You are on page 1of 58

Summer Internship Report

(May 30, 2016 to July 13, 2016)

Submitted by
Nitish Bir
13112022
Final year undergraduate
Department
Engineering
NIT Jalandhar

of

Chemical

Table of Contents

1. Acknowledgement
2. Organisation Profile
3. Vision Values Promise
4. Jubilant Bhartia Group
5. Sustainability Goals
6. Pyridine Production Plant
7. Products
8. Heat Exchangers
9. Steps for designing of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
10. Results of Summer Internship Project
11. Conclusion
12. References

Acknowledgement

The satiation and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of the project would be
incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible.
I would like to take the opportunity to thank and express my deep sense of gratitude to my
mentors Mr. Anurag Varshney and Mr Kamal Pal. I am greatly indebted to both of them for
providing their valuable guidance at all stages of study, their advice, constructive suggestions,
positive and supportive attitude and continuous encouragement, without which it would have
not been possible to complete the project.
I would like to thank Mr Anuj Vats (HR) who in spite of busy schedule has co-operated with
me continuously and indeed, his valuable contribution and guidance have been certainly
indispensable for my project work.
I owe my wholehearted thanks to entire members of plant include shift in charges, staff and
lab scientists for their cooperation and assistance during the course of internship.
I hope I can build upon the experience and knowledge that I have gained and make a valuable
contribution towards this industry in coming future.

Organisation Profile

Jubilant Life Sciences Limited is an integrated global pharmaceutical and life sciences
company engaged in manufacturing and supply of APIs, Solid Dosage Formulations,
Radiopharmaceuticals, Allergy Therapy Products, Advance Intermediates, Fine Ingredients,
Crop Science Ingredients, Life Science Chemicals and Nutritional Products. It also provides
services in Contract Manufacturing of Sterile Injectables and Drug Discovery Solutions. The
Companys strength lies in its unique offerings of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences products
and services.
Their success is an outcome of strategic focus on the pharmaceuticals and life sciences
industry, moving up the pharmaceutical value chain for products and services across
geographies, constantly investing in various growth platforms and promoting a culture of
innovation.
They are engaged in continuous improvement of products and processes to enhance the
quality of production and cost competitiveness in order to build value for our customers.
Jubilant Life Sciences serves its customers globally with sales in over 100 countries and
ground presence in India, North America, Europe and China. They are well recognised as a
Partner of Choice by leading life sciences companies worldwide. Jubilant has relationship
with 19 of Top 20 pharmaceutical companies and 6 amongst top 10 agrochemical companies
across the globe.
Over the years, Jubilant Life Sciences has extended its footprint beyond India in the USA,
Canada, Europe, and other countries across the globe. We have also expanded the business by
building capabilities internally, through strategic expansions and acquisitions This resulted in
a network of 7 world class manufacturing facilities in India and 4 in North America and a
team of around 6100 multicultural people across the globe with ~ 1200 in North America and
~900 in R&D.
The multi-location presence helps them in getting closer to customers and serving them better
with the best in class products developed most efficiently, economically with speed to market.

Jubilant Life Sciences' progress in diverse businesses has been made possible through the
contribution of R&D; for quality, non-infringing process for product development and cost
reduction through process innovation. Innovation at Jubilant is backed by strong chemistry,
bio science expertise and the knowledge bank created over the years. We have harnessed our
strengths a strong R&D team, modern R&D facilities, command over cheap technologies
and economies of scale into a synergistic organic entity, continuously creating and nurturing
high quality products and technologies.
In line with Jubilant Life Sciences continued focus on sustainability of business, they aim at
improving stakeholder value through improved eco efficient use of capital and natural
resources. Jubilants approach to sustainable development focuses on the triple bottom line of
Economics, Environment and Social performance. We are committed and working on various
areas for energy conservation and climate change mitigation. Their sustainability efforts have
been reported through a Corporate Sustainability Report since 2003 and this report has been
receiving GRI G3.1 A+ level & GRI Check, since 2007 from Global Reporting Initiative
(GRI). This reflects Jubilant Life Sciences commitment towards sustainable development and
continued efforts directed towards protecting the environment wherever we operate.
Corporate Social Responsibility is an integral part of how Jubilant Life Sciences conducts
business and how the efforts are directed towards community development through focus on
primary education, basic healthcare service, and livelihood generation programs focused on
improving the employability of women and local youth.
We have been recognised with several awards and recognitions, which bear testimony to our
commitment towards operational excellence, innovation, corporate governance and social
responsibility.
Jubilant Life Sciences is committed to leverage innovation and scale of operations at every
step of the pharmaceutical value chain to deliver value to our stakeholders.

Vision Values Promise

Our Values

We will carefully select, train and develop our people to be creative and empower them to
take decisions, so that they respond to all stakeholders with agility, confidence and teamwork.

We stretch ourselves to be cost effective and efficient in all aspects of our operations and
focus on flawless delivery to create and provide the best value to our stakeholders.

By sharing our knowledge and learning from each other and from the markets we serve, we
will continue to surprise our stakeholders with innovative solutions.

With utmost care for the environment and safety, we will always strive to excel in the quality
of our processes, our products and our services.

Jubilant Bhartia Group


Jubilant Bhartia Group is a global conglomerate encompassing a spectrum of business areas
and with a strong presence across the world.

The group operates in various sectors like Pharmaceuticals and Life Sciences, Food
Services (QSR), Oil and Gas, Agri & Performance Polymers and Consulting Services in
Aerospace and Oilfield industries.

Over the years, Jubilant Life Sciences has extended its footprint beyond India in the USA,
Canada, Europe, and other countries across the globe. The Company has also expanded the
business by building capabilities internally, through strategic expansions and acquisitions,
resulting in a network of 7 world class manufacturing facilities in India and 5 in North
America and a team of around 6100 people across the globe with ~ 1200 in North America
and ~900 in R&D.
For a large number of global companies, Jubilant is a trusted name and a 'partner of choice'
owing to its ability to operate in an ever changing environment that presents both
opportunities and challenges. The group's promise of Caring, Sharing and Growing is
reflected in all its endeavours.
The Group lays emphasis on the environmental, social and economic concerns, in order to
operate within a sustainable environment and build a robust self-sustained nation, the group
has formed an entity, Jubilant Bhartia Foundation.
This Foundation is relentlessly involved in taking initiatives aimed at empowerment of
communities through focus on primary education, providing basic healthcare and skill
development facilities and enabling employability and self-sustenance.

The core segments of Jubilant Bhartia Group are:


Pharmaceuticals and Life Sciences
Jubilant Life Sciences Limited is an integrated global pharmaceutical and Life Sciences
Company engaged in manufacture and supply of APIs, Solid Dosage Formulations,
Radiopharmaceuticals, Allergy Therapy Products and Life Science Ingredients. They also
provide services in Contract Manufacturing of Sterile Injectables and Drug Discovery and
Development. The Companys strength lies in its unique offerings of Pharmaceutical and Life
Sciences products and services across the value chain.
Their success is an outcome of strategic focus on the pharmaceuticals and life sciences
industry, moving up the pharmaceutical value chain for products and services across

geographies, constantly investing in various growth platforms and promoting a culture of


innovation.
They are engaged in continuous improvement of products and processes to enhance the
quality of production and cost competitiveness in order to build value for our customers.
Jubilant Life Sciences serves its customers globally with sales in over 100 countries and
ground presence in India, North America, Europe and China. They are well recognised as a
Partner of Choice by leading life sciences companies worldwide. Jubilant has relationship
with 19 of Top 20 pharmaceutical companies and 7 amongst top 10 agrochemical companies
across the globe.
Over the years, Jubilant Life Sciences has extended its footprint beyond India in the USA,
Canada, Europe, and other countries across the globe. The Company has also expanded the
business by building capabilities internally, through strategic expansions and acquisitions,
resulting in a network of 7 world class manufacturing facilities in India and 5 in North
America and a team of around 6100 people across the globe with ~ 1200 in North America
and ~900 in R&D.
Their multi-location presence helps us in getting closer to customers and serving them better
with the best in class products developed most efficiently, economically with speed to market.
Jubilant Life Sciences is committed to leverage innovation and scale of operations at every
step of the pharmaceutical value chain to deliver value to our stakeholders.

Agri Products & Performance Polymers


Jubilant Bhartia Group's presence in Agri segment has gained it the reputation of a leading
producer of products for Crop Nutrition, Crop Growth and Crop Protection. Jubilant
Industries Limited, is a focussed Agri and Performance Polymer Company that offers a wide
range of Performance Polymers products comprising application polymers like emulsion
polymers, food polymers and latex such as vinyl pyridine, SBR and NBR latex. Consumer
products like adhesives, wood finishes are offered by its wholly owned subsidiary company
Jubilant Agri and Consumer Products Ltd (JACPL).

The Company enjoys leadership positions in many product categories, key ones being No. 1
in India and amongst Top 2 manufactures in the world for Food Polymers, No. 1 in India and
globally No. 2 for Vinyl Pyridine Latex used for automobile tyres. Amongst Top 3 brands in
India for Single Super Phosphate fertilizer and a significant agro nutrient player. Jivanjor is
the 2nd largest consumer brand in India in consumer adhesives category and a significant
player in the Indian wood finishes market.

Food Services (QSR)


Jubilant FoodWorks Limited (JFL) was incorporated in 1995 and initiated operations in 1996.
JFL is India's largest and fastest growing Multinational food service Company, with a
network of 1004 stores (as of February 11, 2016). JFL & its subsidiary operate Domino's
Pizza brand with the exclusive rights for India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal. The
Company is the market leader in the chained pizza market with a 72% market share in India
(as per Euro monitor report 2015). The Company also strengthened its portfolio by entering
into an alliance with Dunkin' Donuts, for developing the Dunkin'Donuts brand and operating
restaurants in India. The Company has opened 70 stores (as of February 11, 2016) in India.

Oil and Gas Exploration and Production


Jubilant Energy is one of the leading companies in private sector engaged in Oil & Gas
exploration and production (E&P) in India. It has collaborations with leading global
companies.

Services

Jubilant Enpro, through its alliances with international companies, provides business,
marketing and technical support related to Oil & Gas services, Power & Infrastructure
services, and Aviation related services (sales/maintenance of aircrafts & helicopters).
Jubilant Enpro is the sole authorized Independent Representative of Bell Helicopter in India
for sales, marketing and customer support. Also represent other international aerospace
companies.
Jubilant Enpro is also the Consultant to Transocean-offshore drilling company and also
Manning and Marketing services for Tidewater Marine International etc
Auto
Jubilant MotorWorks is one of the largest Luxury Auto Retail Company in India, engaged in
sales and servicing of Audi, Porsche and Maserati Cars

Audi Cars :

Jubilant Motorworks holds dealership for Audi Cars and the state of the art showrooms are
located in Bangalore, Mangalore, Chennai and Pune. Audi Cars have been well recognised
globally as a manufacturer of high-quality and innovative luxury cars, it is one of the world's
leading premium brands which is among the most admired car brands across the world.

Porsche Cars :

Jubilant MotorWorks through Jubilant Performance Cars (JPCPL) holds dealership for
Porsche cars in Mumbai to cater to Maharashtra. JPCPL take pride in offering enhanced
motoring experience to all luxury car enthusiasts. With a wide range of Porsche cars to offer,
the showroom is designed to keep the customer satisfaction right at the focus.

Maserati Cars :

Jubilant MotorWorks, through Jubilant AutoWorks holds dealership for Maserati cars in
Bengaluru to cater to south India. Maserati is one of the most fascinating car production
companies with a long history of appeal, tradition and sporting success. The state-of-the-art
showroom located in Bengaluru is in line with Maserati global standards, equipped with
modern facilities

Food
Jubilant Consumer Private Limited (JCPL) has been set up to promote sales of ready-to-use
fresh vegetables and gourmet salads under the brand name Jubilant Fresh. Since its inception
in 2013, Jubilant Fresh has gained trust in the food industry, offering an extensive range of
fresh produce, ready-to-cook vegetable combo packs, canned products and ready-to-eat fresh
meals & snacks. In a short span of three years, it has grown to become one of the leading
suppliers of fresh and high quality food products customised to the needs of customers.
Stringent quality checks, traceability, timely services and SOP-driven delivery practices have
given Jubilant a competitive advantage. With prime focus on food safety and hygiene along
with innovative packaging and a value-driven approach, Jubilant Fresh has become a
preferred business partner for its clients.

Sustainability Goals

Sustainability is the investment for the future.


Sustainability is at the core of our business. Jubilant Life Sciences believes that addressing
the challenges of the future rests on the Triple bottom line of Sustainability. We understand
that long term sustainability can be achieved by reducing environmental footprint and
increasing economic as well as community
development footprint.
At Jubilant Life Sciences, we uncompromisingly
adopt an approach which defines sustainability as
Business as usual Our promise of Caring,
Sharing, Growing along with our stakeholders, is
the essence of all our activities that are directed
towards sustainable growth. To further augment our Promise, the following policies have
been framed and implemented:

Sustainability Policy

Climate Change Mitigation Policy

Environment, Occupational Health & Safety Policy

Green Supply Chain Policy

Business Code of Conduct

Whistle-blower Policy

Quality Policy

Responsible Care Policy


Jubilant Life Sciences has also constituted a Sustainability Committee at Board
Level. This committee is responsible for monitoring the progress on triple bottom line
parameters (Economic, Environment, and Social parameters). This Sustainability Committee

comprises of Independent and Executive Directors and it is focussed at ensuring and


evaluating the Companys sustainability performance covering environment, economic, and
social indicators on half yearly basis. We have deployed dedicated sustainability teams, at our
corporate office as well as our manufacturing facilities, for continuous review, monitoring
and communication regarding Jubilants sustainability performance.
At Jubilant Life Sciences, we aim to manufacture products for our customers through
optimized utilisation of resources to minimise effect on environment. We also have state-ofthe-art environment protection equipment at all our manufacturing facilities, as we are aware
of the threats of changing climate. We strive to reduce our carbon footprint through several
energy consumption reduction initiatives and by the use of different renewable energy
sources.
As a responsible and employee friendly organisation, we ensure workplace safety of our
employees and it is of prime importance to us to continuously harness to adopt best available
safety systems at our manufacturing facilities. We practice strict compliance to statutory
requirement related to employee safety concerns and there are policies and systems devised
with an objective of protecting human rights at workplace for all our employees. Majority of
the units at Jubilant Life Sciences are ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certified.
We believe that without a sustainable supply chain base, our vision towards acquiring and
maintaining global leadership can never be achieved. With this in mind, Jubilant Life
Sciences formulated Green Supply Chain Policy in 2010. We have dedicated our efforts to
create greater environmental and social awareness amongst our suppliers. This helps us to
ensure resource optimisation across the value chain, adopt zero tolerance against child labour,
develop long-term partnerships and reduce GHG emissions throughout the supply chain. In
order to make our green supply chain policy more effective, the supply chain division
conducts regular vendors audit and requires the vendors to fill a self-declaration form
including human rights aspects.
At Jubilant Life Science, our people are our assets and their welfare is our responsibility. The
promise of Caring, Sharing, Growing is an integral part of all that we do at Jubilant Life
Sciences. We respect & encourage talent and in our endeavour to bring out the best in our
employees, we adopt policies that are formulated to meet their needs. Our Human Resource

department and Ombudsmans office takes care of the employee/labour relationship issues
while the EHS department ensures safe and healthy work environment.
Jubilant Life Sciences aims at the protection of human rights through implementation of
ethical policies and compliance to country regulation on human rights. We have adopted
policies covering key aspects of human rights like Child Labour, Forced & Compulsory
Labour, Non Discrimination and others. Jubilant Life Sciences is a signatory to UN Global
Compact (UNGC), and recognises United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
We practice to procure material from trustworthy vendors who do not violate human rights
and standards as stipulated. We make sure to add this clause in the contract agreement of our
Company. At Jubilant, the supply chain department also requires the vendors to fill a selfdeclaration form including human rights aspects, based on which the suppliers are audited.
We do not support any sort of discrimination based on gender, cast, creed, colour, religion or
any other factor. Equal remuneration is offered to men or women for the same nature of work.
Jubilant Life Sciences is a signatory to the CII Code of Conduct on Affirmative Action that
reconfirms our commitment to equal employment opportunity for all sections of society.
Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining is respected. We respect the right of our
employees to form an association in accordance with the local laws applicable. The
employees have a right to join associations of their own choice or to refrain from joining one,
unless otherwise prohibited/ necessitated by law.
Child Labour is strictly against our company policy. The HR Department verifies the age of
every new employee by demanding a proof of age. On the other hand, we direct our efforts
towards betterment of children by supporting the cause for eradication of child labour. We
also encourage our Suppliers to work towards a no child-labour policy and require them to
fill a self-evaluation form which delineates prohibition of Child Labour.
We respect the dignity of labour and discourage all forms of forced & compulsory labour.
The terms of employment at Jubilant, are transparent and voluntary. Jubilant life Sciences is a
diverse organisation, and we have our operations in various locations across India & North
America. We embrace the local culture and heritage at the respective regions. We have a welldefined grievance identification and redressal mechanism in place for human rights violation

cases that affects our stakeholders. Ombudsman office and whistle blower policy sets the
basis of employee grievance redressal system.

Sustainability Reporting

As per Global Reporting Initiative Guidelines


At Jubilant Life Science, we ensure transparency and accountability of our practices. We
present our values and disclose our economic, environmental & social performance through
our Sustainability Report. Jubilant is an Organisational Stakeholder of the Global Reporting
Initiative (GRI), an international not for profit organisation which sets guidelines for
sustainability reporting. We published our first Corporate Sustainability Report in the year
2003. Since then, Sustainability Reports are released annually in accordance with the Global
Reporting Initiative (GRI) Guidelines and are externally assured by Ernst & Young. In the
year 2013, we also started voluntary reporting of sustainability performance in line with
National Voluntary Guideline (NVG). Jubilant Life Sciences also ensures to report
community & social initiatives in line with United National Millennium Development Goals.
Our Sustainability Reports are as per GRI G3.1 A+ level & GRI Check, since 2007

Carbon Disclosure Project

Reporting Greenhouse Gas emissions with worlds largest climate change database
representing 722 Financial Institutions Investor Signatories
Jubilant Life Science is one of the few companies in India disclosing GHG emissions and
taking voluntary reduction initiatives. We have been able to do so by participating in the
Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), executed by WWF and CII in India. CDP today holds the
largest database of primary corporate climate change information in the world. Jubilant held

the 2nd position in Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), 2010 with Carbon Disclosures
Leadership Index (CDLI) Score 77. We achieved this position, owing to our integrated
climate change initiatives and potential risks opportunities related to climate change, into
our business.
'Jubilant has been reporting to Carbon Disclosure Project since, 2010'

UN Global Compact

Signatory to United Nations Global Compact


In the year 2010, Jubilant became a member of the UN Global Compact (UNGC) with the
aim of internalising the ten Global Compact Principles in the areas of human rights, labour,
environment and anti-corruption within the Companys strategies, policies and operations.
Through our support to the UNGC, we also aim to undertake projects to advance the broader
development goals of the United Nations particularly the Millennium Development Goals.
Since 2010, we are submitting our communication on Progress (COP) every year and our
communications are available at UNGC website.

Responsible care

Signatory to Responsible Care initiative of Indian Chemical Council


Jubilant Life Science, is a signatory to Responsible Care, an initiative of global chemical
industry that drives continuous improvement in health, safety and environmental (HSE)

performance. The improvement initiatives are taken together with open and transparent
communication with stakeholders. We submit annual report against Key Performance
Indicators (KPI) to Indian Chemical Council (ICC) including our key sustainability
performance data.

Millennium Development Goals

Signatory to United Nations Millennium Development Goals


Our community initiatives are aligned to focus on the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs).

Goal 1: Eradicate Poverty and Hunger

Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education

Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

Goal 4 &5: Reduce Child Mortality & Improve Maternal Health

Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability

Goal 8: Global Partnership for Development

PYRIDINE
PRODUCTION
PLANT

Process Block Diagram

PRODUCTS
1. Pyridine
Pyridine, a basic organic chemical, is a versatile building block and excellent solvent in
agrochemical, pharmaceutical and other industries. It is completely soluble in water, alcohol,
ether and benzene. It acts as a scavenger and can catalyze reactions. Initially Pyridines were
isolated from coal tars from coking operations; Currently, Synthetic processes account for the
majority of world production of pyridines.
The most common synthetic processes for production of pyridines involve vapor-phase fluid
bed reactions of acetaldehyde and ammonia, with or without formaldehyde. Producers can
use the same equipment and catalysts to produce the mix of pyridine/beta-picoline or alphapicoline/gamma-picoline mixtures by selecting raw materials. Changing catalysts and
reaction conditions influences the ratio of products formed.

Applications
Agricultural Chemicals: Paraquat, a non-selective contact herbicide, is a major agriculture
chemical derived from pyridine.
2-choloropyridine: Pyridine goes into manufacturing of 2- choloropyridine, which goes into
manufacturing of Zinc pyrithione, an active antimicrobial ingredient in anti-dandruff
shampoos and used in variety of other industrial applications such as paints, caulks, sealants,
adhesives, grouts and patching compounds.
Piperidine: Piperidine is produced via hydrogenation of Pyridine. Major application of
Piperidine is for production of Dipentamethylene thiuram tetrasulfide(DPTT).

Solvent and other: Pyridine is used as a synthetic intermediate and a solvent in a variety of
pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. It is completely soluble in water, alcohol, ether
and benzene. It acts as a scavenger and can catalyze reaction.

2. Alpha Picoline
Alpha Picoline, also called 2-Picoline or 2-Methylpyridine, is a clear organic liquid. It is
completely soluble in Water, Alcohol and Ether.

Applications
The largest application of Alpha Picoline is 2- Vinylpyridine monomer (2 VP), which is
used in the manufacturing of VP Latex
Other application of Alpha Picoline is in the manufacturing of agrochemicals: Picloram and
Nitrapyrin
Alpha Picoline is also the raw material for 2-Cyanopyridine
It is also used in the pharmaceuticals industry

3. Beta Picoline
Beta Picoline, also called 3-Picoline or 3-Methylpyridine, is a clear organic liquid. It is
completely soluble in Water, Alcohol and Ether.

Applications
The largest application of Beta Picoline is in the manufacturing of Vitamin B3
(Niacinamide)
Beta Picoline is a significant intermediate for agrochemicals like Chlorpyrifos, Haloxyfop
and Fluazifop Butyl
Also used in pharmaceutical intermediates REACH Status: Registered as Full Phase in and
Transported Isolated Intermediate (TII)

4. Gamma Picoline
Gamma Picoline, also called 4-Picoline or 4-Methylpyridine, is a clear organic liquid. It is
completely soluble in Water, Alcohol and Ether.

Applications
Gamma Picoline finds application in the manufacturing of several catalysts such as DMAP
and the drug INH & other pharmaceuticals
Gamma Picoline is used in the manufacturing of 4- Vinylpyridine (4 VP)
Gamma Picoline is also the raw material for 4-Cyanopyridine REACH Status: Preregistered

5. 2-Cyanopyridine
2-Cyanopyridine is a white to off-white solid at room temperature with almond like odour. It
is derived from Alpha Picoline.
Applications
2-Cyanopyridine finds applications in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals & fine chemicals

2-Cyanopyridine is converted to Chromium and Zinc Picolinate for use in human and
animal nutrition

6. 3-Cyanopyridine
3-Cyanopyridine is a white crystalline solid and used to manufacture 3 substituted Pyridine
derivatives and Industrial intermediates.

Applications
3-Cyanopyridine is used in the manufacturing of Niacinamide & Niacin (Vitamin B3)
Other major application areas of 3-Cyanopyridine are: Pymetrizone, 2 Chloro Nicotinic
Acid, and 3-Aminomethylpyridine, pharmaceuticals & agrochemicals
7. 4-Cyanopyridine
4-Cyanopyridine is a white to off-white solid at room temperature. It is derived from Gamma
Picoline.
Applications
4-Cyanopyridine finds applications in the manufacturing of the drug INH Isoniazid and
other pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals

8. Piperidine
Piperidine is a colourless fuming liquid, derived by the hydrogenation of Pyridine.

Applications
The major application of Piperidine is for the production of Dipiperidinyl Dithium
Tetrasulfide, which is used as a rubber vulcanisation accelerator
Piperidine is also used as a solvent and base in agrochemical and pharmaceutical industries
for Mepiquat Chloride, Dipyridamoil and Minidoxil

SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT

DESIGNING OF AMMONIA
PREHEATER

Heat Exchangers
Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer heat energy from one fluid to another. Typical
heat exchangers experienced by us in our daily lives include condensers and evaporators used
in air conditioning units and refrigerators. Boilers and condensers in thermal power plants are
examples of large industrial heat exchangers. There are heat exchangers in our automobiles in
the form of radiators and oil coolers. Heat exchangers are also abundant in chemical and
process industries. There is a wide variety of heat exchangers for diverse kinds of uses, hence
the construction also would differ widely. However, in spite of the variety, most heat
exchangers can be classified into some common types based on some fundamental design
concepts. We will consider only the more common types here for discussing some analysis
and design methodologies.

Classification of heat exchangers


Transfer of heat from one fluid to another is an important operation for most of the chemical
industries. The most common application of heat transfer is in designing of heat transfer
equipment for exchanging heat from one fluid to another fluid. Such devices for efficient
transfer of heat are generally called Heat Exchanger. Heat exchangers are normally classified
depending on the transfer process occurring in them. General classification of heat
exchangers is shown in the Figure 1.

Figure 1

Amongst of all type of exchangers, shell and tube exchangers are most commonly used heat
exchange equipment. The common types of shell and tube exchangers are:
Fixed tube-sheet exchanger (non-removable tube bundle): The simplest and cheapest
type of shell and tube exchanger is with fixed tube sheet design. In this type of exchangers
the tube sheet is welded to the shell and no relative movement between the shell and tube
bundle is possible (Figure 2).
Removable tube bundle: Tube bundle may be removed for ease of cleaning and
replacement. Removable tube bundle exchangers further can be categorized in floating head
and U-tube exchanger.

Floating-head exchanger: It consists of a stationery tube sheet which is clamped with


the shell flange. At the opposite end of the bundle, the tubes may expand into a
freely riding floating-head or floating tube sheet. A floating head cover is bolted to
the tube sheet and the entire bundle can be removed for cleaning and inspection of

the interior. This type of exchanger is shown in Figure 3.


U-tube exchanger: This type of exchangers consists of tubes which are bent in the
form of a U and rolled back into the tube sheet shown in the Figure 4. This means
that it will omit some tubes at the centre of the tube bundle depending on the tube
arrangement. The tubes can expand freely towards the U bend end.

The different operational and constructional advantages and limitations depending on


applications of shell and tube exchangers are summarized in Table 1.1. TEMA (USA)
and IS: 4503-1967 (India) standards provide the guidelines for the mechanical design of
unfired shell and tube heat exchangers. As shown in the Table 1.1, TEMA 3-digit codes
specify the types of front-end, shell, and rear-end of shell and tube exchangers.

Fig
ure 2. Fixed-tube heat exchanger ([1]).

Fi
gure 3. Floating-head heat exchanger (non-pull through type) [1].

Fi
gure 4. Removable U-tube heat exchanger [1].

Typical parts and connections shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4 (IS: 4503-1967) are
summarized below.
1. Shell
2. Shell cover
3.Shell flange(channel end)
4. Shell flange(cover end)
5. Shell nozzle or branch
6. Floating tube sheet
7. Floating head cover
8. Floating head flange
9. Floating head gland
10. Floating head backing ring
11. Stationary tube sheet
12. Channel or stationary head
13. Channel cover
14. Channel nozzle or branch
15. Tube(straight)

16. Tubes
17. Tie rods or spacers
18. Transverse baffles or support plates
19. Longitudinal baffles
20. Impingement baffles
21. Floating head support
22. Pass partition
23. Vent connection
24. Drain connection
25. Instrument connection
26. Expansion bellows
27. Support saddles
28. Lifting lungs
29. Weir
30. Liquid level connection

Basic Heat Exchanger Flow Arrangements


Two basic flow arrangements are as shown in Figure 7.2. Parallel and counter flow provide
alternative arrangements for certain specialized applications. In parallel flow both the hot and
cold streams enter the heat exchanger at the same end and travel to the opposite end in
parallel streams. Energy is transferred along the length from the hot to the cold fluid so the
outlet temperatures asymptotically approach each other. In a counter flow arrangement, the
two streams enter at opposite ends of the heat exchanger and flow in parallel but opposite
directions. Temperatures within the two streams tend to approach one another in a nearly
linearly fashion resulting in a much more uniform heating pattern. Shown below the heat
exchangers are representations of the axial temperature profiles for each. Parallel flow results
in rapid initial rates of heat exchange near the entrance, but heat transfer rates rapidly
decrease as the temperatures of the two streams approach one another. This leads to higher
energy loss during heat exchange. Counter flow (Figure 5) provides for relatively uniform
temperature differences and, consequently, lead toward relatively uniform heat rates
throughout the length of the unit. The corresponding curves of parallel and counter current
flow are shown in Figure 6.

Figure 5. Parallel and Counter flow

Figure 6. Plots of Parallel and Counter Flow

Thermal design considerations


Thermal design of a shell and tube heat exchanger typically includes the determination of
heat transfer area, number of tubes, tube length and diameter, tube layout, number of shell

and tube passes, type of heat exchanger (fixed tube sheet, removable tube bundle etc), tube
pitch, number of baffles, its type and size, shell and tube side pressure drop etc.

1. Shell
Shell is the container for the shell fluid and the tube bundle is placed inside the shell. Shell
diameter should be selected in such a way to give a close fit of the tube bundle. The clearance
between the tube bundle and inner shell wall depends on the type of exchanger ([2]; page
647). Shells are usually fabricated from standard steel pipe with satisfactory corrosion
allowance. The shell thickness of 3/8 inch for the shell ID of 12-24 inch can be satisfactorily
used up to 300 psi of operating pressure.

Figure 7. Shell of heat exchanger

2. Tube
Tube OD of and 1 are very common to design a compact heat exchanger. The most
efficient condition for heat transfer is to have the maximum number of tubes in the shell to
increase turbulence. The tube thickness should be enough to withstand the internal pressure
along with the adequate corrosion allowance. The tube thickness is expressed in terms of
BWG (Birmingham Wire Gauge) and true outside diameter (OD). The tube length of 6, 8, 12,
16, 20 and 24 ft are preferably used. Longer tube reduces shell diameter at the expense of
higher shell pressure drop. Finned tubes are also used when fluid with low heat transfer
coefficient flows in the shell side. Stainless steel, admiralty brass, copper, bronze and alloys
of copper-nickel are the commonly used tube materials.

Figure 8. Tubes inside heat exchanger

3. Tube pitch, tube-layout and tube-count


Tube pitch is the shortest centre to centre distance between the adjacent tubes. The tubes are
generally placed in square or triangular patterns (pitch) as shown in the Figure 9. The widely
used tube layouts are illustrated in Table 1.2. The number of tubes that can be accommodated
in a given shell ID is called tube count. The tube count depends on the factors like shell ID,
OD of tube, tube pitch, tube layout, number of tube passes, type of heat exchanger and design
pressure.

Figure 9. Various types of tube pitch

4. Tube passes

The number of passes is chosen to get the required tube side fluid velocity to obtain greater
heat transfer co-efficient and also to reduce scale formation. The tube passes vary from 1 to
16. The tube passes of 1, 2 and 4 are common in application. The partition built into
exchanger head known as partition plate (also called pass partition) is used to direct the tube
side flow. Various shell and tube passes are shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10. Types of shell and tube passes

5. Tube sheet
The tubes are fixed with tube sheet (Figure 11) that forms the barrier between the tube and
shell fluids. The tubes can be fixed with the tube sheet using ferrule and a soft metal packing
ring. The tubes are attached to tube sheet with two or more grooves in the tube sheet wall by
tube rolling. The tube metal is forced to move into the grooves forming an excellent tight
seal. This is the most common type of fixing arrangement in large industrial exchangers. The
tube sheet thickness should be greater than the tube outside diameter to make a good seal.
The recommended standards (IS:4503 or TEMA) should be followed to select the minimum
tube sheet thickness.

Figure 11. Tube Sheet

6. Baffles
Baffles are used to increase the fluid velocity by diverting the flow across the tube bundle to
obtain higher transfer co-efficient. The distance between adjacent baffles is called bafflespacing. The baffle spacing of 0.2 to 1 times of the inside shell diameter is commonly used.
Baffles are held in positioned by means of baffle spacers. Closer baffle spacing gives greater
transfer co-efficient by inducing higher turbulence. The pressure drop is more with closer
baffle spacing. The various types of baffles are shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12. Schematic of baffles in a heat exchanger

In case of cut-segmental baffle, a segment (called baffle cut) is removed to form the baffle
expressed as a percentage of the baffle diameter. Baffle cuts from 15 to 45% are normally
used. A baffle cut of 20 to 25% provide a good heat-transfer with the reasonable pressure
drop. The % cut for segmental baffle refers to the cut away height from its diameter. Figure
13. shows segmental baffles.

Figure 13. Segmental Baffles

7. Fouling
Material deposits on the surfaces of the heat exchanger tubes may add more thermal
resistances to heat transfer. Such deposits, which are detrimental to the heat exchange
process, are known as fouling. Fouling can be caused by a variety of reasons and may
significantly affect heat exchanger performance. It is shown in Figure 14.
Fouling can be caused by the following sources:
1) Scaling is the most common form of fouling and is associated with inverse solubility salts.
Examples of such salts are CaCO3, CaSO4, Ca3(PO4)2, CaSiO3, Ca(OH)2, Mg(OH)2,
MgSiO3, Na2SO4, LiSO4, and Li2CO3.

Figure 14. Fouling in Heat Exchangers

2) Corrosion fouling is caused by chemical reaction of some fluid constituents with the heat
exchanger tube material.
3) Chemical reaction fouling involves chemical reactions in the process stream which results
in deposition of material on the heat exchanger tubes. This commonly occurs in food
processing industries.
4) Freezing fouling is occurs when a portion of the hot stream is cooled to near the freezing
point for one of its components. This commonly occurs in refineries where paraffin
frequently solidifies from petroleum products at various stages in the refining process.,
obstructing both flow and heat transfer.
5) Biological fouling is common where untreated water from natural resources such as rivers
and lakes is used as a coolant. Biological microorganisms such as algae or other microbes can
grow inside the heat exchanger and hinder heat transfer.
6) Particulate fouling results from the presence of micro scale sized particles in solution.
When such particles accumulate on a heat exchanger surface they sometimes fuse and harden.
Like scale these deposits are difficult to remove.

Steps for designing of Shell and Tube heat exchanger

Introduction to Kerns method


Kerns was based on experimental work on commercial exchanger
Advantages

Giving reasonably satisfactory prediction of the heat-transfer coefficient for standard

design
Simple to apply
Accurate enough for preliminary design calculations
Accurate enough for designs when uncertainty in other design parameter is such that
the use of more elaborate method is not justified

Disadvantage

The prediction of pressure drop is less satisfactory, as pressure drop is more affected

by leakage and bypassing than heat transfer


The method does not take account of the bypass and leakage streams

Steps involved in designing of heat exchanger are:


Step 1. Obtain the required thermo-physical properties of hot and cold fluids at the caloric
temperature or arithmetic mean temperature. Calculate these properties at the caloric
temperature if the variation of viscosity with temperature is large. These properties are shown
in Table 1.

Table1. Various thermo-physical properties of fluid

Thermo-physical Properties

1. Heat capacity
2. Density
3. Viscosity
4. Thermal conductivity

Step 2. Perform energy balance and find out the heat duty (Q) of the exchanger.

Q = mh*cph* T=mc*cpc* t
mh= mass flow rate of hot fluid
mc= mass flow rate of cold fluid
cph= heat capacity of hot fluid
cpc= heat capacity of cold fluid
T= temperature difference in hot fluid
t= temperature difference in cold fluid

T1

t2

T2

t1

LMTD= [(T1-t2)-(T2-t1)] / ln[(T1-t2)/(T2-t1)]

Step 3. Assume a reasonable value of overall heat transfer coefficient (Uo,assm).

Table 2. Values of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient in Heat Exchangers

Figure 15. Various Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients

Step 4. Decide tentative number of shell and tube passes (n p). Determine the LMTD and the
correction factor FT. FT normally should be greater than 0.75 for the steady operation of the
exchangers. Otherwise it is required to increase the number of passes to obtain higher F T
values.

Figure16. Plot to find the value of correction factor (F T)

Step 5. Calculate heat transfer area (A) required:

A=Q/ (U* LMTD*FT)


Step 6. Select tube material, decide the tube diameter (ID= di and OD = do), its wall thickness
(in terms of BWG or SWG) and tube length ( L ). Calculate the number of tubes (n t) required
to provide the heat transfer area (A)

nt = A/( *do*L)
Calculate tube side fluid velocity:

u= [4m*(np /nt)]/ di2


If u< 1m/s, fix np so that,

Re= [4m*(np/nt)]/(di)
Where, m, and are mass flow rate, density and viscosity of tube side fluid. However, this
is subject to allowable pressure drop in the tube side of the heat exchanger.
Step 7. Decide type of shell and tube exchanger (fixed tube sheet, U-tube etc.). Select the
tube pitch (PT), determine inside shell diameter (Ds) that can accommodate the calculated
number of tubes (nT) Use the standard tube counts table for this purpose.
Table 3. Tube pitch values for different number of passes

Table 4. Values of ID and OD of tubes for square pitch

Table 5. Values of ID and OD of tubes for triangular pitch

Step 9. Assign fluid to shell side or tube side (a general guideline for placing the fluids is
summarized in Table 5). Select the type of baffle (segmental, doughnut etc.), its size (i.e.
percentage cut, 25% baffles are widely used), spacing (B) and number. The baffle spacing is
usually chosen to be within 0.2 Ds to Ds.
Table 5. Guidelines for placing fluids in shell and tube side

Step 10. Determine the tube side film heat transfer coefficient (hi) using the suitable form of
Sieder-Tate equation in laminar and turbulent flow regimes.
For Laminar flow

Nu= 1.86 (Re*Pr*ID/L)1/3


For Turbulent flow

Nu= 0.027*Re0.8*Pr1/3

Estimate the shell-side film heat transfer coefficient (ho) from:

Jh= (ho*De/k)(c*/k)-1/3 (/w)-0.14

You may consider: /w 1

Figure 17. Heat transfer factor for tube side

Figure 18. Heat transfer factor for shell side

Figure 19. Friction factor for shell side

Figure 20. Friction factor for shell side

Select the outside tube (shell side) dirt factor (Rdo) and inside tube (tube side) dirt factor (Rdi).
Table 5. Values of dirt factor for various fluids

Calculate overall heat transfer coefficient (Uo,cal) based on the outside tube area (you may
neglect the tube-wall resistance) including dirt factors:

Uo,cal1=[(1/ho)+Rdo+(A0/Ai(do-di/2kw)) +(Ao/Ai(1/hi))+((Ao/Ai)*Rdi)]-1

Step 11. If 0<( Uo,cal Uo,ass )/ Uo,ass< 30%, go the next Step 12. Otherwise go to Step 5,
calculate heat transfer area (A) required using Uo,cal , and repeat the calculations starting from
Step 5. If the calculated shell side heat transfer coefficient (h o) is too low, assume closer
baffle spacing (B) close to 0.2 Ds and recalculate shell side heat transfer coefficient. However,
this is subject to allowable pressure drop across the heat exchanger.
Step 12. Calculate % overdesign. Overdesign represents extra surface area provided beyond
that required to compensate for fouling. Typical value of 10% or less is acceptable.
% Overdesign =(A-Areq )/Areq

A = design area of heat transfer in the exchanger; Areq = required heat transfer area.
Step 13. Calculate the tube-side pressure drop (PT): (i) pressure drop in the straight section
of the tube (frictional loss) (Pt) and (ii) return loss (Prt) due to change of direction of fluid
in a multi-pass exchanger. Total tube side pressure drop: PT = Pt + Prt .
Step 14. Calculate shell side pressure drop (PS ): (i) pressure drop for flow across the tube
bundle (frictional loss) (Ps) and (ii) return loss (Prs) due to change of direction of fluid.
Total shell side pressure drop: PS = Ps+ Prs . If the tube-side pressure drop exceeds the
allowable pressure drop for the process system, decrease the number of tube passes or
increase number of tubes per pass. Go back to step 6 and repeat the calculations steps. If the
shell-side pressure drop exceeds the allowable If the shell-side pressure drop exceeds the
allowable pressure drop, go back to step 7 and repeat the calculations steps

References
1. EAGLE, A. and FERGUSON, R. M. (1930) Proc. Roy. Soc. A. 127, 540. On the
coefficient of heat transfer fromthe internal surfaces of tube walls.
2. KERN, D. Q. (1950) Process Heat Transfer (McGraw-Hill).
3. LUDWIG, E. E. (2001) Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petroleum Plants, Vol. 3,
3rd edn (Gulf).
4. PERRY, R. H., GREEN, D.W. and MALONEY, J. O. (1997) Perrys Chemical Engineers
Handbook, 7th edn (McGrawHill).
5. Richardson and Coulson, Chemical Engineering Volume 6
6. SAUNDERS, E. A. D. (1988) Heat Exchangers

Conclusion

During the summer internship at Jubilant Life Sciences, the key objective of getting a firsthand experience of chemical plant was successfully accomplished. The purpose of
understanding the production process of pyridine and beta-picoline, and that of recognizing
the major section of raw material storage, reaction section, distillation section, utilities
section etc. was fulfilled and I assimilated the knowledge of plant layout and working.
I understood the working, fundamental principles, problems encountered of the various
equipment used in the industry which enhanced my practical knowledge in the field of
chemical engineering and will surely help me in my future endeavours. The process of waste
incineration, which is of great importance, was also included in this part of the project.
The second part was designing of a heat exchanger (ammonia preheater), which is used in
ammonia recovery process. Firstly all the concepts are thoroughly revised before designing of
heat exchanger. The heat exchanger used was of shell and tube type, and main objective was
to calculate area to process the liquid with given flow rates with pressure drop in given limits.
Kerns method was employed to design the shell and tube heat exchanger and numerous
iterations were performed to obtain the correct and desired result. It was successfully
designed and we get more area than the actual one and hence there is need to reduce the flow
rates so as to get minimum pressure drop.

Calculations of Ammonia
Preheater