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LIMITATIONS

"Flutter" may be caused by:


A)

Low airspeed aerodynamic wing stall

B)

Distortion by bending and torsion of the structure causing increasing


vibration in the resonance frequency

C)

High airspeed aerodynamic wing stall

D)

Roll control reversal

A commercial jet aeroplane is performing a straight descent at a constant


Mach Number with constant weight. The operational limit that may be
exceeded is:
A)

VMO

B)

VD

C)

VNE

D)

MMO

VMO:
A)

Is the calibrated airspeed at which MMO is reached at 35000ft

B)

Should be chosen in between V C and VD

C)

Is equal to the design speed for maximum gust intensity

D)

Should be not greater than VC

Which statement with respect to the climb is correct?


A)

At constant TAS the Mach number decreases

B)

At constant IAS the Mach number increases

C)

At constant IAS the TAS decreases

D)

At constant Mach number the IAS increases

A jet transport aeroplane is in a straight climb at a constant IAS and constant


weight. The operational limit that may be exceeded is:
A)

VMO

B)

MMO

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C)

MD

D)

VA

VMO:
A)

Is the calibrated airspeed at which MMO is reached at 35.000 ft.

B)

Should be not greater than VC.

C)

Is equal to the design speed for maximum gust intensity.

D)

Should be chosen in between V C and VD.

In a high speed descent at MMO you will reach VMO at:


A)

FL250

B)

350kts

C)

FL270

D)

M 0.8

Aileron reversal can be caused by:


A)

Both A and B.

B)

Twisting of the wing above reversal speed.

C)

Fries type ailerons at low angles of attack.

D)

Neither A nor B.

What is the relationship of VMO and MMO, in a climb and descent?


A)

If climbing at MMO, Indicated Airspeed is increasing.

B)

If climbing at VMO, it is possible to exceed MMO.

C)

If descending at MMO, VMO cannot be exceeded.

D)

If climbing at VMO, Mach number is decreasing.

VA is:
A)
The speed at which a heavy transport aeroplane should fly in
turbulence.
B)
The maximum speed at which maximum elevator deflection up is
allowed.

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C)

The maximum speed at which rolls are allowed.

D)

The speed that should not be exceeded in the climb.

Which speed represents the maximum flap extended speed?


A)

Vlof

B)

Vs1

C)

Vfe

D)

Vfc

What is the danger when recovering from an emergency descent?


A)

The landing gear may collapse.

B)

Directional stability.

C)

Structural damage.

D)

Engine stall.

Flutter can be eliminated using:


A)

Mass balancing.

B)

A canard in front of the main wing.

C)

A T-tail.

D)

Powered flying controls.

An aircraft has a mass of 60,000kg and a limiting positive load factor of 2,5.
VA is calculated as the EAS at which full positive elevator deflection will give
the limiting load factor at the stall, and is 237kts. If the aircraft mass is
reduced to 40,000kg by fuel burn, what will be the new V A?
A)

194 kts

B)

375 kts

C)

150 kts

D)

237 kts

Which speed represents the manoeuvring speed?


A)

VLO

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B)

VNE

C)

VA

D)

VSO

A commercial jet aeroplane is performing a straight descent at a constant


Mach Number with constant weight. The operational limit that may be
exceeded is:
A)

VNE

B)

MMO

C)

VD

D)

VMO

Flutter may be caused by:


A)

Distortion by bending and torsion of the structure causing increasing


vibration in the resonance frequency.

B)

Low airspeed aerodynamic wing stall.

C)

High airspeed aerodynamic wing stall.

D)

Roll control reversal.

Reduction of flutter may be achieved using:


A)
Frise ailerons lumped masses attached forward of the control surface
hinge line.

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B)

A horn balance.

C)

Frise ailerons.

D)

Lumped masses attached on the control surface hinge line to keep the
control surface centre of gravity aft of the hinge line.

On airplane, the limit load factor in normal category is:


A)

4,4 G

B)

+3,2 G

C)

+3,8 G

D)

+6,0 G

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The positive manoeuvring limit load factor for a large jet transport aeroplane
with flaps extended is:
A)

2.0

B)

1.5

C)

3.75

D)

2.5

For an aeroplane with one fixed value of VA the following applies. VA is:
A)

The speed at which unrestricted application of elevator control can be


used, without exceeding the maximum manoeuvring limit load factor

B)
The speed at which the aeroplane stalls at the manoeuvring limit load
factor at MTOW

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C)

The maximum speed in smooth air

D)

Just another symbol for the rough air speed

The relationship between the stall speed V S and VA (EAS) for a large transport
aeroplane can be expressed in the following formula: (SQRT= square root)
A)

VA= VA SQRT (3.75)

B)

VA= VS SQRT (2.5)

C)

VS= VA SQRT (2.5)

D)

VS= VA SQRT (3.75)

VA is:
A)
The speed at which a heavy transport aeroplane should fly in
turbulance
B)
The maximum speed at which maximum elevator deflection up is
allowed

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C)

The speed that should not be exceeded in the climb

D)

The maximum speed at which rolls are allowed

Load factor is:


A)

1/Bank angle

B)

Wing loading

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C)

Lift/Weight

D)

Weight/Lift

The positive manoeuvring limit load factor for a light aeroplane in the UTILITY
CATEGORY in the clean configuration is:
A)

3.8

B)

4.4

C)

6.0

D)

2.5

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By what percentage does VA (EAS) alter when the aeroplane's weight
decreases by 19%?

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A)

10% lower

B)

No change

C)

19% lower

D)

4.36% lower

The positive manoeuvring limit load factor for a light aeroplane in the utility
category in the clean configuration is:
A)

4.4

B)

2.5

C)

6.0

D)

3.8

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By what percentage does VA (EAS) alter when the aeroplane's weight
decreases by 19%?

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A)

4.36% lower

B)

10% lower

C)

No change

D)

19% lower

Which load factor determines VA?


A)

Maneuvering ultimate load factor

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VA?

B)

Gust load factor at 66ft/sec gust

C)

Maneuvering limit load factor

D)

Maneuvering flap limit load factor

What can happen to the aeroplane structure flying at a speed just exceeding
A)

It will collapse if a turn is made

B)

It may suffer permanent deformation because the flight is performed at


too large dynamic pressure

C)

It may break if the elevator is fully deflected upwards

D)
It may suffer permanent deformation if the elevator is fully deflected
upwards
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What is the limit load factor of a large transport aeroplane in the
manoeuvring diagram?

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A)

3.75

B)

2.5

C)

1.5

D)

For airplanes which have a high wing loading (W/S):


A)

Total drag is mainly induced drag.

B)

Vertical gusts have more influence on the load factor.

C)

Vertical gusts have less influence on the load factor.

D)

Total drag is mainly profile drag.

An aircraft in straight and level flight has a CL of 0.35, and a 1s increase in


angle of attack would increase the CL by 0.079. If a vertical gust increased
angle of attack from the 1g value by 2s, what load factor would result?
A)

0.45

B)

1.45

C)

4.43

D)

5.08

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The distribution of ... and ... in a structure determine natural frequencies and
modes of vibration.
A)

Flaps, slats

B)

Passengers, payload

C)

Mass, stiffness

D)

Stringers, longerons

Which load factor determines VA?


A)

Manoeuvring flap limit load factor.

B)

Manoeuvring ultimate load factor.

C)

Manoeuvring limit load factor

D)

Gust load factor at 66 ft/sec gust.

What is the positive limit load factor for large jet transport aircraft?
A)

n = 3.75

B)

n = 1.0

C)

n = 2.5

D)

n = 1.5

The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.4.


Increase of angle of attack of 1 degree will increase CL by 0.09. A vertical up
gust instantly changes the angle of attack by 5 degrees. The load factor will
be:
A)

2.13

B)

2.0

C)

3.18

D)

1.09

The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.42,


increase in angle of attack of 1 degree increases CL by is 0.1. A vertical up
gust instantly changes the angle of attack by 3 degrees. The load factor will
be :
A)

2.49

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B)

1.71

C)

0.74

D)

1.49

The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.35.


Increase in angle of attack of 1 degree will increase CL by 0.079. A vertical up
gust instantly changes the angle of attack by 2 degrees. The load factor will
be :
A)

0.45

B)

0.9

C)

1.45

D)

1.9

Which statement regarding the gust load factor on an aeroplane is correct (all
other factors of importance being constant)?
1
Increasing the aspect-ratio of the wing will increase the gust load
factor
2

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Increasing the speed will increase the gust load factor

A)

1 and 2 are correct

B)

1 is correct, 2 wrong

C)

1 and 2 are wrong

D)

1 is wrong, 2 correct

Which of the following statements is true?


A)

Through extension of the flaps in severe turbulence the centre of


pressure will move aft which will increase the margins to the structural
limits

B)

By increasing the flap setting in severe turbulence the stall speed will
be reduced and the risk for exceeding the structural limits will be
decreased

C)

Through extension of the flaps in severe turbulence it is possible to


reduce the speed and increase the margins of the structural limits

D)

Limiting factors in severe turbulence are the possibility of a stall and


the margin to the structural limitations

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Which combination of speeds is applicable for structural strentgh in gust
(clean configuration)?

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A)

50ft/sec

B)

55ft/sec

C)

65ft/sec at all speeds

D)

66ft/sec

The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.4,


increase in angle of attack of 1 degree increases CL by 0.09. A vertical up
gust instantly changes the angle of attack by 5 degrees. The load factor will
be:
A)

2.0

B)

3.18

C)

2.13

D)

1.09

The shape of the gust load diagramm is also determined by the following
three vertical speed in ft/s (clean configuration):
A)

15, 56, 65

B)

25, 55, 75

C)

35, 55, 66

D)

25, 50, 66

The extreme right limitation for both V-n (gust and manoeuvre) diagrams is
created by the speed:
A)

VD

B)

VC

C)

Vflutter

D)

VMO

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Which has the effect of increasing load factor? (all other relevant factors
being constant)
A)

Vertical gusts

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B)

Increased aeroplane mass

C)

Increased air density

D)

Rearward CG location

What wing shape or wing characteristic is the least sensitive to turbulence:


A)

Wing dihedral

B)

Straight wings

C)

Winglets

D)

Swept wings

Which statement is correct about the gust load on an aeroplane (IAS and all
other factors of importance remaining constant)?
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the gust load increases, when the weight decreases

the gust load increases, when the altitude increases

A)

1 and 2 are correct

B)

1 is correct, 2 wrong

C)

1 and 2 are wrong

D)

1 is wrong, 2 correct

The shape of the gust load diagram is also determined by the following three
vertical speed in ft/s (clean configuration):
A)

15, 56, 65

B)

25, 55, 75

C)

35, 55, 66

D)

25, 50, 66

What effect will gusts and turbulence have on the load factor of an airplane
when it changes its airspeed?
A)

Load factor decreases as airspeed increases.

B)
The load factor can increase or decrease, depending on the weight of
the aircraft.
C)

Airspeed has no influence on the load factor.

D)

Load factor increases as airspeed increases.

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Which combination of speeds is applicable for structural strength in gust
(clean configuration) ?

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A)

65 ft/sec at all speeds.

B)

66 ft/sec and VD.

C)

55 ft/sec and VB.

D)

50 ft/sec and VC.