Introduction to Matlab
Usha B S
bsusha@gmail.com
What is MATLAB?
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MATLAB stands for Matrix Laboratory.
MATLAB is a programming environment, a high level
technical computing language, & an interactive environment
for
Algorithm
Development
Numerical
Computation
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Data
Analysis
Data
Visualization
MATLAB
MATLAB is a highlevel language and interactive
environment for
Numerical computation,
Data Analysis and Visualization
Acquire, Analyze, Visualize, Document
Programming and Algorithms Development
Integration with Other Languages and
Applications
Application Development and Deployment
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MATLAB Toolboxes
MATLAB has a number of addon software modules, called
toolbox , that perform more specialized computations.
Signal Processing
Image Processing
Communications
System Identification
Wavelet Filter Design
Control System
Fuzzy Logic
Robust Control
Analysis and Synthesis
LMI Control
Model Predictive Control
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Applications of MATLAB
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Applications of MATLAB
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Applications of MATLAB
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The MATLAB Desktop
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Current
Folder
View folders
and mfiles
Command
Window
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Work Space
type
commands
View
variables
view past
commands
Command
History
The MATLAB System
MATLAB system consists of these main parts:
Desktop Tools and Development Environment
MATLAB desktop and Command Window.
Editor and debugger, code analyzer, Profiler
Browsers for viewing help, the workspace, files, and other
tools
Mathematical Function Library
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How to Resume Default Desktop
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Matlab Help
Different ways to find information
help
help general, help mean, sqrt...
helpdesk  an html document with
links to further information
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Matlab Help  cont
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Setting Fonts
To set custom fonts:
Select File > Preferences > Fonts > Custom.
Select the tool you want to customize from the
Desktop tools list.
The type of font the tool currently uses appears under
Font to Use.
Under Font to Use, select one of the following:
Desktop code.
Desktop text
Custom, and then specify the font characteristics.
Click OK.
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MATLAB Variable Names
Variable names ARE case sensitive
Variable names can contain up to 63 characters
Variable names must start with a letter followed
by letters, digits, and underscores.
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Variables
No need to declare data type of variables
int a;
double b;
float c;
All variables are created with double precision unless specified and
they are matrices.
Example:
>>x=5;
>>x1=2;
After these statements, the variables are 1x1 matrices with double
precision
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Listing & Clearing Variables
a=10
Semicolon suppresses
screen output
b=20;
Avg=(a+b)/2;
whos
Name
Size
a
1x1
avg
1x1
b
1x1
<< clear, clear all
16
Bytes
8
8
8
Class
double
double
double
%clear variables from memory
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Calculations at the Command Line
MATLAB as a Calculator
5/(4.8+5.32)^2
ans =
0.0488
a = 2;
b = 5;
a^b
ans =
(3+4i)*(34i)
ans =
Semicolon suppresses
screen output
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x = 5/2*pi;
Results assigned to
ans if name not given
y = sin(x)
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y =
1
z = asin(y)
z =
Use parentheses ( )
for function inputs
1.5708
Numbers stored in doubleprecision floating point format
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MATLAB Math Operators
Power
Multiplication
Division
or
NOTE:
Addition
Subtraction
Assignment
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^ or .^ a^b or
a.^b
* (matrix multiply) or
.*(array
a*b
or
a.*b
/ or ./ a/b or
a./b
\ or .\ b\a or
b.\a
56/8 = 8\56
+
a + b
a  b
=
a = b (assign b to a)
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multiply)
Other MATLAB symbols
>>
prompt
...
,
%
;
continue statement on next line
separate statements and data
start comment which ends at end of line
(1) suppress output
(2) used as a row separator in a matrix
specify range
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MATLAB Relational Operators
MATLAB supports six relational operators.
Less Than
Less Than or Equal
Greater Than
Greater Than or Equal
Equal To
Not Equal To
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<
<=
>
>=
==
~=
MATLAB Logical Operators
MATLAB supports three logical operators.
not
and
or
exor
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~
&

^
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% highest precedence
% equal precedence with or
% equal precedence with and
% equal precedence with and
Worksheet I
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SolutionWS1
clc;
clear all;
close all;
A = input('Enter the first point coordinates in square brackets ');
B= input('Enter the second point coordinates in square brackets ');
d = sqrt((A(1)B(1))^2+(A(2)B(2))^2);
disp('The distance between given points is');
disp(d);
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Matrices & Vectors
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Creating Vectors
Order of Matrix M X N
Mno. of rows, N=no. of columns
Vectors  special case
M = 1
N = 1
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row vector
column vector
Creating Vectors
A vector is 1byn or nby1 matrix and appears in
MATLAB as a row or column of real or complex numbers.
We use square brackets to construct vector
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Creating Vectors
Create vector with equally spaced intervals
>> x=0:0.5:pi
x = 0 0.5000 1.0000 1.5000 2.0000 2.5000 3.0000
Create vector with N equally spaced intervals
>> x=linspace(0, pi, 7)
x =
0 0.5236 1.0472 1.5708 2.0944 2.6180 3.1416
LINSPACE(X1, X2, N) generates N points between X1 and X2.
For N < 2, LINSPACE returns X2.
Equal spaced intervals in logarithm space
x =
>> x=logspace(1,2,7)
10.0000 14.6780 21.5443 68.1292
100.0000
LOGSPACE(X1, X2, N) generates N points between decades
10^X1 and 10^X2.
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Transpose
a=[1 2 3];
>> a'
1
2
3
Work Problems of worksheetII
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Working with Matrices
Separate the elements of a row with blanks or commas.
Use a semicolon ; to indicate the end of each row.
Surround the entire list of elements with square brackets, [ ].
A = [16 3 2 13; 5 10 11 8; 9 6 7 12; 4 15 14 1]
MATLAB displays the matrix you just entered:
A=
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16
5
9
4
3
10
6
15
2
11
7
14
13
8
12
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Once matrix is entered , it is
automatically remembered in the
MATLAB workspace and can be
referred to as A.
variable names are casesensitive
Subscripts
The element in row i and column j of A is given by A(i,j).
So to compute the sum of the elements in the fourth
column of A, we have: A(1,4) + A(2,4) + A(3,4) + A(4,4)
which is same as sum(A(:,4))
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Matrix Operations
Enter the Matrix
a=[1 2 3;4 5 6;7 8 9]
a=
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
Fetching an element in the matrix
a(2,3)
ans =
6
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a(3,2)
ans =
8
Accessing Selected Columns and Rows
To read an entire column
colA = matName(:,colNumber)
To read an entire row
varA = matName(rowNumber,:)
Worksheet III
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Linear Indexing
2D array can be treated as 1D array, as all the
columns stand together as a single column and
hence specifies single index.
For example, an element at row 1 and column 2
can be specified by linear indexing as
>> MatrixA(5)
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Concatenation of Matrices
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Generating Vectors (Or Matrices) From Functions
zeros(M,N)
MxN matrix of zeros
ones(M,N)
MxN matrix of ones
rand(M,N)
MxN matrix of uniformly
distributed random
numbers on (0,1)
2. Create a 5x5 unit matrix.
3. Check following commands : eye(3,3)
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>> x = zeros(1,3)
x=
0 0 0
>> x = ones(1,3)
x=
1 1 1
>> x = rand(1,3)
x=
0.9501 0.2311 0.6068
Matrices Operations
Given A and B:
Addition
Subtraction
Product
Transpose
* Make sure that the matrices are the same size.
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The use of . Element Operation
Given A:
Divide each element of
A by 2
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Multiply each
element of A by 3
Square each
element of A
Getting the Size of the Matrix
To get the size of the matrix, use the size
command.
Example: to get the size of matrix a.
[numRow, numCol] = size(a);
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Sorting Matrices
To sort a matrix, use the sort command.
Example: sort matrix A in ascending order.
sort(A,ascend)
Sort(A, descend)
Default is ascending mode.
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Determine whether array is empty
To Determine whether array is
empty or not, the function
isempty is used
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Graphics
MATLAB provides a variety of techniques to display data
graphically.
Interactive tools enable you to manipulate graphs to achieve
results that reveal the most information about your data.
You can also edit and print graphs for presentations, or
export graphs to standard graphics formats for presentation
in Web browsers or other media.
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Plot
Example
PLOT Linear plot.
PLOT(X,Y) plots vector
Y versus vector X
PLOT(Y) plots the
columns of Y versus
their index
PLOT(X,Y,S) with plot
symbols and colors
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x = [3 2 1 0 1 2 3];
y1 = (x.^2) 1;
plot(x, y1,'bo.');
Plot Properties
XLABEL Xaxis label.
Example
XLABEL('text') adds text
...
xlabel('x values');
ylabel('y values');
beside the Xaxis on the
current axis.
YLABEL Yaxis label.
YLABEL('text') adds text
beside the Yaxis on the
current axis.
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Hold
HOLD Hold current graph.
HOLD ON holds the current
plot and all axis properties so
that subsequent graphing
commands add to the existing
graph.
Example
hold on;
y2 = x + 2;
plot(x, y2, 'g+:');
HOLD OFF returns to the
default mode
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Subplot
SUBPLOT Create axes in tiled positions.
SUBPLOT(m,n,p), or
SUBPLOT(mnp), breaks the Figure
window into an mbyn matrix of
small axes
x = [3 2 1 0 1 2 3];
y1 = (x.^2) 1;
% Plot y1 on the top
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(x, y1,'bo.');
xlabel('x values');ylabel('y values');
% Plot y2 on the bottom
subplot(2,1,2);
y2 = x + 2;
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plot(x, y2, 'g+:');
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Figure
FIGURE Create figure window.
FIGURE, by itself, creates a new
figure window, and returns its handle.
Example
x = [3 2 1 0 1 2 3];
y1 = (x.^2) 1;
% Plot y1 in the 1st Figure
plot(x, y1,'bo.');
xlabel('x values');
ylabel('y values');
% Plot y2 in the 2nd Figure
figure
y2 = x + 2;
plot(x, y2, 'g+:');
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To create a plot of a family of sine curves:
x = [0:.2:20];
y = sin(x)./sqrt(x+1);
y(2,:) = sin(x/2)./sqrt(x+1);
y(3,:) = sin(x/3)./sqrt(x+1);
plot(x,y)
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plot(x, y(2,:),'o', x, y(3,:),'+')
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Plotting Multiple Data Sets in One Graph
Multiple xy pair arguments create multiple graphs with a
single call to plot.
For example:
x = 0:pi/100:2*pi;
y = sin(x);
y2 = sin(x0.25);
y3 = sin(x0.5);
plot(x,y,x,y2,x,y3)
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Controlling the Axes
Setting Axis Limits & Grids
The axis command lets you to specify your own
limits: axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax])
You can use the axis command to make the axes
visible or invisible: axis on / axis off
The grid command toggles grid lines on and off:
grid on / grid off
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Copying the Figure
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Programming in Matlab
Conditional Control
 if, else, elseif
 switch, case
Loop Control
 for, while, continue, break
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A simple example:
a=1
while length(a) < 10
a = [0 a] + [a 0]
end
which prints out Pascals triangle:
1
11
121
1331
14641
1 5 10 10 5 1
1 6 15 20 15 6 1
1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1
1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1
1 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9 1
(with a= before each line).
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Scripts and Functions
There are two kinds of Mfiles:
 Scripts, which do not accept input arguments
or return output arguments. They operate on data
in the workspace. Any variables that they create
remain in the workspace, to be used in
subsequent computations
 Functions, which can accept input arguments
and return output arguments. Internal variables
are local to the function.
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Write the MATLAB statements required to calculate
y(t) from the equation for the values of t between 9
and 9 in steps of 0.5
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t1 = 9:0.5:9;
i = 1;
for t = 9:0.5:9;
if t>=0
y(1, i) = 3*(t^2)+5;
else
y(1, i) = 3*(t^2)+5;
end
i = i+1;
end
plot(t1,y);
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Use TIC and TOC to measure elapsed time
tic;
for i=1:9000
j=1;
x(i)=j+i;
end
toc
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FeaturesPreallocation
Increases Performance
tic;
tic;
for I = 1:10000
pre_allo =
not_pre_allo(I)=rand(1);
zeros(10000,1);
End
for I = 1:10000
toc
pre_allo(I) =
rand(1);
End
toc
Same resulting vector in both cases:
Preallocating variables creates a contiguous memory
space (10000 elements), at the start
Stops MATLAB from finding 10000 different memory blocks
of 10000 different sizes
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Graphics  Overlay Plots
Use hold on for overlaying graphs
hold on;
cub=x.^3;
pl2=plot(x,cub,bo');
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Graphics  Annotation
Use title, xlabel, ylabel and legend for
annotation
>> title('Demo plot');
>> xlabel('X Axis');
>> ylabel('Y Axis');
>> legend([pl1, pl2], 'x^2', 'x^3');
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Graphics  Annotation
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GraphicsStem()
stem()is to plot discrete sequence data
The usage of stem() is very similar to
plot()
cos(n/4)
1
n=10:10;
f=stem(n,cos(n*pi/4))
title('cos(n\pi/4)')
xlabel('n')
0.5
0.5
1
10
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5
0
n
10
Save plots
Use saveas(h,'filename.ext')
to save a figure to a file.
f=figure;
x=5:0.1:5;
h=plot(x,cos(2*x+pi/3));
title('Figure 1');
xlabel('x');
saveas(h,'figure1.fig')
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Useful extension types:
bmp: Windows bitmap
emf: Enhanced metafile
eps: EPS Level 1
fig: MATLAB figure
jpg: JPEG image
m: MATLAB Mfile
tif: TIFF image, compressed
Plot Tools
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Figure Toolbox
You can open and configure plotting tools in many ways.
To create a figure with the plotting tools attached, use the
plottools command.
You can also start the plotting tools from the figure toolbar
by clicking the Show Plot Tools icon .
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The following example shows the plotting tools attached to a
figure containing two subplots of line series data. The code to
produce the graphs is
% First subplot
x = 0:pi/100:2*pi;
y1 = sin(x);
y2 = sin(x+.25);
y3 = sin(x+.5);
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(x,y1,x,y2,x,y3);
axis tight;
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% Second sublot
w1 = cos(x);
w2 = cos(x+.25);
w3 = cos(x+.5);
subplot(2,1,2);
plot(x,w1,x,w2,x,w3);
axis tight;
Plot
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
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Sound
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Play the waveforms
t=0:0.001:5; % 5 secs @ 1kHz sample rate
y1=chirp(t,0,1,150);
%SOUND(Y) plays the sound at the default sample rate of 8192 Hz
sound(y1,8192)
y2=200*sin(20*t)+100*cos(30*t);
sound(y2,8192)
y3=rand(1,8000);
sound(y3,8192)
y4=200*sawtooth(20*t);
sound(y4)
y5=[y1 y2 y3 y4];
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sound(y5)
%%Record your voice
Myrec = audiorecorder;
disp('Start speaking.')
recordblocking(Myrec, 5);
disp('End of Recording.');
%%PlayBack
play(Myrec);
%% Store data in doubleprecision
array.
myRecording = getaudiodata(Myrec);
%% Plot the samples.
plot(myRecording);
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Example
lambda=1000; %change to 2000 and see the effect
fs=8000;
f0=1000;
t1=2;
it=(0:fs*t11)/fs;
theta=2*pi*it*f0+pi*lambda*(it.^2);
X=cos(theta);
soundsc(X,fs);
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Functions
Function with One Output
Define a function in a file named average.m that accepts
an input vector, calculates the average of the values, and
returns a single result.
function y = average(x)
if ~isvector(x)
error('Input must be a vector')
end
y = sum(x)/length(x);
Call the function from the command line.
z = 1:99;
average(z)
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Structure of a Function Mfile
Keyword: function
Function Name (same as file name .m)
function y = mymean(x)
%MYMEAN Average or mean value.
Online Help
% For vectors, MYMEAN(x) returns the mean value.
% For matrices, MYMEAN(x) is a row vector
% containing the mean value of each column.
[m,n] = size(x);
MATLAB
Code
if m == 1
m = n;
end
y = sum(x)/m;
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Function with Multiple Outputs
Define a function in a file named stat.m that returns the
mean and standard deviation of an input vector.
function [m,s] = stat(x)
n = length(x);
m = sum(x)/n;
s = sqrt(sum((xm).^2/n));
Call the function from the command line.
values = [12.7, 45.4, 98.9, 26.6, 53.1];
[ave,stdev] = stat(values)
ave =
47.3400
stdev =
29.4124
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MATLAB Help
MATLAB Help is an
extremely powerful
assistance to learning
MATLAB
Help not only contains the
theoretical background,
but also shows demos for
implementation
MATLAB Help can be
opened by using the
HELP pulldown menu
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MATLAB Help (cont.)
Any command description
can be found by typing
the command in the
search field
As shown above, the
command to take square
root (sqrt) is searched
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We can also utilize
MATLAB Help from the
command window as
shown
Thank You!!!
Questions??