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Abstract – This paper presents a comparison between three an efficient algorithms for Arabic contour approximation and compression. The oldest method known as Ramer algorithm will be used for contour approximation in addition with Trapezoid & Adaptive-Triangle methods. These algorithms are introduced & compared. The single step parallel contour extraction (SSPCE) method will be used in this work to achieve Cartesian representation of the object. The main idea of the analyzed approaches are discussed to obtain contour compression. For comparison, the mean square error and signal-to-noise ratio criterions are used. Experimental results are obtained both in terms of image quality, compression ratios and speed. The main advantage of the analyzed algorithm (Adaptive-Triangle) is the short computational time of operations compared with Ramer, but it has less quality. On the other side it has better quality and quite less speed than that of Trapezoid algorithm

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Words Contours Approximation

A. Ukasha

Faculty of Engineering, Department of

Electronics & Computer Engineering

Sebha University Sebha, Libya

Email: elokshy@yahoo.com

efficient algorithms for Arabic contour approximation and

compression. The oldest method known as Ramer algorithm

will be used for contour approximation in addition with

Trapezoid & Adaptive-Triangle methods. These algorithms are

introduced & compared. The single step parallel contour

extraction (SSPCE) method will be used in this work to

achieve Cartesian representation of the object. The main idea

of the analyzed approaches are discussed to obtain contour

compression. For comparison, the mean square error and

signal-to-noise ratio criterions are used. Experimental results

are obtained both in terms of image quality, compression

ratios and speed. The main advantage of the analyzed

algorithm (Adaptive-Triangle) is the short computational time

of operations compared with Ramer, but it has less quality. On

the other side it has better quality and quite less speed than

that of Trapezoid algorithm.

Index Terms Contour representation, contour compression, polygonal approximation, Ramer, Trapezoid and

Adaptive-Triangle methods.

1. INTRODUCTION

Contours play an important role in processing medical

images, image compression, etc. Hence, a new efficient

algorithm called Adaptive-Triangle approach is presented

to solve the problem of speed in time of operations. The

Cartesian representations are mostly used for the contour

approximation procedures. In this paper the method

known as single step parallel contour extraction method

SSPCE is using to extract contours from binary image

(A. Dziech, et al 1998). The fundamental goal of the

digital signal compression is to reduce the bit rate for

transmission and storage without significant loss of

information. The well-known algorithm in spatial domain

is Ramer who has presented repeated end points that suit

the algorithm. Connecting a number of points by joining

all the line end points give the approximation of such data

and that is the basic idea of this algorithm. The analyzed

methods corresponds to a family of polygonal methods in

image and signal data processing. The two other analyzed

algorithms Trapezoid & Adaptive-Triangle for contour

compression will compared and discussed with Ramer

method.

R. Albahi

Faculty of Engineering, Department of

Electronics & Computer Engineering

Sebha University Sebha, Libya

Email: Rog_albahi2008@yahoo.com

EXTRACTION METHOD

The following three steps are needed for the extraction

procedure of single step parallel contour extraction

(SSPCE) [7]:

1.

2.

3.

image should be framed with zeros.

Eight rules of edge extraction are applied and coded

using 8-directional chain code.

Sorting the extracted contour edges and storing them

to become ready for applications.

IN SPATIAL DOMAIN

There are several algorithms available for determining

the number and location of the vertices and also to

compute the polygonal approximation of a contour. In

this work the contour compression in spatial domain

based on polygonal approximation using three different

methods are discussed in the next sections.

The notable step here; before applying any of contour

compression methods we need to get extracted contours

using (SSPCE) method.

A. Ramer Method

This algorithm has been introduced by Ramer [1], it

based on extracted contours using polygonal

approximation of two-dimensional digitized curves. For a

closed contour as in (Fig. 1.a), the working procedure of

the algorithm started with split the original contour into

two parts (lower and upper curves) by a straight-line;

which connect two points on the contour known as start

point (point which has minimum value of X-axis from

left side), and end point (point which has maximum value

of X-axis from right side). Then, for the lower side

(Fig.1.b) we begin to compute the perpendicular distance

from each point along the segment to the straight -line. If

this distance greater than certain threshold, we break the

line at the point of greatest distance to obtain new

segments see (Fig. 1.b). Thereafter, repeat the last step

recursively with each of the two new lines separately;

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

maximum distance of any point to the poly-line falls

below a certain threshold. After that, repeat the same

process steps for upper side too (Fig. 1.c).

Finally connect the vertices (Fig. 1.d) of the

reconstructed contour by drawing lines between them to

obtain the polygonal approximating contour.

The main advantage of the Ramer method is its good

quality. While, the main disadvantages is the large

complexity and the long computational time compared

with other algorithms.

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(a)

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points will determine the vertices of an edge of the

approximating polygon.

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manipulation of data compared with other algorithms;

this is because the ability of algorithm to scan the contour

points only once, and does not require storing the

analyzed contour points; because the points of the

original contour will be eliminated immediately. But the

quality of extracted contours will be less than Ramer

algorithm [2, 3]. The flowchart of this method is shown

in Fig. 3.

(d)

(c)

START

i=1; VA=[1];

SP=CC(:,i); B; C;

EP=CC(:,i+3*f);

contour, b) The curve segments for the lower side, c) The curve

segments for the upper side, d) The approximated contours.

B. Trapezoid Method

This algorithm belongs to the polygonal approximation

methods of contour representation. Segmentation of the

contour points to get trapezoid shapes as in (Fig. 2) is the

basic idea of this algorithm. The first point of each

segment is called starting point (SP) and the last one is

called ending point (EP).

The ratio between the perpendicular distances (dB)

from point B to the line (SP C) to the perpendicular

distance (dC) from point C to the line (B EP) is the fit

criterion of the trapezoid method as in equation (1), and

trigonometric formula is used to calculate these values.

(dB/dC)<th

dB

th

dC

i LCC

VA=[VA B C EP];

SP=EP; i=i+3*f;

VA=[VA C EP];

SP=EP;

i=i+3*f;

(1)

END

If the condition in equation (1) is verified; store the

third and ending points of the trapezoid, and shift the SP

to the EP; then draw a new segment. Otherwise store the

second, third and ending points and shift the SP to the EP

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

C. Adaptive-Triangle Method

This section presents a suggestion of a new algorithm

for contour compression of black-white images in time

domain based on polygonal approximation. The idea of

this algorithm based on choosing two points (Sp, Ep) on

the contour curve as in (Fig. 4) [4]. Sp is point number 1

on the curve, Ep is point number 12 on the same curve.

Now; the straight line that connecting (Sp, Ep) is used to

compute the maximum perpendicular distance (

)

from this line to contour curve points from Sp to Ep to as

shown in (Fig. 4), compare this distance (

) with

given threshold ( ) by the equation (2).

The flowchart of this method is shown in Fig. 5.

2.

point Sp is shifted to the end point Ep and open

new segment, as shown in (Fig. 4).

Otherwise we will store Vertex Points = [Sp

Slargest/2 Ep] as a vertex points of compressed

contour, and start point Sp shifted to end point Ep

and open new segment, as shown in (Fig. 4).

Second case, if condition of equation (2) fails,

i.e.

(4)

(d max th1 )

We will store (Sp, Ep) as a vertex points, and

shift Sp to Ep and open new segment, as shown

in (Fig. 4).

method.

>

(2)

1.

If the distance (

) is larger than ( ) and

equation (2) comes true, we will open two new

line segments (S1 , S2), S1 is the direct line that

connect Sp to

point, and S2 the direct line

that connect

point to Ep . Now, compare the

length of S1 , S2 lines:

If (S1 > S2) we will compare the ratio between

(Lo :direct length) of largest segment, with the

(LN : real length) of the same segment with a

given threshold (th2) according to equation (3)

( LO LN ) th2

(3)

choose two additional points on the (S1, S2) lines

as a vertex points of compressed contour, so the

vertex points will be:

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

4. APPLIED MEASUREMENTS

In order to evaluate the compression ability, the

following compression ratio equation (5) was used

[5], [6].

CR

( LCC LAC )

.100%

LCC

illustrated in (Fig.6). The comparison is made with

respect to the consuming time and number of points that

used to represent the extracted contour as shown in

(Table. I).

(5)

Original image

Extracted Contours

using SSPCE (3x3)

where:

LCC - length of the input contour C.

LAC - length of the approximating polygon CC.

LCC

d

i 1

2

i

(6)

input contour curve segment and straight line between

each two successive vertices on edge of the

approximating polygon; if the edge is a part of a straight

line described by a common equation:

A.xi B. yi C

A2 B 2

Arabic Letters

where:

di

Libya map

1

MSE

LCC

Ain

(SNR) criterions were used for quality measure to

evaluate the distortion introduced during the

approximating procedure. The mean square error (MSE)

is defined by the equation (6).

(7)

TABLE I.

following equation.

MSE

SNR 10. log10 (

)

VAR

(8)

where:

Image name

Consumed

time (ms)

Contour

points No.

Ain

32.3

307

Libya map

92.2

687

Arabic Letters

943.7

7920

3

should be greater than 30 dB to obtain the expected

compromise between compression ratio and quality of

reconstruction. In the case of high threshold level, the

contour details are eliminated and level of introduced

distortion cannot be accepted.

A. Contour Extraction using SSPCE Method

To show the results of contour extraction using SSPCE

methods a set of three binary test images are used; two of

them have a single contour as: 'Ain', 'Libya map' images.

The other one have a multi contour named as 'Arabic

SSPCE (33 windows) & it shows the ability of extract

contours from binary images that has a few details like

Ain image, as well as many details images like 'Arabic

Letters' image. The extracted contours contains all details

of the original image even small ones like points.

Although, time needed to obtain contours depends on the

complexity of image contents, short time for executing

the operations and get contours is the other characteristic

that distinguishes this method. The above mentioned

properties made this algorithm suitable for real time

applications.

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

After extracting contours using SSPCE (3x3windows),

we can apply contour compression methods on it. A code

is written with MATLAB (2010) programming is used to

obtain all results; the block diagram of the compression

procedure for all methods is shown in (Fig. 7).

Ramer

Adaptive-Triangle

Trapezoid

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33

Cartesian

Description of

Contour

Binary image

SNR(dB)

32

Contour

Extraction Using

SSPCE Method

[[

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24

Contour

Signal

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22

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

CR(%)

Compressed

Contour

Apply Contour

Compression

Procedure

Figure 9. SNR versus CR for Ramer, Trapezoid, and AdaptiveTriangle compression algorithms of 'Ain' image.

Ramer

Triangle-Adaptive

Trapezoid

50

Consumed time(ms)

45

results of applying (Ramer, Trapezoid, AdaptiveTriangle) compression methods on extracted contours

of images shown previously on (Fig.6) & results of

compressed images are shown in (Fig. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,

13, 14, 15, 16) respectively.

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20

15

10

5

0

80

85

CR(%)

90

95

Figure 10. Results of compression versus time for 'Ain' contour using

(Ramer, Trapezoid, Adaptive-Triangle) methods.

TABLE II.

(a)

Compression

Method

(b)

CR%

SNR

(dB)

Time

'ms'

80.1303

36.3303

48.21

85.6678

35.9573

44. 86

90.5537

30.8402

44. 7

95.114

21.029

41.86

80.1303

85.6678

34.3447

29.8325

42.88

42.61

90.5537

95.53

80.456

85.6678

90.5537

95.439

24.5376

17.577

32.4243

28.4939

22.4442

13.700

41.36

34.15

32.32

31.35

30.65

30.052

Ramer

Ain

(c)

AdaptiveTriangle

(d)

Trapezoid

at CR= 85% using (Ramer, Trapezoid, Adaptive-Triangle) methods

respectively.

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

TABLE III.

Compression

Method

CR%

79.9127

SNR

(dB)

44.9098

Time

'ms'

69.2

85.5895

90.1019

98.2533

79.7671

85.1528

90.393

97.8166

79.6215

85.444

45.0827

43.108

28.2568

45.4323

43.1515

39.032

25.6039

42.7478

42.1536

61.11

56.7

52.26

47.7

46

45.9

40.09

39

36.7

90.1019

97.8166

36.147

22.087

36.08

34.1

Ramer

Triangle-Adaptive

Trapezoid

70

Libya map

AdaptiveTriangle

Trapezoid

Consumed Time(ms)

Ramer

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

80

85

90

98

CR(%)

Figure 13. Results of compression versus time for 'Libya map' contour

using (Ramer, Trapezoid, Adaptive-Triangle) methods.

TABLE IV.

RESULTS OF COMPRESSION FOR

'ARABIC LETTERS' CONTOUR

(b)

(a)

Compression

Method

Ramer

Arabic Letters

(c)

(d)

AdaptiveTriangle

Trapezoid

Figure 11. (a) Original contour of 'Libya map, (b, c, d) Compressed

contour at CR= 85% using (Ramer, Trapezoid, Adaptive-Triangle)

methods respectively.

CR%

75.101

SNR

(dB)

45.46

Time

'ms'

5,849

80.2778

84.6075

44.394

41.6075

4,834.1

5,814.4

74.899

80

85.1263

45.3307

43.936

41.1687

5,337

7,383.5

4,976.6

75.0253

80.0379

85.101

44.4665

41.9843

39.6863

5,788

6,354

4,852

SNR (dB)

Ramer

Adaptive-Triangle

Trapezoid

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33

32

31

30

(a)

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

(b)

95

CR (%)

(c)

Figure 12. SNR versus CR for Ramer, Trapezoid, and AdaptiveTriangle compression algorithms of 'Libya map' image.

(d)

contour at CR= 85% using (Ramer, Trapezoid, Adaptive-Triangle)

methods respectively.

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

Ramer

Trapezoid

Adaptive-Triangle

45

44

SNR(dB)

43

42

41

fastest algorithm, but its compression quality is lowest

among the other methods (Ramer, Adaptive-Triangle).

Adaptive-Triangle method makes balance between speed

and compression quality. The short computational time

and good quality of compression are the main features of

the proposed algorithm.

Arabic Letters

40

39

6. CONCLUSIONS

38

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

CR(%)

Figure 15. SNR versus CR for Ramer, Trapezoid, and AdaptiveTriangle compression algorithms of 'Arabic Letters' image.

Ramer

Triangle-Adaptive

Trapezoid

300

250

SNR(dB)

200

150

100

50

80

85

90

97

CR(%)

contour using (Ramer, Trapezoid, Adaptive-Triangle) methods.

& Adaptive-Triangle methods for compressing Arabic

words contours are introduced and analyzed. The

methods drawbacks and advantages were discussed in

detail. This study concludes that the analyzed algorithms

gives higher compression for single as well as for multicontours with some small significant loses of contour

approximation quality. The compression ratio obtained by

these algorithms can be greater than or equal to 96% with

accepted significant visible distortion. The presented

results show that the Trapezoid algorithm for Arabic

contour approximation are many times faster than Ramer

and Adaptive-Triangle methods.

The Adaptive-Triangle method is suitable in various

applications of contour compression, where both speed

and quality are significant at the same time. The

simplicity of algorithms is also an important feature of

the analyzed methods in terms of both memory

requirements and fitting with in complication criterion.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

methods are listed below:

Figures show the relationship between compression ratio

(CR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) using (Ramer,

Trapezoid, Adaptive-Triangle) compression methods for

all tested contours.

From these figures we can see that in all presented

compression methods, the compression quality is good,

even at higher compression ratios which caused some

distortion in the compression quality in the contours.

Ramer algorithm achieves the highest quality of

compression compared with the other two algorithms

(Trapezoid, Adaptive-Triangle). However, this algorithm

needs longer time to execute the operations compared

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

approximation of plane curves, Computer Graphic and Image

Processing, Academic Press, 1972, pp. 244-256, 1972.

A. Ukasha, E. Saffor and M. Hassan, Contour Compression using

Trapezoid method, International Symposium Computer and

Information Sciences (IEEE/ISCIS), Istanbul, Turkey, 2008.

A. Ukasha, Arabic Letters Compression using New Algorithm of

Trapezoid method, International Conference on Signal

Processing, Robotics and Automation (ISPRA'10), Cambridge,

United Kingdom, 2010, pp. 336-341.

M. El Bireki, R. Albahi, Ali Ukasha, M. Abdullah, An AdaptiveTriangle Method for Contour Data Approximation, International

Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology

(JATT), ISSN: 1992-8645, 2015, pp. 343-348.

A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, New

Jersey: Prentice Hall International, 1989.

R. C. Gonzalez, Digital Image Processing, Second Edition,

Addison Wesley, 1987.

A. Dziech, W. Besbas, A. Nabout, and H. Nour Eldin, Fast

algorithm for closed contour extraction, Proc. of the 4th

International Workshop on Systems, Signals and Image

Processing, Pozna, Poland, 1997, pp. 203-206.

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