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Motivation through conscious goal setting

Submitted to:

Lecturer Ghulam Hussain

Submitted by:

Imran Raza
Mbafa08-11

COMSATS Institute of Information technology Sahiwal


1. Introduction

i. Description about topic

This term paper is all about the goal setting and its ultimate impact on the motivation of
employees through goal setting. If an employee set his/her goal in organization means
career path then he put his effort means he motivates to achieve that goal. Goal is also set
by the organization so this goal communicates to employee and he put his effort in shape
of motivation to achieve that goal. Some people are good at self motivation. They
compete against themselves and can maintain the level of enthusiasm required to reach
their goal Goal-setting allows you to decide what you want to accomplish and to how you
will achieve that goals. Goals motivate by directing attention, encouraging
effort and persistence, and fostering goal-attainment strategies and
action plans. Goal-setting can be used to start a workout program, plan for a test or aid
in planning a strategy to achieve any goal. This method provides the answers to both
"What do I want?" and "How will I get there?" Once you have the big picture, break your
outline into individual, short-term goals. Short -term goals should range from daily goals
to one-year goals, midterm goals should range from 2-3 years, and long term goals are up
to 5 years. Make your list very specific and realistic. You want to be successful in
reaching your goals, but at the same time, these goals should challenge you. At the end of
each day reward yourself and strengthen your resolve for tomorrow oals direct employee
attention toward a common end. Therefore, it is crucial for individual goals to support
team goals and team goals to support company goals. [1]

A logical approach to ensure that individual and organizational goals are associated is
Management by Objectives (MBO). MBO aims to increase organizational performance
by aligning goals and subordinate objectives throughout the organization. Ideally,
employees get strong input to identifying their objectives, time lines for completion, etc.
First suggested by Peter Drucker, MBO involves the following process:
1. Setting companywide goals derived from corporate strategy
2. Determining team- and department-level goals
3. Collaboratively setting individual-level goals that are aligned with corporate
strategy
4. Developing an action plan
5. Periodically reviewing performance and revising goals [2]

ii. Importance of topic in organization.

Goals are an important aspect of motivation. They provide a viable target to work
towards. They can encourage us to go that extra mile, put in the extra effort needed. But
they need to be modified to suit the person or persons to whom they are directed.The
whole point of setting a goal is to help you bridge the gap between where you are and
where you want to be. If you set goals and work toward them diligently, you can have all
the things you want. People who set and achieve their goals are people who've decided
what they want, committed themselves to going after it, and haven't let anything stand in
their way, short of violating the rights of others.[3]
Unrealistic goals can be almost counter productive. They discourage and make people
lose heart. Sometimes unrealistic goals can result in people becoming badly stressed and
negative about themselves and their capabilities. They can highlight people’s weaknesses
and make them more visible. In business, some individuals may be set work or sales
targets to work towards or teams may be set in competition against each other. This is
designed to provide stimulus and motivation to produce more and better productivity. For
some people winning is success enough, for others a visible reward or inducement is an
important component. Motivation is a key part of goal setting. Some people are good at
self motivation. They compete against themselves and can maintain the level of
enthusiasm required to reach their goal. Any set back serves as a challenge to their
determination, and stubborn doggedness and perseverance sets in. Other people may
require the stimulus of a prize or even just the goal of having their name 'in lights' on a
winners board.
Teams will often include people with different skill sets. Members of a team often work
to motivate each other at different times. Difficulties can arise when one or two people
are highly motivated and work hard, whilst other members sit back and let everyone else
put the effort in. The knack with a team effort is in keeping everyone enthused, especially
when there are different elements to the task. Positive strokes can be used to great effect
in goal setting. Praising someone for what they are doing helps to build confidence and
reinforce the determination to continue making the effort. A positive stroke means that
someone says ' well done, good effort, you are doing a great job', and does not qualify the
praise with an additional comment that reduces the value of the praise. [4]

Need of current study.

Why do I choose this topic? What inspire me about this topic? Answer of these questions
tells us about my interest about this topic and the importance of this topic in organization.
Motivation plays a vital role in the progress of organization. Goal setting are major
source to generate motivation. Goal-setting allows you to decide what you want to
accomplish and to how you will achieve that goals. Individual goals effect on overall
organization performance like if management or employee self set there goals then they
become more motivated and put there effort to achieve their goals hence ultimately
increase the efficiency and productivity of organization So, motivation through goal
setting is very important and big tool for organization for achieve their ultimately vision.

2. Literature Review

Different authors and Researches give theirs studies about the motivation through
conscious goal setting. These studies help us to learn more about the topic and provide
help for research more on this topic.
Dr. Edwin Locke was a pioneer in the study and research of the connection between
setting goals and motivation. He formed the basic goal setting theory when he reached
the conclusion that clear goals and following feedback could motivate the employees
greatly. They were encouraged by the idea of jointly working towards the achievement of
goals and it went a long way to improve their performance too. He also discovered that
people were more motivated by goals that were challenging and specific as compared to
goals that were easy and unclear. [5]

Much of goal setting theory developments and goal setting research has been done in
connection to motivation in sports and business, with the purpose to help coaches to get
better results out of sportsmen, and managers to increase motivation and productivity of
their employees. Setting goals and objectives is also considered very important for people
to be successful in starting their own business or writing a book. Here we look at how
goal setting theory and practical techniques can serve your personal interests. Personal
goal setting helps not only your productivity and motivation, but also your self-
realization, self-image, self-esteem and confidence. Not only in your job or business, but
in all spheres of your life. [6]

The motivational effects of participative decision making (PDM) in work strategies


versus goal setting were examined in performance of college students assigned to a toy
assembly project. The results showed a significant main effect for goal setting only; goal
setting led to performance that was significantly higher than that which occurred in the
"do best" conditions. [7]

According to Edwin Locke (1981) this neutral tendency to set goals and then strive for
their attainment is useful to management only when the worker, both understands and
accepts a specified goal. Lock’s core principle in his goal-setting theory states that by
setting moderately difficult, self-assigned, and specific goals, individuals are challenged
to increase performance towards those goals. Setting goals also allows workers to judge
their own performance against that needed to reach the goal. Goal setting is also an
important attribute for teams. Specific and measurable performance goals in teams can
solidify cohesion, increase performance [8]

In 1979, Locke and Latham published a sign paper that presented their research on self-
regulation and motivation, which involved logging industry workers in the American
South and the West. The findings suggested that when individuals are able to set their
own goals, and if they are provided the support and resources they need to achieve the
goals, productivity increases. This article proposes a goal-setting model that includes the
following components: input sources, achieving goal commitment, overcoming resistance
to goal acceptance, goal attributes, support elements, and performance. Benefits include
high performance, role clarity, and pride in achievement. It also identifies possible
dangers of implementing goal-setting. Employees may become dissatisfied by the
failures, may be tempted to take short cuts, and may ignore non-goal areas. [9]

Later, Locke and Latham published research that established connections between goal-
setting, self-regulation and job satisfaction. It grew out of Locke and Latham's original
research, as well as from the Wurzburg school on intention, task and set, Lewin on
aspiration, and Ryan on intentions. The results are that goal specificity is key to
developing motivating goals. Commitment to goals is also seen as a key element if
performance is to be impacted in a positive way. The connections between goal-setting
and work satisfaction are revealed to have a direct connection to expectancy theory. High
expectancy and specific, high goals will lead to satisfaction when mediating mechanisms
such as effort, persistence, direction, and plans lead to contingent and non-contingent
rewards. Further building on earlier research, White developed an evaluation instrument
designed to determine how goal-setting relates to the actual performance of university
students. The instrument measured the both the goal-setting attitudes and behaviors.
Findings found correlations between specific and clear short-term goal-setting and
academic performance. [10]

Where we study all these authors there is necessary to study the research of McClelland,
because we had studied conscious goals and McClelland et al. (1953) had asserted that
achievement motivation was subconscious, McClelland collaborated with Locke and
others to see if there was a relationship between these two concepts. The results,
involving entrepreneurs in the printing business, showed that need for achievement,
measured by the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; a projective test), had no concurrent
or longitudinal relationship with a firm's performance and no relationship to
entrepreneur-set goals[11]
Conclusion

After research on existing study and write this term paper I conclude that Goal setting is
the main tool of employee motivation which ultimately increase the organization
performance. So, today organization more emphasize on the motivation of employees
through conscious goal setting. Goal setting are major source to generate motivation. It
allows you to decide what you want to accomplished and to how you will achieve that
goals. Individual goals effect on overall organization performance like employee set their
goals by themselves or by management then they become more motivated and put there
effort to achieve their goals hence ultimately increase the efficiency and productivity of
organization and by setting moderately difficult, self-assigned, and specific goals, individuals
are challenged to increase performance towards those goals. Setting goals also allows workers

to judge their own performance against that needed to reach the goals, motivation through
goal setting is very important and big tool for organization for achieve organization
performance and ultimately achieve strategic vision.
Reference

[1]. http://www.ncpad.org/exercise/fact_sheet.php?sheet=80&view=all

[2]http://managementhelp.org/plan_dec/mbo/mbo.htm

[3]http://www.articlesbase.com/goal-setting-articles/the-importance-of-goal-setting-
80011.html

[4]http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Importance-of-Motivation-and-Goal-
Setting&id=3973405

[5] Dr. Edwin Locke (1987) Five Basics of the Goal Setting Theory

[6]http://www.time-management-guide.com/goal-setting-theory.html

[7] 68. Latham, G. P. & Steele, T. P. (1983). The motivational effects of participation
versus goal setting on performance. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 406-417.

[8] Locke, E. A., Latham, G. P., & Smith, K. J. (1990). A theory of goal setting & task
performance.

[9] Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P (1979). Goal setting – A motivational technique that
works. Organizational Dynamics, Autumn 1979, 68-80.

[10] Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task
performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

[11] McClelland, D., Atkinson, J., Clark, J. & Lowell, E. (1953). The achievement
motive. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts