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Tiu c (Focal length)

Tiu c ca my nh l thng s cho bit gc nhn ca my nh, ngha l


khong phm vi m my nh c th thu tm c. ng knh c tiu c 50 mm
c coi l chun (tnh theo h my nh s dng phm nha 35 mm), v loi ng knh
ny c gc nhn gn ging vi mt ngi nht. ng knh c tiu c nh hn th gi l
ng knh gc rng, tc l c gc chp wide.
iu c ca my nh l thng s cho bit gc nhn ca my nh, ngha l khong
phm vi m my nh c th thu tm c. ng knh c tiu c 50 mm c coi l
chun (tnh theo h my nh s dng phm nha 35 mm), v loi ng knh ny c gc
nhn gn ging vi mt ngi nht. ng knh c tiu c nh hn th gi l ng knh
gc rng, tc l c gc chp wide. Ngc li nu tiu c ln hn 50 mm th gi l
ng knh Te1le, tc l c kh nng phng ln c nhng vt xa. Trong nh 13 di
y cho ta mt hnh dung v gc nhn ca my nh.
i vi my nh khng chuyn (digital compact) thng thng ch c mt ng
knh. Nhng tiu c s c thay i nh ta s tm hiu mt sn phm in hnh trong
hnh 14.

Vi my nh Sony DSC S750 (hnh 14), ta thy trn my nh c ghi f = 5.8


17.4 mm.
y l tiu c gc tnh theo my nh s v cha c qui i ra tiu c tng
ng vi phim 35 mm. Do vy trong phn m t chi tit, mc di tiu c, ta c
thm dng ghi ch trong ngoc (35 mm chuyn i) v s liu trong ngoc l 35 105
mm. y chnh l tiu c tng ng ca my nh c.
Vi thng s ny cho bit my nh c kh nng thay i tiu c t 35 mm (gc
chp rng wide) n 105 mm (gc chp te1le).

Vi gc chp rng (wide) ta c th bt ly khong khng gian c kch thc


ln nh cc cng trnh kin trc, hoc chp ly cnh mt nhm ng ngi.,vo
trong khung hnh, m khng i hi khong cch tc x ln. Ni cch khc, vi
c tnh gc chp rng, ta c th d dng ly ton cnh (hnh 15a) vi khong cch
chp khng cn qu rng ri. Tuy nhin do vic bao gm nhiu chi tit nh th nn
kch thc ca chi tit trong nh s khng th ln c.
Trong hnh 15a ta thy khong phm vi ghi nhn l ton b khung vin sn,
nhng b vo y l tht kh nhn tng tn tng chi tit. Vi c tnh ny, th my
nh s tht s c ch nh cn chp nh hot ng lin hoan trong lp chng hn,khi
m c bn b tp hp th ng nhng khng gian ghi nh th khng c nhiu.

Cn vi gc chp tele th sao? Hnh 15b cho ta thy ton b bc nh ch bng


mt phn nh ca bc nh 15a m thi (vng ng khung ). Vic phng ln hnh
nh nh ny ra c tc ng nh vic soi knh lp. Ta ch tp trung lm r rt mt s chi
tit nn phi b i khng gian ton cnh. B li, cc chi tit c phng ln ln, c
ko li gn, lm cho chi tit trong nh d dng nhn thy hn (cc ng nt ca
ngi nh th hin r rt hn)
hnh 16, ta c minh ha v tc ng gc chp wide v tele. Trong cng mt
khong cch vi cng mt i tng chp, th gc chp tele c th phng i x ln
so vi gc chp wide.

Hnh 16: nh hng ca tiu c trn ln ca nh chp.


Thng thng, i vi hu ht cc my nh s khng chuyn (digital compact)
u c mt kh nng wide v tele. Nh trong chic Sony, tiu c chy t 35 105
mm. Phn tiu c nh hn 50 mm chnh l kh nng wide v phn tiu c ln hn 50
mm chnh l kh nng tele.
Vi cp thng s ny ta hiu thm mt thng s khc ca my nh. l kh
nng phng ln quang hc, n bng t s gia tiu c ti a (tele) v tiu c ti thiu
(wide). Ly 105/35 (hay ly 17.4/5.8) ta c kt qu l 3. y chnh l thng s zoom
quang (optical) 3X.