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Abstract

This is the design and construction of a video camera tracking of


a speaker which is used in video conference hall to detect the
location of a speaker through the microphones that is positioned
in different angles of the device and carries the camera recorder
which is placed on it to the location of the speaker.
The design of the project was developed due to the problems that
confronted video recorders man who go about carrying video
cameras in their hands for a long period of time which makes
them tired and look fatigue due to the stress involved, so this
reason electronic technology took it upon themselves to develop
a system which will reduce all this effect.
When this device is powered, the microphone is positioned or
wired to the user so that the system will get reception either
wirelessly of wired, this signal is feed to the microcontroller
through the amplifier which in turn controls the bidirectional
movement of the motor carrying the camera.
This device can be used mainly in conference halls where the
need

for

auto

tracking

of

the

speaker

is

needed.

multichannel tracker of a speaker, video tracking is assured.

With

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION


Visual technology advancement has developed a lot of technology
which aids to the capturing of events with or without the user
managing the video coverage devices while on an event. The
need of camera video tracker has given the minds an easy way of
handling event coverages while the speaker speaks on top of the
stage; this system when activated uses it sensors to know the
location of a speaker in a conference room, as the speaker moves
across the video camera hold follows the speaker [12].
Video camera tracking of a speaker is an electronic system which
helps video coverage master to detect and track images speaking
across them in a conference hall.
1.1 Background study
This is the design and construction of a camera tracking of a
speaker which is used in moving a camera device focused on the
speaker when moving around on the stage, this system was
developed on the platform of voices capturing and sense as in
when a the voice of the speaker speaks from a different mic
sensor, the beam tracker will automatically rotates to the source
of the sound by this way carries the whole object placed on it and
move them along thereby rotating the camera focus to the
location of the sound source which from our ideology locates the
position of the speaker [3].

This system was developed using some electronic components


like the rotatory DC motor, a microcontroller (Atmel89s52), a
Mosfet driver (irf3205), and the microphone (condense mic) [7].
1.2 Statement of problem
As a result of the difficulties encounter by the video camera man
who goes around to record and capture objects during event
shooting process, this system was developed to help easy this
difficulties by using automated technology to move the camera
video recorder form one point of location to the other.

1.1
Aim and objectives
The aims of this project is to design and construction a
camera tracking of a speaker automatically
To design and construction a devices which makes use of
sounds source to capture the location of a speaker.
To implement a technical way of easing video camera
shooting of a speaker in a conference room.
Objectives includes:

To develop a system electronically which could control


an automatic movement of a video camera system to

capture the location of a speaker during an occasion.


To show the various stages on how to make a camera
tracking of a speaker.

1.2

Scope of the project

In this project a student should understand the basic principle


of developing a video camera tracking of a speaker, and also
the various technology involve in its implantation.
1.3
Project limitations
Every design has its limitation that leads to further
improvements, for the operation of this system some
glitches of in perfection was discovered which are:
a. It needs multiple microphone array to be able to pick
from all angle
b. It is cost to produce
c. Its
development

passed

different

software

development difficulties and use a lot of time during


production.
1.4
Significance of the Project
It reduces stress
It has fast way of carrying the camera to the location of the
sounds
It does not get tired like humans
It controls itself automatically
1.5
Project report organizations
Chapter one carries the introduction, aim and objective, scope
of study, limitation of the work, significance and the project
report organization of the work. Chapter two carries the
literature review of the work along with other reviews of the
project. Chapter three carries the project design methodology
and steps which lead to the construction of the project.

Chapter four testing the project design, observation and Bill of


engineering. Chapter five carries summary and conclusion.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIWE
The development of the beam forming method (also called
microphone antenna, phased array of microphones, acoustic
telescope, or acoustic camera) is reviewed in this paper. The
microphone antenna was invented by Billingsley (1974) and has
since seen dramatic improvements due to the availability of
better data acquisition and computing hardware [1].
Recent mathematical and software developments invert the beam
forming process and allow a quantitative determination of the
sources. Beam forming is indispensable for the localization of
sound sources on moving objects, on flying aircraft [9], on highspeed trains, on motor cars in motion, on open rotors like
helicopter and wind turbine rotors and moves the camera to
capture or record events form the environment. In these
applications, the ability to follow the motion of the sources is
important.

The

second

important

applications

are

source

localization tests in the test sections of open and closed wind


tunnels. The background noise suppression capability of the beam
forming method is required here [2].
2.1 Origin of the project
Camera tracking of a speaker with arrays of microphones has
become a standard method, when the sources of sound have to
be investigated in difficult surroundings. This was called Beam
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forming which is indispensable for the localization of sound


sources on moving objects, e.g. speakers on a conference room,
on flying aircraft, on high-speed trains, or on motor cars in motion
[1]. In these applications, the ability to follow the motion of the
vehicles is important. The source localization with arrays of
microphones is also important in situations, when the sources
remain stationary with respect to the microphone array. Here, the
advantage of the array is that background noise can be
suppressed, which makes it possible to investigate the sources in
reverberant or noisy environments, like in wind tunnels or in
engine test cells [1].
The signals from an array of microphones can be used in various
ways to investigate the acoustic sources. Beam forming is only
one of the available techniques. More general designations of the
method are phased arrays of microphones and microphone
antenna, which express that the system not only consists of an
array of microphones but includes a post processing capability.
New

post

processing

methods

can

enhance

the

results

substantially in comparison to basic beam forming. Phased arrays


were developed as radar antennas in World War II [2]. Today, they
are extensively used in medical imaging with ultrasound. Both
applications are active phased arrays, because the waves are not
only received but also emitted by the array. Phased arrays of
hydrophones were used after WW II for improving SONAR for the
localization of submarines. Sound waves were emitted and the
echoes evaluated. Passive applications are used by submarines.
6

Large line arrays for low frequencies are towed. The underwater
sound application is described by Urick (1983) [10]. Further
applications are used in radio astronomy.
Most of the current papers on beam forming are on studies for
enhancing wanted sound in the environment of unwanted sound
and for antennas for mobile communication. The development of
the acoustic beam forming method is described in the following
paper. The improvement of the hardware over the years made it
possible to increase the number of microphones, the sampling
frequency, and the dynamic range of the analysis. The geometry
of the microphone distribution was optimized for a large
frequency range and low side lobes. The increase of the
computing power enabled the introduction of new data reduction
methods. Beam forming is based on an averaging of sound
signals from different receivers. The text book on array signal
processing by Johnson & Dudgeon [11] shows the example of a
listening device used by the French forces in World War I to detect
approaching aircraft. The array consisted of two sub arrays with
six acoustic sensors in form of inverted horns that were positioned
on a hexagon. The sensors of each sub array were fed into one
acoustic wave guide.
The two ducts of equal length were then routed to the ears of a
listening person. The signal arriving at the ear was an average of
six sensors comparable to a modern ring array with six
microphones. The two sub arrays were separated by about two
meters, which enhanced the natural directional localization
7

capability of the listening person by a factor of about ten. By


changing the two angles of the axis of the listening device, the
direction of the incoming sound could be determined. This is an
example of real-time beam forming, which has become available
only recently with modern computer technology [11]. This first
application was on the 1st Berlin Beam forming Conference 3
sound of aircraft. The noise emission of aircraft remained the
driving force for the development of the analysis of microphones
arrays up to the present days.

2.1.1 Project Overview


In this project beam forming devices can be applied to different
technology which changers it name form the original and moves
towards its recent application, as this is the design and
construction of a camera tracking of a speaker which uses
acoustic received sounds to shout the direction of a camera when
at a different position [5][12].
2.1.2 Merits of the Project
It reduces stress
It has fast way of carrying the camera to the location of the
sounds
It does not get tired like humans
It controls itself automatically
2.3 How it works

When it is powered the devices waits for signal from either of the
sensors (Condense Mic) for signal inputs [12]. So when it receives
signal form one of the microphone it directs the movement of the
camera to that particular location. This was archived using a
microcontroller (Atmel89s52) [5] to control the drivers which
bidirectional control the movement of the motor.

2.3.1 Facts to Consider in using the Design


First, the mic must be positioned in different location so as to
sense the signal for that particular location [12].
Secondly, the camera placed on the beam forming must be
steady and heavy to avoid falling off.

CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN METHODOLOGY


3.1 Project specification
This is the design and construction of a video camera tracking of
a speaker use to automatically capture the movement of a
speaker while speaking on the stage.

From the design each microphone detects each position, and this
signals the microcontroller to switch on and off the Mosfet driver
to be able to rotate the image left and right.
3.2 Concept and Analysis of operations
This design was gotten from an already existing system, which
from there we picked some information that we developed it to
suit the present requirements. When the devices is powered, the
condense microphone responds to environmental noises which
when receives it feed to the microcontroller to locate the exact
position of the speaker.

3.3 Block diagram of the project

10

Fig 3.1 Block diagram of the project


3.3.1 Functions of each block
A. The sensor Mic unit (Condense mic) is responsible for
sensing the acoustic sound coming from the speaker
B. Amplifiers buffers or amplifiers the analog signal during
transfer to the microcontroller.
C. Comparator converts the analogy signal to digital and
feeds it to the microcontroller.
D. The microcontroller controls the whole thing digitally
happening in the circuit unit and also stores the data
captured by the finger print module during operation or
power on stage.
E. The power supply unit supplies.
11

F. the Motor drivers:

controls the movement of the motor

bidirectional
3.5 Design Program flow chart

Start
Decision
Process
Compare A & B if equal give C or else end Program

Answer = Rotate
left

Else go right

Stop

Fig 3.2 Program flow chart

3.5.1 Analysis of the flow chart diagram


Start and Stop condition marks the beginning and end of the
program operations.

12

The decision block waits for command to be given so that process


will be initiated.
Process take the data from the local memory and compare it if
equal give output or else end command

CHAPTER FOUR: DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING


4.1 Design procedures
4.1.1 Information gathering

13

The knowledge of how to design a camera tracking of a speaker


did not just came from anywhere even due a lot of information
came through inspirations of different ways (bio devices: Magxim
Electronics journal on Electronics & psychological effects 3 Edition
2012 for things to be down there is a source of information via
knowledge which is not only on teachings but also with metal
physical inspiration). Different sources where visited in other to
get the clear view of how to design a finger print security lock,
this ways include internet sites where a lot of information of
different designs can be archived. Come to school premises where
the knowledge is being passed from teachers to students. Others
include pea groups and book reading etc.

4.1.2 Project resource centers


This includes:
a.
b.
c.
d.

internet resource centers


experimental aids and observation
Teachers and lectures
And digital electronics by J.K Mehta

4.1.1 Choice of Materials


The materials I used were from the information I got from the
internet and I have to develop the work through the source I
found online that is treating the same case.
The circuit diagram used is the diagram which was design as a
prototype but also works to revive some information about the
14

circuit analysis of the devices which I later entered more design


like the camera tracking of a speaker, acoustic voice localization
to give a better operation of the device.
4.2 Circuit diagram of the design
BR1

C7
1000u
BRIDGE

TR1
TRSAT2P2S

R13
U1

SPEAKER

LS2

SPEAKER

LS3

SPEAKER

OPAMP

U6

OPAMP

U7

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

P2.0/A8
P2.1/A9
P2.2/A10
P2.3/A11
P2.4/A12
P2.5/A13
P2.6/A14
P2.7/A15
P3.0/RXD
P3.1/TXD
P3.2/INT0
P3.3/INT1
P3.4/T0
P3.5/T1
P3.6/WR
P3.7/RD

XTAL1
XTAL2

1
18

100R

D1

PSEN
ALE
EA

D6
1N4148

7805
3

RST

+12v

1N4148

U4

CRYSTAL

VO

VI

GND

U5

P0.0/AD0
P0.1/AD1
P0.2/AD2
P0.3/AD3
P0.4/AD4
P0.5/AD5
P0.6/AD6
P0.7/AD7

X1

19

R9

C1

1k

10u

29
30
31

Q2

R1

10u

10k
D5

C3

R10
1k

R4

IRFZ44N

IRFZ44N

10kD3

10u
1N4148

P1.0/T2
P1.1/T2EX
P1.2
P1.3
P1.4
P1.5
P1.6
P1.7

C2

Q1

LS1

39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

1N4148

U2
1

R12

AT89C52

R11

Q3
R2

3
K
PC817

U3

Q4

100R
E

10kD2

10k

1N4148

R3

IRFZ44N

IRFZ44N

E
PC817

10kD4

1N4148

OPAMP

R7

Q5
2N3904

10k

D7
LED-RED

R5
1k

Q6
R8
10k
2N3904

R6
1k

Fig 4.1 Circuit diagram of the project


4.2.1 Circuit diagram analysis
When the device is power, the power supply unit supplies voltage
and current to the entire circuit which initialized every component
in the circuit to it working state, then the microcontroller sends

4.3 Design implementation steps


15

4.3.1 Component listing


a. Microcontroller (Atmel89s52)
b. Voltage regulator (7805)
c. Resistors(1k,10k,4k7,5k6)
d. Transistor (c1815, Mosfet irf3205)
e. Rectifier diode (1n5408)
4.4 Component analysis and descriptions
Here, the whole components is discussed.

The choice of

component was obtained from the circuit diagram analysis which


visually illustrates the various component connection between
each other, from there the components used was named and
given values form the parameters and so from there we obtained
our choice of components. This is feather analysis in the circuit
diagram analysis.
4.4.1 Diode Rectifier (1N4007)
A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it
in one direction with far greater ease than in the other. The most
common

kind

of

diode

in

modern

circuit

design

is

the

semiconductor diode, although other diode technologies exist.


Semiconductor diodes are symbolized in schematic diagrams such
as Figure below. The term diode is customarily reserved for
small signal devices, I 1 A. The term rectifier is used for power
devices, I > 1 A.

16

Fig 4.1 Semiconductor diode schematic symbol: Arrows indicate


the direction of electron current flow.
When placed in a simple battery-lamp circuit, the diode will either
allow or prevent current through the lamp, depending on the
polarity of the applied voltage. (Figure below)

Fig 4.2 Diode operation: (a) Current flow is permitted; the diode is
forward biased. (b) Current flow is prohibited; the diode is
reversed biased.
When the polarity of the battery is such that electrons are allowed
to flow through the diode, the diode is said to be forward-biased.
Conversely, when the battery is backward and the diode blocks
current, the diode is said to be reverse-biased. A diode may be
thought of as like a switch: closed when forward-biased and
open when reverse-biased.
Oddly enough, the direction of the diode symbol's arrowhead
points against the direction of electron flow. This is because the
diode symbol was invented by engineers, who predominantly use
conventional flow notation in their schematics, showing current as
17

a flow of charge from the positive (+) side of the voltage source
to

the

negative

(-).

This

convention

holds

true

for

all

semiconductor symbols possessing arrowheads: the arrow


points in the permitted direction of conventional flow, and against
the permitted direction of electron flow.
Diode behavior is analogous to the behavior of a hydraulic device
called a check valve. A check valve allows fluid flow through it in
only one direction as in Figure below.

Fig 4.3 Hydraulic check valve analogy: (a) Electron current flow
permitted. (b) Current flow prohibited.
Check valves are essentially pressure-operated devices: they
open and allow flow if the pressure across them is of the correct
polarity to open the gate (in the analogy shown, greater fluid
pressure on the right than on the left). If the pressure is of the
opposite polarity, the pressure difference across the check
valve will close and hold the gate so that no flow occurs.

18

Like check valves, diodes are essentially pressure- operated


(voltage-operated) devices. The essential difference between
forward-bias and reverse-bias is the polarity of the voltage
dropped across the diode. Let's take a closer look at the simple
battery-diode-lamp circuit shown earlier, this time investigating
voltage drops across the various components in Figure below.

Fig 4.4 Diode circuit voltage measurements: (a) Forward biased.


(b) Reverse biased.
A forward-biased diode conducts current and drops a small
voltage across it, leaving most of the battery voltage dropped
across the lamp. If the battery's polarity is reversed, the diode
becomes reverse-biased, and drops all of the battery's voltage
leaving none for the lamp. If we consider the diode to be a selfactuating switch (closed in the forward-bias mode and open in the
reverse-bias mode), this behavior makes sense. The most
substantial difference is that the diode drops a lot more voltage
when conducting than the average mechanical switch (0.7 volts
versus tens of millivolts).

19

This forward-bias voltage drop exhibited by the diode is due to the


action of the depletion region formed by the P-N junction under
the influence of an applied voltage. If no voltage applied is across
a semiconductor diode, a thin depletion region exists around the
region of the P-N junction, preventing current flow. (Figure below
(a)) The depletion region is almost devoid of available charge
carriers, and acts as an insulator:

Fig 4.5 Diode representations: PN-junction model, schematic


symbol, physical part.
The schematic symbol of the diode is shown in Figure above (b)
such that the anode (pointing end) corresponds to the P-type
semiconductor at (a). The cathode bar, non-pointing end, at (b)
corresponds to the N-type material at (a). Also note that the
cathode stripe on the physical part (c) corresponds to the cathode
on the symbol.
20

If a reverse-biasing voltage is applied across the P-N junction, this


depletion region expands, further resisting any current through it.
(Figure below)

Fig 4.6 Depletion region expands with reverse bias.


Conversely, if a forward-biasing voltage is applied across the P-N
junction, the depletion region collapses becoming thinner. The
diode becomes less resistive to current through it. In order for a
sustained current to go through the diode; though, the depletion
region must be fully collapsed by the applied voltage. This takes a
certain minimum voltage to accomplish, called the forward
voltage as illustrated in Figure below.

21

Fig 4.7Inceasing forward bias from (a) to (b) decreases depletion


region thickness.
For silicon diodes, the typical forward voltage is 0.7 volts,
nominal. For germanium diodes, the forward voltage is only 0.3
volts. The chemical constituency of the P-N junction comprising
the diode accounts for its nominal forward voltage figure, which is
why silicon and germanium diodes have such different forward
voltages. Forward voltage drop remains approximately constant
for a wide range of diode currents, meaning that diode voltage
drop is not like that of a resistor or even a normal (closed) switch.
For most simplified circuit analysis, the voltage drop across a
conducting diode may be considered constant at the nominal
figure and not related to the amount of current.
<="" a="">
Actually, forward voltage drop is more complex. An equation
describes the exact current through a diode, given the voltage
dropped across the junction, the temperature of the junction, and
several physical constants. It is commonly known as the diode
equation:

22

The term kT/q describes the voltage produced within the P-N
junction due to the action of temperature, and is called the
thermal voltage, or Vt of the junction. At room temperature, this is
about 26 millivolts. Knowing this, and assuming a nonideality
coefficient of 1, we may simplify the diode equation and re-write it
as such:

You need not be familiar with the diode equation to analyze


simple diode circuits. Just understand that the voltage dropped
23

across a current-conducting diode does change with the amount


of current going through it, but that this change is fairly small
over a wide range of currents. This is why many textbooks simply
say the voltage drop across a conducting, semiconductor diode
remains constant at 0.7 volts for silicon and 0.3 volts for
germanium. However, some circuits intentionally make use of the
P-N junction's inherent exponential current/voltage relationship
and thus can only be understood in the context of this equation.
Also, since temperature is a factor in the diode equation, a
forward-biased P-N junction may also be used as a temperaturesensing device, and thus can only be understood if one has a
conceptual grasp on this mathematical relationship.
A reverse-biased diode prevents current from going through it,
due to the expanded depletion region. In actuality, a very small
amount of current can and does go through a reverse-biased
diode, called the leakage current, but it can be ignored for most
purposes. The ability of a diode to withstand reverse-bias voltages
is limited, as it is for any insulator. If the applied reverse-bias
voltage becomes too great, the diode will experience a condition
known as breakdown (Figure below), which is usually destructive.
A diode's maximum reverse-bias voltage rating is known as the
Peak Inverse Voltage, or PIV, and may be obtained from the
manufacturer. Like forward voltage, the PIV rating of a diode
varies with temperature, except that PIV increases with increased
temperature and decreases as the diode becomes cooler -exactly opposite that of forward voltage.
24

Fig 4.7 Diode curve: showing knee at 0.7 V forward biases for Si,
and reverse breakdown.
Typically, the PIV rating of a generic rectifier diode is at least 50
volts at room temperature. Diodes with PIV ratings in the many
thousands of volts are available for modest prices.
Types of diode
There are many different types of diodes that are available for use
in electronics design. Different semiconductor diode types can be
used to perform different functions as a result of the properties of
these different diode types. Semiconductor diodes can be used for
many applications. The basic application is obviously to rectify
waveforms.
Backward diode:

This type of diode is sometimes also called

the back diode. Although not widely used, it is a form of PN


junction diode that is very similar to the tunnel diode in its
operation. It finds a few specialist applications where its particular
properties can be used.
BARITT diode:

This form of diode gains its name from the

words Barrier Injection Transit Time diode. It is used in microwave


25

applications and bears many similarities to the more widely used


IMPATT diode.
Gunn Diode:

Although not a diode in the form of a PN junction,

this type of diode is a semiconductor device that has two


terminals. It is generally used for generating microwave signals.
Laser diode:

This type of diode is not the same as the ordinary

light emitting diode because it produces coherent light. Laser


diodes are widely used in many applications from DVD and CD
drives to laser light pointers for presentations. Although laser
diodes are much cheaper than other forms of laser generator,
they are considerably more expensive than LEDs. They also have
a limited life.
Light emitting diodes:

The light emitting diode or LED is one

of the most popular types of diode. When forward biased with


current flowing through the junction, light is produced. The diodes
use component semiconductors, and can produce a variety of
colours, although the original colour was red. There are also very
many new LED developments that are changing the way displays
can be used and manufactured. High output LEDs and OLEDs are
two examples.
Photodiode:

The photo-diode is used for detecting light. It is

found that when light strikes a PN junction it can create electrons


and holes. Typically photo-diodes are operated under reverse bias
conditions where even small amounts of current flow resulting
26

from the light can be easily detected. Photo-diodes can also be


used to generate electricity. For some applications, PIN diodes
work very well as photo detectors.
PIN diode:

This type of diode is typified by its construction. It

has the standard P type and N-type areas, but between them
there is an area of intrinsic semiconductor which has no doping.
The area of the intrinsic semiconductor has the effect of
increasing the area of the depletion region which can be useful for
switching applications as well as for use in photodiodes, etc.
PN Junction:

The standard PN junction may be thought of as

the normal or standard type of diode in use today. These diodes


can come as small signal types for use in radio frequency, or
other low current applications which may be termed as signal
diodes. Other types may be intended for high current and high
voltage applications and are normally termed rectifier diodes.
Schottky diodes:

This type of diode has a lower forward

voltage drop than ordinary silicon PN junction diodes. At low


currents the drop may be somewhere between 0.15 and 0.4 volts
as opposed to 0.6 volts for a silicon diode. To achieve this
performance they are constructed in a different way to normal
diodes having a metal to semiconductor contact. They are widely
used as clamping diodes, in RF applications, and also for rectifier
applications.

27

Step recovery diode:

A form of microwave diode used for

generating and shaping pulses at very high frequencies. These


diodes rely on a very fast turn off characteristic of the diode for
their operation.
Tunnel diode: Although not widely used today, the tunnel diode
was used for microwave applications where its performance
exceeded that of other devices of the day.
Varactor diode or varicap diode:

This type of diode is used in

many radio frequency (RF) applications. The diode has a reverse


bias placed upon it and this varies the width of the depletion layer
according to the voltage placed across the diode. In this
configuration the varactor or varicap diode acts like a capacitor
with the depletion region being the insulating dielectric and the
capacitor plates formed by the extent of the conduction regions.
The capacitance can be varied by changing the bias on the diode
as this will vary the width of the depletion region which will
accordingly change the capacitance.
Zener diode:

The Zener diode is a very useful type of diode as

it provides a stable reference voltage. As a result it is used in vast


quantities. It is run under reverse bias conditions and it is found
that when a certain voltage is reached it breaks down. If the
current is limited through a resistor, it enables a stable voltage to
be produced. This type of diode is therefore widely used to
provide a reference voltage in power supplies. Two types of
28

reverse

breakdown

are

apparent

in

these

diodes:

Zener

breakdown and Impact Ionisation. However the name Zener diode


is used for the reference diodes regardless of the form of
breakdown that is employed.
Semiconductor diodes are widely used throughout all areas of the
electronics industry from electronics design through to production
and repair. The semiconductor diode is very versatile, and there
are very many variants and different types of diode that enable all
the variety of different applications to be met.
Diode as a rectifier
Rectifier circuits may be single-phase or multi-phase (three being
the most common number of phases). Most low power rectifiers
for

domestic

equipment

are

single-phase,

but

three-phase

rectification is very important for industrial applications and for


the transmission of energy as DC (HVDC).
Half-wave rectification
In half wave rectification of a single-phase supply, either the
positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other
half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform
reaches the output, mean voltage is lower. Half-wave rectification
requires a single diode in a single-phase supply, or three in a
three-phase supply. Rectifiers yield a unidirectional but pulsating
direct current; half-wave rectifiers produce far more ripple than
full-wave rectifiers, and much more filtering is needed to
eliminate harmonics of the AC frequency from the output.
29

Fig 4.8 Half-wave rectifier


The no-load output DC voltage of an ideal half wave rectifier for a
sinusoidal input voltage is:

Where: Vdc, Vav - the DC or average output voltage,


Vpeak, the peak value of the phase input voltages,
Vrms, the root-mean-square value of output voltage.
Full-wave rectification
A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to
one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Fullwave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform
to pulsating DC (direct current), and yields a higher average
output voltage. Two diodes and a center tapped transformer, or
four diodes in a bridge configuration and any AC source (including
a

transformer

without

center

tap),

are

needed. [3]

Single

semiconductor diodes, double diodes with common cathode or


common anode, and four-diode bridges, are manufactured as
single components.
30

4.9 Graetz bridge rectifier: a full-wave rectifier using 4 diodes.


For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped, then two
diodes

back-to-back

(cathode-to-cathode

or

anode-to-anode,

depending upon output polarity required) can form a full-wave


rectifier. Twice as many turns are required on the transformer
secondary to obtain the same output voltage than for a bridge
rectifier, but the power rating is unchanged.

Fig 4.10: Full-wave rectifier using a center tap transformer and 2


diodes.

Fig 4.11: Full-wave rectifier, with vacuum tube having two anodes.
31

The average and root-mean-square no-load output voltages of an


ideal single-phase full-wave rectifier are:

Very common double-diode rectifier vacuum tubes contained a


single common cathode and two anodes inside a single envelope,
achieving full-wave rectification with positive output. The 5U4 and
5Y3 were popular examples of this configuration.

32

Diode Bridge

Fig 4.12 Detail of a diode bridge, rated at 1000 Volts x 4 Amperes,


a handmade diode bridge. The wide silver band on the diodes
indicates the cathode side of the diode.
A diode bridge is an arrangement of four (or more) diodes in a
bridge circuit configuration that provides the same polarity of
output for either polarity of input. When used in its most common
application, for conversion of an alternating current (AC) input
into a direct current (DC) output, it is known as a bridge
rectifier. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a
33

two-wire AC input, resulting in lower cost and weight as compared


to a rectifier with a 3-wire input from a transformer with a centertapped secondary winding
4.4.2 Transistors
4.4.3 Infrared Sensor and finger print module

4.4.4 Battery Power Supply and Lm7805

Fig 4.16 a sample circuit of a power supply using 7805 voltage


regulator
A regulated power supply is very much essential for several
electronic devices due to the semiconductor material employed in
them have a fixed rate of current as well as voltage. The device
may get damaged if there is any deviation from the fixed rate.
The AC power supply gets converted into constant DC by this
circuit. By the help of a voltage regulator DC, unregulated output
will be fixed to a constant voltage. The circuit is made up of linear
voltage regulator 7805 along with capacitors and resistors with
bridge rectifier made up from diodes. From giving an unchanging
34

voltage

supply

to

building

confident

that

output

reaches

uninterrupted to the appliance, the diodes along with capacitors


handle elevated efficient signal conveyal.
Description:
As we have previously talked about that regulated power supply is
a device that mechanized on DC voltages and also it can uphold
its output accurately at a fixed voltage all the time although if
there is a significant alteration in the DC input voltage.
ICs regulator is mainly used in the circuit to maintain the exact
voltage which is followed by the power supply. A regulator is
mainly employed with the capacitor connected in parallel to the
input terminal and the output terminal of the IC regulator. For the
checking of gigantic alterations in the input as well as in the
output filter, capacitors are used. While the bypass capacitors are
used to check the small period spikes on the input and output
level. Bypass capacitors are mainly of small values that are used
to bypass the small period pulses straightly into the Earth.
A circuit diagram having regulator IC and all the above discussed
components arrangement revealed in the figure below.

35

Regulated Power Supply Circuit

4.4.5 Microcontroller (Atmel89s52)


The AT89s52 is a low power, high performance cmos 8-bit
microcomputer with 8Kbytes of flash programmable and erasable
read only memory (EEPROM). The device is manufactured using
Atmel`s high density nonvolatile memory technology and is
compatible with the industry standard MCS-51 instruction set and
pin out. The on-chip flash allows the program memory to be
reprogrammed in system or by a conventional nonvolatile
memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with
flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89s52 is a powerful
microcomputer, which provides a highly flexible and cost effective
solution to many embedded control application.
The AT89s52 is designed with static logic for operation down to
zero frequency and support two software selectable power saving
modes. The idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM,
timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue
functioning. The power down mode saves the RAM contents but
freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the
next hardware reset

36

Fig4.17 Pin configuration of AT89S52


Features of AT89S52
Programmable serial channel
Compatible with MCS-51TM product
8Kbytes of in-system Reprogrammable flash memory - Endurance:
1,000 write/Erase cycles
Fully static operation:0Hz to 12MHz
Three-level program memory lock

256x 32-bit external RAM

32 programmable I/O lines


Two 16-bit timer/counters
Six interrupt sources
Low-power idle and power-down modes.

37

Fig 4.18: Block diagram of AT89s52 internal circuitry


Pin description
Vcc
Supply voltage.
GND
Ground.
Port 0
Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output
port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to
port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0
may also be configured to be the multiplexed low order

38

Address/data bus during accesses to external program and data


memory. In this mode P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives
the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the code
bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required
during program verification.
Port 1
Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The
Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are
written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups
and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are
externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the
internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes
during Flash programming and verification.
Port 2
Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The
Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are
written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups
and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are
externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the
internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during
fetches from external program memory and during accesses to
external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @
DPTR). In this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when
emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses

39

8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2


Special Function Register.
Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control
signals during Flash programming and verification.
Port 3
Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The
Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are
written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups
and can be used as inputs. As inputs,
Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current
(IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of
various special features of the AT89S51 as listed below.
Alternate functions of port 3

Table 4.1: port 3 pin functions


Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming
and verification.
40

RST
Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the
oscillator is running resets the device.
ALE/PROG
Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the
address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the
program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal
operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator
frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking
purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during
each access to external Data Memory. If desired, ALE operation
can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit
set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.
Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable
bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution
mode.
PSEN
Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program
memory. When the AT89C51 is executing code from external
program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle,
except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access
to external data memory.
EA/VPP

41

External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to


enable the device to fetch code from external program memory
locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH.
Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be
internally latched on reset.

EA should be strapped to VCC for

internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt


programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming, for
parts that require 12-volt VPP.
XTAL1
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal
clock operating circuit.
4.4.7 Resistors
Resistance is the property of a component which restricts the flow
of electric current. Energy is used up as the voltage across the
component drives the current through it and this energy appears
as heat in the component.
Resistance is measured in ohms; the symbol for ohm is an omega
.
1

is quite small for electronics so resistances are often given in

k
1 k = 1000

and

M .

1 M = 1000000 .

Resistors used in electronics can have resistances as low as 0.1


or as high as 10 M .
Resistors connected in Series
42

Combined resistance in series: R = R1 + R2


This

can

be

extended

R=
R1 R2
more
resistors:

for

R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + ...
Note that the combined resistance in series will always be greater
than any of the individual resistances.
Combined

resistance

of

two resistors in parallel:

Fig 4.19 Resistor connected in series


When resistors are connected in series their combined resistance
is equal to the individual resistances added together. For example
if resistors R1 and R2 are connected in series their combined
resistance, R, is given by:
R1 + R2
Resistors connected in Parallel

43

Fig

4.20

Resistors

connected

in parallel
When

resistors

are

connected

in

parallel

their

combined

resistance is less than any of the individual resistances. There is a


special equation for the combined resistance of two resistors R1
and R2:

For more than two resistors connected in parallel a more difficult


equation must be used. This adds up the reciprocal ("one over") of
each resistance to give the reciprocal of the combined resistance,
R:
1/R=1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3
The simpler equation for two resistors in parallel is much easier to
use!
Note that the combined resistance in parallel will always be less
than any of the individual resistances.
How to read Resistor Colour Codes

Table 4.2 Resistor color code


44

Black
0

Brow
n
1

Red
2

Orang
e
3

Yellow
4

Gree

Blu

Viole Gra

White
9

The mnemonic
Bad Boys Ravish Only Young Girls But Violet Gives Willingly
Black is also easy to remember as zero because of the
nothingness common to both.

Fig4.21 Resistor color code representation


First find the tolerance band, it will typically be gold ( 5%) and
sometimes silver (10%). Starting from the other end, identify the
first band - write down the number associated with that color; in
this case Blue is 6. Now 'read' the next color, here it is red so
write down a '2' next to the six (you should have '62' so far.) Now
read the third or 'multiplier' band and write down that number of
zeros.

45

In this example it is two so we get '6200' or '6,200'. If the


'multiplier' band is Black (for zero) don't write any zeros down. If
the 'multiplier' band is Gold move the decimal point one to the
left. If the 'multiplier' band is Silver move the decimal point two
places to the left. If the resistor has one more band past the
tolerance band it is a quality band.
Read the number as the '% Failure rate per 1000 hour' this is
rated assuming full wattage being applied to the resistors. (To get
better failure rates, resistors are typically specified to have twice
the needed wattage dissipation that the circuit produces) 1%
resistors have three bands to read digits to the left of the
multiplier. They have a different temperature coefficient in order
to provide the 1% tolerance.
At 1% most error is in the temperature coefficient - i.e. 20ppm.
4.4 Component gathering
The list of the component used was given so I have to go to the
market to porches some of them alongside with the sensor which
is to be used for the design
4.4.1 Component testing
Before the design and implementation phase, the system built
has to be tested for Durability, Efficiency, and Effectiveness and
also ascertain if there is need to modify this design. The system
was first assembled using a breadboard. All components were

46

properly inserted into the breadboard from whence some tests


were carried out at various stages.
Similar components like resistors were packed together. Other
components includes capacitor, preset switches, transformer,
diodes (rectifier) LED, transistor, voltage regulator etc
Reference was made to resistor color code data sheet to ascertain
the expected values of resistors used. Each resistor was tested
and the value read and recorded. Also for transistor test the DMM
was switched to the diode range with the symbol
The collector, base and emitter junctions were tested in the
following order. The collector, emitter and base pins were gotten
from the data analysis on power transistor.
To ensure proper functioning of components expected data, the
components were tested using a digital multimeter (DMM).
Resistors were tested to ensure that they were within the
tolerance value. Faulty resistors were discarded .The 78LS05
voltage regulator was also tested, the resulting output was 5.02v
which is just a deviation of 0.20v from the expected result of
5.00v.The LEDs were tested to ensure that they were all working
properly.
TRANSFORMER TEST (STEP-DOWN)
Expectedly, the transformer was rated 240v/15v, 2000mA. From
the mains power supply, the primary coil received 220v input; the
output was measured to be 17.75v using a DMM.

47

Test data on transformer has it that the resistance of the primary


windings for step down transformer is higher than that of the
secondary side. This was ascertained.

4.5 Design Steps


This are the various steps we took on the design of this project
4.5.1 Component placing and wiring
Here, the whole components were place into the vero board
according to its position in the circuit diagram, the legs were bend
to avoid living its space and to avoid it from failing off.
4.5.2 Component soldering
The components were solder using a soft thick lead oxide and the
component connections was done with a tiny flexible wire we got
from a networking cable to join one component to the other
according to the circuit diagram.
4.6 Embedded software integration
After

the

design

of

the

circuit

the

microcontroller

was

programmed to control the whole circuit with the software


program running inside of it.
Software Development Process
In writing the software for this project a modular approach
was employed. This made it easier to check for errors and debug
the program. Three major tools were used in the development
48

process; the keil C51 compiler was used to translate from the
source code into the object code. The SDCC was employed to link
the program while the PACKIHX did the conversion from binary to
hex.
Choice of Programming Language
My implementation programming language for this project is ANSI
C programming language, reason being the fact that it combines
the elements of high level languages with the functionalism of
assembly language. C allows the manipulation of bits, bytes and
addresses. Also C codes are portable which means that it is
possible to adapt software written for one type of computer to
another.
Nevertheless, a special feature of ANSI C is that it allows the
direct manipulation of bits, bytes, words and pointers. This suits it
to

system-level

programming,

where

these

operations

are

common.

4.6.1 Programming language


This is an executable written commands which a computer can
understand when translated to binary format by a compiler.
4.6.2 Programming steps
Program Entry and Editing

49

After the design of the software, a text editor is employed to enter


the source code into the disk file. As noted earlier, the text editor
also functions to correct error in the program. The text editor used
is KEIL C51 compiler and text editor.

4.6.3 Design program source code


#include "AT89x52.h"
#include "string.h"

#define lcd P2
sbit en = P3^6;
sbit rs = P3^7;
unsigned int a,b;

unsigned char lcdcode[] = {0x38, 0x0e , 0x01, 0x06,


0x80 } ;
char nextline[]= {0xc0};
char left = 0x18;
void msdelay(unsigned int time)
50

{
unsigned m,n ;
for(m=0;m<time;m++)
for(n=0;n<time;n++);
}

lcd_initial( unsigned int line, unsigned char cmd[]){ //


liquid crystal display initialize command
int c;
for (c = 0; c < line; c++){
lcd = cmd[c];
rs = 0;
en = 1;
msdelay(50);
en = 0;
}
return 0;}

51

lcd_data( unsigned int line, unsigned char fdata[]){ //


liquid crystal display write command
int c;
for (c = 0; c < line; c++){
lcd = fdata[c];
rs = 1;
en = 1;
msdelay(50);
en = 0;
}
return 0;}

move_left(int line){
int c;
for (c = 0; c < line; c++){
lcd = 0x18;
rs = 0;
en = 1;
msdelay(100);
en = 0;
52

return 0;}

move_right(int line){
int c;
for (c = 0; c < line; c++){
lcd = 0x1c;
rs = 0;
en = 1;
msdelay(100);
en = 0;
}
return 0;}

uartint(){ // serial command for uart on 80c51 family


TMOD = 0x20;
TH1 = -3;
SCON = 0x50;
53

TR1 = 1;
return 0;}

uartreceiver(unsigned line){
int x;
for (x = 0; x < line; x++){
while ( RI==0) ; //wait for transmit
b

= SBUF ;

a = b;
RI=0;
}
}

uartsend(unsigned int line, char xdat[]){


int x;
for (x = 0; x < line; x++){
SBUF = xdat[x]; //use serial port SBUF
while ( TI==0 ); //wait for transmit
TI=0;
54

msdelay(100);
}
return 0;
}

char FPMint[] = {0xEF,0x01};


char FPMaddr[] = {0xFF,0xFF,0xFF,0xFF};
char FPMpid[] = {0x01};
char FPMlen[] = {0x0003};
char FPMdata[] = {0x01};
char FPMck[] = {0x0005};

int main(){
uartint() ;
lcd_initial(5,lcdcode);
lcd_data(16,"

Welcome!!

msdelay(80);
move_left(3);
msdelay(80);
move_right(3);
55

");

msdelay(80);
move_left(3);
msdelay(80);
move_right(3);
msdelay(300);
lcd_initial(5,lcdcode);
lcd_data(16,"Scan Your Thumb");
msdelay(300);

while (1){
uartsend(2,FPMint);
msdelay(50);
uartsend(4,FPMaddr);
msdelay(50);
uartsend(4,FPMpid);
msdelay(50);
uartsend(1,FPMlen);
msdelay(50);
uartsend(8,FPMdata);
msdelay(50);
56

uartsend(1,FPMck);
msdelay(50);

while(1){
uartreceiver(1);
if (b == 0x00){
lcd_initial(5,lcdcode);
lcd_data(11,"CE complete");
}
else{ lcd_initial(5,lcdcode);
lcd_data(12,"Error Signal");}}
}
}
4.6.4 Compilation of the source code (Language-assemblyhexadecimal or machine code)
After writing the program in the editors environment, the
software was use to compiler the entire program to generate a
hex file which will be burn into the microcontroller.
4.6.7 Burning of the hex file into the microcontrollers
In burning the hex into the microcontroller, we have to use an in
system programmer known as ISP programmer which will now
57

read and verifier the microcontroller design nomenclature and


then will copy the hex codes into the microcontroller.
4.6.8 Inserting the microcontroller into the hardware
design
Then after that the microcontroller will now be inserted into the
circuit for testing.

4.7 Circuit test


After the implementation of the circuit diagram it has to be
powered and checked for accurate functionality before coupling
and packaging.
The design makes use of 15V transformer which was converter to
dc using a diode rectifier and a capacitor filter to get an accurate
dc from the voltage supply unit.
4.8 Packaging
As a prototype design, we have to copy an existing system which
makes use of a Camera tracking of a speaker
4.9 Design test and error corrections
After the packaging some errors was discovered due to wrong
packaging which affected the reading of the data by the finger
scan module but was corrected by packing the panels to different
location inside the adoptable box.
4.10 Final test
58

The final test was undergone for proper function and design
usage.

CHAPTER FIVE: RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION


5.1 Summary

59

The microphone array has become a standard method for


localizing the noise sources on conference room speaker, trains,
cars and other machinery. The performance of conventional beam
forming depends to a large extend on a good design of the array
geometry and on a good beam forming software. The recent
developments of inverse methods make it possible for the first
time to determine the strengths of the sources. However, the
computational effort required for this is very high
The design and development of this project has really been
challenging, as I have been faced with choices far beyond what I
expected. But in the long run the result paid off.
After the complete design of the system, the deviation between
the expected result and the actual result was very close. The
performance and efficiency was beyond expectation and from
every ramification, the design of the project was a success.
5.2 Problem encounter
During the course of the design of this system, there were series
of problems which came in the way of achieving the design goals
of this project, most of them where over come via share
troubleshooting, in some cases some parts require redesigning
and the software debugging also created a bit of a problem.
One major setback of this project is the availability of components
required to build the hardware of the system. In most cases I had
to look through electrical catalogs to obtain replacements of some
of the components which are not available in the market.
60

After developing the software for the microcontroller, it was very


difficult to find a firm/individual to help program the chip (burning
the embedded software on to the chip). This posed serious
problem as it brought about delay in the design time and it was
also costly, this also affected the overall cost of the system.
The final packaging of the design was also another trouble, as this
actually caused problems on the circuit board. Such problems
include

partial

contact

within

the

circuit

board,

between

components and also with the wiring. This was actually one of the
most challenging aspects of the circuit implementation phase.
Due to this fact, there was a lot of soldering and de-soldering to
ensure that the circuit was well implemented.
5.3 Suggestion for further design
It will be more appreciated if the system is designed to a
password in cooperated system so to help reduce stress if the
system finger scan malfunction

5.4 Recommendation
a. Avoid water spillage onto of the design.
b. Supply the necessary voltage to the system by plugin its
power mains to 200v to 230v ac.
c. Ensure proper placement before running the design.
5.5 Conclusion
Going through the planning, flow process, design and software
implementation the system had really been a tough one; but on
61

the whole it has been a chance to show case a little bit of


craftsmanship.
Reference
1. Billingsley microphone antenna 1974
2. Belone Schilling, Electronic Circuits: Discrete and Integrated,
McGraw-Hill, New York,1979.
3. B.L Theraja and A.K Theraja, A Textbook on Electrical
Technology, 2003, 23rd Edition, Pp 1887 Pp 1888.
4. Paul Horowitz and Windfield Hill, The Art of Electronics, 1989,
2nd Edition, Pp 7- Pp 8, Pp 55 Pp 58, Pp 614 Pp 622.
5. Atmel Corporation Data Sheet on AT89C51, 0285D-B-12/97
6. NTE Electronics Inc., ECG Data Book, January 2002, 10 th
Edition.
7. Giorgio Rizzoni, Principles of Electrical Engineering, 2003, 3 rd
Edition,
8. Ronald .J Tocci, Digital Systems, Arentice Hall. Inc. USA,
1988.
9. Mark Burgess, C programming tutorial, (K & R version 4).
10.
Urick moare Acoustic under water technology|(1983)
11.
Array signal processing by Johnson & Dudgeon [12]
12.
www.maximelectronics.blogspot.com

62

Appendixes
SYSTEM COMPONENTS LIST
1 Vero Board
2 Connection Wire
3 16x2 LCD display
4 Soldering Iron
5 240 / 15v, 2000 mA Transformer
6 Rectifier Diodes
7 2200uf /25V Capacitor
8 10uf 16V Capacitor
9 30pf capacitor
10Resistors
117805 Voltage Regulator
1212 MHz crystal oscillator
13AT89S52 Micro controller
14IRF3205 H-BRIDGE Driver
15IC Base Socket (40 pins)
16IC Base Socket (16 pins)
1. 29. Transistors

List of Tables
List of Figures.

63