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Gas stoichiometry

5.32

Strategy: This problem gives the amount, volume, and temperature of CO gas. Is the gas undergoing a

change in any of its properties? What equation should we use to solve for the pressure? What temperature

unit should be used?

Solution: Because no changes in gas properties occur, we can use the ideal gas equation to calculate the

pressure. Rearranging Equation (5.8) of the text, we write:

P

nRT

V

L atm

(62 273)K

mol K

P

6.2 atm

30.4 L

5.34

In this problem, the moles of gas and the volume the gas occupies are constant (V1 V2 and n1 n2).

Temperature and pressure change.

PV

1 1 P2V2

n1T1

n2T2

P1

P

2

T1

T2

The given information is tabulated below.

Initial conditions

T1 (25 273)K 298 K

P1 0.800 atm

Final Conditions

T2 ?

P2 2.00 atm

5.38

T2

T1 P2

P1

T2

745 K 472C

(0.800 atm)

In this problem, the moles of gas and the pressure on the gas are constant (n1 n2 and P1 P2).

Temperature and volume are changing.

PV

1 1 P2V2

n1T1

n2T2

V1

V

2

T1

T2

Initial conditions

T1 (20.1 273) K 293.1 K

V1 0.78 L

Final Conditions

T2 (36.5 273)K 309.5 K

V2 ?

5.40

V2

V1T2

T1

V2

(0.78 L)(309.5 K)

0.82 L

(293.1 K)

In the problem, temperature and pressure are given. If we can determine the moles of CO2, we can

calculate the volume it occupies using the ideal gas equation.

? mol CO2 88.4 g CO 2

1 mol CO 2

2.01 mol CO 2

44.01 g CO 2

We now substitute into the ideal gas equation to calculate volume of CO2.

L atm

(273 K)

nRT

mol K

VCO 2

45.1 L

P

(1 atm)

Alternatively, we could use the fact that 1 mole of an ideal gas occupies a volume of 22.41 L at STP. After

calculating the moles of CO2, we can use this fact as a conversion factor to convert to volume of CO2.

? L CO 2 2.01 mol CO 2

22.41 L

45.0 L CO 2

1 mol

The slight difference in the results of our two calculations is due to rounding the volume occupied by 1

mole of an ideal gas to 22.41 L.

5.54

Strategy: From the moles of CH4 reacted, we can calculate the moles of CO2 produced. From the

balanced equation, we see that 1 mol CH4 1 mol CO2. Once moles of CO2 are determined, we can use

the ideal gas equation to calculate the volume of CO2.

Solution: First lets calculate moles of CO2 produced.

? mol CO 2 15.0 mol CH 4

1 mol CO 2

15.0 mol CO 2

1 mol CH 4

Now, we can substitute moles, temperature, and pressure into the ideal gas equation to solve for volume of

CO2.

nRT

V

P

L atm

(23 273) K

mol

K

VCO2

3.70 102 L

0.985 atm

5.59

NH4Cl(s)

First, we must determine which of the two reactants is the limiting reagent. We find the number of moles

of each reactant.

? mol NH3 73.0 g NH 3

1 mol NH 3

4.29 mol NH3

17.03 g NH 3

1 mol HCl

2.00 mol HCl

36.46 g HCl

Since NH3 and HCl react in a 1:1 mole ratio, HCl is the limiting reagent. The mass of NH4Cl formed is:

? g NH 4Cl 2.00 mol HCl

107 g NH 4Cl

1 mol HCl

1 mol NH 4Cl

The gas remaining is ammonia, NH3. The number of moles of NH3 remaining is (4.29 2.00) mol 2.29

mol NH3. The volume of NH3 gas is:

VNH 3

5.62

nNH3 RT

P

L atm

(14 273)K

mol K

54.5 L NH 3

1 atm

752 mmHg

760 mmHg

C2H5OH(l) 3O2(g)

2CO2(g) 3H2O(l)

227 g C 2 H 5OH

1 mol C2 H5 OH

3 mol O2

14.8 mol O 2

46.07 g C 2 H 5OH 1 mol C 2 H 5 OH

VO2

nO2 RT

P

L atm

(35 273 K)

mol

K

3.60 102 L O2

1 atm

790 mmHg

760 mmHg

100% air

100% air

2

3

(3.60 10 L O 2 )

1.71 10 L air

21% O 2

21% O 2

Vair VO2

5.63

12.8 L NO

4 L NH 3

12.8 L NH 3

4 L NO

12.8 L NO

5 L O2

16.0 L O 2

4 L NO

8.96 L H 2

1 L C3 H 8

1.28 L C3 H 8

7 L H2

8.96 L H 2

3 L H 2O

3.84 L H 2O

7 L H2

(a)

(b)

5.44

Strategy: We can calculate the molar mass of a gas if we know its density, temperature, and pressure.

What temperature and pressure units should we use?

Solution: We need to use Equation (5.12) of the text to calculate the molar mass of the gas.

M

dRT

P

Before substituting into the above equation, we need to calculate the density and check that the other

known quantities (P and T) have the appropriate units.

d

7.10 g

1.31 g/L

5.40 L

T 44 273 317 K

1 atm

P 741 torr

0.975 atm

760 torr

Calculate the molar mass by substituting in the known quantities.

g

L atm

M

35.0 g/mol

0.975 atm

molar mass of compound

mass of compound

moles of compound

Mass of compound is given in the problem (7.10 g), so we need to solve for moles of compound in order to

calculate the molar mass.

n

n

PV

RT

(0.975 atm)(5.40 L)

0.202 mol

L atm

molar mass of compound

5.47

mass of compound

7.10 g

35.1 g/mol

moles of compound

0.202 mol

density

mass

4.65 g

2.21 g/L

volume

2.10 L

L atm

(27 273)K

dRT

mol K

molar mass

54.4 g/mol

P

(1.00 atm)

5.48

d

PM

RT

T 46 273 319 K

1 atm

P 733 mmHg

0.964 atm

760 mmHg

80.91 g

1 mol

(0.964 atm)

319 K

mol K

2.98 g/L

0.0821 L atm

density

mass

volume

Assuming that we have 1 mole of HBr, the mass is 80.91 g. The volume of the gas can be calculated using

the ideal gas equation.

nRT

P

L atm

(1 mol) 0.0821

(319 K)

mol K

V

27.2 L

0.964 atm

Now, we can calculate the density of HBr gas.

density

mass

80.91 g

2.97 g/L

volume

27.2 L

Daltons Law

5.68

Dalton's law states that the total pressure of the mixture is the sum of the partial pressures.

(a)

(b)

We know:

Initial conditions

P1 (0.15 0.42)atm 0.57 atm

T1 (15 273)K 288 K

V1 2.5 L

PV

1 1 P2V2

n1T1

n2T2

Final Conditions

P2 1.0 atm

T2 273 K

V2 ?

5.70

V2

PV

1 1T2

P2T1

V2

1.4 L at STP

(1.0 atm)(288 K)

PTotal P1 P2 P3 . . . Pn

In this case,

PNe 745 mm Hg 368 mmHg 28.3 mmHg 349 mmHg

5.72

Strategy: To solve for moles of H2 generated, we must first calculate the partial pressure of H2 in the

mixture. What gas law do we need? How do we convert from moles of H2 to amount of Zn reacted?

Solution: Daltons law of partial pressure states that

PTotal P1 P2 P3 . . . Pn

In this case,

PTotal PH 2 + PH 2O

PH 2 PTotal PH2 O

1 atm

0.949 atm

760 mmHg

Now that we know the pressure of H2 gas, we can calculate the moles of H2. Then, using the mole ratio

from the balanced equation, we can calculate moles of Zn.

nH 2

nH 2

PH 2 V

RT

(0.949 atm)(7.80 L)

mol K

0.303 mol H 2

(25 273) K

0.0821 L atm

Using the mole ratio from the balanced equation and the molar mass of zinc, we can now calculate the

grams of zinc consumed in the reaction.

1 mol Zn 65.39 g Zn

? g Zn 0.303 mol H 2

19.8 g Zn

1 mol H 2

1 mol Zn

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

Grahams Law of Diffusion

5.82

Strategy: To calculate the root-mean-square speed, we use Equation (5.16) of the text. What units should

we use for R and M so the urms will be expressed in units of m/s.

Solution: To calculate urms, the units of R should be 8.314 J/molK, and because 1 J 1 kgm2/s2, the

units of molar mass must be kg/mol.

First, let's calculate the molar masses (M) of N2, O2, and O3. Remember, M must be in units of kg/mol.

M N 2 2(14.01 g/mol) 28.02

g

1 kg

0.02802 kg/mol

mol 1000 g

g

1 kg

0.03200 kg/mol

mol 1000 g

g

1 kg

0.04800 kg/mol

mol 1000 g

urms

3RT

M

urms (N 2 )

(3) 8.314

( 23 273) K

mol K

kg

0.02802 mol

Similarly,

urms(O2) 441 m/s

Check: Since the molar masses of the gases increase in the order: N2 < O2 < O3, we expect the lightest

gas (N2) to move the fastest on average and the heaviest gas (O3) to move the slowest on average. This is

confirmed in the above calculation.

5.88

The rate of effusion is the number of molecules passing through a porous barrier in a given time. The

molar mass of CH4 is 16.04 g/mol. Using Equation (5.17) of the text, we find the molar mass of Ni(CO)x.

r1

r2

3.3

1.0

10.89

M2

M1

M Ni(CO) x

16.04 g/mol

M Ni(CO) x

16.04 g/mol

To find the value of x, we first subtract the molar mass of Ni from 174.7 g/mol.

174.7 g 58.69 g 116.0 g

116.0 g is the mass of CO in 1 mole of the compound. The mass of 1 mole of CO is 28.01 g.

116.0 g

4.141 4

28.01 g

This calculation indicates that there are 4 moles of CO in 1 mole of the compound. The value of x is 4.

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