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Abstract— Long term evolution (LTE) is a 4G wireless broadband technology developed by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an industry trade group. There is an increasing interest in technologies that will be define the next generation (5G) telecommunication standard. Some of these technologies are already making their way into standards such as 3GPP LTE. 3GPP has been centered on enhancing LTE radio standards to improve capacity and performance. In order to increase both the capacity and employed bit rate of the down link LTE system, an adaptive array of 64-element has been proposed by the 3GPP in Release-13. In this paper, the capacity improvement and the saving power of the LTE system due to using of adaptive antenna array are studied in different channel scenarios. Simulation results showed that the system developed is more transmit power efficient as well as capacity improvement to a remarkable degree when the adaptive antenna is used compared to the conventional antenna system. Finally, a mathematical model of the improved capacity over a nonadaptive antenna is used case has been obtained and simulated.

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Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,

Misurata University, Libya

Abstract Long term evolution (LTE) is a 4G wireless

broadband technology developed by Third Generation

Partnership Project (3GPP), an industry trade group. There is an

increasing interest in technologies that will be define the next

generation (5G) telecommunication standard. Some of these

technologies are already making their way into standards such as

3GPP LTE. 3GPP has been centered on enhancing LTE radio

standards to improve capacity and performance. In order to

increase both the capacity and employed bit rate of the down link

LTE system, an adaptive array of 64-element has been proposed

by the 3GPP in Release-13. In this paper, the capacity

improvement and the saving power of the LTE system due to

using of adaptive antenna array are studied in different channel

scenarios. Simulation results showed that the system developed is

more transmit power efficient as well as capacity improvement to

a remarkable degree when the adaptive antenna is used

compared to the conventional antenna system. Finally, a

mathematical model of the improved capacity over a nonadaptive antenna is used case has been obtained and simulated.

conditions.

and fading

used to control the direction of the beam pattern of the array

by applying a specific weight complex values for each

element. These weights are updated based on some chosen

beamforming criterion in which the phases and amplitudes are

adjusted to optimize the received signal. This causes the

output of the antenna arrays to form transmission or reception

of the signals in a particular direction and minimizes the

output in other directions [5].

defines many downlink ( ) transmission modes (

)

that employ beamforming. Table 1 summarized some of these

modes, from which we can notice that

of Release 8

supports single layer beamforming, Release 9 added

which supports dual layer beamforming. Moreover, Release

10 added

supporting up to 8 layer beamforming

transmission. Furthermore, Release 11 adds

with up to

eight layers for Downlink Coordinated Multi-Point

Transmission and Reception

. Release 12 achieves

low cost, enhanced coverage Machine-Type Communications

, while Release 13 is the refinement and enhancement

of work started in earlier Releases, including power reduction

in both terminals and base stations via more efficient radio

transmission[6].

Saving.

I.INTRODUCTION

Long Term Evolution (

); as defined by the 3rd Generation

Partnership Project (

); is supposed to be the next

generation and will be the basis on which future mobile

telecommunications systems will be built.

engineers

named the technology "Long Term Evolution" because it

represents the next step ( ) in a progression from

, a

standard, to

, the

technologies that based upon

. LTE was required to deliver a peak data rate of

in the downlink and

in the uplink. This

requirement was exceeded in the eventual system, which

delivers peak data rates of

and 75 Mbps

respectively [1].

TABLE 1

Releases

Transmission modes

: SISO single antenna transmission.

: TX Diversity 2 or 4 antenna.

:

Release 8

Open loop

multiplexing).

SU-MIMO

(spatial

The current specification outlines the following bandwidth

blocks:

,

,

,

,

, and

[1]. Frequency bandwidth blocks are essentially the

amount of space a network operator dedicates to a network.

Depending on the type of

being deployed, these

bandwidths have slightly different meaning in terms of

capacity.

: Rank 1 spatial multiplexing.

: single layer Beamforming on port 5.

Release 9

Release

10

Releases

11,12

In

, various antenna technologies, such as antenna array

beamforming, are used to provide better

[2] by a factor of

the number of transmit/receive antennas. Moreover, this

technology, i.e., adaptive antennas; will enhance and improve

the quality of the link between the user equipment

and

the base station[3]. In addition, adaptive antennas can fulfill

the

requirements of higher spectrum efficiency, better

coverage and higher data rate [4]. Beamforming can also be

to 8

Release

13

including

and

Whilst the

system has been studied extensively using

single antenna transmission, there is little research and work

1

reported on the

supported adaptive antenna beamforming.

In [7], author have studied the adaptive antennas and the

results show an improvement in

of 1.8

to achieve an

error of 10-3 bit per second (bps) when Stanford University

Interim (

) channel models are used. The performance of

the system can be more improved by increasing the number of

antennas at receiver side. Authors in [8] have investigated the

self-optimization of coverage and capacity in

networks

using adaptive antenna systems. In addition, they study the

self-optimization algorithms of both the uplink and down link

transmission powers by means of simulations in scope of the

coverage and capacity optimization and interference reduction.

The work in [2] shows the employment of transmit and

receive diversity to improve the

by a factor of the

number of transmit/receive antennas. In another study [9], the

Dominant Eigen Transmission (

) power algorithm has

been used to further improve the performance of the system.

This algorithm maximize the

and the Bit-Error Rate at

the

side.

Fig. 2

Cellular Network

paper. In this model we generated a signal message and

transmit it in a Gaussian channel, that includes path loss,

shadowing and interference signal. In this work, one desired

signal and two interferences signals are generated within the

sector.

, power reduction and output Signal to

Interference Ratio (

) are then measured when an adaptive

antenna array of elements are used. Else more, the effect of

shadowing on the system under test is also measured.

beamforming algorithms, e.g. Zero Forcing ( ), in the

system that supported in Release 13. This improvement of Bit

Error Rate (

), capacity and saving power when adaptive

antenna array is employed have been studied in an Additive

White Gaussian Noise (

) channel with different

values and with the existence of co-channel interfered signals.

In addition, free space and shadowing models have also been

considered in this study. The main purpose of this paper is to

show the huge improvements of

performance when

adaptive antenna array is employed.

Tx

Path Loss

Rx

Channel

Shadowing

Fig. 3 Channel model of the proposed

the system

model and problem formulation is introduced. This is then

followed by describing the system environment in Section .

Results obtained from computer simulations for different

number of antenna elements are presented in Section

.

Finally, Section concludes the paper.

Interferenc

e

system

the free space model, i.e.,

(1)

where and are the average powers of the received and the

transmitted signals respectively,

(

and

) antennas

gain,

path loss exponent and

is the ratio between

reference distance and distance between user and

.

The aim of using an adaptive antenna system is to provide the

maximum coverage and capacity at the maximum utilization

of transmission power of each sector antenna gains.

(2)

virtual

network that includes 7 cells-cluster has been is

considered. Each cell contains one base station (

), each

contains three sectors; and each sector coverage 120

degree as shown in Fig. 2. In each cell, a number of users

are assumed.

where

dB is the power after shadowing is added and

is the shadowing value which depends on the standard

deviations [10].

III.SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT

(System Level Simulation)

Measure

(BER Saved power - SIR)

by means of simulations. For comparison purposes, results

obtained with the conventional antenna with one element are

also presented. For the simulations, the following parameters

are used:

A linear array of maximum of 21 isotropic antenna

elements per sector.

N = from 2 to 21

SNR= 0 to 40 dB

) arrives at an

angle of

and it is fixed at 500 m from the

..

An

channel.

Weight vector is initially set to zero.

where :

: received power of the desired subscriber.

: noise at the receiver.

: interference power of

undesired subscriber.

Q : number of interfered users.

and

with the same amplitudes as the desired signal.

For the shadowing case,

with 4 different values of

standard deviations ( ); 0, 1, 2 and 3 are used.

can be

measured by finding the power of the received desired signal

at its specific direction and the summation of the powers of the

undesired signals at their directions. Then applying (4) will

give the required

.

IV. RESULTS

The resulting

performance with different antenna size and

for three

values;

, 5 dB and

; are shown in

Fig. 5, which shows that, increasing

will leads to improve

the output SIR values for all

values, particularly when N

is increased from 2 to 6-elements, i.e., increasing

from 0

dB to around

at

. From Fig. 5 we can

also notice that, the

values from

to

are

almost fixed.

A. Performance of

First, the performances of the considered model has been

evaluated by computing the

for different numbers of

array elements, , and different values of

.

Fig. 4 shows the behavior of the

for

values changes

from -2 to

in

steps. The theoretical values of the

are also calculated using (3) for the same values of

values:

(

(3)

as

increased the

is improved. The enhancement of

BER is also increased with the increase of . For example, at

, the BER is equal to approximately 0.023 when

4-elements is used, however its around 4.56410-11 when all

the available elements, i.e., 21elements, are used. It is

obvious from Fig. 4 that there is a close agreement between

the simulated and theoretical results.

Fig.5

One of the main advantage of adaptive antenna is to control

the transmission power. In the current measurement, we will

notice the increase of the power saving compared with noantenna array is used. The results of this case are shown in

Fig. 6.

Theory

Fig.4

versus

for different number of antenna array,

measured (lines) and theoretical (marked lines).

for different

values.

for both

B. Performance of output

Next, the output

is measured when the number of array

elements is increases for three different values of

;

,

and

. In general, the Signal to Interference Ratio

(

) can be calculated according to

for different

values.

Irrespective of

values, using of adaptive antenna array

beamforming leads to superior power saving compared with

no beamforming case. In fact these results confirm the results

obtained in Sections IV part A and B. Even more, these results

will inturn leads to increase the coverage area and/or decrease

the transmitted power from the

.

As it well known, the adaptive antenna enables a reduction in

co-channel interference which leads to an increase in the

frequency reuse factor. This means that the employment of

adaptive antennas allow more users to use the same frequency

spectrum at the same time bringing about tremendous increase

in capacity. The Normalized Capacity per beam as function in

SNR could be computed from [10]

M for the case of

. This model yields

where

is a constant depended on the number of antenna

elements and it should be less than 1 and b is the available

bandwidth, that is[10]

(6)

Fig.8 The common area between the beams.

used and is frequency reuse factor.

Fig. 7 shows the normalized capacity per beam calculated

from (5) as a function of the

for four different array size;

, 2, 8 and 21. Here, the capacity obtained from (5) is

multiplied by to find the total capacity. As shown in Fig. 7,

the channel capacity is increased, as expected, as the

is

increased. It is also interesting to notice from Fig. 7 that the

capacity will even more increased if is increased compared

with no array has been used, i.e.,

.

(9)

where M is the channel capacity when N=1; i.e., no antenna

arrays are used, A is a constant equals the values from 0 to 10

and =3.5.

dB

with a path loss of 3.5

area as that obtained in Fig.7 because there is always an

overlapping area in between any consecutive beams as shown

in Fig. 8. Therefore, to calculate a more accurate capacity than

that obtained in Fig.7, the common area (

has to be

calculated, as show in Fig.8then half of it should removed

from the beam under test.

can be calculated as

(7)

, per beam as a function of . From this figure, it's clear

that as the coverage area, i.e. square of cell radius , the actual

capacity per beam is also increased compared with that of N=1

(M). This is also true when the number of elements, N, is

increased. For example, at

, the actual capacity

improvement percentage between the capacity at N=4 and N=8

is approximately 50%.

(8)

V. CONCLUSION

Coverage Area=

technology in LTE system to enhanc the capacity and reduce

the BER. A sector of 21-element antenna array as stated in

LTE Release 13 has been used for different channel scenarios.

Now, the actual capacity beam per cell can be calculated and

plotted as shown in Fig. 9 for different numbers of antenna

elements only. The model of this capacity,

, as a

function of the coverage area (in terms of square of cell radius,

4

improvement in BER, output SIR, power saving and capacity

as the number of the array elements is increased. A

mathematical model of the capacity increment has been

studied, investigated which can be used to estimate the actual

capacity when an adaptive array system is employed in the

BST of the LTE system.

REFERENCES

[1] Christopher Cox, An introduction to LTE, UK, John Wiley & Sons, 2014,

pp. 12-13.

[2]

TechMinds. 'Beamforming in LTE.''

Internet: www.lteaprotocols.blogspot.com/search/label/Beamforming , July. 4, 2013 [Mar.

25, 2015].

[3] Olivier Pajona, Sebastian Rowson, Laurent Desclos, " Beamforming and

steering using LTE diversity antenna", Ethertronics, Inc., patent no.:

US20150036726 A1, Feb. 2015.

[4] Suhail N. Shahab, Ayib R. Zainun1, Nurul H. Noordin, Ahmad J.

Mohamad and Omar Khaldoon, "Performance analysis of smart antenna

based on MVDR beamformer using rectangular antenna array", ARPN

Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 10, NO. 22, Dec. 2015.

[5] V.Kumar., Rajouria., Performance analysis of LMS adaptive

beamforming algorithm, International Journal of Engineering and

Communication Technology, vol.4, issue 5, Sept-2013.

[6] Bernhard Schulz, "LTE transmission modes and beamforming", Rohde

&Schwarz , 2e, July 2015.

[7] Mohammed A. Kadhim, "Design and implementation of adaptive antenna

system in a new LTE 3GPPT transceivers based in multi wave length

signals ", IJAP, vol. 10,NO,2, June2014.

[8] Md. Yasin Alia and Liton Chandra Paul,

"Performance analysis of

adaptive antenna system in LTE (4G) using OFDM technique",

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan.

2013.

[9] Massimiliano Ricci, "Beamforming and power control in flexible spectrum

usage for LTE advance system", MOBCOM, May 2008.

[10] Ramn Martnez, "Smart antennas performance evaluation and capacity

increase for WCDMA UMTS ", 38th IEEE Vehicular Technology

Conference, pp. 147 - 15, vol.1, Feb. 2001.

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