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Vitamin Name

Deficiency effects
Deficiency causes beriberi. Symptoms of this disease of the nervous
system include weight loss, emotional disturbances, Wernicke's
encephalopathy (impaired sensory perception), weakness and pain in
Vitamin
thiamine
the limbs, periods of irregular heartbeat, and edema (swelling of bodily
B1
tissues). Heart failure and death may occur in advanced cases. Chronic
thiamine deficiency can also cause Korsakoff's syndrome, an
irreversible psychosis characterized by amnesia and confabulation.
Deficiency causes ariboflavinosis. Symptoms may include cheilosis
(cracks in the lips), high sensitivity to sunlight, angular cheilitis,
Vitamin
glossitis (inflammation of the tongue), seborrheic dermatitis or pseudoriboflavin
B2
syphilis (particularly affecting the scrotum or labia majora and the
mouth), pharyngitis, hyperemia, and edema of the pharyngeal and oral
mucosa.
Deficiency, along with a deficiency of tryptophan causes pellagra.
Vitamin
Symptoms include aggression, dermatitis, insomnia, weakness, mental
niacin
B3
confusion, and diarrhea. In advanced cases, pellagra may lead to
dementia and death.
Vitamin pantothenic Deficiency can result in acne and paresthesia, although it is
B5
acid
uncommon.
Deficiency may lead to microcytic anemia (because pyridoxyl
Vitamin
phosphate is the cofactor for heme synthesis), depression, dermatitis,
pyridoxine
B6
high blood pressure (hypertension), water retention, and elevated
levels of homocysteine.
Deficiency does not typically cause symptoms in adults but may lead
Vitamin
to impaired growth and neurological disorders in infants. Multiple
biotin
B7
carboxylase deficiency, an inborn error of metabolism, can lead to
biotin deficiency even when dietary biotin intake is normal.
Deficiency results in a macrocytic anemia, and elevated levels of
homocysteine. Deficiency in pregnant women can lead to birth defects.
Vitamin
folic acid
Supplementation is often recommended during pregnancy. Researchers
B9
have shown that folic acid might also slow the insidious effects of age
on the brain.
Deficiency results in a macrocytic anemia, elevated homocysteine,
peripheral neuropathy, memory loss and other cognitive deficits. It is
Vitamin
most likely to occur among elderly people, as absorption through the
cobalamin
B12
gut declines with age; the autoimmune disease pernicious anemia is
another common cause. It can also cause symptoms of mania and
psychosis. In rare extreme cases, paralysis can result.

Vitamin Name
Vitamin thiamine
B1

Tolerable Upper
Intake Level
None[5]

Harmful effects
No known toxicity from oral intake. There are
some reports of anaphylaxis caused by high-dose
thiamin injections into the vein or muscle.
However, the doses were greater than the quantity

Vitamin
riboflavin
B2
Vitamin
niacin
B3

humans can physically absorb from oral intake.[5]


Too much B2 can generate free radicals in your
1.8 mg/day
eyes and skin when exposed to sun and light.
Flushing (redness of the skin, often accompanied
by itching or a mild burning sensation). Intake of
35 mg/day from
3000 mg/day of nicotinamide and 1500 mg/day of
supplements, drugs
nicotinic acid are associated with nausea,
or fortified food[6]
vomiting, and signs and symptoms of liver
toxicity.[6]

Vitamin pantothenic
None
B5
acid
100 mg/day from
Vitamin
pyridoxine supplements, drugs
B6
or fortified food[7]
Vitamin
biotin
None
B7
Vitamin
folic acid 1 mg/day [8]
B9
Vitamin
cobalamin None
B12

No known toxicity
sensory neuropathy and dermatological lesions[7]
No known toxicity
Masks B12 deficiency, which can lead to
permanent neurological damage[8]
No known toxicity