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SYNOPSIS

ON

Impact of Work-Life Balance on Employees Performance:


A Study of IT Sector

Submitted
To
University Business School, Panjab University
Chandigarh
On
August 08, 2016

Submitted To
Dr. Purva kansal
University Business School,
Panjab University

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Submitted By
Ravneet Kaur
Mohit Goyal
MBA(Gen)A

Table of Contents

1. Introduction... .......2
1.1 Work- Life Balance........3
1.2 Employee Performance..........5
2. Review of Literature.................................................................6
2.1 Introduction................................................6
3. Need and Scope for study.............................................................8
3.1 Geographical Scope........8
3.2 Content Scope.................................8
3.3 Significance of the study............................................................................................................8
4. Conceptual Model.........9
4.1 Variables ......................9
4.2 Sub Variables.................................9

5. Research Methodology..............11
5.1 Introduction..............................11
5.2 Research Objectives ........11
5.3 Research Question.. 11
5.4 Hypothesis ...................11
5.5 Research Design.......13
5.6 Sampling Procedure.13
6. Data Analysis ...............14

6.1 Data analysis Methodology..........................................................................................14


6.2 Work Life Balance Questionnaire.......14
7. Limitations..............16
8. References.......16

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1. INTRODUCTION
Every individual is an integral part of the family in particular and the society in general. In
todays business world, employee work passion is key determinant in the achievement of
organizational goals. As a result, organizations look for different ways of motivating their
employees, in order for them to give their best to the organization. Employee work passion is a
focal point in any establishment. Every policy should be geared towards increasing the employee
work passion. For organizations to remain on top they should be able to improve their employee
work passion and monitor it. In a situation where this does not occur, they are liable to face
several challenges which stands as a set back to the organization in the sector where they belong.
Work life balance is a very important phenomenon that is of great concern to various employees
in both private and public sector. It goes beyond prioritizing the work role and ones personal
life. It also affects the social, psychological, economical and mental well being of the individual.
All these is been reflected in the output of the individual, which affects his or her work passion in
the work place on the long run. Work life balance has implication on employee attitudes,
behaviours, wellbeing as well as organizational effectiveness (Eby, 2005)
Organizations need to hire employees who bring passion to their work. Past research has
produced evidence supporting the critical role passion plays in the success of organization.
Passionate employees are considered important as they easily adapt to new and challenging
situations (Gubman). Moreover, passion enables innovation and creativity and drives
employee to seek out novel sources of knowledge (Hagel III, 2010). But at the same time,
organizations need to focus their attention on cultivating passion within their employees to boost
employee retention, satisfaction and commitment. In the wake of this newly developed business
paradigm, this research is aimed to explore the concept of employee work passion which has
remained largely untouched in the literature.

1.1Work-life Balance:
Worklife balance is a defined as a concept which includes a proper prioritizing between "work"
and "lifestyle". Work is related to career and ambition of an individual and lifestyle relates to
family, health, leisure and spiritual developments. WLB is at the core of Human Resource
Developments major functions and that it may be a powerful tool for promoting effectiveness
and efficiency among the individuals and the organization.
Research in the domain of WLB emerged at that moment of time when number of women
entering the labour market grew and resulted in a focus on working mothers and dual earner
families. Also, the stress and burnout experienced by the employees at the workplace changed in
the 1980s and 1990s which further led to debate around work-family conflict. The concept was
initially restricted only on women with families. Ransome (2007) introduced a new concept of
total responsibility burden which includes recreational labour. According to Ransome, WLB is
a much broader concept which requires attention of not only married couples or with children
couples or working mothers but of working individuals on a whole.
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Of all the job factors that have a significant influence on work-life conflict, the amount of time
spent at work is observed to be the strongest and most consistent predictor. As reported by
managers and other professional workers from different organizations, it is said that the longer
work hours are the root cause of higher levels of work-to-family conflict. But there could also be
some other reasons that blur the boundaries between home and work; some of them are described
as: job security, job dissatisfaction, no support from immediate boss, relations with co-workers,
work demands, work overload, work-role conflict, work-role ambiguity, burdened
responsibilities, and extensive use of communication technology. Employees try their best to be
retained in the organization by putting in more time at work which may be at detriment of their
personal life. All these may affect the upbringing of children, lead to broken and unhappy homes
and poor social life.
1. Individual Satisfaction:

Enjoyment at work- Achievement at work- It refers to success one achieves in his


workplace or personal life. The feeling of achievement leads to better output in next task.
Social satisfaction- If a person is unable to give time to social activities, such as religious
functions , family functions etc. He is considered to be isolated, which is stressful.
Mental satisfaction- It can be achieved through meditation, mental rest, feeling of
existence i.e. identity. Its absence can lead to stress in work place and personal life which
can lead to unwanted work balance which can result in unhappiness and anger which
harms his personal and social life and end up with work life imbalance.
Emotional satisfaction- Getting support from office colleagues, family members and
society to full fill emotional needs.
Personal satisfaction- It consists of:
I.
Caring of wife, children and parents.
II.
Giving time to enjoy with family members.
III.
Fulfilling the household needs.
IV. Going for outing with family.
V. Entertainment

2. Individual Perception:

Time management- It affects human life in any situation : how an individual utilizes his
time and how he divides his time between work and life.
Team work at work place- Employee should be in a state in which he can rely on his
colleagues and thus feel satisfied at workplace. Satisfying treatment in workplace would
bring in satisfaction in the professional life of individual leading to satisfaction in
personal life as these two form part of work- life balance.
Job type- Type of job a person is involved into contributes towards work-life balance as
on the basis of nature of the job performed his work-life schedule can be formulated.
Therefore, how an individual takes his job and performs his job directly affects his nature
and actions way back home.
Compensation and benefits- Monetary satisfaction also includes the benefits and
privileges offered by the organisation. Reimbursement and compensation for extra efforts

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leads to work place satisfaction. Therefore compensation and benefits contribute to


work-life balance.
Capabilities To Work Under Stress- Management of stress is very important for worklife balance. For this we need to consider the complexities of professional life and thus
understand the necessity of stress management. Stress at work should not affect your
personal life thus it is important to understand how and individual cope up with the stress
at work place as well as at home.
Sociability it refers to enjoying relationships and association at workplace.

1.2.
1.3.

Employee work passion:-

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
Generally literature review concerns the review of related work of other scholars in the past but
basing on the same concept of work life balance and employee performance. The review shall
help to gap between what is so far known and what is still un known in the literature and be
guided by the view "work life affects performance" basing on the following research objective of
this study.
The term work-life balance is commonly used as a more comprehensive expression to describe
policies that have been previously termed 'family-friendly', but are now extended beyond the
scope of the family. Work-life balance refers to the flexible working arrangements that allow
both parents and non-parents to avail of working arrangements that provide a balance between
work responsibilities and personal responsibilities (Redmond Valiulis and Drew, 2006).
The origin of work-life balance practices spans from work-life conflict experienced by
employee. Work Life Conflict is the inter-role conflict that results when ones roles as an
employee is incompatible with one other area such as being a spouse, parent or with other
religious and leisure activities. The concept of Work Life Conflict recognizes that most
individuals have multiple roles. Work-life balance practices help minimize the amount of Work
Life Conflict and also target the antecedents (Lero and Bardoel, 2007). Some of the
antecedents of work-life conflicts include heavy job demands and job overloads.
Work Life Balance proposed by Barrera (2007) would be adopted because it is broad and
encompassing Employers working constructively with their employees to put in place
arrangements, which take into account the needs of the business as well as the non-work aspects
of employees lives Barrera (2007). It comprise of both employees and employers who are
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both central to the subsequent use and successful implementation of Work Life Balance policies
and practices. This can only be achieved as a joint effort between employers and employees.
A review of the work-life literature reveals that Work Life Balance initiatives can be broadly
divided into four dominant categories which include flexible working arrangement (home
working, compressed hours); leave arrangement (annual leave, Parental leave); dependent care
assistance (Child care arrangements and Crche) and general services (Employment assistant
programs) (De Cieri, Holmes, Abbott and Pettit, 2005; De Cieri and Bardoel, 2009).
Work life balance are practices that are meant to help employees better manage their work and
non-working times are called in the literature as work-family policies, family-friendly or familyresponsive policies. In recent years, the term work-life balance has replaced what used to be
known as work-family balance (Hudson Resourcing, 2005), there are other life activities that
need to be balanced with employment may include study, travel, sport, voluntary work, personal
development, leisure or eldercare. Work life balance in its broadest sense, is defined as a
satisfactory level of involvement or fit between the multiple roles in a persons life.
According to Clarke, Koch and Hill (2004), work-life balance is generally associated with
equilibrium between the amount of time and effort somebody devotes to work and personal
activities, in order to maintain an overall sense of harmony in life. To understand work-life
balance, it is important to be aware of the different demands upon us and our personal resourcesour time and our energy- that we can deploy to address them. Research has indicated that those
workers who have some form of control over their working environment tend to suffer less
stress-related ill-health, with clear implications for the concept of work-life balance
Organizations can implement various work-life balance initiatives that may assist employees to
better balance their work and family responsibilities, gain improvements in well-being and
provide organizational benefits. There are a large variety of family friendly policies which
include, but are not limited to the following: flexible working hours, job sharing, part-time work,
compressed work weeks, parental leave, telecommuting, on-site child care facility (Hartel,
2007).
Work-life balance is defined as people spending sufficient time at their jobs while also spending
adequate time on other pursuits, such as family, friends, and hobbies (Smith, 2010). It is a
reflection of the needs for all employees to balance their work lives with their lives off the job,
regardless of whether or not they have day-to-day family responsibilities (Galinsky, Bond &
Friedman, 1996).
Work-life balance has been defined by one researcher as satisfaction and good functioning at
work and at home with a minimum of role conflict (Clark, 2001), and by another as the degree
to which an individual is able to simultaneously balance the temporal, emotional, and behavioral
demands of both paid and family responsibilities (Hill, Hawkins, Ferris, & Weitzman, 2001).
The two measurable aspects of balance between work and family roles in this study are work life
conflict and extracurricular conflicts.
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0The inability of employees to achieve balance between the work and home domains can have
negative consequences for both the individual and the organization (Allan, Loudoun, & Peetz ,
2007).
Tausig and Fenwick (2001) measured perceived work-life balance using two items: the extent
to which workers feel successful in balancing work and personal life, and the amount of conflict
they face in balancing work and personal life. In response to this concern, an increasing number
of banks now offer extensive work-life benefit programs for their employees. Work-life
programs most commonly include factors such as flexible hours and part-time work.
Work Life Balance has got strategic and profound impact on individual performance and
productivity. Numerous research has been done to explore relationship between work life
balance and performance .These researches could able to establish a positive link between work
life balance and performance. The positive impact on the outcomes such as improved
performance, low turnover rate and satisfaction with the job as reflected in the work of CegarraLeiva et al.,( 2012); and Scandura and Lankau (1997). The research work of Magnini (2009)
reflects that there is a correlation of work life balance with performance of employees. I t is
observed that when there is harmony and psychological well being in life of employees help
them to concentrate in their job. The research work of Secret (2006) also found out a positive
relationship between work life balance and job performance. In view of the above discussion,
author feels that the independent variable of research is work life balance whereas the
dependent variable job performance and productivity. This establishes the fact that when there
are well defined policies and practices relating to work life balance in an organization, the
performance of employees or the productivity of employee and the organization increases.

3. NEED AND SCOPE FOR STUDY:Implicitly or explicitly, workfamily balance is at the core of HRDs major functions and it may
be a powerful leverage point for promoting individual effectiveness. Individual perception of
high Work life balance (WLB) and sense of well being among employees has become
imperative for any organization in order to ensure enhanced performance efficiency, particularly
in this era of highly competitive business environment. This research tries to correlate various
constructs of work life conflict to the individual outcomes. WLB portrays the individual as
being torn between the demands of work and family. It loses touch with the very essence of
being human. Human life is not just about necessity but also about choices and by
acknowledging that individuals need to pursue their own desires and satisfy their need, a
subjective character of WLB is introduced which has its own intrinsic utility.

3.1 Geographical scope


The study area of this research shall take place in Tricity (Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula)
focusing on IT Sector. We will be doing study on the relationship between Work Life Balance
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and Employee Performance in It companies namely Infosys, Finxera India Pvt. Ltd. and
Sourcefuse Quark City.

3.2 Content Scope


The study shall be restricted to staff performance in all the IT companies mentioned above.

3.3 Significance Of The Study

To the policy makers, the study will benefit them in formulating useful policies
concerning the management of IT companies.
To the academicians and future researchers, the documentation of this finding will
provide very useful literature for future reference.
To the area of the research i.e. IT sector, the information generated will be useful in
establishing the factors which enhances employees' performance specifically with respect
to work life balance.

4. CONCEPTUAL MODEL

Demographic
Factors

Personal Needs

Social Needs

Quality of Work

Age
Gender
Experience

Productivity

Time Management
WORK LIFE
BALANCE

EMPLOYEES'
PERFORMANCE

Attendance

Team Work
Dependability

Compensation
Work

4.1 VARIABLES:INDEPENDENT VARIABLE-Work-Life Balance


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Initiative

DEPENDENT VARIABLE- Employees Performance


4.2 SUB VARIABLES: WORK-LIFE BALANCE

Personal Needs- It consists of


i) Caring of wife, children and parents.
ii) Giving time to enjoy with family members.
iii) Fulfilling the household needs.
iv) Going for outing with family.
v) Entertainment
Social Needs- If a person is unable to give time to social activities, such as religious
functions , family functions etc. He is considered to be isolated, which is stressful.
Time management- Effective utilization of time and resources is essential to maintain a
proper balance between work and family. Optimal utilization of time is necessary. Time
management can be enhanced through defining appropriate goals and deciding what is
both important and urgent, versus important or urgent. Thus, eliminating those works
which do not make a significant impact and focussing on those which may lead to
success and satisfaction.
Team work at work place- Employee should be in a state in which he can rely on his
colleagues and thus feel satisfied at workplace. Satisfying treatment in workplace would
bring in satisfaction in the professional life of individual leading to satisfaction in
personal life as these two form part of work- life balance.
Compensation- Monetary satisfaction also includes the benefits and privileges offered
by the organisation. Reimbursement and compensation for extra efforts leads to work
place satisfaction. Therefore compensation and benefits contribute to work-life balance.
Work- Type of job a person is involved into contributes towards work-life balance as on
the basis of nature of the job performed his work-life schedule can be formulated.
Therefore, how an individual takes his job and performs his job directly affects his nature
and actions way back home.

EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE:

Quality Of Work- Work quality refers to effort that consistently achieves desired
outcomes with a minimum of avoidable errors and problems. Does the employees work
meet the requirements, expectations, or desired outcomes? How accurate and complete is
the work? Is it completed in a timely manner? Is the work done in an efficient and
effective method?
Productivity- Consider how the person uses available working time, plans and prioritizes
work, sets and accomplishes goals, uses available resources, and completes assignments
on schedule. Are the expected results achieved in a timely and a safe manner? Is there a
need to have work redone due to inaccurate or unacceptable work? Does the employee
seek out additional tasks and projects to complete, or help other to complete their tasks
and projects?

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Attendance - Does the employee report to work on a timely basis and stay on the job?
Consider arrival times, observance of time limits for breaks and lunches. Consider
patterns of sick leave use, seeking prior approval for vacation, and giving prompt notice
to supervisor of absence due to illness or other acceptable reasons.
Dependability- How reliable is the employee in performing work assignments and
carrying out instructions? Consider the degree of supervision required and the willingness
to take on responsibilities and to be accountable for them.
Initiative - Does the employee see things to be done and then take appropriate action
without being so directed? Consider ability to contribute, develop and/or carry out new
ideas or methods. Consider ability to be a self-starter, to offer suggestions, to anticipate
needs and to seek additional tasks as time permits.

5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:5.1 Introduction


This presents how the research work shall be conducted according to the following key areas
thus Research designs, study population and sample size, sampling methods, data sources, data
collection instruments, data analysis and presentation, anticipated study problems, time frame,
proposed research budget and Research references.

5.2 Research Objectives


To study work-life balance and employees' performance prevailing in a IT sector.
To find the relation between work-life balance and employees' performance in IT sector.
To study the impact of work life balance on employees' performance in IT sector.

5.3 Research question


Does work life balance influence (affects) employees performance?
Does employees performance depend on work life balance?
Is there any relationship between work life balance and employees performance?

5.4 Hypothesis
H1: There is a significant relationship between Work-Life balance and employees performance.
H1a: There is a significant relationship between Personal Needs and dimensions of
employees performance.
H1b: There is a significant relationship between Social Needs and dimensions of
employees performance.
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H1c: There is a significant relationship between Time Management and dimensions of


employees performance.
H1d: There is a significant relationship between Team Work and dimensions of
employees performance.
H1e: There is a significant relationship between Compensation and dimensions of
employees performance.
H1f: There is a significant relationship between Work and dimensions of employees
performance.
H2: There is a significant impact of work life balance on employees performance.
H3: There is a significant impact of various demographic factors on employees' performance.

OBJECTIVES
To study the various
work-life balance
factors affecting
employees
performance.

HYPOTHESIS
H1: There is a significant
relationship between worklife
balance
and
employees performance.
H1a: There is a significant
relationship

between

Personal

Needs

and

dimensions of employees
performance.
H1b: There is a significant
relationship
Social

between
Needs

and

dimensions of employees
performance.
H1c: There is a significant
relationship between Time
Management

and

dimensions of employees
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DEPENDENT
VARIABLES
Employee
performance
Quality of work
Productivity
Attendance
Dependability
Initiative

INDEPENDENT
VARIABLES
Work life balance
Enjoyment at work
Motivation at work
Achievement from
work
Social satisfaction
Mental satisfaction
Personal satisfaction
Emotional satisfaction

performance.
H1d: There is a significant
relationship between Team
Work and dimensions of
employees performance.
H1e: There is a significant
relationship between
Compensation and
dimensions of employees
performance.
H1f: There is a significant
relationship between Work
and dimensions of
employees performance.
H2: There is a significant
impact of Work-Life
Balance on employees
performance.
To study the
relationship between
various demographic
factors and
employees'
performance

Employee
Performance

H3: There is a significant


relationship
between Employee
various
demographic Performance
factors and employees'
performance.

Work life balance

Demographic
Factors

Age
Gender
Experience

5.5 Research design


Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem. It deals with the study of
how a research is to be carried out. Generally, the procedures by which researchers go about their
work of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena are called research methodology. The
study adopted a descriptive survey design in examining the effects of work-life balance on
employees performance. Survey research method (Questionnaire) would be used for research
design. The present quantitative study employed correlation and regression analysis to evaluate
the effects of Work-life balance on employees performance, both according to the perception of
employees, on their engagement.

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5.6 Sampling Procedure


Unit of Population

: Individuals

Sampling Unit

: I.T. Sector

Sample Size

: 100-120 (Top level managers, middle level managers and lower level
managers)

Extent

: Chandigarh, Panchkula, Mohali.

Sampling Technique

: Simple Random Sampling

Data Collection Method : Questionnaire

6. DATA COLLECTION
INSTRUMENTS:
Work-Life Balance: Work-life Balance scale (Pareek Purohit, Training Instruments in HRD
and OD, Tata McGraw Hill Education Private limited, New Delhi, pp288-289)
SCALES:
Likerts scale will be used to get the questionnaires filled. It is a psychometric scale. When
responding to a Likert questionnaire item, respondents specify their level of agreement or
disagreement on a symmetric agree/disagree scale for a series of statements.
The Likerts scale is the sum of responses on several Likert items. The format of a typical 5 level
Likert item:

Strongly Disagree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly Agree

6.1 Data analysis Methodology


The data will be analyzed using Karl Pearson Correlation and Regression Analysis. Pearson's
Correlation will be used to show the relationship between Work Life Balance and Employees'
Performance while Regression Analysis will be used to determine to what degree the work life
balance can explain a change in employees' performance.

6.2 Work-Life Balance Questionnaire


Read each statement to indicate how much true it is in your experience.
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No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

Items
I do not find it difficult to take leave at the time of social
emergencies.
I do exercises and take care of my health.
I work for extra hours to get my work done.
I meet the expectations of my colleagues and workmates.
I comfortably fulfil the basic requirements of my family.
I feel pressure while working when given a deadline.
I do not find enough time to spend with my family and
friends.
I get stuck in a meeting on the day of parent-teacher meet
in my childs school.
I meet prescribed deadlines and schedules, without
affecting my home life.
I experience work pressure while doing a group task.
I do not have access to internet and telephone for my
family emergencies.
I am left with good energy level at the end of the day.
I am able to participate in community activities and attend
to religious commitments.
I help my children in preparing for their exams.
I often take additional work to home.
I share the work with my colleagues whenever needed.
I get opportunity to enjoy holidays with my family.
I cannot manage more than one project at a time.
I find difficult to attend and enjoy parties.
I do not get time for my sick partner/child/parents.
I can adjust my working schedule to attend to my life
priorities.
I enjoy doing my job alone, rather than with my team.
I enjoy the privileges i am offered by the organization.
I love to do the kind of work i do, without any stress.
I do not get time to invite my friends for a party at home.
I get time to attend to my financial obligations, like
checking my bank account, insurance, income tax.
I am not comfortable with the travelling time to the
organization.
I prefer doing all the assigned jobs in a team.
I have difficulty in getting the expenses reimbursed.
I am not clear about the objectives of my job.
I put in efforts for social advancement of the poor and
needy.
I am not able to attend to my household requirements.
I do not do overtime to complete my work.
I have difficulty in meeting the expectations of my
supervisor and seniors.
I do not get compensated for my extra efforts in the

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SD
1

D
2

N
3

A
4

SA
5

1
1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5
5

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4

5
5

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4

5
5

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5

1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5

1
1
1

2
2
2

3
3
3

4
4
4

5
5
5

organization.
I enjoy doing my job.

36

7. Limitations of the Study

The study was conducted in a short period of time.

The study was limited Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali.

The purview of this study is limited by the small size of sample.

As it was academic study cost was a constraint


Since this is a bi-variate model, we are unable to take into consideration the effects of
mediating variables. To quite some extent this does limit our scope of study.

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