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01

isxy, ck;djf.a .j, ;sfnk mkai,aj, jevjik

NsCIQkajykafia,d iska l,h;= jev'


:HdoDIaka iuHla oDIalhka lru" wl=i,a lrk wh
l=i,fhys fhou" kdkd ckmoj,g meK Ouh m%ldY
lsu" wksla rgj,g meK ij{ Och tiu" :HdoDIaka
.kakd hh fuka hh fldg Tjqka lrk ks.%y j,ska u
hkdh lrkag wfma NsCIQkajykafia,d iska is;aj,g .; hq;=
hs'
.f Yap; ke;s lsu rd;%shla mdid Ou foaYkd
lsu" wrefKdaohg m<uq kesg wo uu ldg wkqlmd flfr
o" ljrl= yg Ouh lshdfo o" fldhs hlska Ydik
ix.%yhla flfr o" .; jQ kg jvd wo k {dkh flfia
jOkh flfr o" :HdoDIah flfia ke;s flfr o" .f
orejkag nd, ld,fha isg Ouh lshd Tjqkag flfia wdoY
olaj o hkdh NsCIQkajykafia,d fhdaksfidaukisldrfhka
l,amkd lrka wIaGdk lrkjd k jevj, bIag mdl
bf u ,ef' NsCIQkajykafia,d f.ka je fldgi
wd,iHfhka ld,h .;lrk nj fmfka' wdrduh m;% fldg
;nd.ekSu" mkaif,a ul=,a levu" myka mlal m;%
lru" fiakdik m;% lru hkdh mkaif,a kej;S ysk
YsIHhka ,jd fyda l=vd idufKarhkajykafia,d ,jd fyda
lrjd.; hq;= hs'

02
rgl cd;shla idod.ekSug ud. ;kkafkda ta rf

Ydia;% o;a .=rejre h hq;= hs'


hqfrdamSh rgj, Ydia;%dpdhl mdo,s fldgig wh;a
wh iska lrkq ,ef' frmrud l%sia;shdksh Yajdi lrk
rgj, frmrud md,sjreka iska o frdaudkqj Yajdi lrk
rgj, frdaudkq md,sjreka fu fia rgj, h lrk ksid
mQclhkag n,h ,enqKq g ta rf uka;%S uKavmh hg;a lr
.ekSug Wml%u fhu frdaudkq mQclhka f.a Ou;djls' ta
ksid f frdaudkq mQclhkag reoaO j b;d,s" m%xY" mD;=.d,a
rgj, uka;%Ska iska lghq;= lrkq ,ef' mD;=.d,a rf miq.sh
jIfha flreKq flda,dy, ish,a, u frdaudkq mQclhka ksid
yg.;a nj fmfka' uyd ck;dj wkaOldrfha ;nd .ekSu ta
mQcljrekag m%fhdack neka frdaudkq lf;da,sl oDIah mj;sk
lsis u rgl hqKqjla olskag ke;' b;d,sh;a" m%xYh;a
mQcljreka f.a yia;j,ska frekdhska miq ta rgj,a hqKq h'
f frdaudkq mQcljrekag reoaO j lghq;= lrkag f rf
uka;%Skag TkE ke;af;a isxy, ck;dj .ek bx.%Sis uka;%Ska
f.ayis; WfmaCIdfjka jik neks' ta ksid frdaudkq
mQcljrekag reoaO j lghq;= lrkag yeu w;ska u iqiq
fldgi uyd ydr mrmrdjg whs;s uyd ix> iNdj hs'

03
,xldf isxy, ck;dj ke;s lr ug

ieriS isk hlaIfhda'


ials" n%Eka" wrlal= iy i;aj >d;kh lrkag
W.kajk :HdoDIal .=rejre h' f hlaIhkag wiqfkdfjkag
fn!oaO isxy, ck;dj hh lg hq;= hs' l=,f.da;% ksid
Wmojdf.k ;sfnk uokdud laf,aYhka w;ayeroud pkavd,
wm;% l=,j,g wh;a udxY wkqNj lsu" u;ameka mdkh lsu"
wm;% jia;% weu" Yrh wm;%j ;nd .ekSud .;s w;ayer
oud wdh jxYhg whs;s i|dpdr Ou mj;ajd.ekSug hh
lghq;= hs'
ukq kS;sfha wdldr cd;sf.da;%j,ska ySk cd;sh Y= cd;sh
hs' f Y= cd;sh m;% Y=" wm;% Y h hs' fohdldr hs' m;%
Y=hka iska n%dyauK" CI;%Sh" ffjYH l=,j,g whs;s wdpdr
mj;ajkq ,ef' wm;% Y= fldGdYh f pd;%dh
fkdmj;ajd .j iQlr udxYd tmd lrk ,o lEu o" tmd lrk
,o u;ameka mdkh o flfrhs' wm;% ySk l=,j,g whs;s Ou
ish,a,la u kg isxy,hka iska lrkq ,ef' nqoaO NdIs;h
iDIs NdIs;h hk folg u reoaO j isxy,hka l%shd lrk nj
m%;HCI hs' ue isfha wmmKaKdilfhys k.r fJ|hH
iQ;%fha ij{ rdfcda;a;uhdKkajykafia k.rJ| k
n%dyauK .ug jev ta n%dyauKhkag Ou foaYkd fldg mQcd
lghq;= Y%uK n%dyauKfhda ljreyq hs pdrd m[aplduhka
f.ka fjka jQ rd. fodai fudayhka f.ka wyla ug hh
lrkakd jQ Y%uK n%dyauKhkag jeu hq;= nj;a tfia ke;s j
rEm" Yo" .kaO" ridh wkqNj lrkakd jQ Y%uK n%dyauKhka
.sys N+fhys isk we;a;ka fuka fYaI;ajhla fkdue;s neka
jeu fkdfldg hq;= nj;a W.kajd ;sf' .sys j uu
m[apldufhys fh ji' mQcl .=rejrdyQ o ud fia u
iskafkda h' ffYaIhl=;a ke;' l=ula ksid uu f
;eke;a;kag .re flfr o@ fu fia l,amkd fldg

:HdoDIakag .re i;aldr fkdlg hq;= hs' ;HdoDYa


md,sjre lrk Wml%u h :Hd ud.hg whs;s h' f
we;a;kaf.a jev keje;aug NsCIQkajykafia,d iuHla h
Wmd fhh hq;= hs' fufia NsCIQkajykafia,d ius j ffu;%sh
Wmojd wkqlmd is;ska fn!oaOhka hqKq lsug o l=, orejka
oi wl=i,a lu m:hg jefgkag fkd frd.ekSug o W;aidy
lg hq;= hs'

04
isxy, cd;sh ke;s lr|ukag i;=rka ieriS isk nj
ie,lsh hq;= hs'
hqfrdamSh cd;Ska o" mrjr" yn" fndnhsldr
mrfoaYslfhda o hqfrdamShhka iska idod tjk fkdfhla j.
ials iqrd o isxy,hka f.a y;=frda h hs ie,lsh hq;= hs'
fudjqka f.ka wyla ug h lg hq;= hs'
,xld Ydikh fuhg jI 2200lg mQjfhys Y%S uyd
uysJo uyd ry;kajykafia m%;sia:dmkh lr jod< y' t ;eka
mgka fkdfhla jdrj, wka;rdhsl Ouhka fiajkh lsfuka
we;e rcjre ffj;=,H oDIa .;a NsCIQka f.a wjjdo f,i
uyd ydrjdiS f:rjd NsCIQkag ysyer lr ;sf' imQK
Ydik kdYh lrk ,oafoa iS;djl iQ ms;D>d;l rdcisxy rc
iska h' f ld,fha Wmimkak NsCIQka ke;sj ,xldj ysia
h' ,kao uka;%Ska iska ta ld,fha fld<U m<df;a ,kao
rdcHfha wd{dpl%h mj;ajk ,' ,kao uka;%Ska iska
nqoaOd.ug lrk ,o Wmldrh lsis l,l u;l ke;s fkdlg
hq;= hs' ish rdcfha t l,g nqoaOd.u mj;sk nj rc;=udg
lSfjda ,kao uy;ajre h' ,xld isxy, ks,fu,d rcl= f.k
ishf Odl uyd rc;=udKkag ikafoaY ,sh,a,la f.k
.sfhda ,kaohkaf.a kejl hs' ,kaohkaf.a Wmldrfhka
ishfuka f rgg NsCIq ix>hd jevujdf.kdfjda h' ,kao
uy;=ka iska f lrk ,o Wmldrh ksid wo ,xld Ydikh
mj;S'

05
kg nqoaOd.u ke;s lsug Wml%u lrkafkda'
frdaudkq" jeia,shka" nemaia" tx.,ka; iNd" p
Ikd" ie,fika yuqodf wh o ynkaldr" urlal," fo
fldgi o we;e bx.%Sis ks,Orfhda o we;e bx.%Sis j;=ldr
fjf<| uy;=ka o bx.%Sis bf.kf.k l%sia;shdks isk we;e
isxy, neiagjre iy ffjoHdpdhjre o fkaoldrfhda o"
m%xY" cuka" bx.%Sis md,sjrekg tl;= isk isxy, fn!oaO
ck;dj wl=i, luhkays fhoug l%shd lrk neka isxy,
fn!oaOhka fjkqfjka l%shd lrkag sik NsCIQkajykafia,d
wm%udo j jhfhka isxy, cd;sh mfriaika lr .ekSug
W;aidy lg hq;= hs' kg isxy,hka jglrf.k fld" j,iqka
luhkays fh isk mdmSka neka fudjqka ke;s lrkag k
oi wl=i, lu fkdfldg isug isxy, fn!oaOhka hh
lg hq;= hs'
mru .kaO f mdmSka fiajkh fkdfldg Tjqkaf.a
ux.,Hhj,g fkdf.dia Tjqka fok lE fkdf.k u;ameka
mdkh fkdlg Tjqka urd l=Kk W!re uia" l=l= uia" f.da
uia wkqNj fkdfldg l%sia;shdks pd;%dh w;ayeroud f;dmams"
idh" .jq" l5sia;shdks kdu m%;sCIam fldg wdh Ou wkqj
l,a hjkag is;g .; hq;= hs'
ynhka w;g f.dia ;sfnk fjf<|du isxy,hka w;g
.ekSug jyd u l%shd lg hq;= hs' kg imQKfhka nq,;a
fjf<|du" mqjla fjf<|du" or fjf<|du" t<j fjf<|du"
lv fjf<|du ynxldrhka w;g f.dia ;sf' jdKsclu ukq
kS;sfha b;d u fY%aIaG luhla fuka kshu fldg ;sf' Ok
iemhSug fjfyfik ;eke;a;dg ,CIa foa Wmldr lrkakS
h' Ok ke;s ;eke;a;d Y=hd h hs kshu lr ;sf' jdKsc
luh mgka f.k Ok imdokh lsug isxy,hka iska
bf.k .; hq;=hs' bx.%Sis lla bf.k.;a muKska l,sika"
flda" f;dmams oud.;a muKska bx.%Sisldrhkaf.a ixLHdjg .;

fkdyels hs' bx.%Sis bf.k .kak ;reK isxy,hkag nd,


ld,fha hym;a wjjdo ug iskafka NsCIQkajykafia,d h'
tfy;a NCIQka nd, mrmdrdj :HdoDIa .=rejrhka fiajkh
flfr;s' ta nd, mrmrdf Woh jhig .sh l, NsCIQkag
ix.%y lsula Tjqka f.ka fkdjkafka h' ta ksid nd, ld,fha
mgka ishu isxy, orejkag wjjdo lsu" Ydia;% b.ekau"
Tjqka kf.k isk Ydia;% NsCIQka iska o bf.k .ekSug lg
hq;= hs'
.sys fldgi kf.k isk Ydia;% NsCIQka fkdokakjd
k NsCIQkag ta .syshkaf.ka f.!rjh ,nd.ekSug wudre hs'
l=vd ld,fha .sys YsIHhka mdGYd,djg meK bf.k.kakd
kdkd Y%dia;% oHd NsCIQka fkdk isu fya;= fldgf.k
YsIHhka iska NsCIQkag lsis f.!rjhla fmkajkfka ke;' ud
okak muKj;a f yduqrefjda okafka ke; hk ys;
YsIHhkag Wm' ta ksid idufKarld,fha bx.%Sis" .Ks; ks;"
,;ska" .%Sla wdh md,s NdIdj;a iu u b.ekaug lghq;=
ie,eiah hq;= hs' idufKar ld,fha fu fia bf.k.;a l,
f:r Ndhg meKs g ta Ydia;% isxy, orejkag W.kajkag
mqjk'
kg
ixialD;
ldjHd,xldr
Ydia;%"
fjolu"
fcHd;sYaYdia;%dh NsCIqka iska .sys YsIHhkag W.kajkakq
,nkakdla fuka jr;udk Ydia;%h o W.kajkag mqjka fjhs'
t g :HdoDIa .=rejrhka <g hEu kE fkdlr hs'
idufKar ld,fha fu fia nqoaO Ouh iy j;udk Ydia;%
bf.k.ekSu b;d u m%dfhdack hs'
nd, ld,fha u .sys YsIHhkag jdKsclu Ys,am Ydia;%
b.ekaug foumshka iska l,amkd lg hq;=hs' nd, ld,fha
jdKsclu bf.k.;a l, Ok iemhSug {dkh ,ef' fld
fou< cd;Skaf.a jeu keje;aug isxy,hka iska kej;
kej; iNd mj;ajd ol=Kq wm%sldf kdg,a" flf,dks m%foaYj,
o %;dkaHh fldf,dhdj" ksijq;a" f,aih" lakaia,ka;h
wd rgj, o isk hqfrdamSh ck;dj ius j wdishd;sl

ckhdg ta rgj,g hkag fkd l%shd lrkakdla fuka isxy,hka


tl;= msgrka tk fla" ynxldr fou< wd cd;Ska
meK odilu lsu ksid isxy, ck;djg bkag ;ekla ke;s
fjkag hk neka ish isxy,hka ius lka iNd mj;ajd
bx.%Sis uyd ux;%Skag isxy,hkaf.a wlue;a; kej; kej;
m%ldY lghq;= hs' ckys;ldka iskq;a fu fia lsug ys;g
.; hq;=hs' isxy, cds;h fou< ynxlrhkag hgfjkag bv
yeu" isxy, f,a we;a;jqka iska fkdfldg hq;=hs' mrfoaYSkag
bv .sfhd;a isxy,hkag odilu lrkag f'

06
Wn,lv Nd;h w;yeroukq
yd,a" .sia" ia" ls" iSks" Wn,lv" jia;%" mska"
,dmq" inka hkd isxy,hka iska m%fhack .kak jH f
rgg f.fkkafka fldhs rgj,ska hs k .ekSu b;d m%fhdack
hs' Wn,lv f.fkkafka ud,jhsfkka h' fuydg f.fkkq
,nkafka fndndhsldrhka isks' wm%fhdack l=Kqud
ff,kag yeroud ojia lsysmhlg miq tl;eklg f.dvlr
;nd wkH lsis u cd;shla m%fhdackhg fkd.kakd Wn,lv
w{dk wm;% isxy,fhda , f.k ri jHhla fuka i,ld
jH[ackj,g ou;s' oUjdiSka j;a ,xldjg lsKSug
f.fkk fndnhsldrhka iska j;a f jH m%fhdackhg
.kafka ke;' Wka ms<sl=,a lrk f,dmq l=Kqudj,g remsh,a
is ,CIhla jIhla mdid isxy,hka iska ksIam%fhdack
lrkq ,ef'
tl f.orlska km;d mKu" mK fol" mK y;r
ne.ska f l=Kqudj,g ho lrkq ,ef' fndnhsldrfhda
f fj<|dfuka Okh /ia lr;s' fudav isxy,hkag Wn,lv
ke;s j wdydr .ekSu wudre hs' Wn,lvj,g jIhla mdid
fok f remsh,a is ,CIh Ys,amYdia;% jOkhg tl;=
lrfokq ,ef k fldmuK w.fka o@ tl tl f.or
mskaleghla ;nd Wn,lvj,g fok uqo,a /ia l< hq;= hs'
zwiaido" wdkj" ksiairKZ hk fuys woyi k.;
hq;=hs' m[aplduhg ys; heu wiaidoh hs' m[aplduh la
iys; h hs l,amkd lsu wdkjh hs' tfia wdkj i<ld
m%;sCIam lsu ksiairKh hs' f ksiairkLHd; m%;sfCIam
lsu ksjka ug wdOdrhls' .sys me msi Y%oaOd jOkh
fkdfldg jia;=ldu laf,aYlduhka wkqj hEfuka Ydik
mydksh jkfka h' Ok iNlsug we;e NsCIQka iska .kq

,nk W;aidyh YS, Y=oah msKsi .; lrkjd k th


fohka iys; f,dalhdg iem msKsi jkafka h'
mYau ck;dj flfrys wkqlmd lsu wm f,djq;=rd
nqrcdKkajykafia f.a Ou;djls' t neka u;= mrmrdjg
hym; fmkajdu W;a;uhka f.a .=KOuhls' fr[acdkqjr
wm nqka jevysoa mej;s NsCIfha wdydr ke;s j la kao
nj kh msglfha uydN.fhys olakd ,ef' f ;ek
nqka mYau ck;dj .ek l,amkd l< fial' ue isfha
fndardc l=udr iQ;fhys wk| yduqrefjda fu fia jodf<da h'
zzixyr;=rdcl=udr iaidks kfLd N.jd fp,mka;sx
wlaliai;s muxcka;x ;:d.f;d wmf,dfl;S;sZZ

07
isxy, ia;%Ska wk yegfha wfidaNklu'
isxy, ia;%Ska wk yegh h;la muK m<, hs'
fmlKsh" nv" mfhdaOr" mmqj fmkajk woyiska fu fia lrkq
,ef'
fufia lrkq ,nkafka ukao@ <slu ksid h' imQK
Yrh jid .ekSug kElrk m%udKhg jia;% , .ekSug
j;alu u| ksid hka; mfhdaOrhka muKla jid .ekSu lrkq
,ef' mqreI fldGdYh ia;%S fldGdYhg jvd ys T;ma
folska hqla; j jia;% wkq ,ef' fld," li" fia"
neksh" flda we| imQKfhka Yrh jid wdrCId lrkq
,ef'
jia;%dNrK we| w,xldr j iSu ia;%Ska f.a Ouhls'
fou<" urlal," cd" bx.%Sis" ,xis" mrx.s hk ia;%Syq ,xldf
jdih lrkafkda h' uqka jia;%dNrKdh w,xldr f,i wk
ye isxy, ia;%Skag fmfka' isxy, ia;%Ska .ek wkqlmd fldg
w,xldr jia;%dNrK u isxy, mqeIhka f.a mru hq;=luls'

08
isxy, orejka fkdu hk ye'
isxy, orejkag nd, ld,fha j;ams<sfj;a lshd ug
lsis flfkl= ke;s neka Tjqyq ;reK jhig meKs l,
YS,m;a;s wdpdr m;a;s oDIam;a;s hk fjdg mefK;a'
urlal, .EKq orejkag nd, ld,fha mgka u Tjqkaf.a
wdpdHhka iska fldrka fmdf;ka Ouho" wrd fou< NdId
o .Ks;h o W.kajkq ,ef' fou< j.hdg;a tfia ue hs'
hqfrdamSh j.h Tjqkaf.a orejkag fkdfhla Ys,amdh W.kajkq
,efn;a'
isxy, orejkag .=rel ug lsis flfkl= ke;s neka
hula we;s mjq,aj, orejka ;HdoDIa mdm;r hqfrdamShhkag
Ndrfokq ,ef' f mdmSka f.ka bf.k .kafka i;=ka ueu"
u;ameka mdkh lsu" mial iqj u" :HdoDIah h' mam;a
fn!oaO orefjda mdmSkaf.a jhig meK kdY fj;a' mqrdK
ld,fha is,aj;a NsCIQka jykafia,d wkqlmd is;ska fn!oaO
orejkag l=, foaj;djqka fuka lghq;= lf<dah'
Ou foaYkdjg ka we;e NsCIQka hh .kafka ke;'
nqrcdkkajykafiaf.a kshuh zfofi: NslaLf OuxZ hkq hs'
ij[hkajykafia Ou foaYKd lrkq msKsi miaj. uyKqka
flfrys yg.;a lreKdfjka fndauev isg nrKei
bism;kdrduhg je fial'
uyd uyskao uyry;kajykafia oUj isg ,lajg jevu
lr jodf<a isxy,hkaf.a wdrdOkdjla we;sj hs" iqkdmr;a;
rgg mqKaK yduqrejkajykafia jefha wdrdOkdjla we;sj
hs l,amkd lg hq;= hs' .sys mCIfha fn!oaO ck;dj wmf.a
nqrcdkka jykafia iska y;,siamia jila foaYKd lr jod<
Ouh l=ulahs k .ekSug hh lsula ke;' il, i;=ka

flfrys m;< uyd lreKd we;s wm nqmshdKkajykafia


.syshkag Oudjdo lr ;sfnk whqre l,amkd fkdlrkafka
wehs@ ixhqla; ksldfhys fida;dm;a;s ixhq;a;lfhys fjjdr
j.fhys olajd ;sfnk >dhq Wmdilhdf.a l;dj fufia hs'
zf;k fLd mk iufhk >dhqWmdifld wdndfld
fyda;s laf;d nd<y.s,dfk w: fLd N.jd ksjdfi;ajd
m;a;jrudodh >dhqiai Wmdilx t;o fjdp zlf; >dhq
LukShxZ
wm nqyq Wmdil ;ek lrd meK Ou foaYKd l<
fial' f j.fha u w;a;=mkdhsl Oumhdh OuldKavh
Wmdil msig b;d u m%fhdack hs'

09
wfma isxy, ck;dj fkka k u msySug hEu'
isxy,hd f.a Okh mrfoaYSkaf.a Ndkavd.drj,g hkafka
h' isxy, ck;dj tl w;lska hqfrdamShhka f.a pd;% .ekSu;a
wksla w;ska u;ameka mdkh lsu;a ksid iajcd;shg we;s fm%auh
ke;s ;sf' ;ud w; ;sfnk Okh o mrfoaYSkag o
Ndjhg mefKkafka h' idudkH isxy, ck;dj l%ufhka
msfykfkda h' fYaIfhka u isxy, fn!oaO ck;dj we;e
NsCIQka f.a WfmaCIdj l=iS;lu ySkhh ksid nqoaOd.u
fkdkSfuka ;%sO r;akh flfrys Y%oaOdj fkdue;af;ka
;HdoDIakag f.dre jkafkda h' Ok Wmdhk ud.h
fkdokakd neka ;uka w; ;sfnk jia;=j wvq jkafka h'
uydj.a. fldiLllaLkaOlfhys fu fia olajd ;sf'
zzf;;k fLdmk iufhk NslaLq ix>ufJO NKavkcd;d
l,ycd;d jdodmkakd w[a[u[a[x uqLi;a;Sys ;=okakd
jyrka;sZZ fufia flda<dy< l< NsCIQka lrd ;;d.;hka
jykafia jev NsCIQkag wjjdo l< fial' zzw,x NslaLf
udKavkx udl,x ud.a.x udjdoka;SZZ t g wOujd
NsCIQyq fufia lSjdyq h'
zzwd.fu;= Nkaf;a N.jd Ouiaid wmafmdiaiqlafld
Nkaf; N.jd GOuiqLydrudkqhq;af;d yr;=ZZ
nqoarcdKkajykfia
flda,dy<h
ixisjkq
msKsi
>s;siai k fldfid,a rc;=udf.a mq;%hd >dhq l=udrhd f.a
l:djia;=j m%ldY fldg ffjrfhka ffjrh ixisfokafka
ke;ehs fmkajdka kuq;a flda,dy,h ixisjkag fkdyels jQ
neka f fuda>mqi NsCIQka w;ayer yqol,dj u ;ukajykafia
mdisjqre f.k nd,lf,dKldrduhg jev tys N.= iarhkag
talpdljl jodrd mdkjxiodhg je fial' tys wkqreoaO"

kkah" lsNs, hk NsCIQka ;=ka ku iusfhka jijq hs wid


jodrd ta NsCIQka t fia h hs ms<s;=re ka g ius rifhys we;s
wkqiia jod< fial'
fu ;ek ta NsCIQka ;=ka ku f.a iush je rg;a
mj;ajk wkaou pd< fial' flfiao@
zzlmkfjd
wkqreoaOd
iu.a.d
ifudoudkd
wjjoudkd
frdolSN+;d
w[a[u[a[x
mshplaLqyS
imamiaika;d yr:d;sZZ hkq hs'
zzt fia h' iajdKs" wms tlsfkld flfrys ffu;%sh
m;=rejka ffu;%sh jpk l:d lrka idusfhka
iudodkfhka jdohla ke;s j frdolSN+; j m%sh weiaj,ska
n,ka jdih lruqZZ h hs lSjdyq h' fufia f W;a;u l=,Sk
l=udr NsCIQka ;=ka ku h fia iusfhka iqjdyq o@
tfia j;udk ld,Sk ,dxlsl NsCIQka iusfhka jdih
lf<d;a ta isxy,hkag uy;a jev msKsi mj;S'
wm nqrcdKkajykafia NsCIQka f.a fiakdik Nd. lr
;sfnk nj uyhf.a fikdiklaLkaOlfhys fufia olajd
;sf' zwPfLd N.jd wdhiau ;d wdkdJok mcdiufKk
fikdik
plx
wdysKckaf;d
woaoi
fikdikx
wiQkdula;xZZ fufia ug fya;=j o m%ldY lr ;f' zzf;k
fLd mk iufhk NslaLq mKS;dks fNdckdks N+[aFjd
uqGiai;s wimcdkd ksoaox Tlaluka;s f;ix uqGiai;Skx
wimcdkdkx ksoaox Tlaluka;dkx iqmskkaf;k wiq uqp;s'

10
l fia Ok /ia fldg mrfoaYSkag w;alru'
wfma l=,foaj;djka jk iuyr kdhl ia:jrhka
jykafia,d f.ka jIhlg jrlaj;a isxy, fn!oaO ck;djg
wjjdo
jYfhka
OudkqYdikdjla
fkd,eu
uy;a
lK.dgqjls' isxy, fn!oaOhd m;%hg we;e kdhl iardka
f.ka wjqre .Kklska j;a ys; jev msKsi Oudka; ,smshla
mjd fkd,eu fn!oaOhkaf.a wjdikdjls' isxy,hdg Okh
je fjkag mial iem;g ;rfha u is; fhdokq ,ef'
rg" cd;sh" wd.u fjkqjg l=ula lrkafkao" mshd
nqoaOd.u woy;;a fh!jk uodfhka u;a iajlSh orefjda
l%sia;shdKsh woy;a' iuyr mjq,aj, orefjda l%sia;shdkshg
fkd.shh;;a lduridiajdokh msKsi msh i;= Okh kdY
fldg uyd jHikhkag mefK;a'
wd., uqo,s;=ud fndfyda Ok /ial< flfkls'
Wkakefyag is tlu mq;%hd flda@ ta jia;=j flda@ kg tu
mjqf,a tlu fn!oaOfhl=j;a ke;s u focklhs' ysrkaj,ska
,enQ uyd Okh ;HdoDIakag wh;a h' mKdu Ouhl
ye' zwksPdj; ixLdrdZ mam;a isxy,hka ish .Kkla iska
uyd la ka fmdf,dj ydrd wdlr ;k;kd ysrka
fidhdf.k ta f.dvg f.k;a oud ojig i; 50 ne.ska jegqma
,ndf.k ldj lr.kq ,ef' lsis uykaishla ke;sj ysrka
whs;sldr ndia l l,lska uyd Okjf;la jkafka h' ta uqo,
rgg" cd;shg" wd.ug" m%fhdackj;a jk lsis;a fkdfldg
hqfrdamSh md,sjrekago bx.%Sis jia;%dNrKj,go ho lrkq
,ef' wfyda iajcd;sl isxy,hkaf.a hqKqjg Ys,amYd,djlaj;a
wd., Wkakefya msysfgjdk fldmuK m%fhdack o@

isxy,hkag iajcd;sl fm%auh ke;af;a mr cd;sl .=reka


hgf;a nd, ld,fha mgka yefok ksidh' mr cd;sl .=rejrhd
nc, ld,fha mgka isxy, isrs;a j,g ks.%y lrhs' thg fya;=j
isxy,hka w;r iu.sh ke;s luhs' iu.s.hg m%Odk fya;=j
ffu;%sh jOkh lsu hs' wi;amqreI Ou Nd;d lsfuka
ius Ouh msfykafka h' kg kE lrkafka ffu;%sh yd
iush jOkh lsu hs'

11
fn!oaO orejkag md,s NdIdj b.ekau'
.j, msys fn!oaO mdGYd,dj, fY%aIaG mx;sj,
YsIHhkag md,s NdIdj b.ekau b;d u m%fhdck hs' ta ksid
myiq ud.hla Wmojdf.k mdGYd,djg hk YsIHhkag km;d
mehla md,s NdIdj mqyqKq lrug md,s bf.k.;a NsCIQka
jykafia,d Hh lf<d;a b;d u m%fhdack hs' YsIH .=re"
Wm.=re" m%Odk .=re hk f ;=ka fldgig wh;a fn!Ohka
iskq;a f fhdackdj ms<sf.k md,s bf.k .ekSug Hh l<
hq;= hs' ojilg meh ne.ska ta .ek ld,h .; lf<d;a th
;;d.;hka jykafiaf.a Ouh ukdfldg k .ekSug
fya;=fjhs' isxy, muKla k .ekSfuka {dkdNsjDoahla
jkafka ke;'
oUj jx." u.O" ldis fldai, rgj, o ld,sx." wdka"
v rgj, o jHjydh NdId muKla fkd j mdGYd,d
YsIHhkag ixialD; NdIdj o mqyqKq lrjkq ,ef' ,xldf
mdGYd,dj, YsIHkag isxy, muKla b.ekau {dkdNsjDoahg
fya;= fkdjkafka h'
mkai,a wi, msysgqjd ;sfnk mdGYd,dj, fY%aIaG
mka;sj, YsIHhkag md,s NdIdj mqyqKq lrug mdGYd,d
md,kh lrk Nj;=ka iska ms<sfj,la fhdod.; hq;= hs' oUj
kdkd NdId we;s rgls' ta ksid ta rf Wmk ldg;a NdId
;=ky;rla bf.k .ekSu jukd lrhs' oUj uyu;a Nla;sl
YsIHkag wrd NdIdj fYaI jYfhka wdKavqf mdGYd,dj,
mqyqKq lrjkq ,ef' nqreufha mdGYd,dj, iy mkai,aj,
bf.k .kakd YsIHhkag md,s NdIdj iy nqreu NdIdj
W.kajkq ,ef' miq.sh ld,fha mkai,aj, md,s" ixialD;"
isxy," .Ks;d h isxy, l=,orejkag W.kajk ,'

1858 jk f;la ,xldf ishu mkai,aj, fn!oaO


YsIHhkag Ydia;% mqyqKq lrjkq ,enqf h' wo jk f;lau
NsCIQka wdY%h lrka Y%dia;%h bf.k.;a .sys uy;ajre isxy,
mdie,aj, bf.k.;a whg jvd iu:fhda h' bx.%Sis
ks,orhkaf.a o md,sjrekaf.a o kElu isg mkai,aj,
lrf.k wd b.ekau ke;s lr ouk ,' wdKavqf mdGYd,d
.j, msysgq fuka ta .j, mkai,aj, bf.kSu ,nka is
YsIHh iuQyhd mkai,aj,ska bj;a fldg mdGYd,dj,g hjkq
,enqfjdah' bkamiq md,sjrekaf.a kElu msg wdOdr ,nk
mdGYd,d msysgqug l%uhla fhdok ,' jI 1870 mgka
l%ufhka mkai,aj,g Ydia;% b.ekau msfykakg mgka
.;af;ah' mqrdKd ld,fha wfma NsCIQka jykafia,d
l=,foajd;djqka
fuka
.renqyquka
,enqfjdah'
.kaO
;HdoDIakaf.a mdGYd,d msysfgjqjdhska miq wfma l=,
foaj;djqka w;ayeroud mriuhjdka Nckh lsug fn!oaO
foumshka iska mgka .kakd ,' t;eka mgka isxy, cd;sfha
uyd msySu h' wfma l=,foaj;djqka jk NsCIQka jykafia,d
fjkqjg ka lghq;= lrkafka zfudkska,AvZ m;%fha l;D
;ekam;a f.daf uy;auhd' pd,aia fmfrd fmrlfodare
uy;auhd" uykqjr fm%I bx.%Sis wdpdHjrhd hkd whhs'
fudjQyq isxy," md,s NdId .ek ;nd ,xld mqrdK b;sydih
inkaO j j;a lsisjla kQ.;a mrfoaYsl ;HdoDlfhda h'
fjk rgj, mdr foaYslhkaf.a fhdackd iajffoaYslhka iska
lsisu gl ms<s.kq fkd,ef' tx.,ka;fha frdaudkq Nla;sl
bx.%SiSkaf.a fhdackd frmrud bx.%Siska iska ms<s.kq
fkd,efnhs' ,xldf urlal, frdaudkq Nla;s folg wh;a
ukqIH j.hd iska ;ukaf.a <ore mrmrdj mfriai lr
.ekSug lghq;= lrkq ,ef' fn!oaOhkaf.a l=, foajd;djqka
jk we;e NsCIQka jykafia,d ;o ksdfjka l,a heu fo
f,djg u uyd wk:hls'

12
Ydik mydkshg ,l=Kq
uq f,dj nqoaOd.u woyk ckhd f.a ixLHdj mkia
fldahla muK jkafka h' jI 700lg mQjfha oUj
nqoaOd.u uyu;a Nla;slhka iska kdY lr ouk ,' oUj
Yikh ySk fjkag mgka .;af;a fuhg jI 1000 lg m%:u hs'
m<uq fldg Ydikh ydkshg m;a lf<da ta l,g is w,a,
iaiS, ldufNd.S NsCIQyq iQ;%dNsOukh w;ayer ;ka;% uka;%
fcH;sYaYdia;% Nd; lrka Ok Wmojkag ld<h .; lf<da hs'
fkka k u ;%sjO r;akh flfrys Y%oaOdj ySk ug lghq;=
lrk NsCIQka ksid wkd.;fha oUj nqoaOd.u wka;Odk
jkafka h' YS, imkak fndai;aj p; we;s Y%S {dkmxlr
uyd iarmdohkajykafia m%ldY fldg ysuj;a m%foaYhg
jefhda h' iaiS, w,a, NsCIQyq mdml%shd lrkakg ;rYak
oHd Nd; lrkakg o f,dN is;a Wmojd Ok iN lrkakg
o ld,h .; lf<da h' IaKq" ld;sl" ld,s" ;drd" .d"
uokfudayskS wd foaj;djqkag mQcdh lsug ud.h ;ekqfjda
h' uka;%" ;ka;%" fcHd;sYaYdia;% fndfyda fldg mqre lrka
YS,ixjrdh .ek lsis;a fkdi,ld NsCIQyq l%shd lf<da h'
,xldjg o fujeks m;a;s ld,hla meK ;sf'
kdhll lrk iuyr f:rdkqf:r m%uqL NsCIQka f,daN
is;a Wmojd Ok /ia lsug fkdfhla Wmd fhdoka iS, iud m%{d
jOkh lsug lsis fia;a h fkdfldg ;srYak oHd Nd;d
lrka fcHd;sYaYdiaa;% l%uhg jev w,a,kaa ldufNda.S .Dyia:hka
fuka lghq;= lrka Ok /ia lsug fkdfhla Wmd fhdoka
f.ayis; WfmaCIdfjka l,a hjk nj olakg ,ef' :HdoDIah tl
w;lska hqKq ff.k hkafkah' udrmdCIsl mdm;r ;HdoDIakag
n,h ,e ;sfnk f ld,fha NsCIQka hh jvd ;HdoDIah ke;s
lr ug l%shd ud. wdrN lg hq;= jQ ;ek ta we;a;kaf.a
l%shdj,Ska ;HdoDIakag je n, ,eug fya;= ;sf' frdaudkq
rgj, mQcljreka fuka NsCIQkao ;h .; lrkag mgka .;af;d;a

blaukska u nqoaO Ydikh ,xldfjka ke;s fjhs' kdhl-wkqkdhl


l je lr .ekSu" Ydik hqKj
q g fya;= jkafkah' wNsd"
jHdmdo" :N" idrN" ulaL" m,di" fuday" uoudk" BIHdh je
u fya;= fldgf.k NsCIQka f.a W;= .=K ke;s fuka Ydik
ydkshla u jkafka h'

13
NsCIQka jykafia,d iska
ckmo pdldfjys yeish hq;= hs'
oUj n%yauK Nla;slhka iska ixialD; NdIdj mqyqKq
lrkq ,ef' iuyr N%dyauKfhda Y= l=,j, whg fo"
fjodhka; fmd;a b.ekaug o wlue;s fj;a' T;jIfha
tla;rd l,algd ksjdiS uyu;aldrfhla ixialD; ;rula rg
bf.kf.k foh inkaO fmd;a yeoEu lrkag l,algdf
ixialD; uyd oHd,fha wdpdHh N%yauKhka lrd meKsfha
h' f,aPhkag foh lshdu ;yk hehs W;a;r ,enqfKa h'
CI;%Sh" n%yauK" ffjYH l=,j, orejkag ixialD; b.ekau
nyq, lrug f ld,fha lghq;= lrkq ,nkafka h'
l,algdf uydld,s mdGYd,dj uydrdYaG N%yauK cd;shg whs;s
;miakshla iska fuhg jI 20lg m%:u msysgqjk ,ka kg
uy;a mq, Ndjhg meK ;sf' rcdjreo" uyd uka;%Sjreo f
mdif,a hqKqjg ls%hd flfr;s' odrNx. uydrdcd f
mdGYd,df ldrl iNdf m%Odkshd h' fuys nx.d, .Ekq
orejkag jI yfha mgka 10 olajd Ydia;% Ys,am f.;= ueyq
iy n%yau Ouh o W.kajkq ,ef' l,algdf (Bethune
College) ne;shqka Y%dia;%Yd,dfjys fY%aIaG mka;sfha Ydia;%
Ys,amh oHdh lkHdjkag W.kaj;s' 'ta' Wmdh olajd fldhs
cd;sfha whg;a fuys b.ekau lrkq ,ef' ixialD; muKla
bf.k.;a n%yauK mKa;fhda lska l,a hj;s' bx.%Sis iy
ixialD; bf.kf.k iu;ajQ l< bx.%Sis uka;%Skaf.a wdOdr ,nd
.ekSug ud. ;kd.ks;s' ixialD; muKla k.;a mKa;hd
uilg remsh,a iaila ;syla la| ,nd.kshs' NdId folu
k.;a l, remsh,a 100 mgka l%ufhka jegqma ,nkafka h'
wfma rgg l,lska o.S n%dyauKfhl= meKSu NsCIQka
fo;=ka kulg ta n%dyauKhdf.a ud.fhka ixialD; lla
bf.k .ekSug fya;= jkafkah' udkakdl n%dyauKhka f.a

NdIdj bf.kf.k lrk hym;a jev fudkjd o@ ixialD;


.%ka: m%lrK fndfyda fldg Nd;d lrk wh nqoaOd.ug
reoaO hs' t fia ug fya;=j ljf o@ nqoaO Ouh kdia;sh
oDIahla h hs fmkakd ixialD; .%ka: n%yauKhka iska ,shkq
,en ;suhs' ;ka;%" uka;%" fcHd;sYaYdia;%dh Nd;hg o ys;
f uska jefvkafka h'
zzbPdu uhx ckmo pdlx mlal;=ka;sZZ ;:d.;
nqrcdkkajykafia jIhla mdid kj uila ckmo pdldfjys
yeisfrka kdkd cd;slhkag Ou foaYkd lrka wuD; iem
,nd ka fial' fr[ac n%dyauK .f jia iQ miq
nqrcdKkajykafia fidfrhH" ixliai" lKaKl=c k.rj,g
jevu l< miq mhd. fyj;a kg w,a,dndoa kka m%lg
k.rhg je fial' f wkaof ;;d.;hka jykafia NCIq
ix>hd msjrdf.k .du ks. rdcOdksj,g meK ta ta ;kays
Whkaj, kej;Sf.k .Dym;Skag Ou foaYkd l< fial' Ou
foaYKd Y%jK fol u oi l=i, lu m:hg wka;.; lsf
w.h fuhska fmfka' kdhll ,ndf.k isk ia:r
NsCIQkajykafia,d ckmo pdldfjys yeisfrka wkqlmd is;a
Wmojd w{dklka is;a Wmojd w{dklka m lrk
ukqIHhkag Ouh lshdug hh .kakjd k fldmuK
f,dalhdg thska iem ,ef o@

14
.re lsug fhda.H NsCIQka f.a .;s'
ue isfha WmmKaKdilfhys f.dml fud.a.,dk
iQ;%fhys olajd ;sf' zzbO n%dyauK NslaLq iS,jdfyd;s md;s
fudlaLixjr ixjqf;da yr;s wdpdrf.dapr imkafkd
wkqu;af;iq jdfciq Nhoiaid iudodh islaL;s islaLdmfoiq
nyqiaiqfldfyd;s iqkOfrd iq;ikakspfhd fhf; Oud wd
l<HdKd
ufl,HdKd
mfhdidkl,HdKd
hdF:d
i:Hd[ackd flj,mmqKKx miqoaOx n%yauphx wNsjoka;s
;:d rEmiai Oud nyqiaiq;d fydka;s O;d jpid m;d
ukidkq fmla;d Hshd iqmam oaOd' ika;=fGd fyd;s jr
msKavmd; fikdik .s,dkmph fNicmlaLdf p;=;a;x
kd
;x
wNsfp;isldkx
GOu
iqLydrdKx
ksldu,dNsfyd;s" wNsc,dNs wliSr,dNs''''ZZ iS, imkak
bkash ixjrh we;s NslaIQka fidhd tjeks W;a;uhkag .re
lsu" jeu" mQcd lsu lg hq;= hs' jkaokSh NsCIQkag
fkdjeou;a wjkaokSh NsCIQkag jeu;a folu jor iys; hs'
fld<U k.rfha msfjka j,g bf.k.ekSug mefKk kjl
NsCIQkaf.a Y%oaOdj ke;s ug ldjHd,xldrd ndysr Ydia;% Nd;
lsu fya;= jkafka h'

mdma Wkakefya,d f.a .;s'


frdaukqjr j;sldkq b;sydih lsfhjd u mdma
Wkakefya,d iska lrk ,o jxpd m%fhda. fmfka' b;d,sh"
mD;=.d,h" m%xYh" iamd[a[h hk rgj, frdaudkq mQcljreka
iska lrk ,o wOurd.dh ksid ta rgj, md{fhda tl;=
frdaudkq mQclhkag kskaod .yd fldg Tjqka m,a,sj,ska fkrmd
uqfjda h'

15
u-f.a bf.k.ekSu'
uu mia wjqre jhfia msgfldgqf ,kais .Ekq
mdGYd,dfjys m<uqfjka bx.%Sis lshjdf.k y;a wjqre jhfia
msg fldgqf frdaudkq bx.%Sis mdGYd,dfjys bf.k f.k
bkamiq f;dgfyafka fnkla frdaudkq bx.%Sis mdGYd,f
bf.kf.k t;ekska fldaf frmrud bx.%Sis mdGYd,df
kej;S jI folla muK bx.%Sis bf.k.;s' bkamiq fld<U
fikaf;dauia Y%dia;%Yd,df bx.%Sis bf.kf.k kej;;a frdah,a
fld,Shg ne tys wjqreoaola muK bf.kf.k kej;;a
frdah,a fld,Shg ne tys wjqreoaola muK bf.kf.k
kej;;a fikaf;dauia Y%dia;%Yd,djg ne frdauddldrhkaf.ka
fn!oaOhkag mSvd ,efnk ta ld,fha uf.a bf.kSu
kej;=fkah' l=vd ld,fha mgka l%sia;shdks frdaudkq fidma,d
iy md,s Wkakefya,d wdY%h flf,' nhsn,h lshu
km;du flf<' ojig y;a wgjr fhfyjdg" lkaksuhdg"
fhaiqia l%sia;=g kshuh moafoka hd{d flf,' wkdHh"
wk: iys; uvhkag fhda.H jQ ySk Ou we;s :JdoDYah
k l,la j;a ms<s.ekSug ys;la ug my< jQfKa ke;'
mrcd;Ska f.a wd.u o mrcd;sl pd;% o nd, ld,fha mgka
ms<sl=,a flf<'

16
iS, imkak NslaIQkajykafia,d'
fohka iys; f,dalhd f.ka je ms ,eug
iqiq fldgi
uqhkafia yduqrefjda" tacka; yduqrefjda" woajld;a
yduqrefjda" md,s yduqrefjda hk .re jpkfhka oi wl=i,
lu m:fhys fh iskakjqkag ix.%dy lsu lsisfia;a
fkdynfkah'
iuH.aoDIa
imkak
irKd.;
fn!oafOdamdilhka iska ;HdoDIakag fufia .re fkdfldg
hq;=hs' i;a;aj >d;kh lrk mdmSkag lsisu fgl;a mQcd
lghq;= fkdf' iag hk jpkh isxy,hg fmr<df.k th
.re jYfhka jHjydr l<d u fyd|g u we;s'
md,s ;ek n%yauphjk imQK fkdlrk neka
md,srd, lSjd u fyd|gu we;s' h fia NSIK" ialkaO" l=udr
YaKq wd foaj;djqkag n,s fokakkag lmqrd, lshd;a
ffjoHhkag fjord, lshd;a jHjydr flfroao" ta fuks' wkqka
ksid ldj ,nkakg iajd hk .re jpkh jHjydr lsu
hq;= ke;' ;:d.;hkajykafia k.roao n%yauKhkag ka
wjjdoh wm iska o ms<s.; hq;= hs'
zzl:xrEmd .ym;fhd iuKn%yauKd k ilald;nd k
.reld;nd k mQfc;nd;sZZ i;aldr .reldr jkaok udkkd
mQcd fkdlg hq;= Y%uK n%yauKfhda ljryq o" rEmdfhys
wruqK .kak jQmiuk is;a ke;s ldh jdla ukiska iu .;s
we;s Y%uK n%yauKhkag .re i;aldr mQcdh fkdlg hq;= hs'
fjord,g" lmqrd,g" lgrd,g jvd je m%fhack
md," uqo,s woajld;ajrekaf.ka ,efo@ i;a;aj >;kh
fkdlrK Oufhka ldj lrk i;a;ajlreKd we;s

W;=ukag .re kdu Nd; lg hq;= hs' uu ksldfha


WmmKaKdilfhys k.rkafohH iQ;%h ne,sh hq;= hs'
b;sjq;a;lfhys y;r jeks j.fha ;=kajeks iQ;%h fufia h'
zz;f;d fu yslaLf fofjiq fojioaod kscrka;s iuhdiuhx
Wmdodh l;fuf;fhd@ hiax NslaLf iufha wh idjflda
fliuiaiqx Tydfr;ajd ldidhd;s jF:dks wcdfo;ajd
w.driud wkd.dhx mncdh fpf;;s ;iax iufh fofjiq
fojioafoda kscr;S mqkpmrx NslaLf wh idjflda
i;a;kakxfLdmlahdkx Oudkx Ndjkdkqfhda.ukqhq;af;d
yr;s ;iax iufha fofjiq foajioafod kscr;s'ZZ
wdH Y%djl f;f uyK ug ys; fhdod.;a g foaj
Yohla me;sfrhs' uyK ug is;Su udrhd iu hqoaO lsug
is;Su jeks h' zztfia whidjfld udfrk ioax ix.dudh
fpf;;sZZ wm f.a l=,foaj;djka iska lg hq;= hqoaOh k
udrhd mrdch lsu hs' tfia fkdfldg udrhdf.a jhig
meK .sys ldufNda.Ska fuka lghq;= lsu laLodhl hs'
iS, iud .=K we;s wjjdo lrk Ou foaYkd lsfuys
kshqla; jQ NsCIQka lSu fndfyda Wmldrlhls' fujeks NsCIQka
fj; meKSu" mhqremdidkh lsu" wkqj hEu b;du fhda.H hs'
tfia lsfuka ;udg jevd;a u jkafkah' i;r hlska
NsCIqkag ;Kaydj Wmfka hhs blsjq;a;lfhys jodrd ;sf' jr"
msKavmd; fiakdik" NjdNj hk f ldrKd i;r ;Kaydj
bmug fya;= jkafkah' iaIS, NsCIQkag fndfyda ;ekaj,g
.Nd lr ;sf' iqidfka ouK ,o fo flfk ok ueo wiQ
;ej ;sfnk .sKsfmfk,a, lsisflfkla m%fhdackhg
fkd.;af;ah' ;j;a l=P jia;=jla fuhg jvd fidhd .ekSu
wudre hs' iaiS, NslaIQka iudk lr ;sfnkafka fujeks ;=;aP
jia;=jlg hs' n,sjoaod lshkafka f.dkdg hs' WmdOHdh j;a"
wdpdHh j;a" wd.ka;=l j;a .s,ka j;a" fkdfldg Ndjkdjl
fkdfh isk NsCIqj f.dkdj iudk lr ;sf'

zzwmamiaiq;d hx mqfid n,sjoafodhr;S'


uxidks ;iai jGjka;s m[a[d ;iai k jG;sZZ
fuh oumo .d;djls'
wdNsiudpdl j;a fkdfldg wd n%yauph iS,h
meje;au lsis l,l fkdyels hhs ij{hkajykafia iska
jodrK ,'
fidp NslaLf NslaLq wdNsiudjdlx Oux wmmQfr;ajd
wdn%yauphlx Oux mmQfriai;S;s" fk;x Gdkx P;s"
fufia ,shkjdg iuyr NsCIQyq ud flfrys fldam is;s'
ffj;=,jd yQ o ;ukag whs;s m;%fha ug ks.%y lr ;sfnkakg
yer ;sf' kslaf,aIS jQ ;:d.;hkajykafiag fndfyda fldg
wN+;jdofhka neK ;sf' zzwNdlaLka;s uqidN.Kka;s nyqx
wmq[a[x mijka;sZZ hkq hs <ore ld,fha mgka u nqoaOd.u
flfrys uyd we,aula ud is;a ;+< mj;S' yeufokdf.kau fyd|
kduh f.k jdoh lrkag mqjka mqoa.,fhla fuf,dj ke;
Ouhg lSlre nqoaO Ydikh jOkh lrkag fn!oaOhka
f.ka b,a,'

bx.%Sis NdIdj o;a md,s NdIdj fkdokakd


isxy, fn!oaOhd'
md,s NdIdj o;a bx.%Sis NdIdj fkdokakd mej fldgi'
fu fomCIh tl;= l%shd lrkjd k YdikjOkhg
fya;= jkafkah' bx.%Sis bf.k.;a isxy, uy;=ka f.a l,amkdj
NsCIQkaf.ka bf.k.;ag fohla ke; hkqhs' bx.%Sis o;a
isxy,hkaf.ka .renqyquka ,nkag k Tjqkag jvd NsCIQka
bx.%Sisfhka iu: h hq;=hs' md,s" bx.%Sis hk NdId folu
k.;a g oaplaiq mqoa.,hl= fuka l%shd l< yels hs' tl
NdIdjla muKla k.;a ;eke;a;d tl weyela ke;s lfKka
yd iudk hs'

17
isxy, fn!oaO uka;%S flfkla kE'
isy;r ,CIhla fn!oaOhka fjkqfjka uka;%Shl= ke;s
lka bx.%Sis ks,Orhkag wfma kEl lshdfokag ,efnkafka
ke;' fou< ckhdg yska Nla;sl uka;%Sfhla ishs' urlal,
ckhdg uyu;a Nla;sl uka;%sfhla ishs' bf.k.;a ,xldjdiS
foodylg fYaI uka;%Sfhla ishs' isy;r ,CIhla
fn!oaOhkag lsisu uka;%sfhla ke;'
f
.ek
fn!oaO
ckhdo
ff;%ksldhsl
NsCIQkajykafia,do tl;= ls%hd lghq;= hs' ,xldj fn!oaOhkag
whs;s rgls' isy;r ,CIhla fn!oaO ck;dj tl;= n uqo,
fkdkafkd;a bx.%Sis uka;%Skag wudre f' tg isy;r
,CIhu nkaOkd.drhg oukjd we;' isy;r ,CIhlgu
nkaOkd.dr ;kkag mjq y;,sia wg ,CIhla kE h'
fn!oaOhkag uka;%sfhla u ta houg jvd myiqhs' fn!oaO
ckhd tl;= oi wl=i,ska fjka yia; ludka; Ys,am
fj<odu hqKq lrkag hh lf<d;a wmg ys;=foa lr.kag
mqjk' fu;eka mgka mia jIhla fn!oaO uka;%S flfkla
m;alr.ekSug l%shd lghq;=hs' wm fjkqfjka l%shd lrkag
iu: fn!oaO uy;ajreka lSm fofkla is;s' fn!oaOhsks"
iuslka l%shd lrkq uek'
,xldf fn!oaO ck;dj f.a ixLHdj isy;r ,CI
y;,sia ydrodyla y;aish myhs' iajfoaYsl l%sia;= Nla;slhka
fo,CI ;siatlaodia y;aish ismyhs' fudjQyq ,xldf jdih
lr;s' urlal,hkaf.a .Kk fo,CI ye;a;Eodia ;=kaish yeghs'
fouka f.a .Kk mka,CIhls' ,xis ismkaodia tlish
ye;a;E ;=khs' hqfrdamShjre mkaodia foiSh ye;a;Ewghs'

,xldf
,xldf
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,xldf

fn!oaO ck;dj
iajfoaYsl l%sia;shdksldrfhda
fou
urlal, uyu;a Nla;slfhda
,xis
hqfrdamShjre

2444605
231625
500375
276361
25173
5278

,xldoamh fn!oaO isxy,hkag whs;s hs' jI 2455


furg isxy,hkag cd;sN+h h' wkH cD;Syq furgg meK
Tjqkaf.a fj<odu hqKq lr .eksug lghq;= flfr;s'
hqfrdamShhkag furg ke;ak bx.%Siskag whs;s lekvdj"
iaf%,shdj" ol=Kq wm%sldj" tx.,ka;h" weuldj wd tla;rd
rgla jdi NQh l< yelaflah' fou< j.hdg ol=Kq bxhdj
;sf' urlal,hdg ol=Kq bxhdj" fldh" yhsorndoh" ir
rg hkd rgj,a ;sfnhs' ,kaiSkag ,kao rgg hEu l< yelshs'
isxy,hkag f oamh yereKdu ;sfnkafka id.rh muKhs'
fn!oaOhkaf.a
pd;%
ish,a,lau
hqfrdamSh
urlal,
;HdoDYakag fjkiaj mj;ajkafkdah' cd;sh jYfhkao wdHh
isxy, cd;sh wksla j.j, ukqIHhkag fjkia h' oDIah
jYfhka wksla oDIaj, W.kajk u; ;Hd hhs m%;sfCIam lr
;sfnhs' f mD;+h" pka" iQhh" ;drdldh BYajrfhla iska
ujk ,oafoa hhs ;HdoDIayQ Yajdi lr;s' isxy, fn!oaO
ckhd ika;;s Ouhg wkqj ish u Od;= we;s j ke;s jkafka
hhs Yajdi lrkafkda h'
miam" oi wl=i,a lsu fya;= fldgf.k wmdlg
mefKk nj fn!oaOhkag W.kajkq ,ef' ;HdoDIalhd f.a
Ouh fuhg reoaOhs' fldmuK i;=ka uerej;a mdmhla ke;'
fldmuK m l<;a .e,fjkag ud.hla ;sf' f ;Hd
b.ekau ksid m lsug we;s Nh ke;s jkafkah' nqoaOd.f
tmd lr ;sfnk Ou wkqj l%shd lrkag ixy, fn!oaO ck;dj

fu;eka mgka Hh lg hq;= hs' f.da>d;lhka fuka l%shd


lsu wdHhkag hq;= o@ fpdar lu lsSu wdHhkag hq;= o@
mrodrfiajkh wkaHHkag hq;= o@ uqidjdo" msiqkdjdp"
imm%,dmfhka f.ka fjkau" u;ameka mdkfhka fjkau"
wdHH isxy, fn!oaOhkaf.a mru hq;=luls'
miam" oiwl=i,a lrk fn!oaOhdg fuf,dju ks.%y
,ef' isxy, fn!oOhkag fuf jhsk w;yer hkag rgla
ke;' fou< rglgj;a urlal, rglgj;a isxy,hkag hEu l<
fkdyelshs' ta rgj, ukqIHhka w;r .ejiSu l< fkdyelsh'
ol=Kq wm%sldj" iaf%,shdj" weuldj wd rgj,g isxy,hka
hEu ta rgj, isk wd{dpl%Orhka iska kj;ajkq ,en ;sf'
f ldrKd ksid isxy, fn!oaOhka jydu tlj iNd
mj;ajka jHjia:d uka;%S iNdjg fYaI fn!oaO uka;%Shl=
f;dard.ekSug W;aidy h hq;= hs'
kg ,xld jdiS urlal,hkag fYaI uka;%Sfhla isshs'
Wka l;d lrk NdIdj fou< kuq;a oDIafhka fjka isk
neka fYaI uka;%Shl= m;alr .ekSug Tjqyq Hh lf<dah' ta
Hh iM, h' ,xldf fn!oaO ck;dj tllka l%shd
lf<d;a wfma wd.f yehg l%shd lsug wmg n,h ,ef'
W.;a ,xldjdiSkag fYaY uka;%S flfkla fjk uu ishs'
urlal, ckhdg fYaI uka;%Sfhla ishs' isxy, fn!oaO
ck;dj tl;= uka;%Shl= m;alr .ekSug fu;eka mgka l%shd
l< hq;=hs' ish" wurmqr" rdu[a[ hk ksldh;%h u tl;=
f inkaO l%shd l< hq;=hs' W.;a Okj;a is,aj;a rgg jev
leu;s fn!oaO .Dym;s uyf;l= ,xldf kS;sodhl uka;%S
iNdjg fn!oaOhka fjkqfjka m;alr .ekSug fu;eka mgka
fn!oaO ckhd iNd mj;ajka l%shd lghq;=hs' ;%sisxy,hg whs;s
fn!oaO ck;dj jyd jyd f .ek H lghq;= hs' wksla
jdrfha uka;%Ska f;dard.ekSf fn!oaO ckhd fjkqfjka

fn!oaO fn!oaO uka;%Shl= m;a lr .ekSug wjYH uh' isy;r


,CIhla fn!oaO ckhd f .ek ks|df.k isu hq;= ke;'
fn!oaOhka fjkqfjka l%shdlrkag Yla;sh imkak
uy;=ka f.a k( hqv rdcmCI" '' ch;s,l" v,s wd; o
is,ajd" fldnElvqf fodia;r" woajl;a ngqjka;=vdf"
fkdfndaod fn!oaOd.u je,|.;a woajl;a chjOk" woajl;a
tlake,sf.dv wd Ydia;% o;a Okj;a uy;=ka fn!oaOhka w;r
isk nj oksuq'
Y%S nqoaO jI kj ui mqrme<Eh ,;a Yks k fyj;a
jI 1912 ckjd ui 20 jeks fikiqrdod zisxy, fn!oaOhdZ
m;%fha m< jQ ,smsh hs'

iQ;%msglfhys uyd ksfoaYfhys fufia m%ldYs; hs'


zzl;fu jF:qldud@ ukmsld rEmd" ukdmsld ioaod"
ukdmsld .kaOd" ukdmsld rid" ukdmsld fmdGNd" wF:rKd
mdmqrKd" odisodid" wfc<ld" l=lal+giQlrd" yF.jdiaij<jd"
fL;a;jF:qysr[a[x" iqjKaKx" .dKS.urdOdksfhd" rGdj"
ckmfodp" fldfidp" fldGd.dr[ap" hxls[a rckShjF:q"
jF:qldud" l;fu lsf,ildud@ Pkafod ldfud" rdf.d ldfud"
pkaordf.d
ldfud"
ixlmafmdfldfud"
fhd
ldfuiqlduPkafod" ldurdf.d" ldukka" ldu;Kayd"
lduiafkfyd" ldum<dfyd" lduuqPd" ldudfC:didkx"
lduYf>d" ldufhdf.d" lduqmdodkx" lduPkaokSjrKxZZ
ldurd.hg hk ;a;h thska wyla lrug
nqoaOdkqiai;s Ndjkdj fyda Oudkqiai;s Ndjkdj fyda
ix>dkqiai;s Ndjkdj fyda iS,dkqiai;s Ndjkdj fyda

wdkdmdkdi;s Ndjkdj fyda urKdkqiai;s Ndjkdj fyda


ldh.;di;s
Ndjkdj
fyda
mqre
lg
hq;=
hs'
noaOmhHhxlfhka Yrh iDcq fldg ;nd .ekSu
Ndjkdfhda.Ska iska lghq;= hs' m,a,xlhla wdikhla
fldgf.k Yrh iDcq fldg ;nd ysh hq;= hs' oUjdiS ish
fokdu <ore ld,fha isg m,ia fyda l<s fyda u w;=g
noaOmHxlfhka ys| .ekSu lr;s' nqreu" ish" cmka" rgjdiS
yq o fufia u u wdik mkjdf.k Yrh iDcq fldg
;ndf.k ys| .ekSu lr;s' ta ydria:dkj, jev isk NsCIQka
lsis l,l f,v mqgq l" hlv we|ka" meoafok mqgq" l,s"
u;%ia ms<s.kafka ke;' ,xldf NsCIQkag Ndjkdkqfhda.Sj
noaOmhHlfhka Yrh Wcq fldg ;ndf.k ysu l<
fkdyels h' f ms<sn|j Wodfkka md,s mdGhla f.kyer
olaj'
zzf;k fLd mk iufhk wdhiaud idmq;af;d N.jf;d
wf ksiskafkd fyd;s m,a,~lx wdN=;ajd Wcqxldhx
mKSOdh w;a;fkd jQmiux mpfjlaLudfkd woaoid fLd
N.jd'''''' w: fLd N.jd tal uF:x ;ajd ldhxfj,dhx bux
Wodkx Wodfkis'ZZ
Wmika; i;a; ;a;iai
fk;a;skakiai NslaLqfkd"
lafKd cd;sixidfrd
uq;af;d fid udrnkaOkd"
uqp,skaouQ,fhys jev is N.Hj;=kajykafia fl iem
fu fia jKkd lr ;sf'
iqfLd ffld ;=Giai
iq;Ouiai miaif;d"
iqLd rd.kd f,dfl"

ldudkx iu;s;a;fud"
wiaudkiai fhd kfhd
ta;x fu mrux iqLka;s'
ldu iem fidhk NsCIQka f.ka f,djg m%fhdackhla
fkdue;shs' ldufNda.Ska fuka l,ahjk NsCIQka OYkh
lsfuka .syshkaf.a ys;a wm%sh ug fya;= jkafka h' bkaSh
ixjrh we;s j l,a hjk NslaIQka lSfuka .syshka f.a ys;a m%sh
jkafka h'

18
ixjr we;s j iSu fya;= fldg f.k ,efnk ,dN
fufia olajd ;sf'
zzixjfrd wmamidrF:dh wmamidfrd mdfudcF:dh
mdfudfcd mS;F:dh mS;smiaioaOF:dh miaioa iaLF:dh iqLx
iudF:dh iud h:dN+;[KoiaikF:dh h:dN+;[dKoiaikx
ksoF:dh ksod rd.F:dh rdf.d uq;a;F:dh uq;a;s
uq;a;spdKoiaikF:dh uq;a;s [dKoiaikx wkqmdodm
ksndkF:dh'ZZ

19
1796 %;dkHjre
,xld uqyqnv m%foaY w;alr .ekSu'
bx.%SiSkag cdjd rg whs;sj ;snqfKah' ,kaofhda ,xldf
uqyqnv m<d; whs;slrf.k isfhda h' tahkaia kqjr jQ
fmdfrdka m;%fha wdldrhg cdjd rg bx.%SiSka iska
,kaohkag fokq ,en ,kaohka whs;s lrf.k ;snqKq
,xldf uqyqnv m%foaY bx.%SiSkag fok ,oafoa h' bx.%Sis
ks<Orfhda fu;eka mgka isxy, rc;=ud ke;s lsug
l=uka;%Kh lf<dah' f.djekfodare fkda;s Wkakefya isxy,
uka;%Ska iu idlPd lr isxy, uka;%Skag ka wjjdoh k
fou< rc j.%yfhka w,a,d bx.%SiSkag Ndrkafkd;a
ms<su;,fg rclu wrka fok nj lshd rc;=udg fjk
ulska ms<su;,f .ek lreKq lshd ms<su;,fg y
fldg miqj weye<fmd< inr.uq Ydf wldr OQrh Wiq,k
ld,fha Wkakefyag tl;= rg .ekSug fkdfhla Wml%u
flf<ah' 1803 fc f hqoaO Nghka 150 fofkl=;a iu
rc;=ud iuqL fjkag .sfha h' isxy,hka iska uqxf.a hlsis
jrola ksid Tjqkag myr fok ,' Wvrg hk udj;a ish,a,u
jid bx.%SiSkag hkag kqmqjka wkaoug uqr ;nk ,' fld<U
bx.%Sis wdKqvdldr ;ek infjkag fud,a,sf.dv wldr
;ek meK m%ia;d j, oS fud,a,sf.dvg u;ameka fnkag ;%
lrf.k rc;=udg;a u;ameka fndkag fokag lghq;=
ie,eiaiqf h' rc;=ud u;ameka fndkag bf.k .;af;a bx.%Sis
ks,Orhka f.ka h'

20
u;ameka mdkhg ud. ;ekqfjda'
l%s(j( 1801 fld<U bx.%Sis tacka; ;ek iska iqrd
fkaoh .ek ,shk ,o ,sh,a,'

"Cannot here omit mentioning that if Government


Could be induced to extend the arrack rent throughout the
Country by degrees it would be attended with good
consequences and in time be productive of a considerable
revenue."
-Ceylon Literary Register, p. 399, Vol. l, 1886.,kao ld,fha wrlal= fkao lsKSula ;snqfKa ke;'
m<uq jeks jrg u;ameka u mqre lrkag ud. ;ekqf
bx.%SiSyq u h' ji, iQ;%fha fmfkk wkaoug u;ameka mdkh
lrkakd o lrjkakd o ji,hka yehg .Kkaf.k ;sf'
jI 2358 la lsis u;ameka j.hla mdkh fkdlr is isxy,
ckldh ke;s lrkag lghq;= lf<da wm ys;e;s ijidOdrK
bx.%Sis cd;slfhda h' wdodhu jelr .ekSug fufia lrkag
kE hhs m;%fha m%isoaO jQ bx.%Sis ,sh,af,ka o fmfka'
rl%ul l< isxy,hka f.a cd;N+h jQ Y%S ,xldoamh
fou<" cd" k" mrx.s" ,kao hk cd;Ska f.ka wdrCId lr.;a
kuq;a u;ameka fmdjd wiqrhka oukh l< Yl%hd fuka u;ameka
kue;s I fndkag isxy,hka ke;s lsug bx.%Sis ks,Orfhda
l%shdrN lf<da h' l%ufhka .ula mdid wrlal= u jOkh
lg hq;= hhs ta bx.%Sis ,sh,af,ka o fmfka'

21
.ula mdid ydria:dkj, iNd meje;ah hq;= hs'
fn!oaO uyckhdg we;e bx.%Sis ks,Orhka f.ka
meueKsh yels ysyer j<lajd.ekSug ud.h fmkajd u i;s
u.ska lghq;= hs' bx.%Sis wd{dpl%h md,kh lrkq ,nk uka;%Ska
wka;fkdu;shg l%shd lrk j.hls' l,ska l, ,xldj
md,kh lsug fuydg mefKk uyd ks,f,d rg jdiSkag
wkqlmd fkdfmkajd ;ukaf.a ys;+ nqoahg jev lr;s' kg
,xldf isk uel, Wkakefya ,xldf fY%aIaG moh
Wiq,k uyd uka;%Shd h'
Wkakefyag fmr is f,la uyd ks,f fld<U uyd
;gdlh w,xldr fldg fYdaNd imkak lrkag fhdackdjla
flf<ah' fld<U k.rhg wdNrKhla jeks f c,dYh
w,xldr lsug Ok ho lsug i yeka f,la Wkakefya
leu;sj isfha h' Wkakefya .shdg miq meKqkq i yeka
uel, thg m%;sreoaO fhdackdjla fldg w,xldr ruKSh
c,dYh f.dv lrkag kshu lf<ah' w;a;fkdau;shg lghq;=
lrk uyd ks,f,d f.ka miai u isxy, ck;djf.a
hq;=luls' miajIhlg jrla wm rg .ek lsis;a fkdokak uyd
ks,f,d .jkl lrkag m;alr tjkq ,efn;s' fu fia f
rgg mefKk .jk,d f.a rg jdiSka .ek je l,amkdjla
ke;'

22
wreu mqu isoahla'
y,dj; olajd .ula mdid u foaYkd fldg kej; f
ui 28 jeks kg fld<Ug meKsfh' udofma jej wi,
msysgd ;sfnk fn!oaO mdGYd,djg f ui 25 jk k Woh
wgg muK f,djg meKsfh' ta mkaif,a Wkakdkafia
mdGYd,df YsIHhkag mkais,a bjr jQ g ud YsIHhkaf.a u;=
wNsjDoah .ek wjjdo lsu wdrN fldg wjjdo jpk
lsysmhla lshdf.k hoa wjjdo wika is f YsIHhkag f
Wkakdkafia ;ck .;shla fmkajd Tjqkag jdfjkag lshd
mdGYd,d .=rejrhdg ;ckh fldg mdGYd,dfjka msg
mkai,g hkag .sfhda h' tflfkysu wi, ydrdm;s uyd
f;rekakdkafia iajlSh odhl msi;a iu ud in fjkag
meKsfhda h' mdGYd,d l<ukdldr mej ;ekf.a l%shdjg
mqu mdGYd,d YsIHhkag wjjdo lrkag bv fokag lSm
jdrhlau b,a kuq;a Wkau;a;l ,dihla
fmkajQ f
Wkakdkafia tfia lrkag bvfokakg ne nj lSfjda h' f
mdGYd,djg mefKkag h hs tys .=rejrhd f.ka ,enqKq
wdrdOkdj
ksid
y,dj;
fn!oaOhkaf.a
wdrdOkdj;a
ms<sfkdf.k f mdGYd,djg meueKsfh' fndfyda wudrel
| f mdGYd,df YsIHkag wjjdo lsug meKs .uk
m%fhdack jk moafoka .; lrkag fkd,eu laL odhl hs'
ld,dka;rhlska ,enqKq m%ia;dj iM, lr .ekSug f NsCIqj
bv fkdkafka h' nqrcdkka jykafia isysfldg u;=
mrmrdf wNsjDoah i|yd msysgqjk ,o mdGYd,df
YsIHhkag Oudjjdo lrkag bv fokag fkdyels ldrKh
l=ula hs weiQ g wdKavqf kS;sh lv lrkag wi;=gq ksid h
hs f NsCIqj W;a;r kafkah'

ta mdief,a .=rejrhd l< wmrdOkdj ms<sf.k y,dj;


isg mdkaor ;=kg msg;a j fndfyda wudrel |f.k
meueKqKq .ufka Iag is;a we;s NsCIqjla ksid yefok
orejkag wjjdo lsu fkdyels h' fujeks m;hka f.ka
Ydikhg ydkshla u jkafka h' ue isfha WmKaKdilfha
uydiq[a[; iQ;%fha mdGhla fuys olaj'
zz;F: fp wdkkao ;:d.;x bkd ydfrk yrka;x
N.jka;x
Wmixl;dfrd
NslaLqNslaLqksfhd
Wmdil
Wmdisldfjda rdcdfkd rdcuydu;a;d ;sF:dhd ;sF:hidjld
;;%dkkao
;:d.f;d
flkskafkfkj
kaf;k''''
fklaLudNsrf;k LHka;SN+f;k in fid wdijGdksfhys
Ofuys w[a[oF:qx WfhHdckslmixhq;a;x fhj l;x ;lald
fyd;s'ZZ
f mdGfha fmfkk msia ms<sfj, yehg rdc rdc
uydu;Hdkag Wiia fldg fn!oafOdamdil msi ms<sf.k
;sf' miam oidl=i,a fkdlrk Wmdilhd fl;r W;=
flfkla o@ ;j u f iQ;%fha u NsCIQka iska fkdfldg hq;=
l:d fmkajd ;sfnhs' t k( rdc l:d" fpdar l:d" uydu;a;
l:d" fikd l:d" Nh l:d" hqoaO l:d" wkak l:d" mdk l:d"
jF:d l:d" ihk l:d" ud,d l:d" .kaO l:d" {d;s l:d" hdk
l:d" .du l:d" ks.u l:d" k.r l:d" ckmo l:d" b;a l:d"
iQr l:d" isLd l:d" lNgdk l:d" mqfma; l:d" kdkF:
l:d" f,dlalLdhsld l:d" ioaolaLdhsld b;sNjd Nj l:d b;s
tj rEmx l:z k lf:iaid;s'
rd.hg fya;= l:d k" wmamsP l:d" ika;= l:d"
mfjl l:d" wixi.a. l:d" hdrN l:d" iS, l:d" iud
l:d" m[a[d l:d" uq;a;s l:d" uq;a;s [dK oiaik l:d" b;s
tj rEmx l:x lf:iaid;S'

fufia NsCIQka lrd hk Wmdildka iska tmdlr


;sfnk l:d fkdfldg hq;= hs' msfjka ;ndf.k we;e
NsCIQka .sys <uhskag nqoaO Ouh lsis;a kQ.kajd ffjoH
Ydia;%h m%.=k lrk njg idlaCH fuod ug ,enqfka h' tla;rd
msfjKl ixialD; bf.k.kska is <ufhl= f.ka oi
wl=i,a fudkjd hs weiQ g lshkag fkdyels h' iaiS,
mqoa.,hska inkaO Ou mofha ksrh j.fha .d:djla u;la
h'
fifhHd wfhd.=f,d N+;af;d
;;af;d w.a.siqLqmfud"
h[afp N=[afchH iaiSf,d
rGmsKavx wi[a[f;d'
is,a ke;s mqoa., f;u rg jeiaika iska Y%oaOdfjka
fok ,o wdydr j,|kafka fo thg jvd f,day .=,s .s,Su
W;a;u hs' fn!oaOhka iska bf.k.; hq;= .d:d lla fuys
olaj y'
w;S;x kd;ajd .fuhH kmamlxfL wkd.;x"
ho;S ;mNskka;x wmamka;[ap wkd.;x
mpqmamkak[ap fhda Oux ;F: ;F: miai;s
wixNSrx wixl=mamx ;x oaOdukq nDDyfh
wfcj lspx wd;mamx fldc[a[d urKx iqfj
kNsfkd ixyrka;k uyd fifkk upqkd
tajx yd wd;dmS wfydr;a;u;ka;x'
f ue isfha WmmKaKdilfha Noafolr;a;
iQ;%fhys olakd ,ef' tla;rd wdrduhl OuYd,djl
l%sia;shdks lrfhl=g jdih lsug ldurhla fjka fldg
;snqfKa h' f ;eke;a;d f.a wkaf;ajdislhd o l%sia;shdksldr
fld .egfhls' fudyq fndaujg iqregq fndkaa u fl<

.ihs' mkaif,a
laLodhl hs'

Wkakdkafia

.ek

fkdi,ld

isu

frdaudkq isxy, lf;da,slhka rjgd f.k nv mef,k


;rug W!re uia" l=l= uia" yrla uia" nqk m%xY" cuka"
b;d,s" frdaudkq md,srd,,d iem fia ldj lr;s' jI
ishhla muK ld,hla iqoaoka wdY%h lrkak mam;a isxy,hkag
,e ;sfnk f f,dj m%fhdack l=ulao@ mam;a isxy,hka
rjgd f.k ishu jev lr.kq ,ef' m%fhdackj;a Ys,am
ludka;d lsisjla iqoaod isxy,hkag W.kajkafka ke;' Tyq
weia" lKa" kdidh mskjk ukqIHh f,dalfha mxpldu iem
" isxy,hdg Ys,am ludka; k .ekSu kE fkdlrhs' iqoaod
f lsis;a wm rg jdiS isxy,hkag W.kajkafka o ke;' iqxl
wdh .kakd kuq;a Ydia;% Ys,amdh w;ska lsis;a iqoaod
isxy,hkag fokafka ke;' fj<|du imQKfhka u urlal,"
ynxlr" fndnhsldr" mrjre w;g f.dia ;sf'
y,dj; ia;%slalfhka miq.sh jIfha remsh,a oywg
,CIhla wdodhu bx.%Sis ks,orfhda ,ndf.k ;sfn;a' ffia
,nd.;a Yd, Okfhka y,dj; ia;%slalfha ck;djg
m%fhdackj;a jk lsis u fohla lr ke;' ta ta m<d;a j,ska
whlr .kak iqxl uqo,a ta ta m<d;aj,g ho lsu hq;= hs'
f .ek ta ta m<d;a jdiSka iNd mj;ajd idlPd fldg bx.%Sis
ks,Orhka iska lrkq ,nk f wmrdO fmkajd h hq;=hs' No
taxation without representation! wh lrk iqxl wdh flfia
ho flfrkafkahs uyckhdg fkdfmkau rdc Ouhg
reoaOhs' w{dk isxy,hka rdc Ouh fkdokakd neka ;uka
f.jk iqxl j,g l=ula lrkafka hs okafka ke;' wfma
isxy, cd;sh jOkhg ys;e;s mrd:ld isxy,hka tl;=
l%shd lsug ka ld,hhs' f,dalfha wksla ishu rgj, u uyd
ckldh tl;= l%shd lrk nj fmfkkag ;sf' oi ,CIhla
bx.%Sis bx.%Sis ludka;ldrfhdao oyia .Kka bx.%Sis ia;%Syq o

flda,dy, lrkafka l=ula ksid hs fiu j' tx.,ka;


Okj;a fldgi wirk bx.%Sis llrejkaodi Ndjfhys
;ndf.k Tjqka ,jd Ok imhdf.k fydka iem .kska l,a
hj;s' wirk bx.%Sis llrejkag lkag muK j;a ke;'
,xldf o Okj;a fldgi lduiqL,a,shdKqfhda.fhka yd
m[apldu iemfhka o bx.%Sis ks,Orfhda iqxl wh f;dg
Yd, jegqma uqo,a f.k o iem fia l,a hj;s' wirK
isxy,fhda ,CI .Kkla lkag wkag ke;s j iajlSh wUq
orejka iu uy lska l,a hj;s'

23
Lqoaolksldhd.; mrudoYS NsCIqj''
Lqoaol ksldhg wh;a iq;a; ksmd;h iQ;%dka; msglfha 19
jk .%ka:h f' Lqoaolksldfha ihjeks .%ka:h jkafka o
fuhhs' merKs md,s NdIdfjka hqla;jk fuu .%ka:h fndfyda
oaj;=kaf.a iudkhg ,laj we;af;a ksjdKd.d ud.h
iDcqju ia;r lrkakla f,isks' jdx. Ydia;D Ydikhg wh;a
f.hH yd jHdlrK ,CIKhkaf.ka hqla;jk iq;a; ksmd;h
.d:djkaf.ka .ejiS we;af;ah' NsCIqjlg.a iajrEmh tys olajd
we;af;a my; i|yka jk mh'
zzme;s.sh imI T!IOfhka kid oukakdfia Wmka
fl%daOh kid oukafkao ,g nei fk u,a fk,kakdla
fuka mxpldu .=K iso,kafkao" uyj;=rla ngj,ska ie n,
f.hla | oukakdfia" ixfhdackhka kid,kafka o Wr.fhl=
rd .sh kej w;ayer oukakdla jeks jQ tu NsCIqj mxpkSjrK
;rKh l< wfhl= f'ZZ
NsCIQyq jkdyS isjq jeoEre fj;s" tk i;r ud.fhka
ish flf,ia ke;s lrk ,oafoa zu.a.dms;Z kf' wka whg
u. foikqfha zu.a.foailZ k f' f,daflda;a;r ud.fhys
fjfikafka zu.a.Z k f YaYS, jQ uyK z.iSZ k f'
hfula Wmka flf,ia kid u;= Wmk flf,ia
fkdWmojk wkd.;fhys we;sjk laf,aIhkag m%fY ug bv
fkdfoa o f,dalhdg hym; msKsi yeisfrk fyf;u fY%aIaG
NsCIqjla f' .sys mej fofok Tjqfkdjqkaf.ka r jQjdyQ
ke;fyd;a fjkia jQ jk meje;au we;af;a h' .sysf;f
wUqorejka fmdIKh lrkafka h' meoaodg uu;ajh ke;'

.sysf;f mrmK keiSfuys wixh;h' NsCIqj jkdyS ixh;


neka m%dKSka wdrCId lrkafka h'
h NsCIqjla ;ry nia lshkafka o wkawh fjfyiSfuys
hqla; jQfhao ,cd Nh ke;af;a o Tyqf.a ;h ,dul f'
l,yfhka weKq fudayfhka jeiS .sh NsCIqj nqrcqka foiQ
Ou k fkd.kS' NsCIqj jkdyS udkqIsl jQo jHuh jQo ldu
Ihkays rd.h ke;s lrkafka h' p;=rdH i;H k.;a
fyf;u ;%sjdO Nh blaujd f,dj ish,a, ukd fia w;ayhs'
f,dj we;s ish,a, uekka w;ykafka o ftf;u hkdyS
mrudOYS NsCIqjl f .sysf.h l=i, l%shdjkg ndOd iys;hs'
rd.d flf,iaj,g Wmka uls' meoao jkdyS wNHjldYh
jeks hehs k meje h hq;=h' meoafoda lhska ;%sO Iap;
w;ay;s' p;=O jd.a Iap; o w;ay;s' msis meje;au
we;af;dao fj;s'
inqoaO Ydikfhys NsCIqj iqNdIs;hu lshhs' NdIs;
fkdlshhs' Ouhu lshhs' wOuh fkdlshhs' m%sh f;mq,au
lshhs' wm%sh jpk fkdlshhs' i;H lshhs' wi;H fkdlshhs'
;ud iska lrk ,o Ndjkdfjka laf,aI mksjdKhg
.sh" ielh ke;sl<" m;a;s im;a;s ydks jDoa Wfo
wmqKH mqKH ixLHd; Nj yd Nj w;ayrK ,oafoa jei ksujQ
Uuir we;s CIh l< mqkNjh we;af;a NsCIq kf' wdh
ud.fhka flf,ia ikaiso jQ" msx mjq kid ta ksidu rd.d
flf,ia ke;s wdOHd;sul ialkaOd f,dalh yd ndysr
ialkaOd f,dalh wks;Hd jYfhka k cd;s yd urK blau jQ
;d mqoa., f;f Y%uK hehs lshkq ,ef'
NsCIqj jkdys weiska lKska kdifhka fjka fukau
ish,a,ka o ixjr f' tfia ixjr jQ NsCIqj ish flka fohs'
NsCIqjla hehs lsj yelafla w;ska mhska jpkfhka lhska ixjr

jQ lugyka jeu wefKa tfiau iudfhka hq;= yqol,dj


yeisfrk i;=gq is;a we;a;dygh' ioaOufhka fkdmsySug k
NsCIqjla iska Ouh ksjdiia:dk fldg we;af;a Oufhys
wefka Ouh kej; kej; is;d Ouh kej; kej; isys
lrka ish hq;=h' iudhg meKSu wfmaCIs; NsCIqj ;ud ,o
fohg wjuka fkl, hq;= w;r wka whf.a m%;H ,dNho
fkdme;sh hq;= o f' fofhda ia;+;s lrkqfha h NsCIqjla
m%;H,dNS fkdjqjo isd,;a ;udf.a m%;H ,dNh fy,d fkdolSo
msis ; we;sj wl+; jQ gh' kdu rEm fol ms<sn| ish
wdldrfhka uu" uf.ah hk yeSula ke;af;a o kdu rEm
keiShdu fya;=fjka fYdal fkdflfo oy, flf,ia we;s
fyf;u NsCIqjl f' Ydka; moh fyj;a ksjdKh .eug
NsCIqj ffu;%S jrK we;sj nq iiqfka wp, Y%oaOdfjka hq;=j
lghq;= lrkafka kh' WmYdka; NsCIqjla jkqfha Ydka; jQ
ldhoajdr" jd.aoajdr iy ufkdaoajdr we;sj my,l, mxpldu
im;a we;s gh' j<dmg,ska Kq mqkai f,dj nn,jkakdla
fuka nqoaOdkq Ydikfhys fhofok NsCIqjg kqjK t<sfhka
f,dj wdf,dalu;a l< yel' hful= Y%uK njg m;ajkafka
wl=i, aixisj jik gh' meoaod hehs m%ldY l< yelafla
rd.d u< m%ydKh l< fglh' h NsCIqjla oDIa kue;s
ugj.=r fyda iir kue;s uv j.=r ;rKh lrk ,o flf,ia
keue;s lgqj uk ,oafoa fudayCIhg meKsfhao tn NsCIqj
iqjla foflu fkdief,a' NsCIqjlg fkdie,S .,amjqjla fia
ukdj ish yelafla fudayh CIh lsfukah' hful= ;,
udhdjla fkdue;sj udkhla fkdmj;afkao myjQ f,daNh we;s
uuhk rys; wdYd rys; uq,iqka l< fl%daO we;af;a
n%yauKfhla" Y%uKfhla fukau NsCIqjla o f' fohka wdorh
lrk NsCIqjla njg m;ah yelafla ;ud ms<sn| lS;s .S y~
weiqr fkdlr msKavmd;sldx.h rlsk ;ud muKla fmdaIKh
lrk wkawh fmdaIKh fkdlrK iajNdjfhka hqla; jQ
wjia:df h'

Ys,amhlska f. fkdlrK" ieye,a mej;= we;s"


f,da jeishdg jevleu;sj" ixjr jQ bkashka we;s" yeu;kaysu
Kq rEmd wdh;k ifhys fkdyeisfrk" uudhk rys;" wdYd
ke;s" udk ke;s" yqol,dj yeisfrk ;eke;a;ka mrud:
jYfhka NsCIqj k f' udr jihg hdug NsCIqjlg
isjkafka ;HdoDIafhka hq;=j .f;a isf;a lue,s nka
hq;=j fkdrlsk ,o I {dk we;sj iskafka kh' hym;a
l,amkd we;af;a rlakd ,o is;a we;af;a iuHhla oDIafhka
hq;=j ialkaOhkaf.a we;s u ke;s u k f.k .f;a isf;a
lue,sl uevjQ NsCIqj udr jihg m;a fkdf' ixjr ke;s
nd, ckfhda jpk kue;s B;,j,ska k l,ays bjiug
yelafla ta jkdyS NsCIqjf.a iajNdjhhs' Ou kfhys
wdYaphh lreKq 8ls' tajd okakd NsCIQyq f Ydikfhys
wef,;s' uyuqyqo ms<sfj,ska .eUqre fo iiqko tnuh' uy
uqyqo u,l=Kq yd tlaj fkdhkakdla fuka YaIS, mqoa.,hska
ix>hd yd tla fkdfjhs' .x.d" huqkd" wrj;S" ir.+" uyS
.x.djkays c,h uqyqfoa tlu Kq riska hqla; fo Ou kh
o i;r i;smGdk" i;r iuHlam%Odkd fndfyda rejka
we;af;ah' uy uqyqo ;sr" ;sux., .dkaOjd Yd,
i;a;ajhkaf.a jdi N+h jkakd fia Ou kfhyso fidajdka
ilDod.d wd uyd i;ajfhda is;s'
Ou kfhys fun wdYapHhu;a woaN+; lreKq l
NsCIQka tys wef,kqfha uy;a wNsrefhkah' ixfhdack
ke;sfldg wry;ajhg m;au i|yd NsCIqj iqjp nj" f.!rj
iys; nj" l<Hdk ;%hka we;s nj ;sh hq;= w;r kqjK
we;af;a msys isys we;af;a l,HdK ;% jpk bgqlsu l<
hq;=h' wl=i, Ou follska hqla; NsCIqj f ;fhau mSvd
iys; jQ fjfyi jQ iys; lska jdih lrhs' tk
bkash Ifhys wixjr nj yd wdydrfhys muK fkdokakd
njhs'

wdh ud.d.uhg kqiqiq NsCIqjla jkqfha mjg h


ke;s flf,ia ljk hfhka f;drjQ glh' mjg h we;s
flf,ia ;jk Hhfhka iuka; NsCIqj wdH ud.d.uhg
iqiafil= f' NsCIqj n%dyaupdhdfjys yeish hq;af;a
ckf;f ud fufia okSjdhs ckhd Yauh m;alrkq msKsi fyda
ckhd ,jd .=K lshjd .kq msKsi fyda ,dN i;aldr lS;s
ixLHd; wkqyia msKsi fkdf' f n%yauphdj ijOuhka
YsIaG {dkfhka wm; f,i k.kq msKsi ff;%N+l
Ouhka msis| k.kq msKsi h' NsCIqjlg f wd;aufhau
ldhsl udkisl iqj fidkia nyq,j jdih l< yelafla lreKq
follska hqla; jQ gh' ta ixf.hg jia;= jQ ;kays
ixf.fhka o ixf.hg meKs iuHla jHdufhkao hql; jQ
gh'
h NsCIqjla yqfol,dnka wefkdaj yqo,ldnys
ksr;j jdoh lrhs o iajlSh ;a; iu:fhys fhfkdaj neyer
fkdl< OHdk we;af;daj oYkdfjka hqla;j fjfiao tu
NsCIqj f w;aneysu ry;a nj fyda wkd.dM,h ,nkafkah'
lreKq 3lska iuka; jk NsCIqj udrfh k jk ff;%N+l
meje;au blaujd ysrefuka nn,hs' tkk wffYCI
YS,ialkaOfhka iudialkaOfhka yd m%{dialkaOfhka hqla;
uhs' rd." oafY" fuday" m%ydKh fkdl, NsCIqj ixidr iuqoh
;rKh fkdlf<a fjhs'
NsCIqjf.a msySug lreKq 3ls' tk ludkahkays we,Su"
fhu yd leu;s u l;dfjys we,Su" fhu yd leu;s u"
ksod.ekSfuys we,Su" fhu yd leu;s uhs' fjdfha
fkdhe,Su" fkdfhu yd fkdleue;su fkdmsu msKsi fjhs'
nqrcqkaf.a isjqrefldK w,a,df.k mshjfrka mshjr ;nka
miqmi .sho NsCIqj nqrcqkag frys jQfha jkafka tu NsCIqj
wl f,i mial iqjfha wefka Is; isysl,amkd we;af;ao
uq,dis;a we;af;a tgh' fhdka ish .Kka r isho nqrcqka

<u iskafka NsCIqj ;=< wl f,daNSlu ke;su" mial


iqjfha fkdhe,Su" yd m; is;a fkdue;s jQ gl muKs'
NsCIqjg ;Kaydj bmoug fya;=jk lreKq 4ls' ta jr"
msKavmd;" fiakdik yd m%KS;" w;sm%KS; jH fya;=fldg
f.kh' NsCIqjla nqrcqkag wh;a fkdjkqfha l=yl" is;a"
m%;H yd ck;dj fm<Ujk" m%lg flf,ia we;s WiajQ ukdm
we;s jQ yd tl is;a ke;sfo tgh' tu NsCIqj Ydikfhys
jeug fyda ke.Sug fukau uy;a njlgo m;afkdf'
f wd;auNdjfhau ldh ;a; mSvd iys;j iys;j
lska hqla;j isug fukau urKska miq .;sh leu;s h hq;=
njg fya;=jk lreKq 2ls' tk bkashhka wixjr nj yd
wdydrfhys muK fkdkSuhs' f fol fkdokakd NsCIqj
fuf,dju mSvd iys; nj fukau urKska u;= .;shgo
m;af' huq NsCIqjla fuf,dju ldh ;a;mSvdjla fkdue;sj
fjfyila ke;sj iemfhka hqla;j jdih lrkakg k
urKska u;= iq.;s.d jkakg k bkaSh ixjrfhka hqla;u
yd wdydrfha muK kSu msKsi ;sh hq;=h'
Ydiksl m%;smodjkaf.ka neyer u" f,!lsl wfmaCId
uqkam;a lr .ekSug fjfyiSu fukau wdijGdkSh
Ouhkaf.ka iuka; u NsCIq ;h my<g f.k hdug
fya;=f' mrudoYS NsCIQka fkdue;s hhs mejiSu mrudoYS ug
ndOdjla lr.;hq;= fkdf' nqoaO foaYkfhys NsCIqjlf.a
iajremh .ska .gu ia;r we;' tajd ljfhs k .ekSu
NsCIQka iska l< hq;af;au f' mrudoYS NsCIqjlf.a meje;au
;udg fukau uq uy;a iudchgu pkfhka lsjfkdyels ;r
uy;a w:hla we;s lrkakla f' udkj iudch hyud.hg
wj;SK l< yelafla kS;s ;s u.ska fkdj mrudoYS
NsCIqjlf.ka ,efnk ufmkafukah'

24
fuf,dj iemj;a ;hlg mdoljk fn!oaO b.eka
ksid iajNdjfhkau iem ug leu;sh ^iqL ldud& l
ms<sl=,a lrhs' ^laL mlal+,d& ksia iemh ms<sn|j wjOdkh
fhduqlrk nq iuh th m%;sCIam fkdlrhs' iir ieirk
i;ajhhd l Wreu lrf.k isk nj ^flL f,dafld
m;sf;da& nq oyfuys b.ekafjk kuq lsis gl;a u,dksl"
uql=,s;" lkiai iy.; ;hla ,; l, hq;= hehs m%ldY
fkdlrhs'
tneka iemj;a ;hla wfmCIdfkdlrk mqoa.,hd
wkqkaf.a iemhg jvd fkdl, hq;=h' tksid ;uka fj; iem
<lr.; hq;af;a ksjer mmdhlg wkqj l%shd lsfuks' ta
ksjer ms<sfj; Oudkql+, h hq;= hehs i|yka f'
zzk w;a; fya;= - k mriai fya;=ZZ hk .d:djg wkqj
;ud ksidj;a wkqka ksidj;a mjql fkdlrkafkah' mlka
,efnk mqf;l= fyda Okh fyda rgla fyda fkdleue;s
jkafkah' ;ukaf.a iuDho wOufhka fkdleue;s jkafkah'
tn mqoa.,hd is,ajka;fhlao kqj ke;af;lao jkafkah'
iqLhd mqoa.,hd Bg wjYH im;a /ialr.; hq;af;a
by; i|yka kskdhlg wkq.;j l%shd lsfuks' wx.=;a;r
ksldfha p;=lal ksmd;fha wKk iq;%fha i|yka jk p;=
iem ms<sn| i,ld n,k g fuu woyi ikd: f' w;a iqL"
fNda. iqL" wKk iqL" wkjc iqL hk iem j. y;frka
uq,ska i|yka iem j. 3 isjqfjkqj i|yka jk wkjc
iqLfhka fidf<dia l,dfjka tlla muKl= fkdj"
hkafkka i|yka lr we;af;ao yej Okh bmhSu fn!oaO
b.ekaj, i|yka f'

wkqkaf.a iem;g ndOd fkdlrka yDoh idCIshl


tlj ;ud iska Wmhd imhd .kakd foa mfNdackh lsu
ksid ,efnk fidki" i;=g fuys wjOdrKh flf' ldhsl
iem yd udkisl iem w;r udkisl iemhu W;= n fn!oaO
b.ekaj, i|yka f'
iemh ms<sn| fn!oaO b.eka .ek mq,aj i,ld
n,kg th ug lSmhla iafia ykd.; yel'
1' fN!;sl iem 2' wdpdr oHd;aul iem
jYfhka tajd j. l< yelsh'

3' Ndjkduh iem

<slu iemhg ndOdjls' <slu iu O iudc


.eg ksudKh jk wdldrh > ksldfha plalj;a;s iSykdo
iQ;%fha tk b.ekaulska m%lg f' ^wOkdkx Ofka
wkkqmamhudfk od<soahx fmq,a,x u.udis" od<soahx
fmq,a,x .f;a wkakdodkx fmq,a,x u.udis '''''''''''& fuu
fn!oaO b.eka j,g wkqj ksid iemj;a ;Dma;su;a ;hla
.; lsug k m%udKj;a wdl Yla;shla f.dvk.d .;
hq;=h' fufia iem im;a ;snQ muKska flfkl= N=la;s k
iemh imQK fkdf' ;ukafj; mefKk l=uy;a lghq;=
imqrd .ekSug ys;j;=kaf.a Wmldr wjYHf' th iemhla nj"
zzw;a:Ns cd;ys iqLd iydhZZ hk Oumo b.ekafukaa
meye,s f' zz;= iqLdhd b;;frkZZ hk tu .d:df
fojk mdofhka w:j;a jkfka ,o fohska i;=gq u iemhla
njhs' fYaIfhka lrKSh fu;a: iQ;%fha i|yka jk
zzika;=iaifldaZZ hkafkka m%ldY jkafkao fuu W;= .=Khhs'
wm iska fuf;la idlPd lrk ,oafoa fN!;sl im;a
yd inek iemh ms<sn|jhs' fuu ,smsh wdrNfha i|yka
lrk ,o iodpdrd;aul iem ms<sn|jo wfma wjOdkh fhduq

lruq' iudc hq;=l bgqlsu u.skao mqoa.,fhl=g iqjfi;


ie,fik nj fn!oaO b.eka j,ska m%lg f'
zziqL uf;;hH;d f,dafl - wf:d fmf;;hH;d iqLdZZ
wd jYfhka i|yka jk .d:djg wkqj ujg Wmia:dk lsu
iemhls' mshdg Wmia:dk lsu iemhls' tfukau meoaokag
.re i;aldr lsu iemhls' CIsKdY%jhkag .re i;aldr lsu o
iemhls' hkafkka tu .d:dfjys u i|yka f' tla;rd
ugulg hqKq iodpdr imkak ;hla .;lrk
mqoa.,hkaf.ka muKla fuu iudcuh hq;=l bgqjk nj
i|yka l, hq;=h'
;ud Wmhd.kakd ,o im;a j,ska fldgila ;u
foumahka" wUqore isoia llre wdkaf.a iqL yrKh i|yd
fhdojkafka k iduld ;Dma;su;a iudchla f.dvke.Sug
th fya;= f' ;u lS;sh hii jeugo th m%n, idOlhls'
wx.=;a;r ksldfha m;a;lu iQ;%fhys ,d f woyi
iia;rj laf' ^w;a;dkx iqf;s mSfka;s iud iqLx myr;s
ud;d ms;frda iqf;s mSfka;s iud iqLx my;s mq;a;odr
odiluldr fmdafia iqf;s mSfka;s iud iqLx my;s ''''''&
f b.ekaj,g wkqj ksid iudc .; mqoa.hl= jYfhka
iodpdr oy fkdhslaujd iudc ixjOkhg ;=vqfok nj
w:j;a f' fuf,i fN!;sl yd iodpdrd;aul jYfhka
iqjm;a ;hla .; lrk ksid bka fkdkej;S wdh
ud.fhys .uka lrkafkl= jYfhka udkisl ixjOkhlao
we;s lr .; hq;=h' th Ndjkduh l%shdj,shla f,i ykd.;
yelsh'
Ou mofha iqL j.a.fha tk .d:d lSmhla foi
uis,su;aj n,k g wmg f ms<sn| h woyila Wmojd .;
yelsh'

zziqiqLx j; jdu - f fkaq wffkd


f fkaiq ukqiafiaiq - yrdu wffkdZZ
ta iu tu j.a.fha ms<sfj,ska fofjks yd ;=kafjks
.d:dj, woyiao uiSug ,la lruq' tu woyiaj,g wkqj
ffjrfhka hqla; u" wiS;j liem fifuys Wiyj;a u
flf,iqkaf.ka wd;=ru" mqoa.,hl=f.a udkisl iqjh m,jd
yk idOlfhda fj;s'
fun ufkda Ndjfhka msgql ffu;%S yrKfhka hqla;
u mqoa., wdOHd;auh lis; lr .ekSug fya;= jk nj
i|yka l, hq;=h' wm iska fuf;la idlPdhg Ndckh
lrk ,o iemh ms<sn| fn!oaO b.eka id:l f,!lsl
;hlg u fmkajk nj wjidk jYfhka i|yka l<
yelsh'
wdY%s; .%ka: kdudj,sh
1' wx.=;a;r ksldh - oa;Sh Nd.h ^nq'c';%s'.%'ud&
2' > ksldh - oa;Sh Nd.h ^nq'c';%s'.%'ud&
3' Oumo md,sh - ixialrKh" fufrdka;=vqf Y%S {dfkaiajr
Oudkkao udys'
4' msrejdkd fmd;a jykafia - ixialrKh" lsjka;=vqf Y%S
m%{didr udys'
5' fn!oaO YsIaGdpdrfha uQ, Ou yd jxY l:dj - pkau
fnKavdr" t't' fudrgqj.u'

25
fyd|u nqoaO mQcdj m%;sm;a;s mQcdjhs'
iQis wixfLhH l,am ,CIhlg;a jvd je >
ld,hla odkd mdr o imqrd weia" uia" fma" oka fndfyda
fokdf.a ys; iem msKsi ;u ;h mjd m;Hd. lr
uydfndai;dkka jykafia nqnj ,enqf p;=rdHh Ouh
wjfndaO lrf.k f,d;=rd nqnj ,enqf wfmka mqo mQcd ,nd
.ekSu msKsi fkdj ixidr id.rfha fyda iir l;f w;ruka
isk wm iefjdu iir lska uqojd .ekSu msKsihs' fo
Ksia ish fokdg p;=rdHh i;H Ouh wjfndaO lru
msKsihs' i;a;sia fnda mdCIsl Ouh jgyd u msKsihs'
oYKd Ndjkdj meye,s lr ;%s,CIK Ouh jgyd u
msKsihs' Ys,hl msysgd iudh Wmojdf.k m%{dj my<lrf.k
iir lska f u. fmkajd u msKsiuhs'
uyd ldreKsl nqrcdkka jykafia wfmka mqo mQcd
n,dfmdfrd;a;= fkdjq fial' wm mqo mQcd mj;ajkafka wmg
msysgla ,nd .ekSu msKsih' mskla lr .ekSu msKsihs' ,s
nqnq ,CI .Kkla fh f;drK ish .Kkla ;kkjdg jdvd
tla khla fyda iS,hl msysgd ;%S ,CIK Ouh isysm;a lrka
Ndjkdjl fhdoak fyd|u nqoaO mQcdj jkafka tu m%;sm;a;s
mQcdjhs'
ta i|yd wmg uqo,lao jeh jkafka ke;' W;aidyh;a"
KjK;a" wjYH;djh;a" ;sf k m%;sm;a;s mQcdfjka mQcd
meje;au wmyiq lreKla fkdf' m%;sm;a;s.relj ;h
yev.iajd .kakd nqoau;a ieyej;=kaf.a ;fha b ld,h
jv jvd;a iem;a jkjd ksielh' idrj;a jQ id:l fn!oaO
;hla .; lsfuka ,efnk i;=g fjk;a Okhlska ,nd.;
fkdyelaflauh' fn!oaO ;fha id:l;ajh i|yd wvqu

.Kfka mxp uyd YS,h fyda wdrCId lrka lsish Ndjkdjl


ksr;h hq;=h'
zzNdf;s l=i, Of wdfij;S" taldh;S NdjkdZZ
lsish l=i,a wruqKl is; msysgqjdf.k is; jeu Ndjkdjhs'
Ndjkdj jkdyS tla;rd msilg muKla iSud jQ fohla
fkdf' ksfrda.S nj" ksjr nj" Yla;sula nj" oCInj" we;s
lrk l%shd l=i, k f' iir lska h yelafla zzl=i,iai
WmimodZZ l=i,h je hqKq lsfuka muKs'
Odldr wdYdjka ksid f,daNh ksid" BIshdj" fl%daOh"
ffjrh" m,s.ekSf f;kd kmqre is;=,s ksid fudayh
fyj;a uu;ajh fyj;a jer jegyS ksid" uq,d ksid
flf,ia is;=,s ksid is; f,v jk g .;o f,v f' n,
f' Yrh ksfrda.Sj ;nd .eksug;a jvd jefhka wmyia
jkqfha is; ksfrda.Sj ;nd .ekSuhs'
l=i,a wruqKl is; msysgqjdf.k Ndjkd lrk
;eke;af;l=g ksfrda.Slr .ekSug wjia:dj ,ef' ksjer
is;=,s hqKq fjoa is; ksfrda.S f' f i|yd iu: oYkd
hkqfjka Ndjkd l%u folla ;sf'
lduPkao" jHdmdo" koao" Woaop" l=lal=p"
lsPd fyj;a ldudYdj" ;ryj" w,ilu" miq;eu yd
ielh hk kSjrK Ou my wn, n, fldg tajd hgm;a
lsu iu: Ndjkd k f' iu: Ndjkd l%u y;,sylg;a jvd
;sf' tfy;a oYkdjg we;af;a l%u ;=kla muKs' tk
wks;H" laL" wkd;au jYfhka ne,S muKs' ksjer ksrjq,a
id:l ;hla .; lsug Ndjkdfjka ,efnk msjy,
buy;ah'

nqoaOrEmhla foi n,df.k lsish nq.=K mdGhla jdr


ish oyia .Kkla fufkys lrkafka k Tyqf.a Y%oaOdj hqKq
f' is; ixjr f' oy u.g fhduq f' nqrej isf;ys r|jd
.ekSu i|yd fkdlvjd fufkys lsu mlu ks;a; kf'
oEimshd.;a l,ayso nqrej is;g fmfkhs k th Woa.%y
ks;a; k f' Woa.%y ks;af;ys is;' r|jdf.k Ndjkd
lrk l,ays m%;sNdk ks;a; my< f' m%;sNdk ks;a; hkq
Woa.%y ks;a; flfrys is; fkdie,S mj;sk wjia:djh'
m%;sNdk ks;a; wkqj is; kej; kej; hqKq lrk l,
isf;ys tl nj we;sf' isf;ys tald.%;djh hqKq lr
.ekSfuka OHdk .; ugo wjia:dj ,ef'
tlu wruqKl is; hqKq lr .ekSfuka Wmpdr
idudhla .nd.; yelsh' ;j rg;a is; hqKq lsfuka" is;
Ndjkd wruqfKys / isk l,ays wmKd iudh my< f'
wmKd iudh ,enqK l, is; tl wruqKl / mj;S'
u,a mrfj,d l=Kq h,S
,iaik meyeh iy iqj|;a wvq
fuf,iska uf. lh;a fjkig m;a
wksh; l wk; nj jgyd

hkjd
fjkjd
fjkjd
fokjd

26
oy mdi,a wOHdmkfha miqu" wdrNh yd jHdma;sh'
wkqnq ys uyry;ka jykafia iska Y%S nqoaO jI 236
nqoaO Ydikh ia:dmkh lsu Y%S ,xldf b;sysifhys
YsIaG;u ixisoahhs' uyskaod.ukh furg wd.l" idudl
yd ixialD;sl fCIa;%hkays muKla fkdj wOHdmk
fCIa;%fhyso uy;a fjkilg fya;= h' wkqrdOmqr uyfujqkd
Whfkys ys uy ry;ka jykafiaf.a mqfrda.d;ajfhka
wdrN lrk ,o uyd ydrh ,laj m%:u ydria:dkh fukau
m%:u wOHdmk uOHia:dkh jYfhka yekah yelsh' ishjia
lsysmhla we;=,; uyd ydrh wka;cd;sl lS;shg md;% jQ
wOHdmk wdh;khla njg m;a jQ wdldrh nqoaOf>daI" nqoaOo;a;"
Oumd, wd Ndr;Sh NsCIQka jykafia,d uyd ydrfhys
wOHdmkh ,efuka ikd: f'
nqoyu ms<sn|j Y%s ,dxlslhka ;=< mej;s m%fndaOh;a
rdcdkq.%yh;a ksid nq iiqk iS>%fhka me;sr hdu;a iu
jhsk mqrd ydria:dk bjQ wdldrh fft;sydisl
uQ,di%hkaf.ka ikd: f' iEu .ulau mdfya mkai,la wdrN
jQ w;r" th .f wOHdmk uOHia:dkh o h' Ou kh"
m%k NdId Ydia;% muKla fkdj ffjoH Ydia;%h" fcHd;sIh"
.Dy ksudK Ys,amh" ;% uQ;s" legh wd l,d Ys,amo fuu
wOHdmk wdh;khka yS W.kajkq ,eKs' jhsk mqrd jHdma;j
mej;s oyia ixLHd; fuu wOHdmk wdh;k w;=frka we;e
tajd Wiia wOHdmkh ,ndfok wdh;k njg m;a w;r tajd
msfjka lka m%lg h'
16 jeks ishjfia mD;=.SiSka ,xldjg mefKk
wjia:dj jk g kQ;k YajoHd,hkag iudk msfjka yhla
jhsfka O m%foaYj, mej;s nj ixfoaY idys;Hhfhka

fy<sf' ishjia 23 lg wl furg fn!oaO wOHdmk


b;sydifhys O hq.hkayS rf mej;s" foaYmd,k" wdl yd
iudc jd;djrKhkays n,mEug fn!oaO wOHdmk wdh;k o
f.dre h' tfyhska je" ke.S ueo tajd l%shd;aul h'
iS;djl rdcisxy" fodka cqjka Oumd, jeks rcqkaf.a md,k
ld,j, yd mD;=.Sis" ,kafoais hq.j, ydria:dkhkag yd
uyd ix>hd jykfiag o t,a, jQ ;ck ksid fn!oaO
wOHdmkh muKla fkdj nq iiqko mydkshg m;a h'
je,sg irKxlr irc udys my<jk wjh jkg
Wmimod NsCIqkula fkdue;s ;;ajhg furg ix> iudch
m;aj ;sfuka tu fockl mydksfha iajrEmh wjfndaO
lr.; yelsh'
furg fn!oaO wOhdmkfha nqoaO Ydikh;a fujka
mydkshg md;%j ;sh je,sg irKxlr ysmdKka jeks
frdaOdr h;sjrhka jykafia kula my< u fn!oaO
wOHdmkfha yd nq iiqfka muKla fkdj rfo Nd.Hhls'
buy;a Ilr;d ueo wm%;s.; ffOhhlska hq;=j Ou
Ydia;%{dkh jOkh lr.;a irKxlr idufKar ysfhda lS;s
Y%S rdcisxy rc;=udf.a MqK wkq.%hy we;s ish rka
Wmimod NsCIQka jykafia,d jevulrjd 1753 kej;
Wmimod kh lu we;s lsu Ydiksl yd Ou
Ydiaf;%dakak;sfha m%;sm,hla jYfhka Wkajykfiaf.a YsIH
iskduf Oufcda;s ysmdKkaf.a YsIH fye,af,a
Oukak ysmdKka iska me,auvq,a, rcuyd ydria:dkfhys
wdrN lrk ,o Ydia;% Yd,dj kQ;k fn!oaO wOHdmkfha
kfjdaohlg fya;= h' me,auvq,af,a Ydia;% Yd,df
Ydiaf;%daoa.%yKh l< j,dfka Y%S isoaOd; udysmdkka iska
r;au,dfka mruOuf;sh ydrfhys ^j;udk mru
Ouf;sh msfjk& wdrN lrk ,o Ydia ;% Yd,dj furg
j:udk msfjka wOHdmkfha iudrNh fia ie,lsh yelsh'
mruOuf;sh Ydia;% Yd,df wOHdmkh ,enQ mQch

yslalvqf Y%S iqux., udysmdKka iska 1873 foHdoh


msfjk o mQcH r;au,dfka Y%S Oudf,dal udysmdKka iska
1875 oHd,xldr msfjk o wdrN lrkq ,eu;a tu
msfjka j, wOHdmkh ,o h;a h;sjrhka jykafia,d
jhsfka O m%foaYj, msfjka wdrN lsu;a irKxlr
ix>rdc udysmdKka wdrN l< Ou Yfia;%Sh m%fndaOh
jhsk mqrd jHdma; ug fya;= h'
mD;=.Sis" ,xfoais" hq.hkayS fn!oaO wOHdmkhf t,a, jQ
;ck ksid mkai, flaka lr.;a wOHdmkh wvmkj mej;s
w;r 1815 Y%S ,xldj %;dkH hg;a ;hla njg m;au ksid
tu wOHdmkh uqukskau kdY h'
Y%S ,xldj %;dkH md,kh ;yjqre lr .ekSug k
NsCIQka jykafia yd .sys ck;dj w;r" mej;s in|;dj |ug
wjYH nj wjfndaOlr.;a bx.%Sis yQ ta i|yd O Wmdh fhy'
Ikd mdi,a wdrN lr tu mdi,aj,g orejka we;=,;a lrk
foumshkag ;k;=re yd jrm%idO ms keu ta w;r m%Odk
h' flda,anDla fldif fhdackd wkqj Ikd wOHdmkh
jvd;a Yl;a;su;a lsf m%;sM, jYfhka wOHdmkh ms<sn|
NsCIQka jykafia i;=j mej;s fft;sydisl Wreuh wys lrk
,o w;r" .u;a mkai,;a w;r mej;s in|;dj o | jegqks' tys
m%;sM,h jQfha .=Koyka msyqKq isxy, fn!oaOhka iqrdj"
iQj" wd rdpdrhkag fhduq uhs'
%;dkH wdm;Hh hgf;a is jQ fuuu jHjikfhka
isxy, fn!oaOhd /l .ekSf wjYH;djh wjfndaOlr.;a .sys
mej h;=ka lSmfofkl= ysu fn!oaO ck;djf.a Nd.Hhls'
mQcH yslalvqf Y%S iqux., kdys" mQcH r;au,dfka Y%S
Oudf,dal kdys" mQcH r;au,dfka Y%S Oudrdu kdys" mQcH
jialvqf Y%S N+;s kdys" mQcH je,s.u Y%S iqux., kdys" mQcH
f.gqj;af;a .=Kdkkao ys wd ix> mS;Dka jykafia,d yd

Y%Su;a wk.dl Oumd,;=ud" Y%Su;a j,sisxy yiapka;=ud wd


fn!oaO m%N+yq %;dkH wdm;H hgf;a fn!oaOhkag isjQ
widOdrKhg tfrysj l%shdlrka fn!oaOhska wj lr<y'
foHdoh" oHd,xldr wd msfjka ;=<ska we;sj Ou Ydia;%Sh
m%fndaOh;a" l%sia;shdkS mQclhska iska nq oyu ms<sn|j bm;a
l< ;H u;jdohkag ms<s;=re f wruqKska wdrN jQ wd.l
jdo jdo;a ksid fn!oaO mqkreohla we;s h'
Y%S ,xldj ;=< fun miqula ;sh;a mdkrdjdofhak
ke.=Kq m%;srdjh foaYhkayso me;srhdf m%;sM,hla jYfhka
isjQ weulka cd;sl fikam;s fyka ia,a ,al ;=udf.a
,xld.ukh furg fn!oaO mqkreohg uy;a msgqjy,la h'
Ikd wOHdmkh yuqf fn!oaO orejkag uqyqKmEug isj
we;s widOdrKh ms<sn|j n,j;a fia lmd jQ ,al ;=ud
fn!oaO wOHdmkh kxjd,Sf wruqKska fn!oaO mdGYd,d
wdrN lsug mqfrda.d h' fld<U wdkkao iy kd,kao"
uykqjr Ourdc" .d,af,a uyskao wd y,a ,al;=ud furg
fn!oaO wOHdmkh Wfoid isl, fiajdj ixfla;j;a lrhs'
fn!oaO wOHdmkfha Wkak;sh Wfoid ,al;=ud bgql, ;j;a
uy= fufyhla k nq oyu b.ekaf wruqKska bod
fn!oaO mdGYd,d wdrN lsuhs' tu mdi,a wdrN lsu
ms<sn|j ,al;=ud ish kfmdf;ys ;nd we;s my; i|yka
igykska tys wruqK meye,s f'
zzuf.a ys;g jeo.;a woyila my< h' fn!oaO <uhska
Tjqkaf.a wd.u jhsfka ;sfnk iEu ydria;dkhlu fYaI
kj, ksh; meh .Kkla W.; hq;=hs' Tjqkaf.a
foudmshkaf.a
wd.fuys
uQ,sl
lreKq
mjd
Tjqkag
fkdb.ekajqjfyd;a Tjqka fn!oaOhka fj;ehs flfia k
n,dfmdfrd;a;= h yelso@ZZ

fuu wruqK wkqj ,al;=udf.a mqfrda.d;ajfhka


m%:u brek oy mdi, 1881 fmnrjd 13 jk sk fld<U
ue,snka fha mru {dkd: fn!oaO iud. ldHd,fha
wdrN lrk ,o nj tu iud.f ishjia m%ldYkfha i|yka
f' .=re ysh ksid tu oy mdi, wl%sh we;s w;r" 1884
wdkkao oHd,fha y,am;s f, g uy;d iska kej;
wdrN lrkq ,enqj;a l l,lska tho wl%sh we;'
,al;=udf.a ixl,amhg wkqj 1895 wf.daia;= 03 jeks
k .d,af,a je,sj;af;a chdkkao ydria:dkfhys mQcH
weyef,afmd< fkdari iajdkajykafia f.a uQ,sL;ajfhka
wdrNlrk ,o chdkkao oymdi, ixOdkd;aulj
ydria:dkhl wdrN jq m%:u oy mdi, jk fyhska kQ;k
oy mdi,a wOHdmkfha wdrNl wjia:dj f,i chdkkao
oy mdi, yekah yelsh' 19 jeks ishjfia w. Nd.fha we;s
jQ fn!oaO m%fndaOh Yla;su;a ug bod mdGYd,d bjy,a jQ
wdldrh 20 jk ishjfia m%:u Nd.h jk g jhsk mqrd bod
oy mdi,a jHdma; hdfuka meye,s f'
Y%Su;a '' ch;s,l ue;s;=udf.a iyNd.S;jfhka 1889
wrN lrk ,o fld<U ;reK fn!oaO ix.uh oymdi,a
wOHdmkfha Wkak;sh i|yd mqfrda.dj l%shdl, ixOdkhls'
1920 oy mdi,a Nd. meje;au ;reK fn!oaO ix.uh
u.ska wdrNlrk ,o w;r" t;eka mgka 1956 olajd iy 1978
isg f olajd;a" tu Nd. ;reK fn!oaO ix.uh u.ska
mj;ajkq ,ef' oymdi,a j,g wjYH fm< fmd;a imdokh
lr ,nd fuka o ;reK fn!oaO ix.uh bgql, fiajdj
m%ixYkSh hs'
uyd ix>r;akh we;=< oymdi,a .=re Nj;=kaf.a
lemu;a" fn!oaO ck;dj ;reK fn!oaO ix.uh jeks
wdh;khkays wkq.%yhla u; mj;ajdf.k tkq ,enQ furg

oymdi,a wOHdmkhg rdcdkq.%yh ,enqfka 1956 ixialD;


fomd;fka;=j wdrN lsu;a iu.h' oymdi,a" tu
fomd;fka;=f
,shdmx
lr
ta
ms<sn|
j.lSu
fomd;fka;=jg meju;a tjlg l%shd;aul jQ m%dfoaYSh
wdodh ks,Od fldGdY ^j:udk m%dfoaYSh f,al
fldGdY& mok lrf.k YdiKdrCIl uKav,h msysgqjd"
oymdi,a tu uKqv,j,g wkqhqla; lsu;a oymdi,a
wOHdmkfha kj m%fndaOhlg fya;= h' ixialD;sl
fomd;fka;=j u.ska oymdi,a wjidk iy;sl m;% hsNd.h
yd fn!oaO Oudodh Nd.h mj;ajd iy;sl m;% m%odkh
lsu;a fm< fmd;a imdokh lr fnodu;a ksid oy mdi,a
wOHdmkh ms<sn|j Wkkaj jOkh h'
1981 fn!oaO lghq;= fomd;fka;=j kka kj
fomd;fka;=jla msysgqjd oy mdi,a wOHdmkh ms<sn|
j.lS tu fomd;fka;=jg meju;a" 1982 jIfha isg oy
mdi,a fm< fmd;a fkdf,a ,ndu;a 1989 wNHdi,dNS
.=rejreka n|jd .ekSf oy mdi,a Nd. iy;slj,g yd
oy mdi,a .=re iy;slhg fYaI ,l=Kq ixLHdjla ,ndu;a
1989 jif nqoaO Ydik wud;HxYhg ia:dkh lr
ckdm;s;=ud tu wud;HxYh Ndr wud;Hjrhd u;a ksid oy
mdi,a wOHdmkfha uy;a m%.;shla we;s h'
YdikdrCIl uKav, l%uh wdrN jQ wjfha isgu tu
jHQyfha mej;s wvqjla imqK lrka 2002 jIfha ia;%sla
YdikdrCIl uKav, taldnoaO lr iuia: ,xld YdikdrCIl
uKav,h ia:dmkh lsu;a nqoaO Ydik wud;HxYfha yd fn!oaO
lghq;= fomd;fka;=f ldhhka iuia: ,xld YdikdrCIl
uKav,fha WmfoaYl;ajfhka l%shd;aul lsu;a ksid oy
mdi,a wOHdmkh jvd;a u;a h'

oy mdi,a .=re fiajdj jvd w:j;a yd M,odhs whqka


islsug wjYH mqyqKqj ,ndu i|yd oymdi,a .=re mqyqKq
jevuq mjHdma;j ,eje;au" oymdi,a .=rejreka ,shdmx
lr yekqm;a ,ndu" oymdi,a .=rejrekag YajoHd,
Wmd ,nd .ekSug bjy,a jk m oy irih maf,daud
mdGud,dj Y%S chjOkmqr YajoHd,h u.ska wdrN lsu"
oymdi,a mmd,kh yd l<uKdlrKh ms<sn|j oymdi,a
m%odkdpHjrekag wjfndaOhla ,ndu" oymdi,a fm< fmd;a
kj Ih ksfoaYhlg wkqj imdokh wdrN lsu" wd
ldhhka miq.sh f;jir ;=< iuia; ,xld YdikdrCIl
uKav,fha u.fmkau hgf;a l%shd;aul lrk ,'
jir 118 l oymdi, awOHdmk b;sydih foi n,k
l, rdcH wkq.%yh ,efuka miq oy mdi,a wOHdmkfha iS>%
jOkhla isj we;' 1982 oy mdi,a isiqkag fmd;a
,ndfok wjia:f yh ,CIhlg iSud jQ YsIH ixLHdj is
,CIh blaujd ;sfuka yd hy oyila jQ oy mdi,a ixLHdj
oi oyilg wdikak ;;ajhlg jOkh fuka ta nj ikd:
f' oy mdi,a wOHdmkh b;sydifha m%:u jrg oy mdi,a
iy;slh we.hSug m;% jQfha 1989 .=re wNHdi,dNS m;a ,nd
f tl, wOHdmk yd ixialD;sl wud;HOQrh bis 'c'uQ'
f,dl= nKqvdr ue;s;=ud iska oymdi,a .=re iy;slhg yd
fY%aKs Nd. iy;slj,g ,l=Kq m%odkh lsu ksidh' tu
wjia:df oy mdi,a .=rejreka 6000 lg muK rcfha
oHd,j, .=re m;a ,nd.eksug yelsu oy mdi,a
wOHdmkh ,enQ iqfYaiS ch.%yKhls'
udkj iudcfha m%.;sh Wfoid oHdj
iska odhdo l< m.Klh" rEmjdysksh" cx.u
fuj, udkj j.hdf.a kdYh i|yd Nd;d
udkj ixy;sfha wNsjDoah Wfoid oy mdi,a
ijkqfha w, fiajdjls'

yd ;dCIKh
rl:kh wd
lrk wjhl
wOHdmkfhka

27
merKs ,laj fn!oaO wOHdmkh'
fn!oaO wOHdmkfha ksud;Dyq fn!oaO NsCIQkauh'
fn!oaO wOHdmkh fukau Ys,am Ydia;% ye jehqKq jQfha
wdrdu uq,afldg f.kh' nqoaO Ouh fukau fn!oaO
ixialD;sho fn!oaO wOHdmkh /l.;a;do fn!oaO NsCIQka
jykafia,d uh'
fn!oaO wOHdmkh ;=<ska wOHdmkh ,enqf NsCIQka
muKla fkdf' rdcrdcuydud;Hdkaf.a orejka fukau
wfkl=;a nyq;r u mshakf.a orejkago wOHdmkh ,ndf
j.lSu NsCIQka fj; mej ;sK'
mqrdK fn!oaO wOHdmkfha moku jQfha fndfyda weiQ
msrE mqoa.,hl= yslsuhs' ta ld,fha fmd; m; fkd;snQ fya
,N u ksid yeu fokdu wOHdmkh ,enqf Y%e;sfhka
fyj;a wid isfuks' tjeks wOHdmkhla ,enQ mqoa.,hd
nyqY%e;fhla f,i iudcfha ms<s.ekSug ,la jQy'
nqoaO ld,Sk hq.fha iQ wdkkao yshkag nyqY%e; NsCIQka
w;r w. ;k;=r ,enqf tla jrla weiQ g .d:d 500la
u;lfha r|jd .; yels ksidh' tl, iQ fndfydaa NsCIQkag
OdrK Yla;sh b;d Wiia ugul mej;s njg WodyK oelsh
yel'
inqoaO mksjdKfhka udi ;=klg miq wdrN jQ
m%:u Ou ix>dhkdfjka miqj tl< oamsglhka jYfhka
ix>dhdkd L< ;%smsglh fldgiaj,g fnod m%Odk Y%djlhkaf.a
YsIH mrmdrdjg ,ndka nj Ydik b;sydifha i|ykaj we;'
mjrkq ,enQ fldgia ksh; i> mrmqr mrmrdfjka

mrmrdjg wksjdHfhka lgmdv l< hq;= h' tu j.lS


Ndr.;a mrmqr Ndkljreka f,i ykajd we;' > Ndkl
uu Ndkl wd jYfhka tu f;rjre ykajkq ,enQy'
mqrd;k fn!oaO wOHdmkfha mrud: folla h' tk
idodpdrh yd wdOHd;asl jOkhhs' f mrud:fhka f;dr
wOHdmkh jeo.;alula ke;s ysia fohla f,i i,lkq ,eh'
tu mrud: j,ska f;drj lghq;= l< wh W.;=ka f,i
ms<s.ekSug tl, .sys mej iudch Wkka fkdh'
iodpdrfhka f;drj W.;alka hq;a mqoa.,hd fl;r ms<sl=,g
m;a jQfhao h;a Tjqkaf.ka bf.k .ekSug fyda Tyqf.a wjjdo
ms<s.ekSug lsisfjl=la leu;s fkdjQ y'
wOHdmkh NsCIQka i;=j mej;s ksid tu wOHdmkh ;=<
wd.l keUqrejla mej;Su mquhg fya;=jla fkdh' tu ksid
Oufha fkdfhk wfhl= YsIaG ksfil= f,i ms<s.ekSug
,la fkdjQy' mqrd:k NsCIQ wOHdmkh je ie,ls,a, ,enqf
Ouh fukau kh yd wNsOuh kis whgh' wkqrdOmqr
hq.fha is f.daokak k NsCIqjg w.% ksIaphldr moh
,ef Wkajykafia i;=j ;snQ wNsOu yd kh ms<sn| kSu
fnfyka fya;= we;s nj fmfka'
mqrdK wOHdmkh i|yd uQ,sl jYfhka fhdod.;a
Ihhka ms<sn| i,ld ne,Sf jHdlrK" Pkafoda,xldr"
idys;H" ;l Ydia;%h" .Ks;h" ffjoH Ydia;%h" kCI;%h wdoS
Ihhka W.kajd we;s njg f;dr;=re lsh yel' f Ihkag
wu;rj Ys,amSh kqu ,ndug ;% luh" uQ;s l,dj wd
Ihhka ms<sn|jo wjfndaOh ,ndoSug Wkka we;'
idudkH l=vd wdrdu j,g wu;rj Wiia kqu;a ,nd
ug yels j;udk YajoHd, yd iu l< yels m%uqL
oaHdia:dk /ila wkqrdOmqr hq.fha yd bkamiq hq.j, ,lah

;s we;' uyd ydr msfjk" lai| fifkh msfjk"


Wakfrda,ayl msfjk jeks wdhk thg ksoiqka h'
wkqrdOmqr hq.fha uq,a ld,j, fn!oaO wOHdmkh
;%smsglhg uq,a;ek mj;ajkakg we;s njg ielhla ke;'
uydhdk wOHdmk wdh;kh jQ wNh.s" f;jk wdh;kj,
fndai;a;j pHdjkag wod, YsCIdjka m%.=K l< w;r uyd
ydl NsCIqkaf.a mrud:h jQfha ;%smsgld.; ud.fhka
fjkia fkdjQ l=ka;rd fndafhka tla;rd fndahlg meK
ksjk w;am;a lr .ekSug wjYH kqu ,nd uh'
NsCIq wOHdmkh imQKfhkau NsCIQkag muKla iSud
fkdjQ w;r .sys orejkao msfjk weiqfrka ish kqu jOkh
lr .;ay' gq .euqKq" ioaOd;siai" uyfika" Od;=fiak wd
rcjre ish kqu jOkh lr .;af;a msfjk weiqfrkah'
wkqrdOmqr hq.fhka miqj wd fmdf<dkakre hq.fha
fn!oaO woHdmkh wkqrdOmqrfha mej;s f:arjd im%odhg
uq,a;ek ysj ;snQ kuq;a h h fjkial /ila lsh yelsh'
wkqrdOmqr hq.fha zzuQ,ZZ kka yeka jQ NsCIq .=re l=, wg
fmdf<dkakref uQ,dh;k f,i ykajd we;' fjdfha
W.kajk ,oafoa ljr Ihkao hkak ksIa;j lah fkdyels
nj;a NsCIq wOHdmkh kjl uOHu yd ia:r hkqfjka fldgia
3lg fnod mej;s nj fmfka'
kjl NsCIQka f,i olajd we;af;a Wmimodfjka miq
jir 5 l ld,hla ish .=rejrhd hgf;a .;lrka ,enQ
wOHdmkhhs' uOHu f,i olajd we;af;a uq,a jir 5 ka miq
t,fUk B, jir myhs' th ksY%h uqla; fyj;a
.=rejrhdf.ka wE;aj ,nk wOHdmkhhs' ksY%h uqla;lfhka
miq hq.h fyj;a Wmimodfjka oi jirlg miq hq.h ia:r
hq.hhs' tu hq.h wjika jk g k ish hq;= Ou fldgia

ms<sn|j oUfoKs lldjf;a olajd we;' NsCIq wOHdmkh


;rul mydks hq.hl mej;s nj fmfka' thg fya;=j f,!lsl
Ihkao NsCIq wOHdmkh ;= lsh yels uh'
oUfoKs hq.fhka miq we;s jQ fldaf rdcH iuh
,laj fn!oaO wOHdmkh iajKuh hq.hla f,i lah yel'
yhjk mrdl%undyq rcq hgf;a ,laj fn!oaO wOHdmkh
k.disgqug rdcH wkq.%yh fkduoj ,enQ nj m%lg lreKls'
,laj mqrd m%uqL wOHdmk wdh;k /ila fuu hq.h ;=< lsh
yel' f;dg.uqf chnd" lEr., moaudj;S" od.u >Kdkkao"
fokqjr bre.,a l=,;s,l" mems,shdfka iqfka;%d foa msfjk
wdh ta i|yd WodyrK f,i lah yel'
ful, msfjkaj Ihhka flfia f.dvke.S ;snqfkao
hkak ms<sn|j ksIa; f;dr;=re ke;s jqjo ixfoaY ldjH j,ska
yd fjk;a uQ,dY%j,ska ,efnk f;dr;=re wkqj merKs wdrdl
wOhdmkfha ;j;a .=jla f,i lah yelsh' ful, wdrdl
wOHdmkh fldgia follska hqla; we;' tk idufKar yd
Wmimod hkqfjks' idufKar NsCIQka fyrKisL wd uQ,sl
kqula jQy'
Wmimka jQ NsCIQka uQ,islaLd" isLj<| wd fmd;m;
yodrK ,' thg fya;=j kh kS;s;s j,ska f;drj NsCIq
m%;smodj imQK fkdjk fyhsks'
fldaf hq.fha NsCIq wOHdmkfha ;j;a jeo.;a
,CIKhla jQfha ksinK yeoEuhs' fuys p;=NdK fyj;a
i;r nKjr m%d;sfudaCIh" uydrdyqf,dajdo" wnG wd iQ;%
lg mdv l< hq;= w;r tajd ms;a foaYkh i|yd;a oy
lreKq ia;r lsug fhdod .;a nj fmfka' ksiaihuqpl
nka k NsCIqj thska miq fyrK k hq.hg Wiiaula ,nd
.kS' tu hq.fha kh lu ms<sn| ukd wjfndaOhla

,nd.kakd w;r md;H md,s" mrdld md,s" wdh fYaIfhka


yodrkq ,nhs' f f;dr;=re j,ska fmfkkafka wNdjhg hka
;snq fn!oaO wOHdmkh /l .ekSug f:arjd uyd f;rjre
n,j;a W;aidyhla rd we;s njh'
fldaf hq.fha by; i|yka l, Ihkag wu;rj
O Ihka /ila NsCIq wOHdmkh ;=< l%shd;aulj mej;s nj
fmfka' ta w;r tl, iNdjH NdId f,i .ekqk" isxy," md,s"
ixialD;" fou< wd NdIdjka yod, w;r fuhg wu;rj
;;ald,Sk ol=Kq bxhdf Nd;d jQ fi!rdka;s" uyd rdIa%"
wmn%kai" mhsid wd m%dlD; NdIdjkao b.ekajQ njg idOl
yxi ixfoaYh wd fmd;am;aj,ska lsh yelsh' f;dg.uqf Y%S
rdyq, yshkag I NdId mrfYajr hk Wmdh ys we;af;a
fuu NdIdjka ms<sn|j ;snQ mq, kqu uq,alrf.k hehs is;sh
yel'
flaf hq.fha by; i|yka Ihkag wu;rj .sys
YsIHhka ,lajg meK wOHdmkh ,enQ w;r isxy, NdIdjg
wu;rj md,s NdIdjo udOH NdId f,i fhdod.kakg we;ehs
is;sh yel' g wu;rj md,s ixialD; NdIdfjkao wOHdmkh
,enQ YsIHhka ish nh oelsh yel'
fldaf hq.fhka miqj we;s jQ odka; ld,h ;=<
,laj NsCIq wOhdmkh mydkshg m;a jQ w;r kej; tys
hqKqjla ,eug yels jQfha je,sg irKxlr ix>rdc
yshkaf.a my< fuka miqj nj i|yka l< yel'