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PAMVEC

PAR AM E T R IC ANALYT IC AL M ODE L OF VE H IC LE E NE R G Y C ONSUM PT ION


M AT H E US LIM A DE DE US

PAMVEC
Simulao paramtrica de consumo energtico de veculos
Fcil utilizao Plataforma Excel
Plataforma verstil e transparente
Inputs adaptveis ao longo da simulao
ICV, FCEV, BEV, FCHEV, PHEV

Veculo Simulado Nissan Leaf Visia

Dados Nissan Leaf


Carro eltrico mais vendido no mundo desde 2010 (228000 unidades)1
0% de emisses de gases do efeito estufa (como todo carro eltrico)
2010 - Green Car Vision Award, 2011 - European Car of the Year, 2011 - World Car of the Year
Custo de Aquisio: $29010 - $36790 (R$93702 R$118831)2
Projeto No charge to charge 48 cidades1

1 Dados da Nissan News Disponvel em http://nissannews.com/en-US/nissan/usa/releases/nissan-s-no-charge-to-charge-program-expands-to-10-newmarkets?query=228%2C000


2 Cotao do Dlar: 1 USD = R$3,23. Dados de 31/08/2016

Princpio de Funcionamento PAMVEC

Vehicle Platform /
Performance
Targets

Dimensionamento
do Powertrain

Ciclo de Direo

Equao do Sistema
de Foras do Veculo

Consumo
Energtico

Vehicle Platform / Performance Targets


Vehicle Platform

Performance Targets

Glider mass (m glider )

1160

kg

Acceleration: 0 to

100

kph

kph

Top speed

144

kph

Driving range

199

km

199

km for BEV

Vehicle inertia factor (km)

1,1

Gradability: maintain

Powertrain structural mass factor (kstruct)

1,15

Aerodynamic drag area (CD A)

0,80

Rolling resistance coefficient (CRR )

m2

0,0109

Cargo mass (2 person)

150

kg

Accesory load

200

Veculo
Largura (m)
Altura (m)
Cd

Nissan Leaf Visia


1,77
1,550
0,29

in 11,5 sec
grade of 0,0%

Dimensionamento do Powertrain
Engine / Fuel Cell
ICV
PHEV
SHEV
FCEV
FCHEV
Battery
PHEV
SHEV
FCHEV
BEV - Panasonic
BEV - NiMH
BEV - Li-Ion
BEV - Na-NiCl2
BEV - Eletrocell
Motor/Controller
PHEV
BEV
Transmission
ICV & PHEV
BEV

Specific power
(W/kg)
592,3
473,8
432
375
98,8

Efficiency
(%)
22,5%
22,50%
33,30%
56,60%
60,00%

Pmax/Peff
(-)
1,12
1,07
-------

Optimal fraction
(%)
----50%
--10%

Power Density
(W/L)

Specific power
(W/kg)
1800
605
605
650
220
2500
181
200

Specific energy
(Wh/kg)
160
45
45
233
70
157
120
60

Efficiency
(%)
90%
95%
95%
90%
99%
92%
95%
85%

Energy density
(Wh/L)
270
87
87
630
165
317
177
120

Density
(kg/L)
1,688
1,933
1,933
2,704
2,357
2,264
1,475
2,000

Specific power
(W/kg)
1484

Efficiency
(%)
85%

N
(-)
3,21

Pmax/Peff
(-)
---

7500

95%

4,99

1,00

Specific power
(W/kg)
1180

Efficiency
(%)
95%

No. of gears
(-)
5

Time per shift


(s)
0,5

N
(-)
4,74

1539

95%

---

---

---

1352
1352

Fuel storage

Specific
energy
(kJ/kg)
37.296

Specific
energy
(Wh/kg)
10360

Gasoline/Petrol
Gasoline/Petrol
77%
33.624
9340
Diesel
37296
10360
LPG
20.736
5760
LNG
26.640
7400
CNG
15.552
4320
Biodiesel
31.896
8860
Ethanol
22.608
6280
Methanol
19.548
5430
Gaseous H2
(5ksi)
13.320
3700
Gaseous H2
(10ksi)
11.988
3330
Liquid H2
9.252
2570
Boro-hydride
10.224
2840
Metal hydride
HT
3.600
1000
Metal hydride LT
1.440
400
Regenerative Braking Fraction
ICV
0%
PHEV
50%
SHEV
50%
FCEV
0%
FCHEV
57%
BEV
40%
Min. Degree of Hybridization
ICV
--PHEV
5%
SHEV
10%
FCEV
--FCHEV
12%
BEV
---

Energy
density
(kJ/L)
25.236

Energy
density
(Wh/L)
7010

23.103
28.692
16.380
14.004
7.020
25.236
16.704
14.328

6417,5
7970
4550
3890
1950
7010
4640
3980

2740

761

0,206

4447
7347
10.530

1235
2041
2925

0,371
0,794
1,030

5.472
3.420

1520
950

1,520
2,375

Fuel cost
(R$/L)
3,65

Fuel cost
(US$/L)
1,15

Density
(kg/L)
0,677

3,65
3,01

1,15
0,95

1,35
1,85
2,44

0,42
0,58
0,77

0,687
0,769
0,790
0,526
0,451
0,791
0,739
0,733

Ciclos de Direo

Ciclo Padro Urbano EUA

Dados dos Ciclos de Direo


Average Speed (Velocidade Mdia)
"#$ =

1
()(*+

/01023

Root mean cubed speed (Velocidade Cbica Mdia)


56( =

1
()(*+

/01023

Dados dos Ciclos de Direo


Velocity Ratio (Razo de Velocidades)
=

56(
"#$

Characteristic Acceleration (Acelerao Caracterstica)


A A)
>@(>?@
>
( =
2. "#$ .

Dados dos Ciclos de Direo

Consumo Energtico - Resultados


Battery
specific power
specific energy

2500
157

W/kg
Wh/kg

glider mass
Km

energy density

317

Wh/L

CdA

efficiency

92%

Charger efficiency

541236
33990
216,5

volume

107,2

kg

0,80

m2

Crr

99%

max power
energy
mass

Vehicle Platform
1160
1,1
0,0109

7500
95%
4,99
1,0005
76340

mass

10,2

N for accel spec

3,46

Gradability: maintain
Driving range

144
100

kph
kph

in

11,5

grade of

0,0%

kph

199

km

Kregen

40%

W
Wh
kg

Kstruct
Powertrain mass
Curb mass

1,15
315
1475

kg
kg

Drive Cycle
Average speed
Root-mean-cubed speed

NEDC
33,04
53,52

kph
kph

cargo mass (2 person)

150

kg

Characteristic acceleration

0,112

m/s^2

Total mass

1625

kg
Average wheel power

3164

95,7

Whpkm

kg
W
Wh
W/kg

Average brake power


Average drive losses
Accessory power
Average battery losses
Average battery power

1102
612
200
114
5192

W
W
W
W
W

33,4
18,5
6,1
3,5
157,1

Whpkm
Whpkm
Whpkm
Whpkm
Whpkm

Wh/kg

Average recharge losses

451

13,7

Whpkm

Average electricity

5643

170,8

Whpkm

Motor/Controller
specific power
efficiency
N (overspeed ratio)
Pmax/Peff
max power

Performance Targets
Top Speed
Acceleration: 0 to

wheel
power
required

W/kg

Mass
Power
Energy
Spec power

kg

Spec energy

Transmission

Total Propulsion system


315
488466
28222
1551
90

INPUTS

Fuel consumption

1,91

L/100km_eq

OUTPUTS

Fuel consumption

52,37

km/L_eq

Fuel economy

123,2

MPG_eq

Whpkm
L/100km_eq
MPG_eq

efficiency

95%

spec power

1539

W/kg

power

72523

Charger

mass

47,1

kg

Average electricity
Fuel consumption
Fuel economy

172,5
1,93
122,0

Net powertrain efficiency

55,5%

sec

37502
72487

W
W

Comparaes - Resultados
Fuel Economy
[Km/L]
BEV - Li Ion - Leaf

52,37

BEV - Panasonic

BEV - Li Ion - Leaf

41,92

BEV - Zebra

715

FCHEV

28,87

SHEV

835

BEV - Zebra

32,26

FCEV

621

BEV - Panasonic

47,42

FCHEV

PHEV

Energy Consumption
[KJ/Km]

998

FCEV

17,29

1115

SHEV

11,86

1862

PHEV

2715

ICV - 100% GASOLINA

14,27

ICV - 100% GASOLINA

2256

ICV - 75% GASOLINA

14,26

ICV - 75% GASOLINA

2258

ICV - ALCOOL

12,39

ICV - ALCOOL

0,00

15,00

30,00

45,00

60,00

75,00

2600
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Comparaes - Resultados
Energy Cost
[R$/kWh]
BEV - Li Ion - Leaf

0,015

BEV - Panasonic
BEV - Zebra

0,055
0,034

FCHEV

0,096

FCEV

0,284

SHEV

0,152

PHEV

0,324
0,204

ICV - 100% GASOLINA

0,224

ICV - 75% GASOLINA


ICV - ALCOOL
0,000

0,274
0,050

0,100

0,150

0,200

0,250

0,300

0,350

Dvidas