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Abstract:

Chemical equilibrium is the state reached by a certain reaction mixture when the
rates of forward and backward reaction have become equal. In dynamic equilibrium
the forward as backwards reactions continue at equal rates so the overall effect
does not change. On a molecular scale there is continuous change. On the
macroscopic scale nothing appears to be happening. The system needs to be closed
isolated from the outside world. Nothing can be added to the system or taken
away from it apart from energy. It is very important to be knowledgeable about this
topic since it is vital for these reactions and mixtures to maintain equilibrium at all
times. There are applications to chemical equilibrium in real-life, and these are vital
as well. In Experiment No. 9, different reagents were added to the Fe(NO 3)3 and
KCNS mixture. There were five reagents that were added namely 0.1 M Fe(NO 3)3, 0.1
M KCNS, 0.1 KCl, 0.1 M AgNO3 and NaF crystals. Distilled water was also added to
the mixture to serve as a reference to the latter mixtures. The change in
temperature was also executed when two test tubes were subjected to heat and ice
separately. The effects were observed to see whether there has been a forward or a
backward shift under different conditions.
Chemical Equilibrium is a state when concentrations of reactants and
products remain constant over time, and there are no visible changes in the system.
There are three factors where the chemical equilibrium can be changed namely:
change in the concentrations of the reactants and products, change in pressure, and
change in temperature. The group will use Le Chateliers Principle to determine the
direction of the change that happened in the mixture. In Experiment No. 9, different
reagents were added to the Fe(NO 3)3 and KCNS mixture and five reagents were
added namely: 0.1 M Fe(NO 3)3, 0.1 M KCNS, 0.1 KCl, 0.1 M AgNO 3 and NaF crystals.
Distilled water became the point of reference to the other mixtures. Two mixtures
were placed in different temperatures, one in higher temperature and another in
lower temperature. The results displayed change in color. When there is an increase
in the concentration of the reactant, a forward shift happens and increases the
number of products to regain equilibrium, which displayed the darkening of the
solutions in test tubes 2, 3, and 8. On the other hand, when there is a decrease in
the concentration of the reactant, the products are broken down to reactants, a shift
backward is reestablished to form equilibrium which are seen in the lightening of
solutions in test tubes 4, 5, 6, and 7.
Chemical equilibrium is an extremely important process in nature particularly in
many industrial (e.g. production of ammonia) and biological processes (production
of hemoglobin in relation to altitude). Experiment 9, chemical equilibrium, will
determine how various stresses, according to Le Chateliers Principle, being
introduced in a system at equilibrium can alter the systems equilibrium position by
shifting in direction to counteract the effect of the stress. These stresses include
increase or decrease in concentration, temperature, and pressure. To know the
effect of the change in concentration, different reactants are added in the initial
mixture and for the determination of the effect of temperature change; two
mixtures with the same components are used: the temperature in one of the
mixtures is increased while the temperature in the other mixture is decreased. For

both set-ups, an undisturbed mixture is used as reference for the comparison in the
color of the disturbed mixtures. A darker disturbed mixture will mean a forward
reaction; conversely, a lighter disturbed mixture will mean a backward reaction.
Again, the significance of this color change together with its corresponding shift in
direction is to tell that the reaction is going towards its natural state which is to be
in equilibrium.

Keywords: reversible reactions, equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, Le Chateliers


principle, stress

Introduction:
Equilibrium is a state where there are no observable changes as time goes by, that
is, it is constant in time and space. Chemical reactions, particularly reversible
reactions, have the tendency toalter its conditions to achieve equilibrium. At this
chemical equilibrium, the rates of the forward and
reverse reactions are equal. Furthermore, the concentrations of the products and
reactants remain constant. Chemical equilibrium is important in understanding
biological and industrial process such as production of hemoglobin
in relation to higher altitudes and production of ammonia. Le Chateliers principle is
used to predict the direction or shift of the equilibrium
position whenstress such as change in concentration, pressure, volume, or
temperature occurs in the reaction. This experiment will focus more on the
evaluation of the effects of changes in
concentrationand temperature on the equilibrium, explain theseeffects on the
equilibrium system, and interpret these consequences through the Le Chateliers
principle.
Equilibrium is a state in which there are no observable changes as time goes by.
When a chemical reaction has reached the equilibrium state, the concentrations of
reactants and products remain constant over time, and there are no visible changes
in the system. However, there is much activity at the molecular level because
reactant molecules continue to form product molecules while product molecules
react to yield reactant molecules. This dynamic equilibrium situation is the subject
of this chapter. Here we will discuss different types of equilibrium reactions, the
meaning of the equilibrium constant and its relationship to the rate constant, and
factors that can disrupt a system at equilibrium.
Few chemical reactions proceed in only one direction. Most are reversible, at least to
some extent. At the start of a reversible process, the reaction proceeds toward the
formation of products. As soon as some product molecules are formed, the reverse

process begins to take place and reactant molecules are formed from product
molecules.
Chemical equilibrium is achieved when the rates of the forward and reverse
reactions are equal and the concentrations of the reactants and products remain
constant.
Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process. As such, it can be likened to the
movement of skiers at a busy ski resort, where the number of skiers carried up the
mountain on the chair lift is equal to the number coming down the slopes. Although
there is a constant transfer of skiers, the number of people at the top and the
number at the bottom of the slope do not change.
Note that chemical equilibrium involves different substances as reactants and
products. Equilibrium between two phases of the same substance is called physical
equilibrium because the changes that occur are physical processes. The
vaporization of water in a closed container at a given temperature is an example of
physical equilibrium.

Le Chteliers Principle
There is a general rule that helps us to predict the direction in which an equilibrium reaction
will move when a change in concentration, pressure, volume, or temperature occurs. The
rule, known as Le Chteliers principle, states that if an external stress is applied to a
system at equilibrium, the system adjusts in such a way that the stress is partially offset as
the system reaches a new equilibrium position. The word stress here means a change in
concentration, pressure, volume, or temperature that removes the system from the
equilibrium state. We will use Le Chteliers principle to assess the effects of such changes.