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CHITIN - CHITOSAN

Indonesia Aquaculture Production (tonnes) 2010.


Indication Export (E) and Domestic Conssumption (D)
Commodity
Seaweed (E)

2010
3,082,113

Tilapia (D)

469,173

Shrimp (E)

352,600

Milkfish (D)

483,948

Common Carp (D)

374,112

Clariid Catfish(D)

273,554

Pangasiid Catfish (D)

144,056

Giant Gourami (D)

74,912

Grouper (E)

18,805

Barramundi (E)
Other

Total

1,776
203,015

5,478,064

Fishery Waste to High Value Products


The European fishery industry is a major source of
industrial biowaste in Europe. The processing of
crustaceans (e.g. shrimps and crabs) in the EU alone
results in more than ~750.000 t/a of shell waste 1 and
globally it is estimated at 1.44 million metric tons

Crustacean Waste

Protein
Calcium Carbonate
Carotenoids
Polysaccharides- Chitin > Chitosan

Chitin Sources

Crawfish/Crabs
Chitin
Protein
CaCO3
Lipids

25-30%
15%
55%
2-5%

Shrimp
30-40%
35%
30%
5-10%

Composition (Based upon Dry Weight)

Fungi
15-40%
5-10%
Glycans
5-10%

Chitin
Naturally occurring polysaccharide, second most
abundant in nature next to cellulose
Chitin and its deacetylated derivative chitosan are
exceptionally useful polymers
They are biodegradable, non-toxic and biocompatible
making them useful in a range of applications

CHITIN
POLIMER BETA GLUKOSAMIN
DENGAN IKATAN BETA 1-4
GLIKOSIDIK

CHITOSAN
PRODUK DEASETILASI CHITIN

STRUKTUR MOLEKUL
CHITIN

STRUKTUR MOLEKUL
CHITIN

STRUKTUR MOLEKUL
CHITIN

KERANGKA MOLEKUL
CHITIN

STRUKTUR 3 DIMENSI
MOLEKUL CHITIN

Chitin : Poly (N-actyl-D-glucosamine)

Chitin is the second most abundant


polymer in nature after cellulose.

It is present in the exoskeleton of


crustaceans
in
the
marine
arthropods, in some seaweed and
yeasts.

Chitin Uses
Agriculture-fertilizer to improve crops
Medicine-Wound and burn treatmentincreases healing time

Food-additive to stabilise foods


Water treatment, the paper and textile
industries and tissue engineering

PERBANDINGAN STRUKTUR
MOLEKUL
CHITIN-SELULOSA

PERUBAHAN
CHITIN MENJADI CHITOSAN

PERUBAHAN
CHITIN MENJADI CHITOSAN

What are the biomedical applications?


Chitosan is being evaluated in a number of
biomedical applications icluding wound
healing and dressing, dialysis membranes,
contact lenses, fibers for digestible sutures,
liposome stabilization agents, antitumor uses
and drug delivery uses and controlled-release
systems

In these uses chitosans key properties


are :
1) biocompatibility
2) nonantigenicity
3) nontoxicity (its degradation products are

known natural metabolites)


4) the ability to improve wound healing/or clot
blood
5) the ability to absorb liquids and to form
protective films and coatings, and
6) selective binding of acidic liquids, thereby
lowering serum cholesterol levels.

How can Chitosan be used in


orthopedics?
1- Its enzymatic degradability associated to

its structural similarity to extracellular matrix


glycosaminoglycans makes it an attractive
biopolymer for bone tissue repair.
2- Numerous bone filling materials have been
developed in which chitosan is used in
combination with calcium
phosphates,essentially as a binding agent, or
associated to biological signaling molecules

Can Chitosan be used as nonprotein


temporary scaffold?
its versatility to be processed into

injectable, porous and membran forms


without use of toxic solvents makes chitosan
an interesting material to be used as a nonprotein temporary scaffold, for bone
regeneration . Presently, an increasing
number of anchorage-dependent cells,
including bone cells, are being cultured on
2-D and 3-D chitosan-based matrices,
envisaging cell-based regenerative
therapies.

What is the effect of DA of chitosan on


cell properties?
Cell adhesion, migration and cell growth

kinetics of a number of cells, including


keratinocytes and fibroblasts, are
known to depend on the DA of
chitosan, lower DAs favoring cell
adhesion. However, no osteoblast
adhesion studies have been reported.

Apa Pentingnya DA?


The degree of N-acetylation (DA) together
with the molecular weight are the most
important parameters for its characterization.
The DA, which is by definition the molar
fraction of N-acetylated units, is a structural
parameter
influencing
charge
density,
crystallinity and solubility, including the
propensity to enzymatic degradation, with
higher DAs leading to faster biodegradation
rates

Kondisi terbaik proses deasetilasi khitin

limbah cangkang rajungan (Portunus


pelagicus) menjadi khitosan diperoleh
pada suhu 90oC dan waktu proses 120
menit. Kondisi ini memberikan derajat
deasetilasi tertinggi sebesar 79,65 %.

What are the properties of Chitosan ?


Chitosan is a linear polymer of mainly

anhydroglucosamine which behaves as a


linear polyelectrolyte at acidic pH
Chitosan is nontoxic and bioabsorbable.
At pH below 6.5, chitosan in solution carries a
high positive charge density, one charge per
glucosamine unit.
Since chitosan is one of the few cationic
polyelectrolytes, it is an exception to the
current industrial high molecular weight
polysaccharides, which are mostly neutral or
polyanionic.

PERUBAHAN CHITIN
MENJADI GLUKOSAMIN

Produk Chitosan

FARMAKOLOGI CHITOSAN
MENURUNKAN ABSORPSI LEMAK
ANTI OBESITAS
MENURUNKAN KADAR

KOLESTEROL DARAH

MEKANISME AKTIVITAS
CHITOSAN

MEKANISME AKTIVITAS
CHITOSAN

MEKANISME AKTIVITAS
CHITOSAN

STUDI KLINIK CHITOSAN

CHITIN MANUFACTURING

CHITIN CHITOSAN
MANUFACTURING

PEMBUATAN CHITOSAN

Isolation of Chitin/Chitosan

Natural Crustacean Shell

5% HCl or EDTA (-CaCO3)


Chitinoproteic complex

5% NaOH (- Proteins and lipids)

(40% NaOH, (NaBH4), 110oC


(- Proteins) + Deacetylation
CH2OH
O
HO

HO
O
NH-C-CH3
O

NH2

Chitosan

Chitin

CH2OH
O

O
O
CH2OH

Chitin +CaCO3
30% HCl ( CaCO3)

HO
NH2

10% residual acetylation to 25% residual


acetylation

Isolation of Chitin/Chitosan from Fungal mycelium

10% NaOH,
24 hr, RT
Proteins, Lipids,
Pigments, Hemicelluloses

Solubles

Insolubles

Acetic
acid

Chitin/glucan
50:50

Mixture of glucanases

KytoZyme Plant
producing 100 tons/year
to open in 2005

pH = 5.5, 4 days, 37 C

Chitosan

50% NaOH to gel

Chitin

pH = 5.5, chitin deacetylase,


37 C, 5 days

Sources of Chitin/Chitosan
USA
Company

Location

Products

Vanson
Halosource

8840 152nd Avenue


Redmond, WA 98052
vanson@vanson.com

Chitin/ Chitosan
N-Haloamines

AIDP, Inc.

1120 Coiner Court


City of Industry, CA 91748
www.aidp.com

Aminoacids
Herbal extracts
Chitin/ Chitosan

1219 Glen Rock Avenue


Ferro Pfanstiehl
Laboratories, Inc. Waukegan, IL 60085-0439

Glucosamine
Speciality
carbohydrates
Chitin/ Chitosan

V-Labs, Inc

N-Carboxymethyl
chitosan (NCMC)
N, O-Carboxymethyl
chitosan (NOCC)

423 North Theard St


Covington, LA 71433

Sources of Chitin/Chitosan
Company
Randburg
Primex
Genis
KitoZyme

Kraeber Gmbh

Europe
Location

Products

Oskarsgata 7
IS - 580 Siglufjordur
Iceland
Haugesund, Norway
Rue Haute Claire 4
B4040 Herstal
Belgium

Chitosans
Marine proteins
From Shrimp

Waldhofstrasse 14
25474 Ellerbek
Germany

Biopharmaceutical raw
materials
Chitin/Chitosan

Chitin-glucan
Chitosan-glucan
Chitin/Chitosan
From Aspergillis sp

Sources of Chitin/Chitosan
Asia
Company

Location

Products

Industrial Research Ltd


(IRL)

5 Sheffield Crescent
Bishopdale
P.O. Box 20-028
Christchurch, NZ

b-chitin from
squid pen

Meron Biopolymers

Santo Gopalan Road,


Chitin/Chitosan
Chullickal, Cochin - 682005 (Enzymatic
Kerala, India
processing)

Yuhuan Ocean
Biochemical Co., Ltd

89 Zhongxing Middle Road


Liao, Yuhuan County
Post Code: 317602, China

Glucosamine
Chitin/Chitosan
Jinke Chitosan

Korean Chitosan Co.


Ltd.

San 2 Wonjig-Ri KangkuMyun, Youngdeok-Kim


Kyoungbuk-Do, South
Korea

Chitin/Chitosan

Literatur Kitin-Kitosan

INFRA MERAH NMR


CHITIN-CHITOSAN

PENGGUNAAN CHITOSAN

PENGGUNAAN CHITOSAN

Kegunaan Kitin dan Kitosan


Bidang Industri :
Koagulan polielektrolit dan pengolahan limbah cair
Pengikat dan penyerap ion logam
Pewarna
Media kromatografi
Gel dan pertukaran ion
Penyalut berbagai serat alami dan sintetik
Pembentuk film
Meningkatkan kualitas kertas
Pulp dan produksi tekstil

Kegunaan Kitin dan Kitosan


Bidang Pertanian dan Pangan
Antimikroba
Antijamur
Serat bahan pangan
Penstabil
Pembentuk gel
Pembentuk tekstur
Flavor
Pestisida
Dll.

Kegunaan Kitin dan Kitosan


Bidang Kesehatan :
Anti koagulan
Anti tumor
Anti virus
Aditif kosmetik
Membran dialisis
Bahan orthopedik
Pembalut luka
Antiinfeksi
Lensa kontak
Dll.

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials


Waste Treatment:
Metal chelating cationic flocculating agent
Sewage effluents
Metal finishing/electroplating wastes
Paper mills
Radioactive wastes

Protein flocculation for feed market from:


Rendering plants, Milk and Vegetable Processing
Poultry/Egg processing
Single Cell Protein Recovery
EPA approved
FDA/AAFCO approved

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials


Agricultural:
Seed Coatings -- Fungistatic
Potential Binder for Growth Stimulants and other

Agrochemicals
Anti-nemotode Treatment -- Chitin-Protein
complex
Preservative Coating on Produce
Animal Feed Additives
Fertilizer complete with Trace Minerals
(Dried Shrimp Shells @ $100 per ton)

Biocompatibility
Biodegradable to normal metabolites

Chitinases common in environment


Chitosanases also available
Safe, Toxicity = sugar
Activity

Hemostatic Bacteriostatic
Spermicidal Anti-cancer
Anticholesteremic

Fungistatic

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials

Foods:
Dietary fiber, emulsifier, inert ingredient

carrier
Anti-cholesterol food additive ?
Clarification of Beverages and Fruit
Juices
Removal of Dyes or Color Stabilization
Fat BlockerFat Zapper!

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials


Health Care:
Anti-cholesterol Drugs
Controlled release matrix
Wound care Bioabsorbable Sutures and Wound
Dressings derived from Chitosan
Artificial Skin
Bioengineering Materials
Orthopedic Devises
Contact Lenses

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials


Cosmetics:
Hair TreatmentClear solutions form clear films
Substantive to hair
Skin CareChitosan derivatives serve as

emulsifiers, moisturizers, antistatic agents and


emollients
Nail Polishes
Tooth Paste

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials


Biotechnology
Enzyme Immobilization
Protein Separation
Cell Recovery/Culture/Immobilization
Membrane Separations
Chromatography

CHITIN/CHITOSAN LIMITATIONS
1. High Isolation Costs
Dependent on NaOH price fluctuations

2. Consistent Raw Material Supply


Poor storage properties
Drying reduces activity
Easily contaminated by pathogens, exotoxins

3. High Price Markets have Selective Demands


High product purity
Non-toxic
Narrow range of specifications

4.

Low end markets not ready to pay


processing costs

Related Interests