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The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

Using Ad Hoc-network with IEEE802.11 ac:


Possibilities and Challenges
Dr. Nassir Abuhamoud
School of Electronic Engineering, Sebha
University, Sebha, Libya.

Dr. Emsaieb Geepalla


School of Electronic Engineering, Sebha
University, Sebha, Libya.

PH-+218919045594.
E-mail: nasser237@gmail.com

PH-+218916402715.
E-mail: Dean@feng.sebhau.edu.ly

Abstract This paper used AdHoc-networks with the latest


protocol from (IEEE 802.11) family to build a vast private
network. This network could be used everywhere in a city to
share video, voice, internet connection and data. The proposed
network provides users with free movement similar to mobile
networks, strong security and speed up to 100Mbit/s similar to
wire LAN, and without fixed structure.
Wireless self-organized Ad Hoc-networks have been used
in this research because they are decentralized wireless
networks which do not have a permanent structure. In
addition to that client devices are usually connected on the fly
to form a network. Moreover, in the proposed network each
node will attempt to send data to other nodes. More specificity
Ad Hoc networks are continuously changing topology of
network nodes moving in space or changing radio
propagation conditions, and IEEE 802.11 ac because - this is
a new wireless standard for computer networks, which is now
being actively developed and is able to provide higher
bandwidth. Such wireless LANs are designed for operation in
the 5 GHz range.
Index Terms AdHoc-networks, IEEE 802.11.ac, Network,
node, protocol.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Overview of IEEE 802.ac


IEEE 802.11 ac - is a new wireless standard for
computer networks, which is now being actively
developed and able to provide a higher bandwidth.
Theoretically, this standard will allow bandwidth of
the wireless networks up to one Gbit/s [1]. Also the speed
will be achieved through the conversion and the
performance of the previous standard of 802.11n will be
improved. Accordingly, the innovations have identified
the following characteristics:
Enhanced bandwidth of the working channel:
Bandwidth from 80 MHz to 160 MHz against
maximum 40 MHz to 802.11n);

Figure 1. The coverage area of the Standard 802.11ac.

More space to streams information of MIMO


(Fig. 2)
Support up to 8 streams (against 4 in 802.11n);

Figure .2 MIMO

Two options of implementation of MU-MIMO:


At the expense of technology CDMA;
Downlink MIMO;
Modulation (Fig. 3):
Adds additional modulation (256QAM) with a coding rate 3/4 and 5/6
(compared to 64-QAM at the maximum
coding rate 5/6 standard 802.11n).

Overview of Ad Hoc-Networks
Ad Hoc is one of the networks with a variable
topology and an absence of a clear infrastructure, where
each node could act as a router and take a part in the relay
data packets.

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

Figure 6. Uniform network.

Figure 3. An example of the structure of Ad Hoc networks.

The specificity of Ad-Hoc networks is that they are


constantly changing topology because the network nodes
moving in space or changing radio propagation
conditions. In addition, to Ad-Hoc networks, similar to
other wireless systems, are characterized by limited
bandwidth and the zone of radio visibility. As a result, the
protocols and technical solutions used in classical wired
data networks, such as centralized routing with hierarchy
preassigned routers for AdHoc networks are ineffective
and do not provide the desired performance [2].

II.

DEVELOPMENT MODELS.

It is necessary to determine the optimal structure that


provides the lowest loss in the efficiency of the network
and to take the necessary decision to increase the channel
capacity.
To achieve the analysis section this paper proposes to
use several models of Ad Hoc-networks with different
topologies, such as the following will be considered:
Linear network topology (Fig. 4);
Radial-node network (Fig. 5);
Uniform network (Fig. 6).

To determine the structure which provides the


necessary efficiency of the network, it is important to
make comparisons based on several criteria:
1. Ensuring the smallest packet delay in the
transmission of messages from the SM (source of the
message) to the AP (access point). This requirement will
be achieved by minimizing the number of hops in the
network (the definition of the path of the messages
through the smallest number of units);
2. Distribution of traffic. The load on the nodes
adjacent to the access point that has been distributed
evenly. In this case, it is assumed the use of optimal
routing protocol;
3. Select the desired number of access points,
providing data transfer rate in the network. In this case,
we will ask a rate, which should be at least 100 Mbit / s.

III.

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION.

Given that needs to be performed Ad Hoc- network


citywide, the average number of subscribers counted for a
large Neighborhoods of the city (Fig. 8) will be 44
thousand people.

Figure 4. linear network.

Figure.8. Brak Ashati (11 micro Neighborhoods, 44 thousand


People)

Figure 5. radial-node (star) network.

These numbers were obtained from the local


authorities. The area is located 11 micro Neighborhoods.
Thus, the average number of people of one micro
Neighborhood (45 thousand. People. All Neighborhoods)
/ 11 (micro Neighborhoods) = 4 thousand people. / One
micro Neighborhood). Suppose that in this micro district
live family consisting of four persons. In turn, in every
family there are two users Internet. Then we can count
the number of families 4000/4 = 1000 (families), and the
total number of subscribers, counting for these families:
1000 * 2 = 2000 {subscribers). It is also assumed that the

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

analyzed network is located in the equally


Neighborhoods, and thus will not be considered to
specific binding of the network to any abnormal
Neighborhood.
The selection of the required number of access points,
should provide data transmission rate in the network to a
subscriber at least 100 Mbit / s. Therefore, to determine
how many AP (access point) will be involved in the
tested network, we need to figure out how many people
will be able to serve one AP.
Bandwidth is allocated between the wireless users, as
well as wired networks. The maximum transmission rate
of the access point standard 802.11 ac is 1 Gbit/s. The
calculation guaranteed bit rate client signals in the busy
hour (PH) at a certain number of subscribers in the cell is
performed in the sequence shown below.
1. Calculate the resulting user traffic in the cell AAP
AAP = NNS AP A1

(1)

Where NNS AP number of subscribers; A1 - the value of


the average load of a one subscriber in PH, which is
selected in the range A = (0.05 ... 0.1) (Erlang - E), In this
case the value 0.1 E, with some margin on the
development of the network. In preliminary the
calculations according to the formulas (1) (2) (3)
was found that, to ensure a minimum guaranteed
transmission rate of user signals (100 Mb / s) in the cell,
it is necessary to select NNS AP = 70 E . According to the
formula (1) we obtain AAP = 70 0.1 = 7 E.
2. Calculate the number of traffic channels using
Nnt AP (Erlang model), which has the general
form:
Nnt AP = -1[Aap PAPL)

(2)

PAPL - Allowable percentage locking (APL), take it to


5%. As we consider the first model Erlang, which is a
model without queuing. In this case, it is understood that
the newly received requests are blocked and do not affect
the character of the incoming stream and its intensity.
This simplifying assumption is that the probability of a
loss is small - of the order of a few percent. For practical
calculations Erlang model is applied in the form of a
nomogram shown in Figure 9 for the values of PAPL = (1
... 10) %.

In Erlang nomogram (Fig. 9) at the obtained values


AAP and APL are acceptable given the required number of
traffic channels NCT AP=10.
3. Calculate the minimum guaranteed transfer
speed of user signals (BAb T) in the busy hour of
formula [5]:
BAb T = BAP / NCT AP.

Where BAP - speed transmission of AP, which is equal


to 1,000 Mbit / s (for the technical data of the standard
802.11ac).
into (3) and we obtain:
BAb T = 1000/10 = 100 Mbit / s.
Given that the subscribers in the network Ns = 2000
people and the access point can serve with speed (100
Mb/s) NNS AP = 70 people, then we can determine the
required number AP according to the formula:
NAP = [Ns / NNS AP ] = [ 2000 / 70 ] = 29.
The result corresponds to all three types selected
networks.
It is necessary to estimate the total delay of packet
transmission from the sender to the recipient. To do this
we assume that the path the packet are N-1 routers, the
load on the network such that the queue absents or is
negligibly small, the processing time for each router and
the sender equal tt, propagation time of the signal on the
line is equal to tnd. All nodal delays are equal, and their
sum gives the overall delay:
Ttotal = N (tt + tnd).
Assume that a signal transmitted in ideal conditions
without obstacles and at small distances relative binding
site, so the signal propagation time through the
communication line tnd can be neglected. As a result, we
get:
Ttotal = N tr.

(4)

It now remains to resolve the issue of the processing


time of one packet router.
Fig. 10, shows the frame format of 802.11. Present
overall structure applies to all data and control frames,
although not all fields are used in all cases. [6]

Figure. 10. Frame format MAC IEEE 802.11


Figure.9. load of AP with the number of channels of traffic .

(3)

IP-packet consists of a header and data [7].


The following are the header field {Figure 11):

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

tpt = 160 / 12.5 = 12.8 Mic S.


The time of processing of IP-packet maximum length
in view of the size of the header 1P-packet:
tPL = 63 848 / 12.5 = 5107.84 Mic S.

Figure. 11. The structure of the IP-packet header

Calculation of the total time delay, in particular for the


three networks with different topologies to be carried by
the formula (4), but we will ask the maximum number of
nodes, each corresponding to the topology, through which
pass the packet to an output AP.

The value of the length of the header IP - packet is 4


bytes. Typically, the header has a length of 20 bytes (five
32 - bit words), but by adding some overhead, this value
can be increased by the additional bytes field parameters.
Maximum length of the header is 60 bytes.
In computer networks, the term MTU used to
determine maximum transmission unit (MTU) in bytes,
which may be transmitted on the canal layer OSI network
model [8].
Notice: the MTU value represented as the maximum
size of IP-packet, which can be transmitted without
fragmentation - including IP headers, but excluding
headers lower levels of a protocol stack [8]
TABLE 1. TABLE OF VALUES MTU
Internet IPv4 Path MTU

At least 68

Internet IPv6 Path MTU

At least 1280

Ethernet v2

1500

Ethernet and SNAP. PPPoE


Ethernet Jumbo Frames

1492
1500-9000

WLAN (802.11)
Token Ring (802,5)
FDDI

7981
4464
4352

From Figure 10 to determine the maximum frame


length to 802.11, it is equal to 2346 bytes, or {18768
bits). Also. Between frames should be kept in a waiting
time of 9.6 Micro Second [7]. Given the table. Two
maximum-size IP packet that can be transmitted without
fragmentation - including the IP header to the 802.11
standard is equal to 7981 bytes (or 63 848-bit). The size
of the header IP-packet varies from 20 (or 160 bits) to 60
bytes (we will use a standard length of 20 bytes for the
IP-packet header).
The minimum speed of Service 100 Mbit/s or 12.5
Mbyte/s. At the nominal bandwidth 12.5 Mbyte/s
transmission time frame of maximum length is:
tML= 18768 / 12.5 = 1501.44 Micro S.
The repetition period of the frame is:
trp = 1501.44+ 9.6 = 1511.04 Mic S.
Processing time IP-header packet:

Figure 12. (a) star topology: (b) - linear topology; (c) - Uniform
topology

Figure. 12 shows three-network topology with a path


for transporting the packet network (violet line). Based on
these assumptions (Fig. 12), we calculate total delay:
a) tts(star) = 12 5107.84 = 61294.08 Mic S.
b) ttl(linear) = 19-5107.84 - 97048. Mic S.
c) ttu(Uniform) = 9-5/07.84 - 45970.56Mic S.
It is necessary to take into account the time delay of
network routing algorithms. There are two main methods
of routing - static and dynamic. Static routing is based on
routing tables, stored in the memory of the router, and the
dynamic is performed automatically, starting from receipt
of the package, according to a particular algorithm. The
basis of this algorithm uses the principle of the free or
find the shortest or best but some criterion of the route. It
is clear that the dynamic routing and harder and longer
than the static. One may wonder ratio delays in static and

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

dynamic routing is 1: 2. Those. Dynamic routing delay to


2 times more. [4]
Dynamic routing is a continuous exchange of
information between the devices involved in the
exchange (of information), with the filling of the routing
tables [6]. This exchange process leads to a delay time.
Based on the above, we obtain the total delay in the
dynamic routing:
a)

ttotal(star-dynamic) = 61294.08 2 = 122588.16


Mic S= 122.58816 m S.
b) ttotal(linear-dynamic) = 97048.96 2 = 194097.92
Mic S = 194.09792 m S.
c) ttotal(Uniform-dynamic) = 45970.56 2 = 91941.12
Mic S = 91.941 m S.
It is necessary to distinguish between nominal and
effective bandwidth standard. Under nominal bandwidth
is generally understood bit rate supported on the
transmission interval of one packet. Effective bandwidth
802.11 - is an average user data rate, i.e. the data
contained in the data field of each packet. In general, the
effective bandwidth is lower than the nominal protocol
because of the presence in the packet overhead, and
because of the pauses between the transmissions of
individual packets.
If the nominal bandwidth 12.5 Mbyte/s, transmission
time frame of maximum length is:
TMF = 18768 / 12.5 = 1501.44 Mic S.
The repetition period of the frame is:
TRF = 1501.44+ 9.6 = 1511.04 micS (1.51104 m s).
From (Figure 10) body frame is 2312 byte (user data).
From here - the effective bandwidth 802.11 frames using
the maximum length is 2312 8 / 1511.04 = 12.2405
Mbyte/s.
The International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)
Recommendation G.114 defined the requirements for the
quality of voice. It is considered good if delay in signal
transmission in one direction does not exceed 150 m S
[8].

III.

Larger value of MTU (maximum transmission unit)


bring greater efficiency. This is because each packet can
carry a larger user's data. However, larger packets may
lead to slow channel for some time, which may lead to
large delays in processing packets. Large packets are
considered as erroneous packet. Tis dues to an erroneous
transmission of one bit of information in the package will
require to retransmit the whole package. In other words,
retransmissions of large packets may cause an additional
time delay in the processing of one packet of the
information.
As a result, all three types of the network used in this
paper can be used for data transmission. In this research
the model of the first type of Erlang-without queues has
been used, nevertheless for voice transmission, network
with a linear topology cannot be used because there is a
delay which exceeds of the permissible level (150 mS on
the recommendations G.114) and the uniform network is
the best with margin 58 mS delay.

IV.

CONCLUSION.

This paper concludes that free movement in a vast area


with the ability to send and receive different types of data
on local private computer's network with less cost, less
time for network construction and not use to public
network as internet, VPN or mobile networks, this's what
is means by flexibility of computers network. Providing
such flexibility today is one of the most important tasks
for the development of networks. As summary, the use of
Ad-Hoc Networks with IEEE 802.11 ac as protocol could
bring flexibility to computer's network.

REFERENCES.
[1]

[2]
[3]

[4]
[5]

[6]
[7]
Figure.13. level scale transmission delay

RESULTS.

[8]

IEEE 802.11-2015 Standard for Information technology-Telecommunications and information exchange between systems
Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific requirements Part
11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical
Layer (PHY) Specifications. [Accessed from]
http://standards.ieee.org/news/2014/ieee_802_11ac_ballot.html,
2015.
Per Johansson, Tony Larsson, Nicklas Hedman, Bartosz
Mielczarek, and Mikael Degermark. Scenario-based Performance
Analysis of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad hoc Networks. In
Proceedings of the ninth Annual International Conference on
Mobile Computing and Networking, August 2013.
Tarasov. V., Drozdov. K.I. Speech quality in IP-based networks //
Networks and communication systems, 2007. - 2.
Josh Broch, David B. Johnsson, David A. Maltz, The Dynamic
Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc networks, IXIA,
2013.
M. Sauter. Voice over LTE via Generic Access (Volga). A
whitepaper. August 2009.
D. Johnson, C. E. Perkins and J. Arkko, Mobility Support in
IPv6, Internet Engineering Task Force RFC3775, 2004.
M. Alnas, I. Awan and R. D. W. Holton, Fast Handoff in Mobile
IPv6 Based Link Layer Information, 9th IEEE Malaysia
International Conference on Communications, IEEE Computer
Society, 2009.

The First Scientific Symposium Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering (EEES) 2016

[9]

The international Telecommunication Union- Telecommunication


Standardization
Sector
(ITU-T),Recommendation
G.114,
https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.114/en.

BIOGRAPHIES.
Nassir Abuhamoud was born in Alafya Ashati
/Libya, on January 23, 1979. He received Bsc
degree in Electrical and Electronics from
University of Sebha, in 2001. He got Msc degree in
Telecommunications system and control from The
National Technical University of Ukraine/ Ukraine
in 2008. Moreover, he got PhD degree in
Telecommunications systems and Networks from
the Khmelnitsky National University / Ukraine in
2011, where he is currently Assistant professor in
Department of Electronics Engineering (EE) at
Sebha
University/Libya.
His
research
field
is
applied
Telecommunication Networks and systems.

Emsaieb Mosbah Geepalla was born in Brak


/Libya, on June 5, 1978. He received Bsc degree in
Communication
Engineering
from
Sebha
University, in 2002. He got Msc degree in
Information and Communication Technology from
University Utara Malaysia/Malaysia in 2007.
Moreover, he got PhD degree in Software
Engineering
from
the
University
of
Birmingham/UK in 2013. Currently he is the dean
of Faculty of Engineering and Technology Science
at Sebha University /Libya. His research fields are
big data analytics and formal verification.