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Performance Analysis of X-Band Microstrip

Antenna Based on Variation of the Thickness and


Dielectric Constant of the Superstrate
Nafaa M. Shebani, Mesbah S. Mesbah, Noor Al-hoda H. khmaj
University of Zawia/Department of Electrical & Electronic Eng., Zawia, Libya
Email: Nafah@yahoo.com, kreptexmesbah@gmail.com, noorfourty@gmail.com

Abstract In this paper a dual-band microstrip antenna to


operate at X band is proposed, and simulated using ADS
momentum software on Teflon substrate with 2 dielectric
constant and 1.58 mm thickness having loss tangent 0.000194.
The performance of the proposed antenna with superstrate
layer is evaluated based on the variation of dielectric constant
and thickness of the superstrate layer.
Index Terms X band, Superstrate, dual band, dielectric
constant, height of superstrate.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Microstrip patch antenna consists of a dielectric


substrate, with a ground plane on the other side. Due to its
advantages such as low weight, low profile planar
configuration, low fabrication costs and capability to
integrate with microwave integrated circuits technology,
the microstrip patch antenna is very well suited for
applications such as wireless communications system,
cellular phones, pagers, Radar systems and satellite
communications systems [1].
Microstrip antennas also has few disadvantages like low
gain, narrow bandwidth and low efficiency. There are
various methods to overcome the disadvantages, few of
them are:
Array configuration , multilayered structure, change in
shape of patch and adding different shaped slots in patch
in proper position, using low dielectric constant of
substrate or increase the thickness of substrate, proper
feeding, using metamaterial structure, use different
structure like photonic band gap (PBG), substrate
integrated waveguide (SIW), and Defective Ground
Structure (DGS) [2].
The multilayer microstrip antenna structure involves
addition of a superstrate layer over the substrate. When a
microstrip antenna is covered with a superstrate dielectric
layer, its properties like resonance frequency, gain and
bandwidth are changed which may seriously degrade the
system performance. With proper choice of the thickness
of substrate and superstrate layer, significant increase in
gain can be achieved for practical applications [8].
For this reason, it is important to analyze superstrate
effects, so adequate superstrate parameters can be chosen
to enhance gain and radiation efficiency.

The bandwidth of a microstrip antenna increases with


an increase in substrate thickness and decreases in the
dielectric constant also, the bandwidth of the antenna
increases when multiresonators are coupled in planar or
stacked configurations [7]. The gain and directivity is the
issue in fixed wireless local area network (WLAN)
application where antenna of high gain and directivity is
required. The gain can be increased by using the microstrip
antenna array structure but this again increases the size.
Hence the Bandwidth and Gain of microstrip antenna is
increased by slightly increasing the dimensions of
multilayer structure [1].
The X band is a segment of the microwave radio region
of the electromagnetic spectrum. In communication
engineering, the frequency range of X band is rather
indefinitely set at approximately 7.0 to 11.2 GHz. In radar
engineering, the frequency range is specified by the IEEE
at 8.0 to 12.0 GHz [5]. X Band Satellite Communication
operates in the part of the X band or Super High Frequency
(SHF) spectrum which is designated by the International
Telecommunication
Union
(ITU)
for
satellite
communication. The ITU designated the frequency band
in the range 7.25 GHz to 7.75 GHz for downlink (Space to
Earth) and 7.9 GHz to 8.4 GHz for uplink (Earth to Space)
for government use [6]. The X band frequencies has the
advantage that it is less affected by rain fade, where it
provide higher rain resilience compared to other higher
frequency band like Ku and Ka used for satellite
communication. This allows extremely high link
availability [6].
This paper aims to propose a dual-band microstrip
antenna to operate at X band for radar applications. The
dual-band antenna is simulated using ADS momentum
software on Teflon substrate with 2 dielectric constant and
1.58 mm thickness having loss tangent 0.000194. The
effect of superstrate layer on the antenna performance is
studied based on the variation of dielectric constant and
thickness of the superstrate layer.
II.

ANTENNA GEOMETRY

Fig. 1 shows the proposed antenna configuration. The


antenna is located in x-y plane and the normal direction is
parallel to z-axis. The proposed antenna is simulated using
Advanced Design System (ADS) momentum software.

The substrate used in this work is Teflon with a


dielectric constant of 2 and a thickness of 1.58 mm having
loss tangent 0.000194.

S(1,1)
Manitude [dB]
0

m3
freq=8.201GHz
dB(fitted)=-19.962

-5

W1
W2
L4
W4

dB(fitted)

-10

L1

m3
-20

m4

W3

-25

L5

L2

m4
freq=10.82GHz
dB(fitted)=-25.073

-15

-30
6

W5

10

11

12

freq, GHz

Figure 2. Simulated return loss for the proposed antenna

L6
L3
W6
L7
W7

Figure 1. Configuration of a proposed Antenna.

The dimensions of the antenna structure are tabulated


in Table 1.
TABLE I.
Parameter
W1
W2
W3
W4
W5
W6
W7

Dimensions of The Proposed Antenna


Value (mm)
25.154
2.500
5.263
1.794
2.480
8.797
2.599

Parameter
L1
L2
L3
L4
L5
L6
L7

Value (mm)
2.929
16.324
2.628
0.390
1.130
5.416
15.855

Figure 3. Variation of input impedance of the antenna vs. frequency


80

m3
freq= 8.201GHz
SWR=1.223

III.

SIMULATION RESULTS

The simulated results of the variation of return loss versus


the frequency of the proposed antenna is illustrated in
Figure 2. From the figure, it can be observed that two
resonant frequencies are located at the values of 8.201
GHz with return loss of -19.96 dB and 10.82 GHz with
return loss -25.73 dB.
Based on -10 dB return loss, at the first resonant frequency
8.201 GHz, 3.323% impedance bandwidth is obtained, in
the frequency range 8.05 8.322 GHz; and 3.96 %
impedance bandwidth is obtained at the second resonant
frequency 10.82 GHz in the frequency range 10.63-11.06
GHz. The variation of the input impedance of the proposed
antenna with frequency is plotted on the Smith chart as
shown in Figure 3. From the figure, it can be seen that the
simulated results give the acceptable impedance matching
at the resonant frequencies, where the impedance at 8.201
GHz is 52.836 + j 9.982 , and it is 46.07 + j3.646 at
10.82 GHz. The simulated results of VSWR versus the
frequency for the proposed antenna is shown in Figure 4,
the VSWR is 1.223 at 8.201 GHz, and it is 1.118 at 10.82
GHz. For VSWR less than 2, the single layer antenna can
cover the frequency range of 8.05 GHz to 8.322 GHz for
lower band of the antenna, and it can cover the frequency
range of 10.61 GHz to 11.07 GHz for upper band.

SWR

60

m4
freq= 10.82GHz
SWR=1.118

40

20

m3

m4

0
6

10

11

12

freq, GHz

Figure 4. VSWR vs. Frequency for the dual-band antenna

At 8.201 GHz The 3D representation of the radiation


pattern of the proposed antenna is shown in Figure 5, and
the parameters of the proposed antenna are tabulated in
Table II.
TABLE II.

Parameters Of The Antenna At 8.201 GHz

Parameter
Power Radiated
(mW)
Directivity (dBi)
Gain (dBi)
Efficiency (%)

Value
1.886
7.490
6.313
76.209

At the resonant frequency of 8.201 GHz, the two


dimensional field patterns of the (E) with = 0 (E-plane)
in elevation cut (x-z plane) is shown in Figure 6a, and in

elevation cut (y-z plane) with = 90 is shown in Figure


6b.

in elevation cut (x-z plane) is shown in Figure 8a, and in


elevation cut (y-z plane) with = 90 is shown in Figure
8b.

Figure 5. 3D radiation pattern of the antenna at 8.201 GHz


Figure 7. 3D radiation pattern of the antenna at 10.82 GHz

-115

90

-90

-165
-215

Parameters Of The Antenna At 10.82 GHz

Parameter
Power Radiated
(mW)
Directivity (dBi)
Gain (dBi)
Efficiency (%)

dB(Power)

TABLE III.

45

5
-4

0
-65

-81

-90

dB(Power)

90

-181
-231

5
13

35
-1

0
-12

45

180

-62

0
-31

35
-1

Theta (-90.000 to 90.000)


(a)

6.970
5.630
73.442

-131

180

5
-4

1.839

45

5
-4

5
3
1

Value

Theta (-90.000 to 90.000)

(a)

-90

-162

90

dB(Power)

-112

-212

5
-4

0
-35
-85

45

-90

-185

90

35
-1

5
13

dB(Power)

-135

-235

180

(b)
Figure 6. Field pattern at 8.201 GHz in (a) x-z plane (b) y-z plane

-1
35

13
5

Theta (-90.000 to 90.000)

180
Theta (-90.000 to 90.000)

The 3D representation of the radiation pattern of the


proposed antenna at 10.82 GHz is shown in Figure 7, and
the parameters of the proposed antenna are tabulated in
Table III.
The two dimensional field patterns at the resonant
frequency of 10.82 GHz, of the (E) with = 0 (E-plane)

(b)
Figure 8. Field pattern at 10.82 GHz in (a) x-z plane (b) y-z plane

With adding a superstrate layer with 1.58 mm thickness


over a substrate of a proposed antenna; the effect of
changing the dielectric constant of the superstrate on the

return loss and impedance bandwidth of the antenna is


presented in Figure 9.
0

-5

TABLE V.

EFFECTS OF SUPERSTRATE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT ON THE


ANTENNA PARAMETERS AT UPPER RESONANT FREQUENCY

-10

Thickness of the superstrate is 1.58 mm

-15

-20

-25

-30

Without superstrate
Er(superstrate) = 1.3
Er(superstrate) = 2
Er(superstrate) = 4.4
Er(superstrate) = 9.7

-35
6

10

11

12

Frequency (GHz)

Figure 9. Effect of superstrate dielectric constant with thickness of


1.58 mm on the return loss and impedance bandwidth of antenna

Based on the simulated results that shown in Figure 9


and the far field results of the antenna, the variation of the
antenna parameters based on the changing of the
superstrate dielectric constant with thickness of 1.58 mm
at the lower resonant frequency are summarized in Table
IV, and at the upper resonant frequency are summarized in
Table V.
TABLE IV.

EFFECTS OF SUPERSTRATE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT ON THE


ANTENNA PARAMETERS AT LOWER RESONANT FREQUENCY
Thickness of the superstrate is 1.58 mm

Superstrate
dielectric
constant
Resonant
frequency
(GHz)
Return Loss
(dB)
Impedance
BW (%)
Radiated
Power (mW)
Directivity
(dBi)
Gain (dBi)
Efficiency
(%)

Superstrate
dielectric
constant
Resonant
frequency
(GHz)
Return Loss
(dB)
Impedance
BW (%)
Radiated
Power (mW)
Directivity
(dBi)
Gain (dBi)
Efficiency
(%)

1.3

4.4

9.7

10.82

10.67

10.40

11.37

10.01

-25.07

-33.21

-14.66

-32.84

-12.25

3.96

4.49

3.75

5.38

6.57

1.839

1.652

1.502

0.981

0.821

6.970

7.279

7.635

9.4642

10.260

5.630

5.475

5.556

5.4076

5.688

73.442

66.01

61.96

39.30

34.90

Form Table V, it is illustrated that the upper resonant


frequency of the proposed antenna is shifted according to
the value of dielectric constant of the superstrate within the
X-band. It is seen that the impedance bandwidth,
directivity, and gain of multilayer antenna are changed; at
the superstrate dielectric constant is 9.7, the best values of
impedance bandwidth, directivity, and gain are 6.574%,
10.260 dBi, and 5.688 dBi respectively. The radiated
power, and efficiency decrease with covered the substrate
with a superstrate layer.
The effect of changing the thickness of the superstrate on
the antenna parameters with the dielectric constant of the
superstrate of 1.3 is presented in Figure 10.

1.3

4.4

9.7

8.201

8.111

7.90

7.387

6.603

- 19.96

-18.20

-16.82

-18.53

-16.80

3.32

3.22

3.24

3.70

3.89

-5

1.886

1.659

1.4639

1.404

1.584

7.490

7.693

7.8636

8.0757

7.8537

6.313

5.965

5.627

5.632

5.963

76.209

67.172

59.753

56.97

64.704

-10

Form Table IV, it is illustrated that the lower resonant


frequency of the proposed antenna is shifted to left in the
frequency scale and the antenna operates in C band.
It is seen that at the dielectric constant of the superstrate
is greater than the dielectric constant of the substrate of the
antenna; the multilayer structure has the impedance
bandwidth greater that the antenna without superstrate
layer. When the dielectric constant of the superstrate less
than or equal the dielectric constant of the substrate, it
noted that the impedance bandwidth of the multilayer
stricture is less than the impedance bandwidth of the
antenna without superstrate. The parameters, return loss,

Return Loss (dB)

Return Loss (dB)

radiated power, gain, and efficiency decrease with covered


the substrate with a superstrate layer. In addition, it can be
observed the directivity of the antenna increases with
increase the value of dielectric constant of the superstrate
and it greater than the directivity of the antenna without
superstrate.

-15

-20

-25

-30

-35
6

h = 0.76 mm
h = 1.58 mm
h = 2 mm
h = 2.5 mm4
h = 3 mm
7

10

11

12

Frequency (GHz)

Figure 10. Effect of superstrate thickness with dielectric constant of 1.3


on the return loss and impedance bandwidth of antenna

Based on the simulated results that shown in Figure 10


and the far field results of the antenna, the variation of the

antenna parameters based on the changing of the


superstrate thickness with dielectric constant of 1.3 at the
lower resonant frequency are summarized in Table VI, and
at the upper resonant frequency are summarized in Table
VII.
TABLE VI.

they decrease with increase the thickness of the superstrate


layer,
Figure 11 shows the effect of changing the thickness of
the superstrate on the antenna parameters with the
dielectric constant of the superstrate of 9.7.

EFFECTS OF SUPERSTRATE THICKNESS ON THE ANTENNA


PARAMETERS AT LOWER RESONANT FREQUENCY

Dielectric constant of the superstrate is 1.3


0.76

1.58

2.5

-5

3
-10

8.141

8.111

8.111

8.08

8.08

-19.16

-18.20

-17.47

-16.68

-16.12

3.153

3.220

3.22

3.53

3.53

1.770

1.659

1.603

1.550

1.504

7.591

7.693

7.772

7.764

7.833

6.141

5.965

5.913

5.785

5.732

71.610

67.172

65.184

63.389

61.635

EFFECTS OF SUPERSTRATE THICKNESS ON THE ANTENNA


PARAMETERS AT UPPER RESONANT FREQUENCY
Dielectric constant of the superstrate is 1.3

Superstrate
thickness
(mm)
Resonant
frequency
(GHz)
Return Loss
(dB)
Impedance
BW (%)
Radiated
Power (mW)
Directivity
(dBi)
Gain (dBi)
Efficiency
(%)

-15

-20

-25

-30

h = 0.76 mm
h = 1.58 mm
h = 2 mm
h = 2.5 mm4
h = 3 mm

-35
6

10

11

12

Frequency (GHz)

Form Table VI, it is illustrated that the lower resonant


frequency of the proposed antenna has the small shifted
with changing the thickness of the superstrate within the
X-band. It is seen that the impedance bandwidth, and
directivity are increased, the best values of impedance
bandwidth, and directivity are 3.53%, and 7.833 dBi
respectively, when the superstrate thickness is 3 mm. The
radiated power, gain and efficiency decrease with increase
the thickness of the superstrate layer, the best value of
them at the antenna without superstrate layer.
TABLE VII.

Return Loss (dB)

Superstrate
thickness
(mm)
Resonant
frequency
(GHz)
Return Loss
(dB)
Impedance
BW (%)
Radiated
Power (mW)
Directivity
(dBi)
Gain (dBi)
Efficiency
(%)

0.76

1.58

2.5

10.70

10.67

10.67

10.67

10.67

-31.85

-33.21

-30.83

-27.06

-24.53

4.0

4.49

4.49

4.21

4.21

1.735

1.652

1.622

1.594

1.574

7.119

7.279

7.477

7.455

7.531

5.525

5.475

5.477

5.487

5.501

69.280

66.01

64.758

63.573

62.658

The upper resonant frequency is remain constant within


X-band range with change the thickness of superstrate as
shown in Table VII. It is seen that the impedance
bandwidth, and directivity are increased, the best values of
impedance bandwidth, and directivity are 4.21%, and
7.531 dBi respectively when the superstrate thickness is 3
mm. The best value of The radiated power, gain and
efficiency at the antenna without superstrate layer, where

Figure 11. Effect of superstrate thickness with dielectric constant of 9.7


on the return loss and impedance bandwidth of antenna

Table VIII presents the variation of the antenna


parameters based on the changing of the superstrate
thickness at the lower resonant frequency with the
dielectric constant of the superstrate of 9.7, and at the
upper resonant frequency are summarized in Table IX.
TABLE VIII. EFFECTS OF SUPERSTRATE THICKNESS ON THE ANTENNA
PARAMETERS AT LOWER RESONANT FREQUENCY

Dielectric constant of the superstrate is 9.7


Superstrate
thickness
(mm)
Resonant
frequency
(GHz)
Return Loss
(dB)
Impedance
BW (%)
Radiated
Power (mW)
Directivity
(dBi)
Gain (dBi)
Efficiency
(%)

0.76

1.58

2.5

7.055

6.603

6.452

6.332

6.211

-31.246

-16.80

-12.86

-11.17

-11.78

3.28

3.89

3.73

2.07

1.77

1.661

1.584

1.078

2.253

1.810

7.380

7.854

10.205

7.709

8.467

5.607

5.963

6.757

7.602

7.364

66.469

64.704

45.203

97.575

77.566

As shown in Table VIII, the lower resonant frequency


is shifted to C band range with change the thickness of
superstrate. From the Table, it is seen that all parameters
are changed, where the best values of impedance
bandwidth is 3.89 at the thickness of the superstrate is 1.58
mm; directivity is 10.205 dBi at the thickness of the
superstrate is 2 mm; and gain, radiated power and
efficiency are 7.602 dBi, 2.253 mW and 97.575%
respectively when the superstrate thickness is 2.5 mm.

TABLE IX.

EFFECTS OF SUPERSTRATE THICKNESS ON THE ANTENNA


PARAMETERS AT UPPER RESONANT FREQUENCY
Dielectric constant of the superstrate is 9.7

Superstrate
height (mm)
Resonant
frequency
(GHz)
Return Loss
(dB)
Impedance
BW (%)
Radiated
Power (mW)
Directivity
(dBi)
Gain (dBi)
Efficiency
(%)

0.76

1.58

2.5

10.82

10.01

9.829

9.377

8.653

and thick layer of superstrate is suitable for applications


that required high impedance bandwidth and directivity.
The proposed dual band antenna is compact with size of
25.15 32.32 mm2 , simple in design, easily in fabricated
and integrated with other circuits.
REFERENCES

-28.136

-21.25

-15.46

-23.89

-23.83

3.28

6.57

6.0

8.03

10.46

1.661

0.821

1.203

1.403

0.718

7.380

10.260

9.911

9.244

9.208

5.607

5.688

6.859

6.748

3.807

66.469

34.894

49.522

56.288

28.788

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

From Table IX, it seen that the upper resonant frequency


is shifted to left within X-band range with change the
thickness of superstrate. It is seen that the best values of
impedance bandwidth, the directivity, gain, is 10.46% at
thickness of the superstrate is 3 mm, 10.260 dBi at
thickness of 1.58 mm; and 6.859 dBi at thickness of the
superstrate is 3 mm, respectively. At 0.76 mm thickness of
the superstrate, the best values of radiated power and
efficiency are 1.661 mW, and 66.469%
IV.

CONCLUSION

A compact single layer dual band microstrip antenna


operates at X band is presented, the simulated results
showed that the proposed antenna can be operate with
good performance at the range of X band.
The antenna parameters such as impedance bandwidth,
gain, directivity, radiated power and efficiency were
changed with covered the antenna with a superstrate layer.
The antenna parameters were effected by variation of the
thickness and dielectric constant of the superstrate layer.
Within X band range, the impedance bandwidth is
improved when the proposed antenna was covered by a
superstrate with low dielectric constant of 1.3 and thick
layer of 3 mm, and the directivity also improved by 0.343
dBi at low resonant frequency, and at upper resonant
frequency is enhanced by 0.041 dBi. It found that, the
multilayer structure antenna with low dielectric constant

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

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BIOGRAPHIES
Nafaa M. Shebani received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in
Communication Engineering from University of Tripoli, Libya, in 1997
and 2008 respectively. He is currently working as Assistant Lecturer in
the Electrical and Electronic Engineering of Faculty of Engineering in
University of Zawia. He teaches undergraduate courses in
electromagnetics, antenna & wave propagations, and microwave
engineering. He has 10 publications in journals and conferences
proceedings. His research interests include multi-bands antennas, wave
propagation, and optical fiber communication.