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"Genetic-based neuro-fuzzy Design of PID Controller for Boost Flyback Converter,"Tareg Abubaker Abulifa, Associate Prof. Dr. Sattar Jaber Al-Isawi ,The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016.

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Controller for Boost Flyback Converter

Associate Prof. Dr. Sattar Jaber Al-Isawi

The college of Industrial Technology

Misrata - LIBYA

Email: sattarjaber@cit.edu.ly

The college of Industrial Technology

Misrata - LIBYA

Email: Tarek_abulifa@yahoo.com

compensator for the boost-flyback converter system

operates in a continuous conduction mode. The small

signal of the boost-flyback is derived first to find

transfer functions which they help in the study of the

system stability. Genetic algorithm is used to search in

the parameter space for the most suitable controllers

parameters to minimize the damping of oscillation

modes, to coordinate between system different

controllers. . In order to do this, on-line

measurements of local system signals at converter are

chosen as input signals to an adaptive neuro-fuzzy

inference system (ANFIS). The outputs of each neurofuzzy controller are the desired parameters of system

damping controllers. The simulation of the system is

done using the MATLAB programming language.

good damping at each individual operating point. The

coordinated design problem of flyback converter based

controllers over a wide range of loading conditions and

system configurations are formulated as an optimization

problem with an eigenvalue-based objective function.

The real-coded genetic algorithm is employed to search

for optimal controller parameters)[4].

In this paper, the design problem is transformed into an

optimization problem, where the continuous-parameter

genetic algorithm is employed to search for the optimal

settings of all system damping controllers for each

individual operating point. Then, the controllers

parameters in the system are tuned according to each

operating point by an individual hybrid neuro-fuzzy

controller.

algorithm, Genetic algorithm, neuro-fuzzy.

Two different versions of the flyback converter are

possible; the boost-flyback converter and buck-boost

flyback converter. The inductor of the buck-boost

converter has been replaced by a flyback transformer. In

this converter a high frequency transformer is required to

provide electrical isolation. The flyback converter is very

common for low power applications. Fig.1 shows the

input dc source Vin and switch(MOSFET) are connected

in series with the coupled inductor on the primary

winding. The diode D1 and the RC output circuit are

connected in series with the secondary of the flyback

transformer. The coupling coefficient is assumed to be 1.

Assuming the primary to secondary turns ratio is 1 : n, we

get:

I. INTRODUCTION

The dc-dc converters are widely used in industrial

applications and computer hardware circuits. The

converters include the buck converter, the boost

converter, the buck-boost converter and flyback

converter. However, because of the effects of parasitic

elements, the output voltage and power transfer

efficiency of all these converters are restricted. The dc to

dc converters usually regulate the output voltage. Most dc

to dc converters are designed to move power in only one

direction, from the input to the output. However, all

switching regulator topologies can be made bi-directional

by replacing all diodes with independently controlled

active rectification [1,2].

There are many control strategies for controlling the D.C

voltage regulators, and these control strategies cause

large distortion in the voltage and current waveforms,

which causes the appearance of harmonics in the system

and the percentage of these harmonics depends on the

degree of variation of the controlling voltage , and is

widely used as a benchmark for testing control algorithms

(PID controllers, neural networks, fuzzy control, genetic

algorithms, etc)[3].

The GA searches for an optimum solution over the

controllers parameter space over wide spectrum of

(Vo/Vin) = n[D/(1-D)]

(Io/Iin) = n[D/(1-D)]

(1)

(2)

(3)

value of the inductor that determines the boundary

between the CCM and discontinuous conduction mode

(DCM)[5]. The analysis presented here assumes that the

inductor current never goes to zero (called

CCM).Therefore, it is very common to design flyback

converters so that the inductor current does go to zero

within each switching cycle. This operation, known as

1

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

flyback converters.

important controller structures in a single package [6].

The parallel form of a PID controller has transfer

function:

1

C ( s) K p (1

Td s)

(4)

Ti s

Where:

Kp = Proportional Gain

Ki = Integral Gain.

Kd =Derivative gain

Ti = Reset Time =Kp/Ki.

Td = Rate time or derivative time.

A proportional integral derivative(PID) compensator of

the system has transmittance of the form[1]:

(1

(a) derivation from buck-boost,

(b) circuit, (c) steady-state waveforms

Gc ( s ) Gcm

transformer where the turns ratio of this transformer can

be continuously controlled electronically in a range of 0-1

by controlling the duty ratio of switch D. Instantaneous

values of the variables during on and off intervals are:

MOSFET on: LiL = Vin

Cvo = iL - vo/RL

MOSFET off: LiL = - vo

Cvo = iL - vo/RL

In isolated dc-dc converters, multiple outputs are possible

with additional secondary windings of transformers. Only

one output is regulated with a feedback loop, but other

outputs depend on the duty ratio of the regulated one and

on their loads.

Gc ( s ) 2.8 *

Error

ki e( ) d

Process

kd

(6)

where,

T ( s)

H ( s) * Gc ( s) * Gv d ( s)

VM

1

T ( s) Gc ( s) * (

) * Gv d ( s) * H ( s)

VM

or

s

(1 )

Gc ( s) * H ( s) * Gdo

wz

T (s)

s

s

VM

1 (

) ( )2

Qo * wo

wo

output

s

6.28k

) * (1

)

21.626k

s

s

(1

)

182.2k

the effect of the feedback control on the system is as

follows[1]:

P k p e(t )

(5)

A Combined PID compensator will be used to control the

dc-dc Boost-flyback converter system. Tuning of a PID

involves the adjustment of Kp, Ki and Kd to achieve

some user defined "optimal" character of system

response. Fig.(2) show a block diagram of a PID

controller.

Set

Point

(1

w

s

) * (1 L )

wz

s

s

(1

)

wp

de(t )

dt

(7)

(8)

(9)

compensator gain Gc(s) =1, is:

s

(1 )

H ( s) * Gdo

wz

Tu ( s)

(10)

s

s

VM

1 (

) ( )2

Qo * wo

wo

1. Determine what characteristics of the system needs to

be improved.

2. Use KP to decrease the rise time.

3. Use Kd to reduce the overshoot and settling time.

4. Use Ki to eliminate the steady-state error.

2

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

V. DAMPING CONTROLLER

Pole-placement technique is used to locate the critical

mechanical modes of the converter in a satisfactory

location in the complex plain by using converter

stabilizers system that provide supplementary feedback

stabilizing signals [7]. The feedback control signal

considered to the stabilizers system is the generator speed

which is one of the system states. Here, the same method

will be used but it will be extended to feedback local

algebraic variables (available at the converter devices

location) to the converter devices damping controllers [8].

B. Genetic algorithm

The Genetic algorithms are derivative-free stochastic

optimization method based on the concepts of natural

selection and evolutionary processes. There were first

investigated by John Holland in 1975[11,12]. Their

popularity can be attributed to their freedom from

dependence on functional derivatives and to their

incorporation to these characteristics:

1- Optimizes with continuous and discrete

parameters

2- Deals with a large number of parameters

3- They can jump out of local minimum

4- Simultaneously searches from a wide sampling of

the fitness surface

Genetic algorithm is used to tune the parameters of the

PID controller previously designed by the pole-placement

technique. The fitness function of the genetic controller is

to maximize damping ratio of the poorly damped

modes[13,14].

Y (system output)

U (system input)

converter system

devices

Damping controller of

controller

Controller output

Controller input

(12)

damping ratio less than 0.2 .With constraints:

1- Damping ratio for all modes is not less than 0.2.

2- The searching space of kp and kI is between 5.

examining Fig. 3.The transfer function of the controller is

equal to the inverse transfer function of the system [9,10].

H damp ( ) [C (I A) 1 B D]1

w

k

(k P I k d )

1 w

i 1

controller

VI. RESULTS

In this study a design of the feedback controller (PID

controller) for the boost- flyback converter is done to get

the best performance. A MATLAB/Simulink model is

build to simulate and verify the performance of the

compensator design. The results are found that when we

design compensator for crossover frequency equal to

20kHz (10% of the switching frequency), the phase

margin will be equal to 23 degree. Also, by putting the

cross over frequency equal to 30KHz (15% of the

switching frequency) the phase margin will be equal to 14

degree. The small value of the phase margin ( in T(s))

cases the close loop transfer functions (1/(1+T)) and

(T/(1+T)) to exhibit resonant poles with high Q. The

system transient response exhibit overshoot and ringing.

As the phase margin is reduce these characteristics

become worst (higher Q, longer ringing) until the system

becomes unstable.

Fig.4 shows the output voltage versus the load step

changes from 100% to 50% at 0.003s and from 50% to

100% at 0.006s. From these figure it is very clear that the

controller respond very well under this change. The

overshoot and the settling time for the load change from

the 100% to 50% are equal to 0.66% and zero ( according

to the definition of 2%, but if we just calculate the time

till it become stable is equal to 0.1ms) respectively. The

overshoot and the settling time for the load change from

the 50% to 100% are equal to 0.8% and zero (according to

the definition of 2% of the signal, but if we just calculate

the time till it become stable is equal to 0.1ms)

respectively.

(11)

determined by substituting a pair of the pre-scribed

mechanical mode eigenvalues 1,2 into equation 10, so we

have a pair of algebraic equations with unknown kp, kI and

kD [11].

There are many criterion in the literature used to

determine the location and the feedback signal for the

damping controllers. The residue index is used by [11] for

the same purpose. The residue index together with the

participation matrix are used to determine the best location

and feedback signal to the damping controller.

A. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS)

Define Jang and Sun [10] introduced the adaptive NeuroFuzzy inference system. This system makes use of a

hybrid learning rule to optimize the fuzzy system

parameters of a first order Sugeno system. The ANFIS

architecture consists of two training parameter set:

1-The antecedent membership function parameters

2-The polynomial parameters [p, q, r]

In [8,9], The ANFIS training paradigm uses gradient

descent algorithm to optimize the antecedent parameters

and a least square algorithm to solve for the consequent

parameters. Because it uses two very different algorithms

to reduce the error, the training rule is called hybrid. The

consequent parameters are updated first using a least

squares algorithm and the antecedent parameters are then

updated by back propagating the errors that still exist

3

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

-3

x 10

P(P.U)

-2

-4

-6

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Time (sec.)

Figure 6. Response of P for 0.05 step change in PO

without damping controller.

Figure 4. Output voltage versus the load step change(100% to 50%)

at 3ms & (50% to 100%) at 6ms.

-3

10

x 10

step change from 52V to 44V at 0.005s and from 52V to

44V at 0.005s.The overshoot and the settling time for the

input change from the 52V to 44V are equal to 0.63% and

zero (according to the definition of 2% of the output

signal, but if we just calculate the time till it become stable

is equal to 0.5ms) respectively.

6

4

Po(P.U)

2

0

-2

-4

-6

-8

0

10

12

14

16

18

Time (sec.)

20

GA and pole placement based damping controllers.

0.3

With damping

Without damping

0.25

Figure 5. Output voltage versus the input voltage step change ( 44V52V) at 4ms & (52V-44V)at 5ms.

V(P.U)

0.2

and the genetic based PID damping the controller of

converter. The performance with the genetic controller is

better regarding the damping ration and the settling time.

0.15

0.1

0.05

controller of converter

Damping

FreqOver

Settling

Cont

Ratio

uency

shoot

Time

roller

Pole0.1395

2.0136

81 %

2.5 sec.

-1.7 12.1i

place.

GA

0.1422

2.1001

80 %

2.5 sec.

-.8311.10i

Pole0.1395

2.1226

79 %

2.5 sec.

-2.3 12.5i

place.

GA

0.1791

2.3211

81 %

2.5 sec.

-.2513.40i

0

0

10

12

14

16

18

Time (sec.)

20

find the optimal values of the damping controller gains to

maximize the mechanical modes damping ratio.

Floating point GA with maximum generation number of

200, population size of 20 and shape parameter of 3 is

used. The solution converged after 120 generations to kp =

-0.081, kI= 0.55 and kD= 0.35 , these parameters are

controller over PID controller is also obvious from Fig.6.

,Fig.7 and Fig.8. where GA could determine the controller

parameters that insure good damping for all system modes

like desired.

4

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

technique and the damping ratio of mechanical mode is

almost the same too.

[7]

VII. CONCLUSION

From the early results and analysis , it can be concluded

that the PID conventional controllers are capable of

controlling converter. The PID control was modified and

solved successfully the converter's output voltage and

power, but there are difference between the parameter

values of the converter, because of this reason, another

PID controller was added to the system so that two PID

controllers could control both outputs. The response

characteristics have satisfied the design criteria.

By applying large signal variation the system work fine

but there is some overshoot and undershoot at the time of

changes. Also, the compensator is test for changes in the

input voltage and changes in the load. During these

changes the system behaves very well with very less

overshoot and settling time. By doing many test for

different crossover frequency, we found that increasing

the cross over frequency more than 10K will reduce the

phase margin and that will effect the stability of the

system.

A novel hybrid technique based on ANFIS is proposed to

adapt system damping controllers gains to improve the

damping characteristics of system over a wide range of

operating conditions. The proposed ANFISs were trained

based on real-time measurements of local signals available

at converter's output voltage and power. Damping

controllers gains can be determined by the ANFISs,

which makes the proposed stabilizer relatively simple and

suitable for practical on-line implementation.

The implementation of PID control method is done by

adjusting the value of gain kP, KI, and KD, in order to get

the best impulse response of the system. From the

previous Genetic algorithms design, it was determined

that the controller stabilizes of the converter.

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

of PID Controller for Buck Boost Converter ", 2nd World

Symposium on Web Applications and Networking

(WSWAN2015), Sousse - Tunis, March 21-23, 2015.

Sattar Jaber Al-Isawi, Ehsan A. Abd Al-Nabi, "Design of

The Feedback Controller (PID Controller) for The Buck

Boost Converter", tthInternational Conference on

Information Technology(ICIT 2009),

Al-Zaytoonah

University, Amman, Jordan, June 3-5, 2009.

Sattar Jaber Al-Isawi , Ehsan A. Abd Al-Nabi "DESIGN A

DISCRETE CONTROL SYSTEM OF PWM AC-AC

CONVERTER", Drive,Proc. Of Int. UPEC, 2008.

Sattar Jaber Al-Isawi, " Genetic-based neuro-fuzzy Design

of PID Controller for an Inverted Pendulum System ". 1st

International Conference on Electrical and Computer

Eng(ICECE2013), Benghazi-Libya, 26-28/3/2013.

Sattar Jaber Al-Isawi, Abdallah O. Hawal, " PMSG-based

Grid Connected of Wind Power Converter with PID

Controller ". ISBN 9780989130547. ( SDIWC 2014).

Sattar Jaber Al-Isawi, " Genetic-based neuro-fuzzy Design

of FACTS Controller in Power System", International

Conference

on

Cloud

Computer

Information

Systems(ICRE2014), Hammamet- Tunis, January 17-19,

2014.

M. A. Abido and Y. L. Abdel-Magid, A Hybrid NeuroFuzzy Power System Stabilizer for Multi-Machine Power

systems, IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 13,

No. 4, pp. 1323-1330, Nov. 1998.

K. Ellithy and A. Al-Naamany, A Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy

Static VAR Compensator Stabilizer for Power System

Damping Improvement in the Presence of Load Parameters

Uncertainty, Journal of Electrical Power Systems

Research, (56), pp. 211-223, 2000.

Jyh-Shing R. Jang, Chuen-Tsai Sun, Eiji Mizutani,

Neuro_Fuzzy and Soft Computing, Prentice-Hall, 1997.

M. Reformat, E. Kuffel, D. Woodford and W. Pedrycz,

Application of Genetic Algorithm for Control Design in

Power systems, IEE Proc., Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol.

145, No. 4, pp. 345-354, July 1998.

Goldberg, D. E. "Genetic Algorithms in Search,

Optimization and Machine Learning,Reissue".AddisonWesley Publishing Company, 1989.

Michalewicz, Z. "Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures =

Evolution Programs",3rd Ed.,Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

1996.

Koza, J. R., Keane, M. A., Yu, J., Bennett III, F. H.,

Mydlowec, W. "Automatic Creation of HumanCompetitive Programs and Controllers by Means of

Genetic Programming, Genetic Programming and

Evolvable Machines" ,Vol. 1, pp121-164,2000.

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