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G. L.

Cohen

S. L. Segal

The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627

(Submitted July 1987)

an odd prime and n = 2 or p or 2p, then (cj)(n) + 1) \n, where <J> is Euler's

totient function. Is this true for any other n?

We shall show that this question is closely related to a much older problem

due to Lehmer [4]: whether or not there exist composite n such that

(J) (n) | (n - 1).

It will turn out that if there are no such composite n, then

Schinzel!s are the only solutions of his problem; if there are other solutions

of Schinzel?s problem, then they have at least 15 distinct prime factors. Let

oo(n) denote the number of distinct prime factors of n.

More specifically, we

shall prove the following.

Theorem:

Let n be a natural number and suppose (<J)(n) + l)|n.

following is true.

(ii) n = mt, where m = 3, 4, or 6, gcd(/?7, t) = 1, and t - 1 = 2$(t)

[so that

co(t) > 14].

(iii) n = mt, where gcd(m5 t) = 1, <$>(m) = j > 4, and t - 1 = j<$>(t) [so that

oo(t) > 140] .

Proof:

Since ($(ri)

+ 1)\n 9 we have

m(($)(n) + 1) = n

(1)

for some natural number 777. Let t = cj>(ft) + 1 a n d ^ = gcd(/?7, t) . Then, using

(1) and an easy and well-known result (Apostol [1, p. 28]),

(|>(n) = <\>(mt) =

\/^\

(2)

is an integer. Then, from (2),

d\$(n);

but, by definition, d\($(n)

+ 1). Hence d = 1. Thus, we have n = mt,

where

t = <()(n) + 1 = M/??t) + 1 = <j>(m)<K) + 1.

We cannot have t = 1. Also, is prime if and only if (m) = 1. In this

case, m = 1 or 2, and we have Schinzel?s solutions, in (i).

Suppose now that t is composite. If (j) (777) = 2, then 77? = 3, 4, or 6 and

..- 1 = 2 <(>(). Cohen and Hagis [2] showed in this case that oo(t) > 14. These

are the solutions in. (ii) . It is impossible to have $ (m) = 3, so the only

remaining possibility is that (j) (777) > 4, so t - 1 = J(f>(), saY> with J > 4. For

this equation to hold, Lehmer [4] pointed out that t must be odd and

squarefree, and Lieuwens [5] showed that co(t) > 212 if 3\t.

(This latter remark applies also to the solution n = kt in (ii) . ] Suppose 2> \ t, and write

1989]

285

t = n pi5

< pu,

i =1

where p 1 , p^, > P

/ .

are

* - 1

A < 7 =

primes.

*

<

Pj

[I

fe

5 7 11

<

811

. . .

.

< A

"

*(*)

*(*)

i-i p. - 1 ~ 4 6 10

810

(There are 139 primes from 5 to 811, inclusive.) This contradiction shows that

u = u)() ^ 140 in this case, giving (iii) and completing the proof.

Using the above and results of Pomerance [6, esp. the Remark] and [7], it

is not difficult to show that the number of natural numbers n such that n < x,

(<$>(n) + 1) \n and n is not a prime or twice a prime, is

0(xl/2

(log x ) 34 (log log x) _ 5 / 6 ) .

References

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

T. A. Apostol. Introduction

to Analytic

Number Theory,

New York: SpringerVerlag, 1980.

G. L. Cohen & P. Hagis, Jr. "On the Number of Prime Factors of n if

<f>(n)|( ~ 1)." Nieuw Archief

voor Wiskunde (3) 28 (1980) : 177-185.

R. K. Guy. Unsolved Problems in Number Theory. New York: Springer-Verlag,

1981.

D. H. Lehmer. "On Euler's Totient Function." Bull.

Amer. Math. Soc. 38

(1932):745-751.

E. Lieuwens. "Do There Exist Composite Numbers M for Which k$(M) = M - 1

Holds?" Nieuw Archief

voor Wiskunde (3) 18 (1970):165-169.

C. Pomerance. "On Composite n for which (n)\n

- 1, II." Pacific

J. Math.

69 (1977):177-186.

C. Pomerance.

"Popular Values of Euler's Function." Mathematika

27

(1980):84-89.

4.

5.

6.

7.

286

{Fn/d} and {Ln/d} as Sums of Fibonacci Numbers and as Sums of Lucas

Numbers." Presented at the Second International Conference on Fibonacci

Numbers and Their Applications, August 13-16, San Jose, California, U.S.A.

P. Filipponi. "A Note on the Representation of Integers as a Sum of Distinct Fibonacci Numbers."

Fibonacci

Quarterly

24.4 (1986):336-343.

P. Filipponi & 0. Brugia. "On the F-Representation of Integral Sequences

Involving Ratios between Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers." Int. Rept. 3B1586,

Fondazione Ugo Bordoni, Roma, 1986.

V. E. Hoggatt, Jr. Fibonacci

and Lucas Numbers.

Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Co., 1969.

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