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International Journal of Management (IJM)

Volume 7, Issue 3, March-April 2016, pp. 5062, Article ID: IJM_07_03_007


Available online at
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Journal Impact Factor (2016): 8.1920 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com
ISSN Print: 0976-6502 and ISSN Online: 0976-6510
IAEME Publication

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON PERCEPTION BY


MANAGERS OF INTERACTIONS MICRO, MESO
AND MACRO COMMUNICATION OF
ORGANISATIONS FOR OTHERS MODELS:
CASE OF MOROCCAN MANAGERS
Hamid Nahla
Research team "Systems Architecture" (EAS)
Professor of Management Marketing Communication at ENSEM
(Hassan II University of Casablanca)
Hicham Medromi
Director of ENSEM and Professor of Information systems at ENSEM
Abdellah Haddout
Professor of Industrial Management at ENSEM
ABSTRACT
Organizations need clarity to better structure their communication.
Managers are not unanimous on the meaning they give to communication. Its
scope has become ever broader as well as dispersed, which made any
typological categorization approach even more complex. This affects the
choice of the structure of this function within their organization. It's expensive
at all levels. To validate our hypothesis, we opted for an empirical
methodology based on some scientific foundations: A work experience of long
years at the university by coaching our students (Micro), in the great company
(Meso) and within the Cabinet of Ministry of the communication (Macro).
Furthermore, a study-ground proved necessary. In this frame, we conducted
an empirical study on perception of 3M by 212 Moroccan managers of high
level in differents organizations. Analysis of the results allowed us to measure
this perception and identify new models simplifieds.
Key words: Management, Communication, Perception, Interactions, Models,
Micro-Meso-Macro, Morocco

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An Empirical Study on Perception by Managers of Interactions Micro, Meso and Macro


Communication of Organisations For Others Models: Case of Moroccan Managers

Cite this Article: Hamid Nahla, Hicham Medromi and Abdellah Haddout, an
Empirical Study on Perception by Managers of Interactions Micro, Meso and
Macro Communication of Organisations for Others Models: Case of
Moroccan Managers. International Journal of Management, 7(3), 2016, pp.
5062.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=7&IType=3

1. INTRODUCTION
Organizations need clarity to better structure their communication. But the
proliferation of definitions of the Communication concept makes this task more -and
superficially- complex. The polysemous term communication" can have several
definitions, depending on the context, sectors, professions, skills and goals.
We left a clear hypothesis: Managers are not unanimous on the meaning they give
to communication. This affects the choice of the structure of this function within their
organization. It's expensive at all levels.
To validate this hypothesis, we conducted an empirical study on perception of
mMicro, Meso and Macro (3M) by Moroccan managers. The recommended
methodology is an empirical approach based on three fondations: University
education and scientific research in the Field; the research, the professional practice,
the observation-ground and the management of communication within the business
and of the state and an empirical study.
The population of the study is 300 organization and the sample of 212 is collected
through convenient sampling technique. Collected data are analysed with the help of
Sphinx.
The culmination of this work is to propose new models. Our goal is to achieve a
consolidation of widely dispersed concepts through an approach 3M of
communication.
Research on interactions of communication 3M can be traced back to the 2000s.
Approach was most developed with the works on the modern social networks, in
particular with the works of Scott, W., Richard, D., and Gerald, F. (2003) and
however, not much literature was dedicated to the interactions 3M in touch with
organizations (administration, companies, associations) and even less their perception
by the managers.
The actors of the communication are many (Brochand, B., 2001), but without too
much detail, let us limit to those who concern us within the 3M
We hope this work will be useful also for: An organization tool aiming to help
research and higher education programs put together a better structuring of the
Communication discipline in three poles namely 3M along with equivalent curricula
such as internal and external communication for each of the modules, and more
importantly, to put together better structured complementary programs. And synthesis
tool for professionals and industry stakeholders to achieve a better targeting and thus
a better optimization of the means of communications within the framework of their
lean management (Larteb, L., Benhadou, M., Haddout, H., & Nahla, H., 2016, PP 3443).
The present article, after a theoretical reminder of the interactions, based on, will
try to study the perception of these interactions at the Moroccan managers.

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Hamid Nahla, Hicham Medromi and Abdellah Haddout

2. LTERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Communication 3M
The concept "3M" was developed in the field of social networks:
At the micro-level, social network research typically begins with an individual,
snowballing as social relationships are traced, or may begin with a small group of
individuals in a particular social context.
Dyadic level: A dyad is a social relationship between two individuals. Network
research on dyads may concentrate on structure of the relationship (e.g. multiplexity,
strength), social equality, and tendencies toward reciprocity/mutuality. Triadic level:
Add one individual to a dyad, and you have a triad. Research at this level may
concentrate on factors such as balance and transitivity, as well as social equality and
tendencies toward reciprocity/mutuality (Kadushin, C., 2012). Actor level: The
smallest unit of analysis in a social network is an individual in their social setting, i.e.,
an "actor" or "ego". Egonetwork analysis focuses on network characteristics such as
size, relationship strength, density, centrality, prestige and roles such as isolates,
liaisons, and bridges (Jones, C.; Volpe, E.H. (2011). Subset level: Subset levels of
network research problems begin at the micro-level, but may cross over into the
meso-level of analysis. Subset level research may focus on distance and reachability,
cliques, cohesive subgroups, or other group actions or behavior (De Nooy, W. 2012).
At the meso-level, Formal organizations are social groups that distribute tasks for
a collective goal. Network research on organizations may focus on either intraorganizational or inter-organizational ties in terms of formalor informal relationships.
Intra-organizational networks themselves often contain multiple levels of analysis,
especially in larger organizations with multiple branches, franchises or semiautonomous departments. In these cases, research is often conducted at a workgroup
level and organization level, focusing on the interplay between the two structures
(Riketta, M.; Nienber, S., 2007). Randomly distributed networks: Exponential
random graph models of social networks became state-of-the-art methods of social
network analysis in the 1980s. This framework has the capacity to represent socialstructural effects commonly observed in many human social networks, including
general degree-based structural effects commonly observed in many human social
networks as well as reciprocity and transitivity, and at the node-level, homophily and
attribute-based activity and popularity effects, as derived from explicit hypotheses
about dependencies among network ties. Parameters are given in terms of the
prevalence of small subgraph configurations in the network and can be interpreted as
describing the combinations of local social processes from which a given network
emerges. These probability models for networks on a given set of actors allow
generalization beyond the restrictive dyadic independence assumption of micronetworks, allowing models to be built from theoretical structural foundations of social
behavior (Cranmer S. J., Desmarais, B. A., 2011). Scale-free networks: A scale-free
network is a network whose degree distribution follows a power law, at least
asymptotically. In network theory a scale-free ideal network is a random network with
a degree distribution that unravels the size distribution of social groups (Moreira A.
A., Demtrius R. P., Raimundo N. C. F., Jos S. A. Jr., 2006).
Specific characteristics of scale-free networks vary with the theories and
analytical tools used to create them, however, in general, scale-free networks have
some common characteristics. One notable characteristic in a scale-free network is the
relative commonness of vertices with adegree that greatly exceeds the average. The

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An Empirical Study on Perception by Managers of Interactions Micro, Meso and Macro


Communication of Organisations For Others Models: Case of Moroccan Managers

highest-degree nodes are often called "hubs", and may serve specific purposes in their
networks, although this depends greatly on the social context. Another general
characteristic of scale-free networks is the clustering coefficient distribution, which
decreases as the node degree increases. This distribution also follows a power law
(Barabsi A.-L. 2003).
At the macro-level, Large-scale network is a term somewhat synonymous with
macro-level as used, primarily, in social and behavioral sciences, in economics.
Originally, the term was used extensively in the computer sciences. Complex
networks: Most larger social networks display features of social complexity, which
involves substantial non-trivial features of network topology, with patterns of
complex connections between elements that are neither purely regular nor purely
random (see, complexity science, dynamical system and chaos theory), as do
biological, and technological networks. Such complex network features include a
heavy tail in the degree distribution, a high clustering coefficient, assortativity or
disassortativity among vertices, community structure (see stochastic block model),
and hierarchical structure. In the case of agency-directed networks these features also
include reciprocity, triad significance profile (TSP, see network motif), and other
features. In contrast, many of the mathematical models of networks that have been
studied in the past, such as lattices and random graphs, do not show these features
(Strogatz, S. H., 2001).

2.2. Interactions 3M
The theory of the interactions between communicators does not date from today. In
the late 1890s, both Emile Durkheim and Tnnies, F. (1887) foreshadowed the idea of
social networks in their theories and research of social groups. Thus the concept
social networks is neither recent nor bound only to virtual internet and its networks.
Approach 3M was most developed with the works on the modern social networks,
in particular with the works of Scott, W., Richard D., and Gerald F. (2003) and
however, not much literature was dedicated to the interactions 3M in touch with
organizations (administration, companies, associations) and even less their perception
by the managers.

2.3. Perception
Do not confuse "the perception of communication" and the perception of 3M. For the
first, the perception is, generally, perception is essentially a process of categorization.
The research by Bruner and colleagues, the so-called NewLook in perception,
challenged these assumptions. In a series of experiments, Bruner and colleagues
showed that perception could in fact be influenced by internal constructs such as the
expectancies and motivations of the perceiver. These expectancies and motivations
can affect perceptual readiness (Bruner, J.S. and Goodman, C.C., 1947).
But we found no reference to the perception 3M, but we found no reference to the
perception 3M. hence the importance and necessity of an empirical study using the
survey among managers, actors or involved in the communication.

3. EMPIRICAL STUDIE
3.1. Objectivities
The objective of this paper is twofold: examine the communicative culture and
interaction among managers.

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Hamid Nahla, Hicham Medromi and Abdellah Haddout

This study focused on the perception of these interactions of the levels 3M of the
communication.

3.2. Research hypotheses


Managers do not have the same approach to communications in the broad sense, and
even less of its level 3M. This affects the choice of the structure of this function
within their organization. To validate this hypothesis, we conducted a perception
study of 3M by Moroccan managers.

3.3. Research methogology


We realized during the month of March 2016, the first large-scale study on
Communication in Organizations in Morocco. This was possible thanks to our
students who were administered questionnaires with 45 questions. Organizations of
study is 300 and the sample selected is 212 valide. The others had no stamp or
signature of the official organization contacted. The sample was constructed using the
quota method. Were taken into account 3 criteria: Size [less than 100 employees, 100
and 500, 500-1000, over 1000], Type of organization [Enterprise, Administration, ]
and Activity [Activities represented in the official High Commission for Plan in
Morocco (HCP, 2010)].
The primary data was collected through a standardized questionnaire.

3.4. Variables to study


The variables studied are: Business sector, Communication Media, Hierarchical link
Com, Perception 3M and 3M Interactions. Their study resulted in sorting flat, crosstabulation and positioning map by factor analysis of correspondences.

3.5. Aanalysis
We extracted the activities since the official classification of the nomenclature of HCP
(2010). It dates from 2010, but the one who is always effective.
Table 1 Business sector of the organization
Business Activities
Financial activities and of insurance
Information and communication
Education (primary, secondary, upper, public, private)
Ttrade, repair of automobile and motor bicycles
Public administration (Prefecture, municipality, district)
Manufacturing industry
Human health and social action (Hospitals, private hospitals)
Construction (Building, public works)
Specialized, scientific and technical activities
Activities of administrative departments and support
Mining industries
Transport and storing
Production and supply of electricity, gas, vapor and airconditioning
Agriculture, forestry and fishing
Production and water distribution, purification, waste
management and cleanup

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Number of
organizations
31
23
19
13
12
12
11
10
9
9
8
8

%
15
11
9
6
6
6
5
5
4
4
4
4

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An Empirical Study on Perception by Managers of Interactions Micro, Meso and Macro


Communication of Organisations For Others Models: Case of Moroccan Managers
Number of
organizations
1
29
212

Business Activities
Arts, show and creative activities (Music, cinema)
Not answer
TOTAL the OB

%
0
13
100

In the past, conventional mass media attract advertisers and communicators at all
levels. Today, things have changed significantly:
Table 2 Supports used by the internal communication and the external communication in
Morocco
Internal
Nb. cit.
122
90
80
50
37
122

Supports Communication
Emailing, Spam
Social networks (Facebook, Twitter )
Phoning
Classical mail
Digital (smartphone, tablet )
Memoranda and / or information
Viewing
Display on the workplace
Printing press
Tradeshows
Intranet
Radio
Events, sponsorship and patronage
Public relations and lobbying
Television
Internal newsletter
Sales promotion and POS
Cinema
Other
No response
TOTAL OBS.

99

83

49

30
17
212

%
58
42
38
24
17
58

External
Nb. cit.
%
93
44
92
43
60
28
52
25
42
20
106

50

92
84

43
40

75
67
52
48

35
32
25
23

26
10
22
34
212

12
5
10
16

47

39

23

14
8

Many business use networking as a key factor in their marketing plan. It helps to
develop a strong feeling of trust between those involved and play a big part in raising
the profile and takings of a company. suppliers and businesses can be seen as
networked businesses, and will tend to source the business and their suppliers through
their existing relationships and those of the companies they work closely with.
Networked businesses tend to be open, random, and supportive, whereas those relying
on hierarchical, traditional managed approaches are closed, selective, and controlling.
These phrases were first used by Thomas Power, businessman and chairman of
Ecademy, an online business network, in 2009 (Power, T, 2009).
In Morocco, the management of the social networks depends on diverse
hierarchical levels. The functio communication is not itself totally utonome.
Certainly, the illiteracy still touches a large part of the population of Morocco
(30%), but the company, the administration and any other structure of organization
recruits only on the basis of the knowledge skills recognized by a recognized diploma
today and the requirements of a selectivity are more and more severe.

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Sensibiliser autour dune communication optimise en proposant des modles


typologiques descriptifs et exploitables quel que soit le niveau de la communication.
The more and more accessible, social networks become a a breath of oxygen for a
selective communication and without excess. The excess can cause a saturation and
provoke costly losses, socially, financially, and especially unnecessary.
Our world is virtualizing. The reality is losing the ground (and the power) in
favour of the virtual!
How go out of this labyrinth called communication?! It is necessary to understand
it, simply! The profusion of the definitions and the approaches does not make risible
the communications concept. A reclassification becomes more than necessity.
On 212 questioned organizations, 55 % have a function communication. And they
depend directly on the Head office at the highest level. We can make several readings
of which a positive: The function communication is taken so seriously; and a denial: it
can denote of a structural dichotomy: modern media are managed with a style of
classic, even archaic management.
Table 3 Hierarchical link Com
Hierarchical link Com
Managing director
President
Communication manager
Sales manager
General Secretary
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Marketing director
Deputy Chief Executive Officer
Information systems manager (or DSI)
Advise to the Cabinet

Nb. cit.
41
34
20
11
8
7
6
6
6
6

%
19
16
9
5
4
3
3
3
3
3

One of the essential objectives of our investigation was to determine the degree of
knowledge of the interactions between 3M and their perception by the Moroccan
managers.
Table 4 Perception of Communication
Concern rather
No response
Companies
State and his institutions
Intermediate professional and interprofessional organizations
International organizations
Associations
Individuals and groups of individuals

Micro Meso Macro


13%
21%
13%
38%
53%
52%
14%
22%
57%
19%
31%
38%
11%
18%
41%
27%
32%
26%
58%
13%
16%

Set apart the fact of placing the individuals and the groups of individuals in the
micro, the companies in the meso and the State and his institutions in the macro, the
answers are too ill-assorted. We call back that we take into account here only
organizations which have a strcuture of communication.
The interactions between 3M exist as well for the small as the big organizations.
What is surprising, it are the 40% of th big structures that have not understood the
question! Yet, in Morocco, it is difficult to find someone who says "I do not know!".
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An Empirical Study on Perception by Managers of Interactions Micro, Meso and Macro


Communication of Organisations For Others Models: Case of Moroccan Managers
Table 5 Overlap between organization size and knowledge of the interactions 3M
Organization
size
/Interactions
3M
Under 100
employees
100-500
501-1000
+ 1000
employees
TOTAL

Yes
between
Macro
and
Micro

Between
Macro
and Mso

Between
3M

No
interaction

I do
not
know

I did not
understand
the question

18%

8%

42%

0%

10%

17%

20%
0%

0%
0%

38%
25%

2%
0%

12%
42%

16%
17%

23%

0%

20%

0%

3%

40%

17%

4%

36%

0%

10%

18%

The mapping of the descriptive statistics (Multiple variables factor analysis)


presents Perception 3M and 3M Interactions, which gave 24 conditions on. We looked
for correlations between those who know the 3M with those who see the detail.
In the center of the dial A those who do not find interactions between 3M. They
range from micro (individuals and groups of individuals), meso (intermediate
professional) and macro (International organoisations) .We can qualify profile
Neophyte! In the dial B, there are those who find the interactions between 3M
(Individuals, International Organizations and Associations). They are coherent.
In C, we found no interaction. The macro is well received but most incredulous,
did not even understand the question of interaction!
Dial D for people who found interactions between macro and meso, including
state, firms and associations. They are professionals partially warned!
The mapping of Figure X presents the positioning 3 variables: the perception of
the interactions [between micro and meso, between meso and macro, and between
micro and macro], the existence of the function Communication in organzation [Yes,
No.] and the size of the function Com [Less than 10 employees, from 10 to 20 and
more than 20 employees].
In the dial A we notice that the persons in charge of the organizations who have a
structure of communication relatively well enriched (of 10 in more than 20) do not
understand the sense of the concept "interaction enters micr, meso and macro
communication". B represents those who do not have a communications department
and do not understand the meaning of interaction, C have a structure Com and declare
to approve the interactions of 3M. D represents those who have a small structure and
find that the interactions exist rather between Macro and micro.
To summarize, the perception) of the interactions is still mitigated. The contents
of each component together 3M are not enough mastered. We thus propose
simplification of new models in the next point.

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Figure 1Perception 3M and 3M


Interactions by strcutures 3M

Figure 2 Perception 3M and 3M Interactions


by size of Communication function

4. PROPOSAL SIMPLIFIED ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS 3M


4.1. Proposal Model by field and stakeholders
This model shows 3M by field (Organization considered) and stakeholders referred.
Their dimensions with simple interactions are shown to the right.
Figure 3 Conceptual model of 3M by field and stakeholders

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An Empirical Study on Perception by Managers of Interactions Micro, Meso and Macro


Communication of Organisations For Others Models: Case of Moroccan Managers

4.2. Model of Macro-Micro interaction


If optimized correctly, this model will only use what is necessary to communicate
quantitatively and qualitatively, thus enabling significant economies of scale and
achieving maximum effectiveness: for example, posters or TV spots could be
displayed in booths.
Figure 4 Model of Macro-Micro interactions

Il sagit ici dun modle simplifi dinteractions applicable au cas des


organisations entre macro et micro. On aurait pu greffer la meso au milieu, mais pour
des commodits de prsentation, nous avons jug nxessaire de consacer plus
despace dans un autre article.

4.3. Global mModel of 3M with interactions


The transmission of these guidelines at the meso level, that is, at a tactical level is
made via intermediary organizations, associations and companies. Each of these
entities will translate them into operational actions in the framework of their meso
communication strategies. It should be noted in the dialectic of decision levels
(strategic, tactical, operational and implementational) goals become means (subgoals). It is at this very level where the interactions operate in all directions to assure
complementarity in terms of resource optimization.

4.4. Model of 3M interactions


Through the model synthesis table, the 3M targets were identified, as well as the
appropriate means. However, it should be noted that there are interactions in all
directions: horizontally, vertically and diagonally. If optimized correctly, this model
will only use what is necessary, hence achieving economies of scale: posters or TV
spots might be displayed in booths, for example.
This must be part of a strategic vision, with a real strategic management to
understand its environment, adapt to its evolution and inspire others (Autissier D.,
Moutot J.-M., 2014)!

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The organization of academic programs for higher education and research aiming a
better structuring of the communication discipline. It can also serve as a toolkit for
the organization of the Communications department in large companies. The
models proposed here also allow to define the budget of every column assigned to the
communication. The proposed models favor the organization of the program, the
definition of the average human beings (teachers, classes, rooms.
It could be considered as a tool of synthesis for professionals and industry
stakeholders for a better understanding of the complexity of communication and its
challenges. Our models facilitate to understand the interactions and the actors of the
sector at the various levels of decisions.

After analyzing the various forms and checking their applicability to various
fields, we propose a model that can be applied to all the identified cases so far.

Stakeholders

International
organization
s

UN, EU,
WHO, WTO

The State
and its
institutions

Government,
Parliament,
Councils,
territorial
authorities

Macro

Field

Table 6 Summary table of the model 3M

Meso

Intermediary
organisation
s

Associations
and clubs

Corporate

Trade
unions,,
Chambers of
Commerce,
industry and
services,
professional
associations
Associations
and clubs
defending all
kinds of
causes
(social,
cultural,
scientific,
artistic,
sports)
Companies
from all
sectors
manufacturin
g and / or
marketing all

Targets and means of communication


Means and
External
Means and
mediums
targets
mediums
Internal
Company
bulletins
All media
personnel
Public opinion
Various
(Micro)
Opinion leaders platforms
internal
Press,
Social
(Macro)
memos,
posters, TV,
partners
World citizens
brochures and
Radio,
(Meso)
publications
Cinema,
Legislation,
Internet and
regulation and
social
policy
Public opinion
medias
Government
documents
Opinion leaders And nonofficials and
mnisterial,
World citizens
media
public sector
interministeria Entreprises
platforms
employees
l publications
Associations
Direct
Sector
marketing
bulletins
(Mailing,
Employers
Emailing,
Internal
Personnel of
Phoning,
bulletins
these
Digital
Various
Managerial
organization
smartinternal
staff, workers,
s
phoning,),
memos,
and employees
Similar
Promotions,
brochures and
organization
POS,
publications
s
Events,
sponsoring
and
Internal
patronage,
bulletins
Potential
Fairs and
Actual
Memos
citizens and
exhibitions,
members
Display
members
Public
In-house
mediums
Public opinion
relations,
peersonnel
Various interCompetition
crisis
professional
management
publications
, lobbying,
Meetings
Internal
Current and
Company
and
bulletins
potential
personnel
campaignsMemos
customers
(Micro) and
door to
Display
Public
social
door,
mediums
authorities
partners
Various inter- Intermediary
Internal
targets

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Field

An Empirical Study on Perception by Managers of Interactions Micro, Meso and Macro


Communication of Organisations For Others Models: Case of Moroccan Managers

Micro

Teams and
groups of
individuals

Individuals

Stakeholders
kinds of
products
A team or a
working
group within
the same
organization
macro or
meso

Individuals
who need to
communicate

Internal
targets

Targets and means of communication


Means and
External
Means and
mediums
targets
mediums
professional
organizations,
publications
competition

Higher,
middle and
low level
management

Internal
bulletins
Display
mediums

Members of the
group
Competitors

Oneself

Internal
bulletins
Written and
/or
audiovisual
interpersonal
supports

Family,
entourage,
neighborhood,

Written
and/or
audiovisual
interpersona
l support in
terms of
coaching,
training

5. CONCLUSION
This must be part of a strategic vision, with a real strategic management to understand
its environment, adapt to its evolution and inspire others (Autissier D., Moutot J.-M.,
2014). Among the strengths of this article is its contribution in the organization of
university courses intended for higher education as well as research studies, leading to
a better structuring of the Communication discipline. Our proposed models will also
serve as guidelines for the organization of a Communication department within
various 3M organizations. There could finally be considered as synthesis tools for
professionals and industry stakeholders for a better understanding of the complexity
of communication and its challenges.
Ultimately, it is a field study involving organizations of various sizes and sectors
(more than 200) in order to verify the role of communication in their structures. This
is actually the subject of a study being currently conducted at a large-scale, the results
and analysis will be covered in a future article.
Nous avons valid notre hypothse de dpart avec les diverses variables analyses
et on croit que les responsiblse de communication peuvent exploiter nos modles, et
dautres sil en existe, pour amliorer leur travail en perspective dun management de
lexcellence. Les interactions permettent doptimiser sa politique de communication
dans tous les sens.
We have validated your assumption with the various variables analyzed and we
think that communication responsiblse can exploit our models, and others if any, to
improve their work in perspective of a management excellence. Interactions optimize
its policy of communication in all directions.
We validated our hypothesis of departure with the diverse analyzed variables and
we believe that the responsibles of communication can exploit our models, and others
if he exists, to improve their work in perspective of a management of the excellence.
The interactions allow to optimize its communication policy in all directions.
We consider that there is one princpale weakness in this work: Since
communication is the context within which it operates; it was necessary to expand our
sample of other managers from other countries. This will do object of other similar
studies.

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Hamid Nahla, Hicham Medromi and Abdellah Haddout

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