You are on page 1of 6

Appendix

Data Set 1
Standard

Weight

Initial Reading
(phenolphthale
in)

Final Reading
(phenolphthale
in)

V in Liters
(phenolphthale
in)

0.1864

3.0

12.5

0.0095

0.1786

12.5

21.8

0.0093

0.1184

21.8

28.4

0.00661

Soda Ash Purity: 99.9% = 0.999


Uncertainties

0.0002 g

Analytical Balance:
Burette:

0.0001 L

Sample Calculation for Data Set 1

mNa C O
)(0.999 purity )
FW Na C O
M HCl =
V HCl
(

M HCl ,Std .1=

0.1864 g

( 0.999 purity )
g
mol
=0.18493933 M
0.0095 L

105.98844

uncertainty HCl , Std .1= (

0.0002 2 0.0001 2
) +(
) =0.001956817 0.002
0.1864
0.0095

Standard

Molarity of HCl

Uncertainty

0.184939335

0.001956817 0.002

0.181011219

0.001956884 0.002

0.169088766

0.002577823 0.00 3

Mean

0.17834644

0.002163841 0.002

Data Set 2
Sample

Weight

Initial
Reading
(Hln)

Final
Reading
(Hln)

V1

V2

(Hln) in
Liters

Initial
Reading
(MO)

Final
Reading
(MO)

(MO) in
Liters

0.1014

0.006

17.5

0.0115

0.1043

18

24.1

0.0061

24.1

37.5

0.0134

0.1188

18.4

25

0.0066

25

38.6

0.0136

Uncertainties
Analytical Balance:
Burette:

0.0002 g

0.0001 L

Sample Calculations for Data Set 2

mol
g
(0.17834644
)(0.006 L)(105.98844
)
M HCl V 1 FW Na C O
L
mol
Sample 1 Na2 C O 3=
x 100 =
x 100 =111.85006
masssample
0.1014 g
2

mol
g
(0.17834644
)(0.01150.006 L)(84.00661
)
M HCl (V 2V 1)FW NaHC O
L
mol
Sample 1 NaHC O3=
x 100 =
x 10
masssample
0.1014 g
3

Sample
1

Na 2 C O3

Mean

111.8500649
0.02

Range

110.5524754
0.02

Relative Standard
Deviation

105.0147831
0.02

Confidence Limits

109.1391078
6.835281743
33.26229276
109.14 9.01239897

%NaHC O3

Sample
1

Mean

81.26483147
0.02

Range

104.8615943
0.02

Relative Standard
Deviation

88.27942666
0.02

Confidence Limits

23.5967628

Theoretical Values

Na 2 C O3 :30 ; %NaHC O3 :20


Sample Calculations for Percent Error

|theoretical valuecomputed value|

%error =

theoretical value

x 100

Na 2 C O3 %error =263.797026 263.8


%NaHC O3 %error=357.343087 357.3

Sample Calculations of Statistics


For Standardization:
Mean
n

Xi Xi

x M = i=1 = i=1 =0.17834644


n
3
HCl

Standard deviation

sM =
HCl

(X i X )2
i=1

n1

( X i0.17834644)2
i=1

31

91.46861747

=0.00825445

132.475417
91.47 30.0825909

Relative Standard Deviation

RSD M =
HCl

s
0.00825445
x 1000 ppt=
x 1000 ppt=46.2832247 ppt
0.17834644
| X |

Range

R M =X max X min =0.01585057


HCl

Confidence Interval

t 95 ,=4.3
C onfidence limit M = X
HCl

(4.3)(0.00825445)
ts
=0.17834644
=0.1783 0.02049254
n
3

Class Data
Data Sets
Data Set 1

Data Set 2

Data Set 3

Data Set 4

Data Set 5

Data Set 6

Data Set 7

Data Set 8

%Na2CO3
10.56378738
11.18627968
10.18301308
34.68412381
30.71816463
34.30710042
26.05866209
26.97477799
22.95725787
111.8500649
110.5524754
105.0147831
22.130772
22.23422486
24.20458849
12.38922107
6.180763279
14.40871452
25.04923371
27.76409262
24.94302966
23.8103127
25.08118814
24.01731025

Standard Deviation
0.506463162

2.189042369

2.105486662

3.630216957

1.168599601

4.288015928

1.598965
0.681885687

Data Set 9

Data Sets
Data Set 1

Data Set 2

Data Set 3

Data Set 4

Data Set 5

Data Set 6

Data Set 7

Data Set 8

Data Set 9

Sample Calculations
Pooled Standard Deviation

23.65200366
23.6948997
5.652803304

%NaHCO3
20.93023256
20.31662269
21.63532298
40.0057422
32.6774332
27.19252494
46.35712299
43.2154587
45.94485609
88.65254342
104.8615943
88.27942666
33.40062555
31.43621842
32.9983514
11.9995616
26.35557287
4.199786022
26.8404404
27.08483582
25.85359045
24.11434053
21.00463905
19.03615918
44.03280545
29.06527534
44.80426679

10.4042483

Standard Deviation
0.659878778

6.428671039

1.707318983

9.467847591

1.037704141

11.23840476

0.651864902

2.560373738

8.872597909

S pooled =

( X j X )i
i

n kN
k

where n=number of data each data set ; N=number of data sets

Na 2 C O3 S pooled =4.13229431; Na HC O3 S pooled =6.21289281