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jacobien calculation

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io

Inverse Kinematics:

Manipulator Jacobian

Conservatively tuned IK

Aggressively tuned IK

Jacobian Transpose

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Target

endeffector

location

Current

endeffector

location

Endeffector

error

endeffector to

minimize error?

Desired

endeffector

displacement

Can we move the

endeffector to

minimize error?

Joint angle

displacements

Yes.

Convert linear velocity of

endeffector to angular

velocities at joints.

v1

r2

rotation axis

angular rotation in frame

r1

v2

r3

angular velocity

of points in frame

wrt. axis k

v3

k axis out-of-plane

and passes through frame origin

v1

r2

linear velocity

of points in frame

wrt. axis k

vector to point

in frame

rotation axis

r1

v2

r3

angular velocity

of points in frame

wrt. axis k

v3

k axis out-of-plane

and passes through frame origin

angular velocity

of points in frame

wrt. axis k

linear velocity

of points in frame

wrt. axis k

vector to point

in frame

endeffector

linear velocity

rotation axis

vector from

joint origin to

endeffector

joint rotation axis

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

vector from

joint origin to

endeffector

endeffector

linear velocity

Why?

Jacobian Transpose

vector from

joint origin to

endeffector

endeffector

linear velocity

How to obtain joint angular

velocity from endeffector

linear velocity?

Jacobian Transpose

vector from

joint origin to

endeffector

endeffector

linear velocity

How to obtain joint angular

velocity from endeffector

linear velocity?

Jacobian Transpose

Angular

velocity

for joint i

endeffector

linear velocity

vector from

joint origin to

endeffector

Jacobian

for joint i

1) Compute Jacobian

2) Update joint angles using Jacobian transpose

3) Repeat forever (or until error minimized)

Define error function e(q) as difference

between current and desired endeffector

poses

e(q)

configuration q

Find global minimum of e(q),

ie. argminq e(q)

Define error function e(q) as difference

between current and desired endeffector

poses

e(q)

configuration q

Find global minimum of e(q),

ie. argminq e(q)

How could we find argminq e(q) if we knew

e(q) in closed form?

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Take derivative

Verify

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Take derivative

Verify

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Define error function e(q) as difference

between current and desired endeffector

poses

e(q)

configuration q

Find global minimum of e(q),

ie. argminq e(q)

But, do we know e(q) in closed form?

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

rate of change of f(x) at x0 is J(x0)

x0-x x0 x0+x

as first order expansion, approximate f(x) at

current configuration x0 and tangent plane J(x0)

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

minimization function F

of steepest ascent away from goal

f(x)

of steepest ascent away from goal

x

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Minimum (Goal)

of steepest ascent away from goal

Start (Initial)

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Minimum (Goal)

of robot configuration

wrt. endeffector error?

Start (Initial)

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Geometric

3D N-link arm

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

Each column transforms

velocity at the endeffector

to velocity at a DOF

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Endeffector

velocity

Configuration

velocity

3D N-link arm

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

i=0 is base frame

Note: figure taken from Spong et al. textbook, which

assumes D-H parameters and offset column index

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

3D N-link arm

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

3D N-link arm

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

Change in endeffector

variable with respect to

change in joint variable

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

3D N-link arm

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

linear

angular

3D N-link arm

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

linear

angular

3D N-link arm

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

linear

angular

angular velocity of endeffector

vector of

of joint

angle

velocities

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

The Jacobian

3D N-link arm

A 6xN matrix

linear

angular

Ji is a single column

of the Jacobian matrix

Z is joint axis in

world coordinates

(overloaded notation)

vectors in

base frame

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

oi-1: joint

origin

linear

on: endeffector

angular

Jvi

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

linear

angular

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

linear

angular

v1

r2

angular velocity

of points in frame

wrt. axis k

r1

v2

linear velocity

of points in frame

wrt. axis k

r3

rotation axis

v3

k axis out-of-plane

and passes through frame origin

vector to point

in frame

skew-symmetric

matrix

Note: velocity dependent on frame, not

necessarily linear velocity at point

v1

r2

angular velocity

of points in frame

wrt. axis k

r1

v2

linear velocity

of points in frame

wrt. axis k

r3

rotation axis

v3

k axis out-of-plane

and passes through frame origin

vector to point

in frame

skew-symmetric

matrix

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

transform to

base to frame 1

Angular Velocity

Linear Velocity

p1 is point in

frame 1

plus linear rotation of point

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Angular Velocity

(0..n) on endeffector

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

ith joint angle

Geometric

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

Procedure restated:

Geometric

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

compute

endpoint

error

Procedure restated:

compute step

direction

repeat

perform step

direction

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Geometric

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

can we invert J(q)?

The Jacobian

A 6xN matrix

when can we invert J(q)?

Jacobian Transpose

Jacobian Transpose

Jacobian gives mapping from

configuration displacement to

endeffector displacement

Inverse of Jacobian maps

endeffector displacement to

configuration displacement

But, inverse of Jacobian is

rarely an option. Why?

Instead, find configuration

displacement that minimizes

endeffector error squared

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Instead, find configuration

displacement that minimizes

endeffector error squared

expressing squared error

expressing squared error

Matlab example:

Jacobian transpose

Initial configuration

Iterations to goal

Pseudo Inverse

Matlab example:

Pseudo Inverse

Initial configuration

Iterations to goal

Pseudo Inverse,

More Generally

to linear system Ax=b

solution of an overdetermined system Ax=b, where there are

more equations (m) than unknowns (n), or vice versa

http://lion.cs.uiuc.edu/projects/wmn.html

expressing squared error

Normal form

IK Demo

Which Pseudoinverse

Left pseudoinverse, for when N > M, (i.e., less than than 6 DoFs)

s.t.

s.t.

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Which Pseudoinverse

What happens when

J is not full rank?

Left pseudoinverse, for when N > M, (i.e., less than than 6 DoFs)

s.t.

s.t.

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Singularities

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

NxM matrix

NxN matrix

Columns are orthonormal

eigenvectors of AAT

MxM matrix

Columns are orthonormal

eigenvectors of ATA

Singular values

Diagonal NxM matrix

eigenvalues of ATA and AAT

reciprocals of diagonal of D

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

approach to IK?

http://www.ryanjuckett.com/programming/cyclic-coordinate-descent-in-2d/

Initial

Rotate bone 3

(to place end effector as

close to target as possible)

http://www.ryanjuckett.com/programming/cyclic-coordinate-descent-in-2d/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MvuO9ZHGr6k

Jacobian-based methods

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

IK Assignment

EECS 398-002

EECS 598-010

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

IK Assignment

Specify target location, endeffector frame, endeffector point in frame

home.html

// if requested, perform inverse kinematics control to reach to point

kineval.robotInverseKinematics(kineval.params.ik_target, robot.endeffector.frame, robot.endeffector.position);

kineval_inverse_kinematics.js

kineval.robotInverseKinematics(endeffector_target_world, endeffector_joint, endeffector_position_local) {

. . .

kineval.iterateIK(endeffector_target_world, endeffector_joint, endeffector_position_local);

if (kineval.params.trial_ik_random.execute)

kineval.randomizeIKtrial();

else

kineval.params.trial_ik_random.start = new Date();

}

}

kineval.iterateIK(endeffector_target_world, endeffector_joint, endeffector_position_local) {

// Your code for a single IK iteration

// output sets updated controls for each joint

}

world

IK Assignment

global

endeffector point in frame

Transform endeffector into world

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

IK Assignment

Form kinematic chain

Transform endeffector into world

Iterate over kinematic chain to update robot.controls

Build Jacobian and compute Jacobian Transpose and Psuedoinverse

Apply updated controls to each joint

Matrix inversion provided by numericjs

numeric.inv(J)

IK Assignment

Form kinematic chain

Transform endeffector into world

Iterate over kinematic chain to update robot.controls

Build Jacobian and compute Jacobian Transpose and Psuedoinverse

Apply updated controls to each joint

Ensure your matrix routines work with kineval.js

e.g., generate_translation_matrix takes 3 parameters

UM EECS 398/598 - autorob.github.io

Next class:

Motion Planning

http://people.csail.mit.edu/aperez/www/files/rrt_timelapse.jpg

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