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Results showed that of the test treatments, C.

aromaticus leaf extract showed the


highest capability as an anticoagulant. M. oleifera leaf extract showed a similar
anticoagulant effect but could hold the blood sample for a shorter period. A. bilimbi
fruit juice exhibited the shortest period of anticoagulation and most clumping and
crenation of cells.
http://research.uic.edu.ph/ojs/index.php/optima/article/view/389
(Avee Joy B. Dayaganon, S. Ma. Lydia Sarpong, Julidette B. Sapilan, Angellie M.
Fernandez )
2013

It has been reported by Bureau of plant industry that Moringa oleifera is an


outstanding source of nutritional components. Besides, Moringa oleifera is also
suggested as a viable supplement of dietary minerals. The pods and leaves of
Moringa oleifera contain high amounts of calcium, magnesium, potassium,
phosphorus, zinc, sodium, iron etc. The levels of these phytochemicals (bioactive
compounds) reveals that the leaves sample showed higher levels of these bioactive
compounds than the seeds sample.

The seeds contain edible oils and water soluble substances (coagulant proteins) that
can be used in drinking water clarification or for treatment of selected dyeing
effluents. Lectins with coagulant properties were purified from M. oleifera seeds.
Santos et al. purified and partially characterized coagulant M. oleifera lectin, cMoL,
the first lectin with coagulant properties for contaminants in water. cMoL is a basic
protein, active at pH range 4.09.0 and complex sugar specificity which recognized
mainly the glycoproteins azocasein and asialofetuin. WSMoL, Water-Soluble M.
oleifera Lectin, was detected by Santos et al. [25] as an acid glycoprotein, with
higher hemagglutination activity at pH 4.5, recognizing mainly fructose and porcine
thyroglobulin. Ferreira et al. [26] referred that this lectin has coagulant activity and
is a natural coagulant for contaminants in water, reducing turbidity and bacterial
proliferation.

Katre et al. reported the presence of a M. oleifera lectin, MoL, a homodimer with
molecular mass of 14 kDa and subunits (7.1 kDa) linked by disulfide bond(s). MoL is
also a glycoprotein with high stability and agglutinates human as well as rabbit
erythrocytes.

Moringa oleifera, also known as drumstick tree, is a highly valued and versatile plant which
belongs to the Moringaceae family. Moringa is a fast growing, deciduous tree that is native
to India and is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas all over Asia, Africa and South
America. It is widely known with many other names, including Horseradish tree and Ben oil tree.
Although modern science has only recently discovered its value, moringa has been imparting a
multitude of benefits across various cultures since ancient times. Moringa was valued by the
Romans, Egyptians and Greeks for its medicinal impact on a range of ailments. Today, usage
of moringa has been encouraged by various humanitarian organizations to combat malnutrition
and its effects in poverty-stricken regions, mainly due to its economic viability and rapid growth.
The moringa tree has thick, whitish bark with droopy, fragile branches and long, green, ovalshaped leaflets. In Ayurvedic therapy, moringa is valued for its impressive range of therapeutic
uses, commonly attributed to its antifungal, antiviral, antidepressant and anti-inflammatory
properties. In some areas, it is simply known as shigru.

(https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/vegetable/moringa.html)

Moringa extracts are beneficial in the treatment of anemia. Studies have provided supporting
evidence regarding the fact that treatment with moringa oleifera aids in facilitating the absorption
of iron, increasing the red blood cell count and helping to maintaining normal blood parameters.

Moringa tree (also is known as the miracle plant) belongs to the flowering plant
family Moringaceae that contains 13 species from tropical and subtropical climates
that range in size from tiny herbs to massive trees (El-Awady et al., 2015). However,
the most widely cultivated species are Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrine.
Moringa oleifera Lam is the best known and most widely distributed species of
Moringaceae family, having an impressive range of medicinal uses with high
nutritional value throughout the world (Fuglie, 1999; Tahany et al., 2010).

Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: In vitro, Moringa


oleifera leaf extract significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by adenosine
diphosphate, collagen, and epinephrine.

(http://www.naturallivingcenter.net/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?
StoreID=b571dewxvcs92jj200akhmccqa7w8v75&DocID=basic-interactions-moringa

Seeds of M. oleifera contain water-soluble substances that are undoubtedly the moststudied
natural coagulants
(http://www.academia.edu/20618993/Moringa_oleifera_Resource_Management_and_
Multiuse_Life_Tree)

Lectins are proteins of non-immune origin,containing two or more binding sites


forcarbohydrates. These molecules have the ability to agglutinate cells such as
erythrocytes(hemagglutination), lymphocytes, fibroblasts and bacteria, being also able to
precipitate glycoconjugates The lectins, first identified in plants, are widely distributed in nature,
includingprokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In addition to plants, lectins can be found in
animal venoms , bacteria , viruses and fungi. Plant lectins have been isolated from tissues such
as seeds, leaves, bark and roots. Seeds of M. oleifera constitute a rich source of bioactive
proteins, including lectins with various biological activities. These lectins were purified through
protein precipitation techniques followed by affinity or ion exchange chromatographies

EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) is the most commonly used anticoagulant in


evacuated tubes. It inhibits the clotting process by removing calcium from the
blood. This chemical has been used to prevent clotting in blood specimens since the
early 1950s and has certain advantages over other anticoagulants.1 EDTAs most
distinct characteristic is that it does not distort blood cells, making it ideal for
hematology use. Enough EDTA must be present to prevent coagulation, but
excessive amounts cause morphological changes in blood cells.2 When K2EDTA is
present in a concentration of 1.5 to 2.0 mg/ml of blood, it does not have any
significant effect on the blood count parameters.3 All tubes should be inverted
several times (8-10) to ensure thorough mixing and, therefore, proper
anticoagulation.

EDTA reduces platelet activation by protecting the platelets during contact with the
glass tube that may initiate platelet activation. Activation causes platelets to clump
in the presence of calcium and platelets adhere to the glass surface at a rapid rate.
Chelation of calcium using EDTA results in decreased platelet adhesion or retention
to glass.7

Effects of EDTA on Leukocytes (WBCs): Studies have demonstrated that the WBC
count remained stable for at least 3 days when EDTA anticoagulated blood was
stored at room temperature.12,13 Neutrophils and monocytes appeared to be the
cells most sensitive to storage in EDTA, whereas lymphocytes were the most
stable.14 With respect to the WBC morphologic characteristics of EDTAanticoagulated blood on storage at ambient (20-24C) temperatures, a slight
vacuolization of monocytes was found after one hour, progressing to moderate after
four hours; a slight vacuolization of neutrophilic granulocytes was found after three
to four hours, progressing to moderate after six hours.15 Only minimal changes in
the WBC morphologic characteristics have been reported on storage at 4C for as
long as 12 hours.

There are three different forms of EDTA. EDTA is available in disodium (Na2EDTA),
dipotassium (K2EDTA) and tripotassium (K3EDTA) salts. K2EDTA and Na2EDTA salts
are commonly used in dry form; K3EDTA is normally used in liquid. K3EDTA is
dispensed as a liquid and thus causes a slight dilution of the specimen. This salt
also has been shown to affect the red blood cell size more at increased
concentrations and on storage than the dipotassium salt. Therefore, K2EDTA is
recommended as the anticoagulant of choice in specimen collection for blood cell
counting and sizing. K2EDTA is spray-dried on the wall of the tube and will not dilute
the sample and is recommended by ICSH (International Council for Standardization
in Haematology) and CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) for
hematology testing.2,17
http://www.bd.com/vacutainer/pdfs/techtalk/TechTalk_Jan2009_VS8014.pdf
January 2009 Author: Nayana Patel

Related literature
Moringa oleifera is one of the best known medicinal plant. The Moringa plant has
been consumed by humans (Iqbal et al., 2006). It is one of the richest plant sources
of Vitamins A, B, C, D, E and K (Anwar and Bhanger, 2003; Babu 2000; Caceres et
al., 1992; Dayrit et al., 1990; Delisle et al., 1997). The vital minerals present in
Moringa 10 include Calcium, Copper, Iron, Potassium, Magnesium, Manganese and
Zinc.

Lectins are proteins of non-immune origin,containing two or more binding sites


forcarbohydrates. These molecules have the ability to agglutinate cells such as
erythrocytes(hemagglutination), lymphocytes, fibroblasts and bacteria, being also able to
precipitate glycoconjugates The lectins, first identified in plants, are widely distributed in nature,
includingprokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In addition to plants, lectins can be found in
animal venoms , bacteria , viruses and fungi. Plant lectins have been isolated from tissues such
as seeds, leaves, bark and roots.

Related studies

Moringa oleifera leaf extract significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by


adenosine diphosphate, collagen, and epinephrine.

Seeds of M. oleifera contain water-soluble substances that are undoubtedly the


moststudied natural coagulants