You are on page 1of 66

Application of Water Pinch Technology for Water and Wastewater Management

A Thesis
Presented to the
Faculty of the Chemical Engineering Department
Cagayan State University
Carig, Tuguegarao City

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree


Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering

by
Danna Mae D. Corpuz
Donita Rose P. Aguisanda
French Sarah R. Nera
Marilen A. Salvador
1

March 2016
APPROVAL SHEET
The Thesis entitled APPLICATION OF WATER PINCH TECHNOLOGY FOR
WATER AND WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT prepared and submitted by Donita P.
Aguisanda, Danna Mae D. Corpuz, French Sarah R. Nera, Marilen A. Salvador, in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering is
hereby recommended for oral examination.

Engr. CAESAR P. LLAPITAN,


Adviser
Accepted by the Thesis Committee with a grade of _____________________

Engr. MONICO U. TENEDOR


Member

Engr. MARK KENETH C. SUMBILLO


Member

Engr. MA. HAIDEE A. MABBORANG, Ph.D


Chairman

Accepted by partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Bachelor of Science in


Chemical Engineering

Engr. BUENCAMINO C. MARTIN


Dean, College of Engineering
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The researchers acknowledge their appreciation to many people who have given valuable
assistance in the completion of this study.
To Engr. Caesar P. Llapitan, for providing a very perceptive and logical evaluation and
for giving his valuable corrections and suggestions in the improvement of the study. His
questions, suggestions and fervent responses to the methods contained in this study were very
much appreciated.
To Engr. Mark Keneth C. Sumbillo for allowing us to conduct a water network analysis at
the Food Innovation Center and for his kindness and encouragements.
To the Chemical Engineering Faculty, Engr. Monico U. Tenedor and Engr. Ma. Haidee
Mabborang, for boosting our confidence and for guiding us along the way.
To our classmates for providing that much needed comfort and inspirations when nerves
become a bit frayed towards the end of the process. Their unending motivation and prayers
during those times when it was hard for us to move forward due to our supersaturated minds.
To our family for their precious support and unconditional love to us in order to
overcome difficulties and trials we have always encountered.
Last but not the least; we thank God for sustaining us. We thank Him for His
unfailing love and unending grace. We thank Him for faithfully fulfilling His promises to
us.
Donita Rose P. Aguisanda
Danna Mae D. Corpuz
2

French Sarah R. Nera


Marilen A. Salvador
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
APPROVAL PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ii

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

vi

ABSTRACT

viii

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.6 Local of the Study
1.7 Definition of Terms

1
2
2
2
3
4
5

Chapter 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


2.1 Development of Water Pinch Analysis

2.2 Significance of Data Extraction

10

2.3 Modelling Water-Using Network

11

2.4 Graphical Approaches to Pinch Analysis

12

2.5. Water Reuse Network

16

2.6 Water-Pinch Technology for Industrial Water Reuse


18
2.7 Water Network Retrofit

19

2.8. Theoretical Framework of the Study

21

2.9 Conceptual Framework

23

Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Materials

25

3.2 Water Network Analysis

25

3.3. Data Extraction

27

3.4. Minimum Water Targeting

29

3.5. Water Pinch Synthesis

30

3.6 Water Pinch Retrofit

30

Chapter 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


4.1. Analysis of Water Network

31

4.2. Data Extraction

32

4.3. Targeting Minimum Utility

33

4.4. Water Network Design

35

Chapter 5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.1. Conclusion

39

5.2. Recommendations

40

REFERENCES

41

APPENDICES
Appendix A

44

Appendix B

45

Appendix C

46

Appendix D

48

List of Tables
Table 3.1: Source/Sink Minimum Flowrate and Maximum Contaminant Concentration

28

Table 4.1: Limiting Water Data

32

Table 4.2: Constraints for water resource

34

Table C.1: Mass Load Calculation for each Source and Sink

46

Table C.2: Input Data for the Source/Sink Composite Curves before Shifting

46

Table C.3: Flow Reduction Calculation

47

List of Figures
Figure 2.1: A fixed-mass-load operation

10

Figure 2.2: Industrial water use system

12

Figure 2.3: The water-using process considered by Wang and Smith

14

Figure 2.4: Determination of the Minimum Freshwater Requirements

15

Figure 2.5: Conceptual Models for Water Reuse Networks

16

Figure 2.6: Theoretical Framework of the Study

22

Figure 2.7: Conceptual Framework of the Study

24

Figure 3.1: Water Network and Its Uses in the Food Innovation Center

26

Figure 3.2: Process Flow Diagram Water source and Water sink

27

Figure 4.1: Input and Output Streams of the Process

31

Figure 4.2: Source/Sink Composite Curve before shifting Source Composite

33

Figure 4.3: Source/Sink Composite Curve after shifting Source Composite

34

Figure 4.4: Source/Sink Composite Allocation Curve and Network Allocation Diagram

36

Figure 4.5: Water Using Network for the Process with Water Reuse

37

Figure 4.6: Water Using Network considering Mass Load Deficit Case

38

Figure D.1: Food Innovation Centre

48

Figure D.2: The Vacuum Fryer

49

Figure D.3: Vacuum Pump

49

Figure D.4: The Sinks

50

Figure D.5: Water Retort

51

Figure D.6: Spray Dryer

51

Figure D.7: Wastewater stream from Vacuum Fryer

52

Figure D.8: Wastewater Stream from Water Retort

52

Figure D.9: Wastewater Stream from Spray Dryer

53

ABSTRACT
Water Pinch Technology was used in this study as a systematic technique of
implementing water minimization strategy through integration of processes for maximum
water efficiency. This was implemented at the Food Innovation Center Region 02 from
which relevant data such as contaminant concentrations and flowrates of each water sink
and source were collected. The processes involved include Raw Material Washing,
Vacuum Frying, Water Retort and Spray Dryer Cleaning. Source/Sink Composite Curves
had been used to target the minimum usage of feed water for water reuse network. From
this, Source and Sink Allocation Composite Curves together with Network Allocation
Diagram were constructed to show the water network allocation or design between the
sources and sinks. It can be observed that there were two wastewater streams with
potential as water sources namely Water Retort and Vacuum Fryer. The results of the
study showed that at minimum flowrates of 0.16 L/s and 0.17 L/s for feed water and
wastewater, there could be a flow reduction of 78.95% and 77.92%, respectively. While
at minimum flowrates of 0.33 L/s and 0.34 L/s, flow reduction accounts to 56.58% and
55.26% for feed water and wastewater correspondingly.
Keywords: WPT, water source, water sink, Source/Sink Composite Curves, NAD

Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
1.1.Background of the Study

The major concern in most production industries is the efficient use of resources.
This is due to increasing costs and stringent environmental regulations. Process
integration is becoming an attractive solution to determine the most efficient reuse and
recycle of resources within an operating system. Process integration techniques initially
developed for energy integration have been modified to be applicable to water reuserecycle systems with major developments being in the past decade.
The need for efficient water management in many sectors is getting more crucial
than ever. The price of freshwater is likely to increase further in the near future due to the
predicted shortage of fresh water and hence, the possibilities of resorting to wastewater
treatment, desalination, interstate water transfer and groundwater extraction for
freshwater sources. People still want to use water luxuriously and at the same time save
money. There is a need to come up with a new approach in the water supply and
sanitation sectors.
Water pinch analysis is a systematic method of instigating water minimization
strategy through process integration for maximum water efficiency (Manan, et al., 2005).
Hence, this research was conducted to make water reuse possible through the application
of water pinch technology. From this, water using network was constructed from which
flow reduction is expected.

1.2

Statement of the Problem


Water-pinch technology gives answers to a number of key questions when

retrofitting existing facilities and designing new water-using networks in manufacturing


processes. For water and effluent-treatment systems:
1. What is the minimum wastewater-generation target of the process?
2. How would a new water- using network be designed to meet the target?
3. How should a piping system be designed to make water reuse possible and minimize
wastewater generation?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study was to determine the maximum water recovery
and minimize wastewater generation of the drying system through Water Pinch Analysis.
Specifically, it intended to:

1. Identify the minimum feed water consumption and wastewater generation in waterusing operations (water-pinch analysis);
2. Design a water-using network that achieves the identified flow rate targets for feed
water and wastewater through water reuse (water-pinch synthesis); and
3. Design a piping system for water reuse and minimize wastewater generation through
effective process changes (water-pinch retrofit).
1.4. Significance of the Study
The drive in industry is towards environmental sustainability and rising costs of
freshwater and effluent treatment. These have encouraged the process industry to find
new ways to reduce feed water consumption and wastewater generation. Concurrently,

the development of systematic techniques for water reduction, reuse, and recycling within
a process plant has seen extensive progress. The advent of water pinch analysis (WPA) as
a tool for the design of optimal water recovery network has been one of the most
significant advances in the area of water minimization.
Maximizing water reuse and recycling can minimize freshwater consumption and
wastewater generation. Hence, water recycling and reuse are becoming increasingly
important since cleaner production and sustainability will become the criteria by which
designs are judged. This paper contains an extensive approach of pinch technology
applied to mass integration (e.g., solvent recovery systems) and water-pinch technology
(e.g., water-using operations and effluent treatment systems) in a unified manner.
Using Pinch Technology, a graphical approach is developed to locate the
minimum freshwater and wastewater flow rate prior to any network design in which
savings can be achieved in both capital investment and operating cost. Emissions can be
minimized and throughput maximized. Furthermore, a developed water-using
network/design is used as a basis for utility usage wherein it can lessen the effluent
generation and reduce the treatment cost.
1.5. Scope and Limitation
This study is directed on using water pinch analysis to aid in systematically
modifying wastewater minimizing retrofit designs to an existing process, primarily on the
pilot food processing section. Specifically, it included:
1. the process flow data, particularly the water flow data, the contaminant
concentrations of the process water and the allowable contaminant concentration to a
process unit;
3

2. the maximum water-reuse target and the minimum wastewater-generation target of


the process; and
3. the design of a water-using network that achieves the identified flow rate targets for
feed water and wastewater through water reuse that encompasses a single
contaminant only .
1.6. Locale of the Study
Data gathering and conduct of the study was done in CSU-DOST02 Food
Innovation Center (FIC) at Cagayan State University, Carig Campus and the data
analyses and simulations was conducted in Tuguegarao City, Cagayan.

1.7 Definition of Terms


BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) is the contaminant chosen in order to obtain the
mass load to measure the potential of water sources to be reused.
Pinch Analysis a technique used for minimizing water consumption opportunities.
Process Integration refers to the analysis of waste water in the pilot food processing
plant.
Source/sink composite curve is used to target the minimum usage of feed water for
material reuse network.
Water Pinch Analysis is a tool for the design of optimal water network. Used to locate
the minimum utility targets (feed water consumption and waste water generation) prior to
detailed network design.
Water Pinch Synthesis used for designing a water-using network that achieves the
identified flowrate targets for feed water and wastewater through water reuse,
regeneration and recycle
Water Source often found in the outlet stream of a process unit. Data for water sources
were obtained by identifying the maximum concentration limit and the minimum
flowrate limit of the wastewater source from each process at FIC.
Water Sink Data refers to the unit where resource specifically water, is consumed.
Data for water sinks were obtained from estimates from an engineer and description in
equipment list (Liu et al., 2004)

Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Pinch analysis (or pinch technology) is a rigorous, structured approach that may
be used to tackle a wide range of improvements related to process and site utility. This
includes opportunities such as reducing operating costs, debottlenecking processes,
improving efficiency, and reducing and planning capital investment. Major reasons for
the success of pinch analysis are the simplicity of the concepts behind the approach, and
the impressive results it has been obtained worldwide. It analyzes a commodity,
principally energy (energy pinch), hydrogen (hydrogen pinch), or water (water pinch), in
terms of its quality and quantity, recognizing the fact that the cost of using that
commodity will be a function of both. (Natural Resources of Canada, 2003)
In the late 1970s, Process Integration took off with the first appearance by
thermal pinch technology which was developed to analyzed heat exchanger networks.
After which, developments of the last decades have made a much broader range of
process integration technologies available, wherein it is no longer limited to the
optimization of heat exchanger networks but it have been developed to optimize other
equipment like fractionating column in refineries. And recently, industrial water network
optimization technologies have been developed in order to minimize water and energy
consumption. (Natural Resources of Canada)
Wastewater minimization and treatment has been a primary concern for pollution
prevention in the process and manufacturing industries. Wastewater streams, if generated
from cleaning and rinsing processes, usually contain various hazardous or toxic pollutants
that need be strictly controlled. Water resources are scarce in this part of the world;
6

however, water demand is on the rise due to increase in population, agriculture, and
industrial firms.
2.1. Development of Water Pinch Analysis
In order to implement cleaner production designs as well as improve the ecoefficiency of existing processes a method is required to investigate the implications of
various options. Process integration is an approach which emphasizes the unity of a
process (El Halwagi, 1997). It provides a basis for analyzing and developing a design at
an early stage of its development by providing global insights of the process to the
designer, coupled with methodical targeting and design procedures. This allows for the
design of eco-efficient processes where the pollution is minimized and does not rely on
end-of-pipe solutions to minimize the pollution.
This has led to the development of process synthesis which has been defined as
the discrete decision making activities of conjecturing which of the many available
component parts one should use, and how they should be interconnected to structure the
optimal solution to a design.
Process synthesis methodologies systematically guide the designer in the
screening of the various process options in order to identify the optimum design. It also
allows the assessment of the design possibilities before detailed design is initiated.
Analogies between heat conservation and wastewater minimization have been
used to extend the pinch concept to wastewater minimization as stated on the study made
by Meyer et al, (1993) from which it developed a superstructure of all possible re-use and
regeneration opportunities in a petroleum refinery situation. The superstructure was

optimized and the uneconomical features of the design removed. The regeneration of
wastewater was also considered in this work.
This work addressed single contaminant cases as well as the identification of
regeneration opportunities. Procedures were presented for the design of networks, which
allow the minimum target to be achieved. In their methodology different minimum
concentration differences can be allowed throughout the network, together with
constraints. A composite curve was constructed similar to the temperature enthalpy
curves introduced in thermal pinch analysis. This composite curve was then matched to a
composite curve through the origin. This minimum water supply line touches the
composite curve at a minimum of two points i.e. the origin and one other. The point other
than the origin is known as the pinch point. Two methods were presented to achieve this
minimum flow rate design. The first is referred to as the maximum driving force method,
which uses concentration differences between the various streams to target the minimum
flow rate. The second method is referred to as the minimum number of water sources
method and uses load intervals. In each interval only enough water is used to maintain
network feasibility, the remainder is bypassed and used later. Wang and Smith (1994) also
considered the case where more than one contaminant is present and extended their
methodology to deal with this situation. They also considered the implications of
regeneration of wastewater.
In a later paper Wang et.al, (1994) discussed single and multiple operations with
fixed flow rate and processes with multiple sources of water of varying quality. Water
loss in processes is also taken into account. New design rules allow novel water flow
schemes to be developed based on local recycling and splitting of operations.
8

Dhole et al. (1996) introduced an approach slightly different to that of Wang and
Smith. This method, known as the Two Composite Method, was designed to overcome
the problem encountered in real life application of the Wang and Smith methodology.
Beuhner and Rossiter further expanded this methodology. They used purity on the
vertical axis and water flow on the horizontal axis. The input streams of all the water
using processes are plotted in a demand composite curve in order to define the water
demand for the entire plant. The output streams are plotted in the same way in order to
construct the source composite for the entire plant. The composite curves form a pinch
point that represents a bottleneck in the reuse of water. The design of the minimum water
network is then achieved by the mixing of wastewater of varying qualities in order to
relieve the bottleneck in reuse opportunities that is created by the pinch point.
Olesen and Polley (1997) reviewed the procedures introduced by Wang and Smith
concerning single contaminants. They introduced a new network designing procedure in
which they classify operations into distinct types, each of which has distinct design
implications. This method is based on the use of a load table, which tabulates the
distribution of duties in the region of the pinch and the minimum water needs for each
operation. They considered the case of simple reuse, water draws and regenerated water
re-use. El-Halwagi et al. (2003) details some new and interesting techniques developed to
handle problems encountered in real life situations as well as previously developed ideas
such as reacting networks and the combination of thermal and water pinch technology.
A case study presented by Doyle and Smith (1997) consisted of fixed-mass-load
operations, this mathematical programming approach can be applied to operations with
more complex contaminant loading models.
9

Figure 2.1. A fixed-mass-load operation


Alva-Argaez et al. (1998) extended the work of Doyle et.al, (1997) incorporated
effluent treatment plants in the proposed mathematical programming model. The
proposed model includes mass balance constraints, demand and capacity constraints,
environmental constraints on waste discharge, design equations for pipes and treatment
operation performance constraints.
2.2. Significance of Data Extraction
The subject of data extraction and its importance to the final solution achieved by
the application of process integration methodologies is dealt with by Linnhoff and
Akinradewo (1999). While the context is energy integration based, several aspects are
transferable to water-use networks, particularly the consequences of including features of
the existing process network as constraints in solving process integration problems.
(Naylor, 2003).
Jodicke et al. (2000) indicated that in process integration projects, a significant
amount of time is required to obtain the desired data such as maximum inlet and outlet
concentrations. A mixed integer non-linear programming method was presented for
establishing the viability of projects with minimum data requirements. The model uses
10

information that is easily accessible and reduces the effort required to produce optimal
solutions. (Naylor, 2003).
In addition to sourcing the data it is essential to ensure that the data is
representative for the plant. Meyer et al. (1993) described a general method for data
reconciliation applied to material balances for steady-state chemical processes. Sets of
rules were proposed that facilitated classification of measurements and mass balance
equations. The purpose of doing this is to reduce the number of variables that required
optimization. The numerical method proposed determines the best fit of the variables,
using redundant equations as constraints. Most data reconciliation techniques rely on a
similar technique of fitting data by using a sum of least squares regression method
(Naylor, 2003).
The optimal solutions determined when using the minimum amount of available
data may prove to be infeasible due to unforeseen circumstances which only become
clear once the project has been evaluated.
2.3. Modelling Water-Using Network
Graphical analysis tools have been used to gain insight into the nature of water
using networks. In most of these methods the elements of the overall system are
addressed separately. For example Wang and Smith (1994) used a graphical approach to
design the water-using subsystem and the treatment network for the wastewater streams
is determined as a second step. Kuo and Smith (1998) and Hallale and Fraser (2000) used
graphical insights to address the design of the overall system. Graphical methods are
however generally limited for use in systems that have multiple contaminants and flow

11

rate constraints which make them difficult to solve. The graphical approach targets the
fresh water flow rate and therefore does not allow for incorporation of additional
variables such as piping and discharge costs (Naylor, 2003).
2.3.1. Characterizing the Water-Using Network

Figure 2.2. Industrial water use system


Alva-Argaez characterized the four basic elements of an industrial water using
system as follows: i) freshwater sources, each with a maximum available flow rate,
concentration of key pollutants and cost per unit used; ii) water and wastewater treatment
plants, each with a maximum flow capacity, and efficiency for the removal of the key
pollutants and possible water losses; iii) water-using operations each with a flow demand
and quality requirements; and iv) a wastewater discharge point where some
environmental regulations must be met, in terms of maximum concentration of key
contaminants, or maximum contaminant loads.
2.4. Graphical Approaches to Pinch Analysis
Analogies between heat and mass transfer have been used to extend the concept
of pinch analysis to encompass waste minimization and pollution prevention. Techniques
have been developed in order to design optimal mass exchanger networks (MEN). These

12

minimum flow rate networks minimize the amount of fresh water consumed and
wastewater produced.
The method developed by El-Halwagi et.al, (1992) focused on the mass exchange
of a single contaminant between a set of rich process streams and a set of lean process
streams. A minimum allowable concentration difference was defined which applied
throughout the whole mass exchange network. The concept of a mass exchange network
synthesis was introduced whereby the rich and lean streams were matched.
Wang and Smith (1994) presented an approach in which targets are set that maximize
water reuse. They present fours general approaches to waste minimization. These are the
process changes which involves reducing the inherent demand of a process for water.
Second is the re-use in which wastewater can in some cases be reused directly in
other operations, provided the level of contamination introduced in the previous operation
does not interfere with the process. It may require blending of wastewaters or the
blending of wastewater with fresh water.
Another approach is the regeneration reuse wherein wastewater can be regenerated by
partial treatment to remove contaminants which would prevent its reuse, and then reused
in other operations. It may not be reused in the operation that generated the waste in the
first place, as this recycling will eventually lead to build up within the process. The
regenerated water may be blended with other wastewater or with fresh water.
And lastly, the regeneration recycling in which wastewater can be regenerated to
remove contaminants that have built up, that is then recycled back to the process that
generated the waste originally.

13

The water-using process in which a single contaminant is removed from a process


stream using water was initially considered by Wang and Smith.

Figure 2.3. The water-using process considered by Wang and Smith


A contaminant is removed from a process stream by contact with water. In this
process the water becomes contaminated. Different water flow rates and contaminant
levels can solve the same problem. In order to maximize the possibility of water reuse
from other operations Wang and Smith specify water with the highest possible inlet
concentration, then by specifying the maximum possible outlet concentration, the
minimum water flow is defined. This case is known as the limiting case, any water supply
below this (and hence water flow rate above) will satisfy the process requirement. These
maximum inlet and outlet concentrations might be fixed by i) minimum mass transfer
driving force; ii) maximum solubility; iii) corrosion limitations iv) fouling etc.
The limiting water profile is used in the analysis because this approach can be
applied to operations very different in nature and use of the limiting case allows all the
processes to be treated on a uniform basis.
Wang and Smith produce a table of limiting process water data. This is done by:
First step is specifying the mass load of contaminant (m) to be removed from the process
stream which is defined by equation 2.1:
m = Qproc (Cproc in Cproc out)
14

(2.1)

After specifying the mass load of the contaminant, next is specifying the
maximum allowable contaminant concentration (Cw in max) in the feed water or in the outlet
(Cw

out max

) to determine by process or equipment limitations such as precipitation or

corrosion potential. And lastly, by calculating the maximum wash water flow for each
process which is defined in equation 2.2
Qw= m / (Cw out max Cw in max)

(2.2)

This is repeated for each process and the results tabulated. The limiting water data
are then plotted as limiting profiles and these profiles used to construct a limiting
composite curve (Figure 2.4 (a) and (b)). Combining the operations between
concentration intervals generates the composite curve.

Figure 2.4 Determination of the Minimum Freshwater Requirements.


(a. Limiting Composite curve before shifting Source Composite; b. Limiting
Composite Curve after shifting Source Composite)
The composite curve shows the critical sections of the plant. The sections at or
close to the pinch point require close attention in order to minimize the water flow rate.
This composite curve is then matched to a water supply line. The inlet contaminant

15

concentration of the water supply line is assumed to be zero and therefore passes through
the origin.
The second method introduced by Wang and Smith (1994) ensures the minimum
number of water sources is used. This method involves following the concentration
intervals instead of the mass intervals. In each match the minimum amount of water
required by the process is used and the unused water is bypassed to be mixed in later. The
design procedure then follows that of the first method producing a water-use network and
simplifying it by breaking loops. This method produces a design with a single water
source that achieves the minimum flow rate target.
Another approach was the Source/Sink Composite Curve introduced by ElHalwagi (2003). Water sources and sinks are plotted on a contaminant mass load versus
the flowrate diagram for material recycle/ reuse.
2.5. Water Reuse Networks

(a)
Traditional water use patterns are shown conceptually in Figure 2.5.a, where a
single source of fresh water is used to supply a variety of processes, P. Once used, the
process waters are mixed and sent to a series of treatment operations, T, before discharge.

16

One inefficiency associated with traditional use and treatment schemes comes from not
exploiting water reuse opportunities.

(b)

(c)

(d)
17

Figure 2.5. Conceptual Models for Water Reuse Networks


The effluent from some process water uses can be used as the feed material for
other process uses. Figure 2.5.b illustrates the concept of direct process water reuse.
Another inefficiency in traditional approaches to water use and treatment is
associated with the use of a single series of treatment operations for all used process
waters. Since not process water effluents are contaminated to the same degree, they do
not all require the same level of treatment. For example, a process effluent with high
levels of dissolved solids and low levels of suspended solids may not require the same
treatment processes required by a process effluent with high suspended solids but no
dissolved solids. Combining these streams before treatment, as shown in Figures 2.5.a
and 2.5.b would lead to higher flows in the treatment processes than if the streams were
treated separately. Figure 2.5.c illustrates the concept of using series and parallel
treatment processes, rather than just series processes. Figure 2.5.d illustrates the concept
of using series and parallel process use and treatment, rather than just treatment in series
with use. These concepts of water reuse can be identified using a set of systematic tools;
the procedure is often referred to as a pinch analysis.
2.6. Water-Pinch Technology for Industrial Water Reuse
Generally, water is used as raw material in most of the industries and generated
wastewater is discharged in to the environment. Increasing freshwater utility is due to
economical and industrial growth, considerably. Wastewater generation in industrial
operations and consequent harsh environmental disposal regulations calls for intensive in
situ wastewater management.

18

2.7. Water Network Retrofit


Techniques developed for the retrofit of existing water network are mainly based
on the established concept of heat and mass exchange network retrofit. Water recovery
network is designed to realize the minimum water targeting method. Some of the studies
are the following:
The Source-sink Mapping Diagram which are aligned horizontally at the top
while all the water sources are lined up vertically and are arranged according to
increasing contaminant concentration (Polley and Polley, 2000).
Another method is the Source and Sink Allocation Curve prosed by El-Halwagi
(2003). This method is used to show the water network sllocstion or design between the
sources and sink. El-Halwagi used a concept similar to Polley and Polley who proposed
that the cleanest source be reused first to satisfy the cleanest sink. In here, if the quality of
the sink has not yet met,but the quantity, fresh water is added (El-Halwagi and Kazantzi,
2005).
The cleanest-to-cleanest matching rule used by various researchers (Polley et.al,
2000); (El-Halwagi,2003); (El-Halwagi et.al,2005) was later found by Wan Alwi and
Manan (2008) to only cater for the flowrate deficit case, a case where the mass load of
the sink is satisfied but its not the flowrate. Another case is the mass load deficit where
the source(s) meet(s) only the flowrate of the sink but not the mass load. The cumulative
water sources below and between the pinch regions have exactly the same flowrate and
mass load as the cumulative sink.

19

Wan Alwi and Manan have introduced another rule for the mass load deficit
case, which is to satisfy the mass load and the flowrate of a sink using the cleanest as
well as the dirtiest sources in the Pinch region and making sure the Pinch point and the
utility target are satisfied. The authors also introduced the Network Allocation Diagram
(NAD), which translates the Source and Sink Allocation Composite Curves into a
network mapping diagram for easy visualization.

20

2.8. Theoretical Framework of the Study


Water and wastewater management using water pinch technology was then
conducted by numerous researchers such as the work done by Meyer et al, (1993) from
which he presented the superstructure model for all possible reuse and regeneration
opportunities. Then, it was optimized and the uneconomical features of the design were
removed. His work addressed single contaminant only.
Wang and Smith used the same procedure but he also covered multiple
contaminant operation with fixed flowrate and processes with various sources of water
with varying quality. Dhole et.al, (1996), introduced a method known as two composite
method to overcome problems encountered in real life application of Wang and Smith
methodology. Both studies showed how to locate the minimum utility targets.
In doing the network design, Olesen et.al, (1997) acquaint with a new procedure
in which they classify operations into distinct types. The technique is based on the use of
a load table which tabulates the distribution of duties in the region of the pinch. They
considered the case of a simple reuse, water draws and regenerated water reuse.
Later on, Doyle et.al, (1997) extended the analysis using a fixed-mass-load
operation case study. From this, a mathematical programming approach can be applied to
an operation with complex contaminant loading models.

21

INPUT

PROCESS

Figure 2.6. Theoretical Framework of the Study

22

OUTPUT

2.9. Conceptual Framework of the Study


In performing the Water Pinch Technology, there are four key steps to be
followed. First step is the analysis of water network wherein the existing or the base case
network is analyze through plant auditing. This was followed by the extraction of data. In
this step, the water sources and water sinks having the potential for reuse and recycling
was identified associated with the extraction of the limiting water flowrate and limiting
concentration data.
The minimum utility targets were set from which the source and sink composite
curves are constructed. This step established the minimum possible quantity of feed water
requirement and wastewater generation, or the minimum water targets using a targeting
method. Lastly, design a water recovery network in order to realize the minimum water
targets. The method used in this study is based on the Source/Sink Allocation Composite
Curve. From the said graph, the Network Allocation Diagram was then constructed. This
provided an easier visualization of the minimum targets and into what streams water
sources will be reused. Upon finding the minimum feed water and wastewater flowrates,
the flow reduction is then obtained. To sum up this substantial technique, conceptual
framework of the study is shown in Figure 2.7.

23

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

Figure 2.7. Conceptual Framework of the Study

24

Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY
3.1. Materials
The materials used in performing Water Pinch Analysis include Process Flow Diagram
(PFD), operating data conditions, and Microsoft Office Excel.
3.2. Water Network Analysis
Water networks include water directed to 1) process usage, 2) utility usage or 3)
other usages. It illustrates common sources of wastewater, including process uses and
wastewater from other uses. Utility and other uses include the wastewater coming from
the cleaning of the spray dryer and washing of raw materials, and utensils while the
process uses pertains to the vacuum fryer feed water and the water used in the water
retort.
On the analysis of water network, the type of operation should be specified. In
general, water-using operations can be classified into two main categories, i.e., masstransfer-based and non-mass-transfer-based operations. Mass-transfer-based operations
include vessel washing, vacuum frying and other processes. It is where water sink and
water source exist, while for non-mass-transfer-based operation, it is where either water
sink or water source exist.
Figure 3.1 illustrates the water usage along with the network of water within the
process in the FIC.

25

Figure 3.1 Water Network and Its Usage within the Food Innovation Center

26

In the FIC, washing or cleaning of raw materials is one of the process that highly
consumed feed water. It is next to the vacuum fryer wherein large quantity of water is
being introduced into the unit from the vacuum pump. The effluent from the spray dryer
is noted for its high mass load. On the other hand, effluent from the water retort has the
lowest maximum allowable contaminant concentration as well as mass load.

Figure 3.2. Process Flow Diagram of Water Source and Water sink
Figure 3.2 illustrates the process flow diagram showing the inlet and outlet
streams of water. Feed water was being fed into each operation and wastewater was being
disposed directly. In general, there were four water sinks and water sources.
3.3. Data Extraction

27

Parameters to be considered in developing configurations are; (1) the water flow


data; (2) the contaminant concentrations of the process water and, (3) the allowable
contaminant concentration to a process unit. Such contaminants include total suspended
solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical
oxygen demand (COD), etc.
In wastewater minimization with pinch technology, the two purposes were
wastewater minimization considering single contaminant and wastewater minimization
considering multiple contaminants. In this study, it will be directed on wastewater
management considering single contaminant only. Hence, the maximum allowable BOD
concentration will be considered.
For the sources, the impurity load ( mi ) of each streams computed as a product
of the flowrate ( f i , kg/s) and the impurity concentration ( Ci , ppm) of the stream
given by the equation:
m i=f i C i (3.1)

For the sinks, the load capacity ( m j ) of each streams computed as the product
of the sink flowrate ( f j , kg/s) and the impurity concentration ( C j , ppm) wherein:
Cimin C j C jmax . It is given by the following equation:
m j=f j C j(3.2)

28

Table

3.1

Source/Sink

Minimum

Flowrate

and

Maximum

Contaminant

Concentration
Water Sinks, Stream

Flowrate, (L/s)

Concentration, (ppm)

0.21

1.0

0.23

2.0

0.15

2.0

0.17

10.0

Water Source, Stream

Flowrate, (L/s)

Concentration, (ppm)

1. Vacuum Fryer Wastewater


2. Water retort Wastewater
3. Cleaning/washing
Wastewater
4. Spray Dryer Wastewater

0.20

2.0

0.22

2.0

0.17

5.0

0.17

25.0

1. Water Retort Feed Water


2. Vacuum Fryer Feed Water
3. Raw Materials cleaning or
washing Feed water
4. Spray Dryer Feed Water

Water pinch analysis is done right after the preliminary procedure listed above.
This WPA includes minimum water targeting then followed by the construction of the
concentration composite curves.
3.4 Minimum Water Targeting
In targeting the minimum utility requirements and in locating the pinch points, the
graphical technique such as the composite curves have been used in mass and water
recovery problems that are based on pinch analysis.
3.4.1

Construction of Source and Sink Composite Curve


The first procedure for the construction of Source/Sink Composite Curves was

to rank the sinks in ascending order of maximum allowable contaminant


concentration. Then, rank the source in ascending order of maximum allowable
contaminant concentration followed by plotting the maximum mass load of each sink
versus flowrate then create a sink composite curve by superimposing the sink arrows
29

in ascending order. Followed by plotting the maximum mass load of each source
versus flowrate then create a source composite curve by superimposing the source
arrows in ascending order. Lastly, shift source composite stream until it touches the
sink composite stream, with the source composite curve located below the sink
composite curve in the overlapped region.
3.5. Water Pinch Synthesis
3.5.1

Source and Sink Allocation Composite Curves


Source and Sink Allocation curve can be used to show the water network

allocation or design between the sources and sink. The following were the steps
proposed by El- Hawagi and Kazantzi (2005):
i.

Satisfy a sink using the water sources. If the sink mass load is met but not
the flow rate, add freshwater.

ii.

The procedure is repeated until all sinks have been satisfied by the
available sources and freshwater. The mass load allocation is located in the
y-axis of the graph and the flow rate allocation on the x-axis.

3.6. Water Pinch Retrofit


From the Source and Sink Allocation Composite Curves, Network Allocation
Diagram or NAD is constructed which translates the Source and Sink Allocation
Composite Curves into a network diagram for easy visualization. From these, the percent
reduction of feed water and wastewater is obtained.

30

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1.

Analysis of Water Network


Figure 4.1 shows the water network in the Food Innovation Center. As seen, the
flowrates of each water sink are also indicated.

Disposal

Feed water

Figure 4.1 Input and Output Streams of the Process

31

There are four water demands for this process - the vacuum fryer feed water and
the water feed stream to the water retort, spray dryer and raw material washing/cleaning.
There are also four water sources. Here, the water sources are regarded as wastewater.

4.2 Data Extraction


4.2.1. Water Source and Water Sink Data
One way to modify (debottleneck) the overall process is through water reuse
and recycling. One of the parameters to be considered in developing configurations
was the contaminant concentration. Among the contaminants presented in Section
3.3, BOD is the chosen contaminant in this study since in the past study made by Wan
Alwi et al, (2004), it was supposed to be the chosen contaminant when it comes to
food processing.
However, any proposed solution must comply with the flowrate and
concentration constraints imposed on the water demands and sources which are
shown in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Limiting Water Data
Ski

Fi (L/s)

Sinks

32

Ci (ppm)

m (mg/s)

SK1
SK2
SK3
SK4

Water Retort Feed Water


Vacuum Fryer Feed Water
Raw Materials cleaning/washing Feed
water
Spray Dryer Feed Water

SRj
SR1
SR2
SR3
SR4

Sources
Water retort Wastewater
Vacuum Fryer Wastewater
Wastewater from Cleaning/washing
Spray Dryer Wastewater

0.21
0.23
0.15

1.0
2.0
2.0

0.21
0.46
0.30

0.17

10.0

1.7

Fj (L/s)
0.20
0.22
0.17
0.17

Cj (ppm)
2.0
2.0
5.0
25.0

m(mg/s)
0.40
0.44
0.85
4.25

*SK refers to water sinks


*SR refers to water sources
The mass load obtained from the Equations 3.1 and 3.2 was plotted versus the
flowrate. This form part the Source and Sink Composite Curves as shown in the
succeeding Section.
4.3 Targeting Minimum Utility
4.3.1 Source and Sink Composite Curves
Figure 4.2 showed the plot of the mass load versus the flowrate for each water
sink and source. The highest mass load for the sink accounts to the cleaning of spray
dryer which is 1.7 mg/s. For the sources, it was the wastewater coming from the
cleaning of spray dryer that has the utmost mass load of about 4.25 mg/s.

33

Source1

Source2

Source3

Source4

Sink1

Sink2

Sink3

Sink4

Figure 4.2 Source/Sink Composite Curve before Shifting Source Composite


Figure 4.3 showed the shifted graph from which the pinch point is at the third
sink. From the Source and Sink Composite Curve, Source and Sink Allocation Curve was
then constructed to obtain the minimum feed water flowrate and minimum wastewater
flowrate.

34

Sink1

Sink2

Sink3

Source3

Source4

Sink4

Source1

Source2

Figure 4.3 Source/Sink Composite Curve after Shifting Source Composite


The following flowrate and contaminant concentration constraints are identified
for the water sinks and water sources.
Table 4.2. Constraints for Water Resources

1. Water Retort

Flowrate,
(L/s)
0.21-0.25

2. Vacuum Fryer

0.23-0.25

0-2.0

3. Spray Dryer Cleaning

0.15-0.20

0-2.0

4. Raw Material Washing

0.17-0.20

0-10

Water Sources, Stream

Flowrate,(L/s)

Impurity Concentration (ppm)

1. Water Retort

0.20

2.0

2. Vacuum Fryer

0.22

2.0

3. Raw Material Washing

0.17

5.0

4. Spray Dryer Cleaning

0.1

25.0

Water Sinks, Stream

35

Impurity Concentration (ppm)


0-1.0

As described in Section 3.3, the maximum contaminant concentration and the


minimum flowrate should be selected for the limiting water data. The limiting water data
for the process is summarized in Table 4.1.
4.4. Water Network Design
4.4.1. Allocation Composite Curve and Network Allocation Diagram (NAD)
Figure 4.4 shows the Source/Sink Composite Allocation Curve which is located
above the Network Allocation Diagram. It gives minimum feed water flowrate (F FW)
of 0.16 L/s and minimum wastewater flowrate of 0.17 L/s.
Based on the Network Allocation Diagram, wastewater from water retort or SR1
can be reused. It resulted into a reuse water with flowrate of 0.05 L/s and 0.15 L/s
for the exact same process and vacuum fryer respectively. Same is through with that
of the water sources coming from the second sink from which effluent can be used
into the same system with a flowrate of 0.08 L/s and into the washing of raw
materials with a flowrate of 0.14 L/s. Source 3 indicated a reuse water flowrate of
0.01 L/s and 0.17 L/s into the third sink and fourth sink respectively. Source 4 which
has a flowrate of 0.17 L/s can be disposed immediately as shown in Figure 4.4.

36

Sink1

Sink2

Sink3

Sink4

Source1

Source2

Source3

Source4

Figure 4.4 Source/Sink Composite Allocation Curve and Network Allocation Diagram
37

4.4.2. Water- Using Networks


The final network was illustrated in Figure 4.5 and Figure 4.6 with or without the
application of mass load deficit case and flowrate deficit case. In Figure 4.5, there are
three wastewater streams with potential as water sources while in Figure 4.6, Water
Retort and Vacuum Fryer are the only wastewater streams with potential as water sources.

Feed water

Figure 4.5 Water Using Network for the Process with Water Reuse
The Source/Sink Allocation Curve together with the NAD represents a flow
reduction of 78.95% and 77.92% for feed water and wastewater, respectively.
Considering the mass load deficit case and flowrate deficit case, both wastewater from
washing of raw materials and spray dryer will have a flowrate of 0.17 L/s. Feed water
38

being fed into the fourth sink will be directly disposed since it does not satisfy the mass
load listed. Hence, the flow reduction for feed water and wastewater were 56.58% and
55.26% correspondingly. These flow reduction coincide with the past case studies such as
the study performed by Wan Alwi et al, (2004) onto different processing plants.

Feed water

Figure 4.6. Water Using Network with Mass Load and Flowrate Deficit Case

CHAPTER V
39

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


In determining the maximum water recovery and minimizing wastewater
generation of water using operations at FIC, Water Pinch Technology has been conducted
in this study. In the analysis of the water network within the process, it was found out that
there are opportunities for significant improvements to be made. For the determination of
the minimum feed water consumption and wastewater generation, Source/Sink
Composite Curves were constructed. From this, Source/Sink Allocation Composite Curve
was presented to obtain the minimum flowrates for feed water and wastewater. Water
Using Network Designs were derived from the Network Allocation Diagram based on the
Source/Sink Allocation Composite Curve. The two water using networks have significant
differences when it comes to percentage of flow reduction. The first water network
design had minimum flowrates of 0.16 L/s and 0.17 L/s with flow reductions of 78.95%
and 77.63%, respectively. While on the second design, the flowrates obtained were 0.33
L/s and 0.34 L/s with 56.58% and 55.26% flow reduction for feed water and wastewater,
correspondingly.
5.1. Conclusion
The bench-mark data collected was used to arrive on a mass load versus flowrate
graph which is called Source/Sink Composite Curve. After shifting the source composite
curve, the minimum flowrate is then obtained. Based on the Source/Sink Allocation
Composite Curves, the minimum flowrates are 0.16 L/s and 0.17 L/s for feed water and
wastewater respectively. The two water using networks in the former part of this paper
showed significant difference when it comes to the percentage of flow reduction as well
40

as the mass load being satisfied. The second water using network/design shown in Figure
4.6 was chosen. In this figure, the water sources that have the potentials for water reuse
are the water coming from the water retort and vacuum fryer. Hence, the flow reduction
for feed water and wastewater are 56.58% and 55.26%, respectively. Hence, Water Pinch
Technology is an effective technique in implementing water minimization strategy for
maximum water efficiency.
5.3. Recommendation
Based on the analysis done in this study, it is recommended that an economic
evaluation can be performed for imminent studies. A mathematical programming
approach can also be done encompassing multiple contaminant operation. In connection
to this, another technique can also be applied in targeting the minimum utility
requirement such as LCC, Water Cascade Analysis, Water Surplus Diagram and algebraic
targeting approach. Aside from the Network Allocation Diagram (NAD), Source-Sink
Mapping Diagram can also be used in water network retrofitting. This technology can
also be implemented not just in processing industries but also in our households with
water using operations.
Since there is still unused water sources from the spray dryer and raw material
washing, it is also recommended that these can be utilized in other processes outside the
system if possible. It also suggested the implementation of purification/ filtration system
to be integrated for greater water reuse/recycling.

41

REFERENCES

Alva-Argaez, A.; A.C Kokossis; R. Smith. (1998). Process Integration for Wastewater
Treatment Systems. 1998 AIChE Annual Meeting. Miami Beach, Florida.
Bagajewicz, M.; M. Savelski. (2001). Use of Linear Models for the Design of Water
Utilization Systems in Process Plants with a Single Contaminant. Trans IChemE, 79 Part
A 600-610.
Brouckaert, C. J. (2000). The Application of Pinch Analysis as a Strategic Tool in the
Rational Management of Water and Effluent in an Industrial Complex
Brouckaert, C.J.; P. Gianadda; J.P.Z. Schneider; G.M. Naylor; C.A. Buckley (September,
2005). The Application of Pinch Analysis for Water and Effluent Management.
Buehner, F.W.; A.P. Rossiter. (1996). Minimize waste by process design. Chem. Tech, (April)
64-72
Dhole, V.R.; N. Ramchandani; R.A Tainsh; M. Wasilewski. (1996). Make your water pay for
itself. Chemical Engineering (January) 100-103
Doyle S.J.; R. Smith. (1997). Targeting Water Reuse with Multiple Contaminants. Trans
IChemE, 75, Part B, 181-189
El-Halwagi M.M. (1997). Pollution Prevention through Process Integration. Systematic
Design Tools Academic Press, San Diego.
El-Halwagi M.M. (2003). Rigorous Graphical Targeting for Resource Conservation Via
Material Recycle/Reuse Networks, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 42, 43194328.
El-Halwagi M.M.; V. Manousiouthakis. (1992), Optimal design of dephenolization
networks for petroleum-refinery wastes. Trans. IChemE Part B, 70: 131-139..
El-Halwagi, M.M.; M. Kazantzi. (2005). Synthesis of waste interception networks and
allocation networks. AIChE Jl., 42: 3087-3101
42

Hallale, N. (2002). A New Graphical Targeting Method for Water Minimization, Adv.
Environ. Res., 6(3) 377390.
Hallale, N.; D.M. Fraser. (2000). A Capital Cost Targets for Mass Exchange Networks Part
1: simple capital cost models. Comput. Chem. Eng. 23:1661-1679
Iswalal, T.N.; C.A. Buckley; I. Kerr. (2012). Applying A Water Pinch Analysis Technique To
Reduce The Water Consumption At A Paper Mill. TAPPSA Journal, Volume 4.
Jodicke, G.; U. Fischer; K. Hungerbuhler. (2001). Wastewater Reuse: A new Approach to
Screen for Designs with Minimal Total Costs. Comput. Chem. Eng. 25: 203-215
Kiperstock, A.; P.N. Sharratt. (1995). On the optimisation of mass exchange networks for the
removal of pollutants. Trans IChemE., 73: 271-277
Koolen, J.L.A.; G. de Wispelaere; R. Dauwe. (1999). Optimisation of an integrated
Chemical Complex and Evaluation of its Vulnerability. 2nd Conference on Process
Integration, Modeling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction.
Budapest, Hungary.
Kuo, W.C.; R. Smith. (1997). Effluent Treatment System Design, Chem. Eng. Sci.,
52:4273.
Linnhoff, B.; C.G. Akinradewo. (1999) Linking Process Simulation and Process
Integration. Comput. Chem. Eng.: S945-S953
Liu, Y.; F. Ren; Y. Li. (2004). Product Innovation and Process Innovation in SOEs,. The
Journal Of Technology Transfer, 2004 (1-2) 63-85.
Manan, Z.A.; S.R Wan Alwi.; Z. Ujang. (2005). Water Pinch Analysis For An Urban
System: A Case Study On The Sultan Ismail Mosque At The University Technology
Malaysi (UTM).

43

Meyer, M.; B. Koehret; M. Enjalbert. (1993). Data Reconciliation on Multicomponent


Network Processes Comput. Chem. Eng. 17(8) 807-817
Naylor, G. (September, 2003). Application of Pinch Technology in an Integrated Pulp and
Paper Mill.
Olesen, S.G.; G.T. Polley. (1997). A simple methodology for the design of water networks
handling single contaminants. Trans IChemE., 75: 420-426
Polley, G. T.; H. L. Polley. (2000). Design better water networks. Chem. Eng. Prog., 96
(2): 4752.
Raskovic, P. (2003). Pinch Technology for Designing Wastewater Reduction and Water
Conservation Systems.
Smith, R. (2000). State of the Art in Process Integration, Applied Thermal Engineering 20
1337-1345.
Tan, Y. L.; Z. A. Manan; D. C. Y. Foo. (2007). Retrofit of Water Network with Regeneration
using Water Pinch Analysis.
Wan Alwi, S. R.; Z. A. Manan; Z Ujang. (2004). Systematic Technique for Water
Minimization in Urban Water System Using Water Pinch Analysis, Paper presented at
Asia Water Conference.
Wang, Y.P.; R. Smith. (1994). Wastewater Minimization. Chem. Eng. Sci. 49(7), pp 9811006.

44

APPENDIX A
Heuristics
In water network design there are three heuristics:
1. Heuristic 1: Do not feed the water Above the Pinch (including fresh water) to sinks
Below the Pinch and vice versa (Hallale, 2002)
2. Heuristic 2: Start the source and sink mapping with the sink at the lowest contaminant
concentration. (Polley and Polley, 2000)
Contamination load for an operation can be calculated as follows:
kg
)
t
h
F
=
1000 Equation3.3
h C i( ppm )

()

mi (

3. Heuristic 3: Map the available sources one after the other and add fresh water as
required, to each sink according to heuristic 2 until all sinks are satisfied in both
quality (contaminant load) and quantity (flow rate). (Manan 2005).
The quantity of water from the contaminated source is determined by calculating the
contaminant load associated with the sink.
a. If the quantity is equal to the required volume, then no fresh water needs to be
supplied.
b. If the quantity is less than the sink, then some feed water is required.
c. If the quantity required from the source exceeds the sink, then part of the sinks
contaminant load should be satisfied using a source having a higher
contaminant.

45

APPENDIX B
Constraints
Constraints for the network design between the water sources i and sink j are given as
follows: (Hallale, 2002)
a. Sink
(i)

Flowrate

F i , j=F SK , j
Where Fi , the total flow is rate available from source i by sink j and

F SK

is the flow

rate required by sink j.


(ii)

Concentration

F SRi , SKj C i C
F SRi , SKj C i max ,SKj
C SKj , is the contaminant concentration of source i and
acceptable contaminant concentration of sink j.
b. Source
(i)

Flow rate

F SRi ,SKj F SR ,i

46

Cmax , SKj

is the maximum

APPENDIX C
Calculations
Table C.1. Mass Load Calculation for each Source and Sink
Streams

Fi x Ci

Mass Load (mg/s)

Sink 1

0.21 x 1.0

0.21

Sink 2

0.23 x 2.0

0.46

Sink 3

0.15 x 2.0

0.30

Sink 4

0.17 x 10.0

1.70

Source 1

0.20 x 2.0

0.40

Source 2

0.22 x 2.0

0.44

Source 3

0.17 x 5.0

0.85

Source 4

0.17 x 25.0

4.25

Table C.2. Input Data for the Source/Sink Composite Curves Before Shifting
Streams

Flowrates (X-axis)

Mass Load(Y-axis)

Sink 1

0.21

0.21

Sink 1 + Sink 2

0.44

0.67

Sink 1 + Sink 2 + Sink 3

0.59

0.97

Sink 1 + Sink 2 + Sink 3 + Sink 4

0.76

2.67

Source 1

0.20

0.40

Source 1 + Source 2

0.42

0.84

47

Source 1 + Source 2 + Source 3

0.59

1.69

Source 1 + Source 2 + Source3 + Source 4

0.76

5.94

Table C.3. Flow Reduction Calculation

Water Using Network

Stream

Fcalc = (

) x 100%

Flow Reduction
(100%-Fcalc)

Feedwater

(0.16/0.76) x 100% = 21.05%

78.95%

Wastewater

(0.17/0.76) x 100% = 22.37%

77.63%

Feedwater

(0.33/0.76) x 100% = 43.42%

56.58%

Wastewater

(0.34/0.76) x 100% = 44.74%

55.26%

Network 1

Network 2

48

APPENDIX D
Documentation

Figure D.1. The collection of data for this study was performed at the Food Innovation
Centre Cagayan State University- Carig Campus, Carig Sur, Tuguegarao City Cagayan.

49

Figure D.2. The Vacuum Fryer at FIC

Figure D.3. The Vacuum Pump at FIC

50

Figure D.4. The Sinks (above sink is used for raw material washing while the other sink
below is used for washing utensils)

51

Figure D.5. Water Retort at FIC

52

Figure D.6. Spray Dryer at FIC

Figure D.7. Wastewater stream from Vacuum Fryer

Figure D. 8. Wastewater Stream from Water Retort


53

Figure D.9. Wastewater Stream from Spray Dryer

54