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FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

ECG 426
BASIC SOIL MECHANICS

ROCK CYCLE AND FORMATION AND


SOIL PROFILE

NAME

: MOHD FIRDAUS BIN NORDIN

STUDENT ID

: 2016209448

GROUP

: EC 220 4F

LECTURE

: DR NORAZLAN KHALID

ROCK CYCLE AND FORMATION


The rock cycle is the formation of among the three
main rock types sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous with the process of weathering
and disintegration.

Weathering process
Process that turn rock to soil which result from the combined or single actions of such
agencies as wind, rain, temperature change, frost and gravity. The soil that remain at
their parent site are termed residual soil.

SOIL PROFILE
Basically in the soil profile there are 5 master horizon. Sometimes there is maybe a soil
profiles contain all 5 horizons; and so, soil profiles differ from one location to another.
The 5 master horizons can be known as O, A, E, B, and C.

Figure 1. Example of typical forest soil. Forests soils have 5 layers, including a surface
layer of decomposing plant debris, as well of a zone of leaching.
HORIZO
N
O
A
E
B
C

DISCRIPTION
The O horizon is a surface horizon that contain an organic material at
various stages of decomposition
The A horizon is a surface horizon that mostly consist of minerals (sand,
silt, and clay) and with appreciable amounts of organic matter.
The E horizon is a subsurface typically light in color where has been leach .
It is generally found beneath the O horizon.
The B horizon is a subsurface horizon that has accumulated from the
horizon O,A, and E. It is a site of deposition of certain minerals that have
leached from the horizon above.
The C horizon is a subsurface horizon which known as the saprolite, it is
unconsolidated, loose parent material. It is the least weathered horizon