,
● Estimation Techniques for Mass and CG Height of Military Vehicles
Optimization, and Robustness
● Measuring, Modeling and Controlling Electro-Thermal Battery Dynamics

● Implication of Terrain Topology Models on Ground Vehicle Reliability

● Analysis and Hardware Simulation of Turbocharged SOFC Engines

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Automotive Research Center

HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC

● NEWS
● Dynamics
& EVENTSand Control of

● RESEARCH
Vehicles
● CONTACT
❍ Vehicle Mass
Estimation
Optimal Sensor Package Selection for Off-Road Vehicle Mass Estimation
❍ VEHSim - Internet-

Distributed Principal Jeffrey L. Stein, University of Michigan, stein@umich.edu

Investigators: Hosam K. Fathy, University of Michigan, hfathy@umich.edu


❍ Terrain

Quad Members
Characterization

Faculty: Jeffrey L. Stein, Hosam K. Fathy, University of Michigan


❍ Tire Energy

Student: Benjamin L. Pence, University of Michigan


Efficiency

Government: David Gunter, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC


❍ Mass & CG Height

Industry: Gary Witus, Turing Associates, Inc.


Estimation

❍ Electro-ThermalThis project is motivated by the critical need for protecting

Battery Dynamics
soldiers’ lives from accidents such as rollovers. Active and

❍ Terrain Models semi-active vehicle safety systems have been shown to

Implications onsignificantly lessen the likelihood of such life-threatening

Reliability accidents, but they must be correctly calibrated. Such

systems can also improve drivetrain control and handling


❍ Analysis of TC SOFC

by scheduling gear shifts and fuel injection, and controlling braking actuation.
Engines


The
Human Centered Modeling & goal of this project is to estimate the mass of an off-road vehicle online in real time, use low cost sensors, and

Simulation to quantify the confidence in the estimate. develop an accurate and fast real-time online mass estimator for off-

road vehicles. We will perform experimental validation of our method on real vehicles and extend the application to
● High Performance Structures

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Automotive Research Center

estimating other vehicle inertial properties.


and Materials

● Advanced and Hybrid Publications:

Powertrains
● B.L. Pence, H.K. Fathy, J.L. Stein, (2009), “Sprung Mass Estimation for Off-Road Vehicles via Base-
● Vehicle System Integration,
Excitation Suspension Dynamics and Recursive Least Squares”, Proc. of American Control Conference, June,
Optimization, and Robustness
2009

● B.L. Pence, H.K. Fathy, J.L. Stein, (2009), “A Base -Excitation Approach to Polynomial Chaos-Based

Estimation of Sprung Mass for Off-Road Vehicles”, Proc. of the Dynamic Systems and Control Conference,

Oct., 2009

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HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC

● NEWS
● Dynamics
& EVENTSand Control of

● RESEARCH
Vehicles
● CONTACT
❍ Vehicle Mass
VEHSim: An Integrated Vehicle, Engine, and Human Driver Simulation Platform:
Estimation Extension to Internet-Distributed HIL Simulation
❍ VEHSim - Internet-
Distributed Principal Investigator: Hosam K. Fathy, University of Michigan, hfathy@umich.edu
Terrain
Quad Members

Characterization
Faculty: Hosam K. Fathy, Zoran Filipi, Brent Gillespie, Jeffrey Stein,

❍ Tire Energy University of Michigan

Efficiency
Student: Tulga Ersal, Post Doctoral Research Fellow, University of

❍ Mass & CG Height Michigan

Estimation Government: Mark Brudnak, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC

❍ Electro-ThermalIndustry: Marcella Haghgooie, Applied Dynamics International, Inc.

Battery Dynamics
This project is motivated by the potential of Internet-distributed

❍ Terrain Models
hardware-in-the-loop simulation (ID-HIL) as a key enabler for

Implications on
geographically-dispersed concurrent systems engineering, as well as

Reliability
pushing the limits of high-fidelity rapid prototyping and creating novel

❍ Analysis of TC SOFC
subsystem evaluation/procurement tools.

Engines

We have successfully integrated the driver-in-the-loop ride motion simulator of TARDEC with the engine-in-the-loop
● Human Centered Modeling &

simulator at the University of Michigan as the demonstrator for ID-HIL. This has been used to demonstrate an
Simulation

observer-free solution that avoids the need for mathematical models of the hardware components and establish the
● High Performance Structures

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Automotive Research Center
transparency of the internet distributed setup. Our work now is to implement the ID-HIL simulation for other
and Materials

configurations and methods to improve transparency.


● Advanced and Hybrid

Powertrains Publications:

● Vehicle System Integration,


● Ersal, T., Brudnak, M., Stein, J. L., and Fathy, H. K., 2009, "Variation-Based Transparency Analysis of an
Optimization, and Robustness
Internet-Distributed Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Platform for Vehicle Powertrain Systems", Proceedings

of ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Hollywood, California, October 12-14, 2009, ASME.

● Ersal, T., Brudnak, M., Salvi, A., Stein, J. L., Filipi, Z., and Fathy, H. K., 2009, "Development of an Internet-

Distributed Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Platform for an Automotive Application", Proceedings of ASME

Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Hollywood, California, October 12-14, 2009, ASME.

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HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC

● NEWS
● Dynamics
& EVENTSand Control of

● RESEARCH
Vehicles
● CONTACT
❍ Vehicle Mass
Stochastic Approach to Terrain Characterization
Estimation

Principal T.C.Sun, Wayne State University, tsun@math.wayne.edu


❍ VEHSim - Internet-

Investigators:
Distributed

Quad Members
❍ Terrain
Characterization
Faculty: T.C.Sun , Milton Chaika, Kussiy Alyass, Wayne State University
❍ Tire Energy Efficiency

Student: Shanshan Qiu, Wayne State University


❍ Mass & CG Height
Government: David Gorsich, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC
Estimation

Industry: Richard Devries, Victor Borowski, General Dynamics Land


❍ Electro-Thermal
Systems
Battery Dynamics

In the designing or testing of a vehicle or a fleet of vehicles, knowledge of the structural loads is essential to
❍ Terrain Models

determine durability and reliability. Evaluating these loads require the input of terrain models. The Army, as well as
Implications on

industry, needs models of terrain profiles of the highest fidelity in evaluating designs and in planning tests for future
Reliability

vehicle systems. The Army will also need the input from these simulated terrain profiles for lab testing of vehicles.
❍ Analysis of TC SOFC

A better definition of the roughness of a test track will improve and set a standard for the testing of new vehicles.
Engines

Therefore, our research seeks to produce those terrain profile models and their simulations, and with the help of the

● Human Centered Modeling &


terrain profile models, find a better definition of the roughness of a test track.

Simulation

We will develop statistical methods of characterizing terrain topography, and bring modern time series methods into
● High Performance Structures

the modeling of vehicle dynamics and actual road scenery, and into the lab testing of vehicles. This project will also
and Materials

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develop correlation and validation methods that relate the terrain topography to the damage that a vehicle incurs
● Advanced and Hybrid
while traveling over that terrain.
Powertrains

● Publications:
Vehicle System Integration,

Optimization, and Robustness


● Chaika, M., Gorsich, D. and Sun, T. C., Some statistical tests in the study of terrain modeling, Int. J. Vehicle

Design, 36, (2004), 132-148.

● Sun, T. C., Gorsich, D., Chaika, M., Alyass, K., Wei, Jinfeng and Ferris, J., Time series modeling of terrain

profiles, SAE 2005 Transactions, Journal of Commercial Vehicles}, pp.221-227.

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HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC

● NEWS
● Dynamics
& EVENTSand Control of

● RESEARCH
Vehicles
● CONTACT
❍ Vehicle Mass
Energy Efficiency Study of Tires in Off-Road Conditions
Estimation

Principal Investigator: Corina Sandu, Virginia Tech, csandu@vt.edu


❍ VEHSim - Internet-

Quad Members
Distributed

Faculty: Corina Sandu, Virginia Tech


❍ Terrain

Student: Carmine Senatore, PhD candidate, Virginia Tech


Characterization

❍ Tire Energy
Government: Alexander A. Reid, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC
Efficiency
Industry: Timothy Rooney, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
❍ Mass & CG Height

Estimation
Performance prediction for wheeled vehicles

❍ Electro-Thermaldepends on accurate estimations of the forces

Battery Dynamics
developed at the tire-terrain interface. These

❍ Terrain Models forces are responsible for the vehicle mobility,

Implications ontraction and steering performance, handling

Reliability behavior, and ride quality. A strong motivation

for this study was given by the fact that a substantial loss of the power transmitted through the driveline happens
❍ Analysis of TC SOFC

at the tire, as illustrated in figure.


Engines

● The
Human Centered Modeling & long term goal is to realistically and efficiently simulate the vehicle dynamics of military and commercial

Simulation vehicles in off-road operating conditions, specifically to address critical issues related to energy efficiency of the tire

from the tire-operating environment interaction perspective. The study aims to simulate realistic military cycles and
● High Performance Structures

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road conditions, and assess the fuel efficiency of wheeled vehicles under such conditions.
and Materials

● Advanced and Hybrid The outcomes of this research are general tools and methodologies with direct impact on the modeling of terrain

Powertrains profile, soil characteristics, tire-soil interaction, off-road vehicle dynamics and mobility, and they will support the US

● Army in evaluating the performance of its off-road vehicles from the mobility and energy efficiency point of view.
Vehicle System Integration,

Optimization, and Robustness


Publications:

● Lee, R. and Sandu, C. – “Integrated Terrain Topology and Soil Properties Simulation Environment”, Paper

no. P-16, 14 pg, Proc. of the 11th European Regional Conference of ISTVS, Oct. 5-8, 2009, Bremen,

Germany.

● Senatore, C. and Sandu, C. – “Exit Angle Influence on Energy Efficiency of Off-Road Tires”, Paper no. P-15,

13 pg, Proc. of the 11th European Regional Conference of ISTVS, Oct. 5-8, 2009, Bremen, Germany.

● Lee, R. and Sandu, C. – “Terrain Profile Modeling using Stochastic Partial Differential Equations”, Paper no.

IJVSMT-7921, Int. J. of Vehicle Systems Modeling and Testing, Special Issue on “Terrain Topology:

Measurement, Analysis, and Applications”, in print, Sept. 2009.

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HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC

● NEWS
● Dynamics
& EVENTSand Control of

● RESEARCH
Vehicles
● CONTACT
❍ Vehicle Mass
Estimation Techniques for Mass and CG Height of Military Vehicles
Estimation

Principal Investigator: Corina Sandu, Virginia Tech, csandu@vt.edu


❍ VEHSim - Internet-

Quad Members
Distributed

Faculty: Corina Sandu, Virginia Tech


❍ Terrain

Student: Joseph Hays, PhD student, Virginia Tech


Characterization

Government: David Gunter, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC


❍ Tire Energy

Industry: Gary Witus, Founder & President, Turing Associates


Efficiency

❍ Mass & CG Height


Estimation Parameter estimation is an important problem,

❍ Electro-Thermal because in many instances parameters of interest

Battery Dynamics cannot be physically measured, or they cannot be

❍ Terrain Models measured with sufficient accuracy, especially in real

Implications on time applications. Rather, parameter values must be

Reliability inferred from available measurements of different

aspects of the system response. Various approaches to


❍ Analysis of TC SOFC

parameter estimations are discussed in the literature.


Engines

These include energy methods, frequency domain methods, and set inversion via interval analysis (SIVIA) with
● Human Centered Modeling &
Taylor expansions. Estimating the vehicle mass and the center of gravity (CG) of the vehicle represent particular
Simulation
case studies of parameter estimation.

● High Performance Structures

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Automotive Research Center

The first part of our project will consist of complimentary/supporting tasks to the efforts at University of Michigan
and Materials

aiming at finalizing the mass estimation technique (development, testing, and validation). Due to its very high
● Advanced and Hybrid
relevance for assessing vehicle rollover, the second part of the project will focus on setting the foundation of the
Powertrains
study for estimating the CG height of a military vehicle in off-road conditions. The long term goal is to estimate in
● Vehicle System Integration,
real-time the mass of the vehicle and the CG location of the vehicle.
Optimization, and Robustness

Publications:

● Blanchard*, E., Sandu, A., and Sandu, C. – “Polynomial Chaos-Based Parameter Estimation Methods Applied

to Vehicle System”, Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) Part K: J. of Multi-body

Dynamics, Vol. 223, Paper JMBD204, DOI: 10.1243/14644193JMBD204, pp. 1-24 (24), June 24, 2009.

● Blanchard*, E., Sandu, A., and Sandu, C. – “Parameter Estimation for Mechanical Systems via an Explicit

Representation of Uncertainty”, Engineering Computations. Int. J. for Computer-Aided Engineering and

Software, Paper no. EC116060, Vol. 26, Issue 5, pp. 541-569, Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0264-

4401, DOI 10.1108/02644400910970185, Feb. 2009.

● Blanchard*, E., Sandu, C., and Sandu, A. – “Comparison between a Polynomial-Chaos-based Bayesian

Approach and a Polynomial-Chaos-based EKF Approach for Parameter Estimation with Applications to Vehicle

Dynamics”, Paper no. DETC2009-86402, 12 pg, Proc. of ASME IDETC, 11th Int. Conf. on AVTT, Aug. 30-

Sept. 2, 2009, San Diego, CA. This paper received 2009 ASME VDC AVTT Conference Best Paper Award.

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HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC

● NEWS
● Dynamics
& EVENTSand Control of

● RESEARCH
Vehicles
● CONTACT
❍ Vehicle Mass
Measuring, Modeling and Controlling Electro-Thermal Battery Dynamics
Estimation

Principal Anna Stefanopoulou, University of Michigan, annastef@umich.


❍ VEHSim - Internet-

Investigators: edu
Distributed
Levi Thompson, University of Michigan, ltt@umich.edu
❍ Terrain
Quad Members
Characterization
Faculty: Anna Stefanopoulou, Levi Thompson, University of Michigan
❍ Tire Energy
Government: Sonya Zanardelli, Energy Storage Team Leader TARDEC, GVPM
Efficiency
David Gorsich,, Chief Scientist, U.S. Army TARDEC
❍ Mass & CG Height
Industry: Dyche Anderson, Ford Motor Company
Estimation


Advances in the design and control of electrochemical energy devices depend on experimentally validated models of
Electro-Thermal
Battery Dynamics
the spatiotemporal behavior of these devices. Neutron radiography offers unique opportunities for measuring
❍ Terrain Models

lithium (Li) concentration in Li-air battery cells. Parameterization and validation of mathematical models of Li-ion
Implications on

cells at various temperatures is necessary for accurate State of Charge Estimation, Diagnostics and Prognostics, and
Reliability

Battery Thermal and Power Management. Addressing the durability and safety issues associated with Li-ion
❍ Analysis of TC SOFC
batteries requires the full characterization of the temperature-dependent reactions during overcharging and over
Engines
discharging conditions and analyzing the complex spatially distributed nonlinear phenomena during the thermal

● Human Centered Modeling &


instabilities and run-aways.

Simulation

It is possible to measure in-situ spatiotemporal concentrations of Li


● High Performance Structures

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Automotive Research Center
in Li-air batteries. These measurements will be used to calibrate
and Materials

and validate control-oriented physical models for the prediction of


● Advanced and Hybrid
the spatiotemporal patterns and their impact on performance and
Powertrains
degradation. The technological breakthrough from the availability of validated models will make a substantial impact
● Vehicle System Integration,
to the hybrid system level sizing and power management for an ultra-light far-reaching portable power source. The
Optimization, and Robustness
proposed effort fills the critical gap of experimental verification and availability of in-situ Li concentration data in the

area of Li-air batteries. Our goal is to measure, tune and validate the evolution of the spatially-resolved solid

concentration in the two electrodes of the new battery cells under various controlled temperature conditions and

charge/discharge rates using high-resolution neutron radiography. The critical values for the state of charge

estimation are associated to the lowest concentration for the ion-production electrode and the highest value for the

ion-insertion electrode. The prediction of the critical values is important to ensure safe operation and high utilization

in a portable application.

Publications:

● “Correlating Nitrogen Accumulation with Temporal Fuel Cell Performance,” E. A. Muller, F. Kolb, L. Guzzella,

A. G. Stefanopoulou, D, A. McKay to appear in ASME J Fuel Cell Science and Technology.

● “A Dynamic Semi-Analytic Channel-to-Channel Model of Two-Phase Water Distribution for Estimation and

Control of Fuel Cells,” B.A. McCain, A.G. Stefanopoulou and I.V. Kolmanovsky, in IEEE Transactions Control

System Technology, vol 17, number 5, pp 1043-1055.

● “Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode,” J. B. Siegel, D. A. McKay,

A. G. Stefanopoulou, D. S. Hussey, and D. L. Jacobson, J. Electrochemical Society, (155)11 pp. B1168

(2008).

● Carmelo Speltino, Domenico Di Domenico, Giovanni Fiengo, and Anna G. Stefanopoulou. Cell equalization in

battery stacks through state of charge estimation polling. In American Control Conference, 2010.

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HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC

● NEWS
● Dynamics
& EVENTSand Control of

● RESEARCH
Vehicles
● CONTACT
❍ Vehicle Mass
Implication of Terrain Topology Models on Ground Vehicle Reliability
Estimation

Principal Investigator: John B. Ferris, Virginia Tech, jbferris@vt.edu


❍ VEHSim - Internet-

Quad Members
Distributed

Faculty: John B. Ferris, Virginia Tech


❍ Terrain

Student: Ma Rui, Heather Chemistruck, Sujay Kawale, Virginia Tech


Characterization

Government: Alexander A. Reid, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC


❍ Tire Energy

Industry: Erric Tseng, Ford Motor Company


Efficiency

❍ Mass & CG Height


This project supports U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC's efforts to develop mathematical models that appropriately

Estimation characterize terrain topology for different applications. These models will improve the simulation capability for

❍ Electro-Thermalground vehicle dynamics, durability, reliability and mobility assurance.

Battery Dynamics
Our researchers will determine how the selection of the mathematical model of terrain, along with the
❍ Terrain Models
Implications onparameterization of these models, affects the ground vehicle responses and resulting reliability.
Reliability

❍ Analysis of TC SOFC
Publications:
Engines

● 1. Ferris, J.B., 2004, “Characterizing Road Profiles as Markov Chains,” IJVD, Special Edition on Road Profiles:
● Human Centered Modeling &

Measurement, Analysis, and Applications, Vol. 36, No. 2/3.


Simulation

● High Performance Structures

and Materials
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● Advanced and Hybrid

Powertrains

● Vehicle System Integration,

Optimization, and Robustness

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HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC

● NEWS
● Dynamics
& EVENTSand Control of

● RESEARCH
Vehicles
● CONTACT
❍ Vehicle Mass
Analysis and Hardware Simulation of Turbocharged SOFC Engines
Estimation

Principal Investigator: Jing Sun, University of Michigan, jingsun@umich.edu


❍ VEHSim - Internet-

Quad Members
Distributed

Faculty: Jing Sun, Soryeok Oh, University of Michigan


❍ Terrain

Government: Herb Dobbs (Point of Contact), Joel King, U.S. Army RDECOM-
Characterization

TARDEC
❍ Tire Energy
Industry: Owen Taylor, Pittsburgh Electrical Engine Inc.
Efficiency

❍ SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) systems operating with reformed JP-8 fuel have many advantages over conventional
Mass & CG Height

Estimation power generation systems. Turbo-charging the SOFC engine is a natural and effective way to further enhance the

efficiency of SOFC systems by harvesting the high energy content in the exhaust gas. It has been shown that
❍ Electro-Thermal

combining gas turbine with SOFC fuel cells can boost the over-all system efficiency for up to 10-15%, especially for
Battery Dynamics

stationary operations. For mobile applications, however, a set of challenges exist in managing transient operations.
❍ Terrain Models
For the combined SOFC/GT (gas turbine) system with a turbine driven compressor, the analysis has shown that
Implications on
rapid load following can lead to system shutdown due to the close coupling between the SOFC and turbine and to
Reliability
the reliance of the air delivery system on the turbine operation.
❍ Analysis of TC
SOFC Engines

The primary goal of this project is to develop enabling control technologies and toolsets for integrating the turbo-
● Human Centered Modeling &

charged SOFC engines as APU systems into military vehicles. To complement and support the analysis activities, a
Simulation

hardware simulation test-bed for a 5kW class combined SOFC/GT cycle system will be developed to provide a cost
● High Performance Structures

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effective, yet flexible and capable research tool. The research effort aims to achieve the following objectives:
and Materials

● Advanced and Hybrid ● Development of dynamic simulation models for the turbo-charged SOFC engines with three different

Powertrains configurations in the compressor driving mechanism: single shaft, motor driven, and twin shaft.

● Identification of dynamic characteristics and operating constraints of different turbocharged SOFC engine
● Vehicle System Integration,

systems, and the evaluation of the trade-off between performance gain and system complexity.
Optimization, and Robustness

● Development of control strategies for power and thermal management of the turbocharged SOFC engine

systems.

● Development of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) bench incorporating an electric furnace as the

SOFC emulator and real hardware for the turbine.

Publications:

● So-ryeok Oh, Jing Sun, “Optimization and Load-Following Characteristics of 5kW-Class Tubular Solid Oxide

Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems,” American Control Conference, Accepted, Baltimore, 2010.

● Jian Chen, Jing Sun, “Modeling and Control of SOFC APU,” Proceedings of the joint 47th IEEE Conference on

Decision and Control and 27th Chinese Control Conference, Shanghai, China, December, 2009.

● Vasilis Tourapas, Jing Sun, Ann Stefanopoulou, “Incremental Step Reference Governor for Load Conditioning

of Hybrid Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine Power Plant,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol.

17, No. 4, pp 756-767, July, 2009.

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HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC

● NEWS
● Dynamics
& EVENTSand Control of

● RESEARCH
Vehicles
● CONTACT
● Human Centered
Modeling & Simulation
Human Centered Modeling and Simulation
❍ Seated In-

The cost and time spent on vehicle design and engineering is highly correlated with the number of hardware
vehicle Reach

prototype evaluations and redesign cycles needed to produce a final design. Many of these prototype design
❍ Virtual Driver
evaluations are necessary because human population attributes are not well understood or considered early in the
❍ Sensory
design process. This Thrust Area performs a variety of research and development activities necessary to predict the
Integration
responses of specified populations of people when operating and maintaining new vehicles concepts. The software

● High Performance resulting from this research will interface with other ARC hardware systems simulations to enable a comprehensive

Structures and Materials human-hardware system simulation capability.

● Advanced and Hybrid


The development of such a virtual human-vehicle simulation capability could greatly reduce the cost and time to
Powertrains
design new and effective vehicles for both military and commercial markets, and provides a means of

● Vehicle System
complementing the use of virtual environments to enhance human centered design capabilities.

Integration,

Thrust Area Leader : Dr. Matthew Reed, mreed@umich.edu


Optimization, and

TARDEC Thrust Area Leader : Harry Zywiol, harry.zywiol@us.army.mil


Robustness

● Simulating Human Reaching for Vehicle Design: A Study in Ride Motion Effects on Seated In-Vehicle Reach

Performance

● Modeling the Use of In-vehicle Information and Active Warnings in Vehicle Convoys Using the Virtual Driver

● Sensory Integration in Simulated and Remote Piloting of Vehicle

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HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC

● NEWS
● Dynamics
& EVENTSand Control of

● RESEARCH
Vehicles
● CONTACT

● Human Centered
Simulating Human Reaching for Vehicle Design: A Study in Ride Motion Effects on
Modeling & Simulation Seated In-Vehicle Reach Performance
❍ Seated In-
vehicle Reach Principal Bernard J. Martin, University of Michigan, martinbj@umich.edu
❍ Virtual Driver Investigators:

❍ Sensory Quad Members

Integration Faculty: Bernard J. Martin, University of Michigan

● High Performance
Student: Heon-Jeong Kim, University of Michigan

Structures and Materials Government: Harry Zywiol, Victor Paul, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC

Industry: Lenora Hardee, International Truck & Engine Corp.


● Advanced and Hybrid

R. Wade Allen, Systems Technology, Inc.


Powertrains

● Vehicle System The study is a continuation of ongoing research investigating the

Integration, effects of a dynamic ride environment on the performance of

Optimization, and seated in-vehicle reaching tasks. Occupants of off-road vehicles,

Robustness common in military applications, are regularly exposed to whole-

body vibration (WBV) that impairs their ability to quickly and

accurately perform in-vehicle tasks while the vehicle is in motion. This research will characterize and quantify the

nature of this performance degradation, while aiding the development of dynamic models as well as design

standards and strategies for reducing WBV-related errors in performance. Our research will enable these errors to

be mitigated through improved design of controls, displays, vehicle suspension, and seating systems.

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The U.S. Army is immersed in the design and evaluation of vehicle workstations and the results from this study will

provide essential information about the extent to which terrain-induced ride motion adversely affects vehicle

occupants’ ability to quickly and accurately complete reaching tasks. The simulation models based on this research

will enable the U.S. Army and commercial vehicle industries, to evaluate current and future vehicle designs of

controls and displays, as well as seating and suspensions systems. This knowledge will enable designers to test and

evaluate designs that mitigate effects of vibration before spending limited capital towards the completed vehicle

design.

Publications:

● Heon-Jeong Kim, Bernard J Martin, "Effects of Posture and Movement on Vibration Transmissibility Affecting

Human Reach Performance under Vehicle Vibration", Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual

Meeting, 19-23 October 2009.

● Heon-Jeong Kim, Bernard J Martin, "Three-Dimensional Joint Kinematics of the Upper Extremity in Reach

Movements under Whole-Body Vibration Exposure", Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual

Meeting, 22-26 September 2008.

● Heon-Jeong Kim, Bernard J Martin, "Vibration Transmissibility of Multi-Body Segments in Reach Movements

under Whole-Body Vibration Exposure", North American Congress on Biomechanics, 5-9 August 2008.

● Heon-Jeong Kim, Bernard J Martin, "Three-Dimensional Reach Kinematics of the Upper Extremity in a

Dynamic Vehicle Environment", Technical Paper 2008-01-1886. Digital Human Modeling for Design and

Engineering Conference, 17-19 June 2008.

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HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC

● NEWS
● Dynamics
& EVENTSand Control of

● RESEARCH
Vehicles
● CONTACT

● Human Centered
Modeling the Use of In-vehicle Information and Active Warnings in Vehicle Convoys
Modeling & Simulation Using the Virtual Driver

Seated In-

Principal Matthew Reed, University of Michigan, mreed@umich.edu

vehicle Reach Investigators:

Virtual Driver

Quad Members
❍ Sensory
Faculty: Matthew Reed, University of Michigan
Integration
Student: Helen Fuller, University of Michigan
● High Performance
Government: Harry Zywiol, U.S. RDECOM-TARDEC
Structures and Materials
John Lockett, U.S. Army Research Lab.

● Advanced and Hybrid Industry: Lenora Hardee, International Truck & Engine Corp.

Powertrains

Our objective is to apply and extend the Virtual Driver modeling approach to perform a safety analysis of cognitive
● Vehicle System
and physical aspects of driving with new technologies.
Integration,

Optimization, and The new integrated model provides the ability to evaluate the

Robustness combined effects of cognitive and physical features of vehicle

interior designs on driver performance and workload. The project

will result in advancements in the driver model capabilities and the

development of stochastic assessment protocols for information

systems intended for use during convoy operations. The result can

feed into efforts to understand driver workload and make predictions about the safety of new task configurations. In

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addition to ARC support, both the Army and industry have funded the development of the physical simulation tools

that are part of the Virtual Driver. The Army has also supported the establishment of a linkage been the Queuing

Network – Model Human Processor (QN-MHP - the cognitive component of the Virtual Driver) and IMPRINT, the U.S.

Army’s primary human task analysis tool. These connections and leverage will increase the availability of the

research results within the Army and industry.

Publications:

● Fuller, H. J., Tsimhoni, O., & Reed, M. P. (2008). Effect of in-vehicle touch screen position on driver

performance. Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. New

York City.

● Tsimhoni, O., & Reed, M. P. (2007). The Virtual Driver: Integrating Task Planning and Cognitive Simulation

with Human Movement Models. SAE Technical Paper Series No. 2007-01-1766. Warrendale, PA.

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HOME PAGE
Research

● ABOUT ARC

● NEWS
● Dynamics
& EVENTSand Control of

● RESEARCH
Vehicles
● CONTACT

● Human Centered
Sensory Integration in Simulated and Remote Piloting of Vehicle
Modeling & Simulation

Principal Brent Gillespie, University of Michigan, brentg@umich.edu


❍ Seated In-

Investigators:
vehicle Reach

Quad Members
❍ Virtual Driver
Faculty: Brent Gillespie, University of Michigan
❍ Sensory
Integration
Student: Kevin Rider, University of Michigan
● High Performance
Government: Harry Zywiol, U.S. RDECOM-TARDEC
Structures and Materials
Kaleb McDowell, U.S. Army Research Lab.
● Advanced and Hybrid
Industry: Micah Steele, John Deere Corp.
Powertrains

Our objective is to determine the features in a vehicle’s driver interface that are most critical to the development of
● Vehicle System

“overlearned” driving skill, or sensory-motor behavior that has become so automatic that secondary tasks can be
Integration,

undertaken without degrading driving performance. We will determine the relative contribution of visual, haptic, and
Optimization, and

ride-motion cues to driving skill using a dual task experimental paradigm. We will validate models of sensory
Robustness

integration and open and closed-loop motor behavior operating under limited cognitive resources. Applications for

the model include remote piloting of vehicles in addition to traditional driving during conditions of supplemental

cognitive and decision-making loads.

A new driver model that incorporates sensory integration will quantify the relative value of multiple sensory

channels to driving performance under single and dual motor/cognitive task demands. This will have direct

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application to remote piloting of unmanned vehicles using visual feedback from on-board cameras without haptic or

ride motion feedback. The impact of the missing information display channels will be assessed and sensory

substitution will be explored. The results of this work will couple with development and testing of the ARC-supported

Virtual Driver that integrates cognitive and physical modeling.

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