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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)

Volume 7, Issue 3, MayJune 2016, pp.426436, Article ID: IJMET_07_03_038


Available online at
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Journal Impact Factor (2016): 9.2286 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
IAEME Publication

IMPROVEMENT IN PROCESS INDUSTRIES


BY USING WORK STUDY METHODS: A
CASE STUDY
Dr. M. P. Singh
Professor, Jagannath University, Rajasthan, India
Hemant Yadav
PG Student, Jagannath University, Rajasthan, India
ABSTRACT
The globalization of the Indian economy has faced a great challenge to the
Indian small industries in respect of productivity, quality, cost, delivery etc.
TO achieve success in the global market it is required fundamental
improvement in the way of production in small process industries. The internal
manufacturing process and supporting infrastructure should be such that it
can complete successful global market with better flexibility and delivery.
In this paper a case study of a small process industry, some changes in the
process has been suggested using time study method which lead to reduction
in process time, labour cost and production cost.
Key words: Indian Battery Industry, Work Study, Time Study, Plant Layout
Cite this Article: Dr. M. P. Singh and Hemant Yadav, Improvement In
Process Industries by Using Work Study Methods: A Case Study.
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 7(3), 2016,
pp. 426436.
http://www.iaeme.com/currentissue.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=7&IType=3

INTRODUCTION
The great deal of effort is required in industry for effective production that includes
less production time and higher efficiency. Work study is a generic term for those
techniques, particularly method study and work measurement, which are used in the
examination of human work in all its contexts, and which lead systematically to the
investigation of all the factors which affect the e fficiency and economy of the
situation being reviewed, in order to effect improvement. Work study is thus
especially concerned with productivity. It is most frequently used to increase the
amount produced from a given quantity of resources without further capital
investment except, perhaps, on a very small scale.

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Improvement In Process Industries by Using Work Study Methods: A Case Study

Work study was widely known for years as "time and motion study", but with the
development of the technique and its application to a very wide range of activities it
was felt by many people that the older title was both too narrow and insufficiently
descriptive.
The research and development necessary to develop a new process or a machine
of higher performance are usually expensive and take a long time, and there is always
the risk that the improvements achieved may not justify the time and money spent.
Even to achieve worth-while improvements in existing processes may take
considerable time and money. In countries where there is little capital to spare and
where the need for increased productivity is urgent this approach to the problem may
not even be possible.

PROCEDURE OF TIME STUDY

Identifying the job to be timed and operations to be timed.


Obtaining an improved procedure from method study department.
Select worker for study
Collecting the equipment and arrange machinery required to conduct time study and
ensure accuracy in recording time
Explaining to the worker the improved working procedure and use of tools and
fixtures
Breaking the job into operations and operations into elements and writing them in a
proper format
Conducting the observations and recording them on the time study form
Rating the performance of the worker
Work study

Method study

Work measurement

Motion study

Time study
Figure 1.1 Time study

CASE STUDY
OBSERVATION
After deep study and observation of existing processes, plant layout and collection of
data about process time. Every factor is discussed with labour, engineer and higher
level management. Every process time recording individual. XYZ Ltd is a battery
production industry. Manufacturing process of the XYZ Ltd is described as followsBrought up the lead alloy from supplier and store it to company godown. Also
purchase container, packing cartoon, separator and terminals from other suppliers.
Now firstly mix water to lead alloy by workers and then the mixture is enter to the
casting machine hopper and casting the plate by old casting machine. Now the casting
plates placed outside for two days for drying. Then plates are taken away for pasting.
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Dr. M. P. Singh and Hemant Yadav

In pasting, cathode and anode are pasted on the plates. Cathode and a node powder
mix with sulphuric acid to make the paste. Now the paste is entered in the hopper and
casting plate is placed on belt conveyor of pasting machine. Then pasting of the plates
have been done. Place the plates for drying for 2 to 3 days. Furthermore, these plates
are stored in rack-trolley for curing purpose. Now carry these plates to curing section
for curing purpose and store them for 72 hours and generate 90% humidity. After
curing store these plates to outside for 1 day. Take these plates to oven for drying
because only 1% humidity allowed in plates. Then take these plates to outside from
oven for cooling. Finishing of plates by workers and plates ready for assembling in
one day.
Carry the plates by using lift conveyer to assembly section. In as sembly section, a
separator is placed between cathode and anode. Then combination of plates is done
for producing the cell. And welding the cells. Make the holes in container by high
temperature flame and the cells are taken into the container. All the cells are soldered
each other and connect the terminal as cathode to cathode and anode to anode by
soldering. Now the container is covered and sealed buy heating machine. Now testing
of leakage is done by testing machine. Dry battery is ready now. Punching of codes
on battery container.
Dry battery is carried in charging section using lift conveyer. Fulfill the electrolyte
automatically to dry battery. 36 batteries are connected to a charging panel for
charging and the batteries are charged to 100%. Now the se rial number and a unique
codes are given to the batteries, then these batteries are packed in cartoons. Store the
battery in company godown for transport. These batteries carried to ware house by
transport. Battery come to distributer and dealer .finally at last customer purchase the
battery.
Raw material
lead alloy

Casting the
plates

Co mbination of
plates

Plate separator

Plate fin ishing

Jig bo x burring

Made the cell

Dropping of
cell in bo x

Dry battery
ready

Code punch

Air leakage
testing

Fill
electrolyte
Fin ished goods

Curing the

Pasting the
plates

plates

Remove
mo isture

Inter cell
weld ing

Heat sealing of
container &
cover

Charged 100%
Put unique code and
serial no.& code

Battery packing

Flow chart in battery process industries

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Improvement In Process Industries by Using Work Study Methods: A Case Study

Problems faced in existing process


Proble m 1: In existing plant of XYZ Ltd casting machine is old technology based. It
has less production rate which is quite not suitable in this competitive global market.
The lower production rate causes delay the product for next process.
Proble m 2: The second major problem faced in plant is that plate finishing is done by
labour manually. So the finishing rate is very less and labour cost is high.
Proble m 3: Some components brought from sister industry are not ready to use. So it
consume some time to make it suitable for use like battery container without hole.

FLOW CHART OF EXISTING PROCESS


Flow process chart
Chart no. 1
Sheet no.1

Material Type Chart

Summary
Activity

Subject:
Charted:

present

Proposed

saving

Time

Symbo l

labour

Operation
Transport
Delay

Activity:
Receive,
Check,
Inspect,
Store
and
transfer
method present
Location
Operative
Clock no.

Inspection
storage

Distance in
meter
Time in min.
Cost
labour
material
Total

description

Lead alloy
,Separator and
jig bo x co me
into plant
Store raw
material in
company by
worker
Lead alloy
mixing with
distilled water

Qty
(1 case)

Distance

10000
meter

50meter

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2 hours

10 min

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Dr. M. P. Singh and Hemant Yadav


Leads alloy
enter in casting
hopper and
start casting by
old casting
mach ine
Production
delay due to
low production
rate
Storage the
casting plates
Pasting the
plates
Storage the
pasting plates
in racks
Carry the
plates for
curing
Curing the
plates
Store plates
after curing
Remove
mo isture fro m
plates using
oven
Fin ishing
plates surface
by workers
Store the
fin ishing plates
Move the
fin ishing plates
to assembly
section by lifts
hoist
Put the jig on
roller conveyor
for further line
assembly
Co mbination
of plates and
separator
Create holes in
container
through
burning

10 meter

6 sec

2 hour

11 meter

10 meter

2 days

2 sec

30 sec

1 min

3 days
1 day

6 hour

40 sec

2 min

15 min

5 min

5 min

1 meter

3 min

Made the cell

1 meter

3 min

Dropping the
cell in
container

1 meter

2 min

Welding of
intercell and
terminal

1 meter

5 min

3 meter

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Improvement In Process Industries by Using Work Study Methods: A Case Study


Covering of
container and
air seal by
heating
Testing of air
leakage
Code punch on
container
Dry battery
ready for
storage
Forward the
battery for
filling
electrolyte,
charging and
packaging at
same section
by hoist
conveyor
Filling
electrolyte in
dry battery
Further move
the battery for
charging by
trolley
Charging the
battery
Inspection of
batterys
gravity and
voltage
Stick the serial
no. and unique
code on the
battery
Packaging
Store the
Fin ish goods
for selling

1 meter

5 min

1 meter

3 min

1 meter

2 min

5 meter

10 min

20 meter

15 min

10 meter

1 min

20 meter

1 min

8 meter

24
hours
5 min

10 meter

2 min

50 meter

10 min
10min

2
4

Improvement in process
After implementation XYZ Ltd is started use of advance casting machine which has
high production rate. It neglect the delay time. Second major improvement is install
automated plate finishing machine. XYZ Ltd is now started purchasing the battery
container with hole and complete ready to use condition which reduce the process
time.

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Flow chart of improvement industry process


Flow process chart 2
Chart no. 2
Sheet no. 2

Material Type Chart

Summary
Activity

present

Proposed

Saving

operation

18

17

Transport

Delay

Activity:
Receive,
Check,
Inspect,
Store and
transfer method
present

inspection

Location

Distance in
meter
Time
in
min.
Cost
labour
material
Total
Qty
(1 case)

10214

10213

12957min 18sec

12833min 36sec

123min
42 sec.

56

50

Symbo l

Labour

Subject:
Charted:

Operative
Clock no.

description

Lead alloy
,Separator and
jig bo x co me
into plant
Store raw
material in
company by
worker
Lead alloy
mixing with
distilled water

storage

distance

Time

10000
meters

2 hours

10 min

Leads alloy
enter in casting
hopper and
start casting by
advance
casting
mach ine

2 sec

No Delay
Storage

0hour
2 days

the

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Improvement In Process Industries by Using Work Study Methods: A Case Study


casting plates
Pasting the
plates
Storage the
pasting plates
in racks
Carry the plates
for curing
Curing the
plates

11 meter

10 meter

2 sec

30 sec

1 min

3 days

Store plates
after curing
Remove
mo isture fro m
plates using
oven
Fin ishing
plates surface
by automated
mach ine
Store the
fin ishing plates

1 day

6 hour

2 sec

2 min

15 min

5 min

5 min

0min

Move the
fin ishing plates
to assembly
section through
lifts
Put the jig on
roller conveyor
for further line
assembly
Co mbination
of plates and
separator
Already
purchase hole
container and
eliminated
operation
Made the cell

3 meter

1 meter

3 min

Dropping the
cell in
container
Welding of
inter cell and
terminal
Covering of
container and
air seal by
heating
Testing of air
leakage
Code punch on
container

1 meter

2 min

1 meter

5 min

1 meter

5 min

1 meter

3 min

1 meter

2 min

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Dry battery
ready for
storage
Forward the
battery for
filling
electrolyte,
charging and
packaging at
same section
by hoist
conveyor
Filling
electrolyte in
dry battery

5 meter

10 min

20 meter

15 min

10 meter

1 min

Further move
the battery for
charging by
trolley
Charging the
battery
Inspection of
batterys
gravity and
voltage

20 meter

1 min

8 meter

5 min

Stick the serial


no. and unique
code on the
battery
Packaging

10 meter

2 min

10 min

Store the
Fin ish goods
for selling

50 meter

10min

24 hours

CALCULATION
i.

Assemble section total cycle time 30 min.


Total plant working time 8 hours.
Total Cycle = 8*60/30=16
one cycle save time by purchase container with hole = 1min.
one day =16 cycle
one day saving time =16*1=16 min
one month time save = 16*30= 480 min.
ii.
Before implementation mold casting rates 24 plates per min.
If we will use advance casting m/c casting rates 36 plates per min.
Production rate increase per minute by advance casting m/c= (36-24/24)*100=50%.
Time save in one hour approx =10 min.
One day saving time = 10*8=80 min.
One month saving time=80*30=2400min.
iii.
Plate finishing 7 workers only 5400 plate finishing

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Improvement In Process Industries by Using Work Study Methods: A Case Study

If we will using automated finishing m/c we use only 2 workers and around
12000 plate finishing one day.
Finishing rate increases per day (12000-5400/5400)*100 = 6600 = 122%
Therefore we use automated m/c our production rate increase and save 5 labours.
At the end of discuss about the present and proposed methods, and the benefits of
proposed methods are highlighted.
Present
i.
Molded casting machine
production rate 24 plate
per min.
ii.
Delay time for pasting
machine is high.
iii.
Plate finishing by worker
and finishing rate is low.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.

5400 plates finished in


one day.
7 workers is working in
finishing process.
Company create holes in
container in 1 min.
Create a hole in container
by one worker.
Labour cost is high .
Production cost is high.
Production rate is low.

Proposed
Advance casting machine production
rate 36 plates per min.
Delay time reduce for pasting
machine.
Plate finishing by automated
finishing machine and finishing rate
is high.

12000 plates finished in one day.


2 workers will be working in
finishing process.
company purchase container with
hole and save 1 min .
already create hole and save one
worker.
Labour cost is low.
Production cost is low.
Production rate is high.

CONCLUSION
During the study of the process of the battery manufacturing plant, existing processes
are examined critically with method study & layout technique. It is observed that the
battery plant is not using optimum layout and there are chances for improvement.
Various layout and method study tools are applied and flow process charts, flow
diagram and existing layout has been prepared. New technologies are used to reduced
production cost, process time, cost and energy consumption. With the help of
recorded observation and discussion with manager of the company, improved layout
and flow process chart and new devices are suggested.

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