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Content

Page Number

Abstract

Objective

1.0

Results and Discussion

4-7

2.0

Conclusions and Recommendations

8-9

3.0

Tutorial

10

4.0

References

11

5.0

Appendices

12

ABSTRACT
In this experiment, the objective is to prepare buffer solutions and test the effects of
added acid or base upon the pH. Buffer solution is A buffer solution is one which resists changes
in pH when small quantities of an acid or an alkali are added to it. For example, An acidic buffer
solution is simply one which has a pH less than 7. Acidic buffer solutions are commonly made
from a weak acid and one of its salts - often a sodium salt. An alkaline buffer solution has a pH
greater than 7. Alkaline buffer solutions are commonly made from a weak base and one of its
salts The experiment is started by preparing the buffer solutions citric acid and sodium citrate.
Measure 91.5mL 0.1M of citric acid solution and 158.5 mL sodium citrate solution and combine
in the conical flask then shake to combine. Then, measure the pH of the solution using the pH
meter. The pH value calculated is 5.00 compared with the experiment, the pH value obtained by
the pH meter is 4.725. This slight different occur may come from several error that happened
while handling the solution or while conducted the pH meter. For the next experiment which is to
test the effectiveness of the buffer solution, each of 1.0 mL of 1M Hydrochloric acid and 1.0 mL
of 1M Sodium Hydroxide are pour into beaker containing 25 mL distilled water each. Measure
the pH of solution inside the beaker. Then the experiment was repeated by replacing the distilled
water with buffer solution. As conclusions, buffer solutions are solutions that resist change in
hydronium ion and the hydroxide ion concentration upon addition of small amounts of either
acid or base, or upon dilution.

OBJECTIVE

To prepare buffer solution with the specific pH measurement.


To determine the effectiveness of the buffer solution
To investigate on how upon the addition of base or acidic solution affects the
resistance of buffer when changing in pH.

2.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

a) Preparation of the Buffer Solution


READING

Average

pH

4.71

4.74

4.725

Table 1 : Preparation of the Buffer Solution

b) Effectiveness of the Buffer Solution

EXPERIMENT

a) Pure water

b) Buffer
Solution

pH

Addition of 1M
of hydrochloric
acid (HCL)

Addition of 1M of
sodium
hydroxide
(NaOH)

2.76

11.6

4.56

5.3

Table 2 : Effectiveness of the Buffer Solution

DISCUSSION
The purpose of the experiment was to prepare buffer solution with the specific PH
measurement, to determine the effectiveness on the buffer solution. The other objective for this
experiment was to investigate on how upon edition of base or acid solution affects the resistance
of buffer when changing in PH.
The theory of scheme is buffer is a solution that can maintain a nearly constant pH if it is
diluted, or if relatively small amounts of strong acids or bases are added. Buffer solutions resist
pH changes. The experiment was begun by preparing the buffer solution. The buffer solution was
prepared in 250ml beaker. 91.5 ml of 0.1 citric acid solution was mix with 158.5 ml of sodium
citrate solution. Both of the solution was combined to get the ratio of base/citric acid. 25 ml of
buffer solution was placed in 100ml beaker. The PH value of the prepared buffer was measured
by using PH meter. To measure the effectiveness of the buffer solution, firstly 50ml distilled
water was added to 2 100 ml beaker respectively. One of the beaker was added with 1.0 ml of
1M HCL(hydrochloric acid) and 1.0 ml of 1M NaOH(sodium hydroxide) to the other beaker.
The PH was measured. Then, the experiment was repeated by replacing the distilled water with
the prepared buffer solution.
Based on the results obtained, the average pH value for the buffer solution was 4.725.
The expected PH was 5. There was slight different between the expected PH and the value of PH
obtained. This is due to concentration of 0.1M of citric acid solution and 0.1M sodium citrate
solution are not exactly accurate that makes the difference in PH obtained. Another factor that
maybe influences the difference in PH obtained due to slight difference in volume for both acetic
acid and also sodium acetate. Then, the solution was not completely swirl that may affect the PH
obtained.
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There also some errors occur in PH measurement that makes the result not exactly
accurate. The possible error that leads to the result is cause by the electrode of the PH meter was
not thoroughly clean using the distilled water. Another error that occurs is the electrode was store
in dry state. As we know that a PH electrodes sensing glass is actually made of 3 glass layers.
The first layer was a hydrated outer glass gel layer. The second layer was a dry middle layer, and
lastly a hydrated inner layer. The hydrated layer is responsible for providing the electrode the
sensitivity to changes in the PH. This leads to drifting pH values, slow response times, and
incorrect values. Last error that leads to the inaccurate data is storing the electrode in distilled
water. Distilled water or known as deionized water contain no ions while the electrode of the PH
meter is full of ions. The ions in the deionized water and also the electrode will have a tendency
to reach an equilibrium state. Due that, the data obtain was not accurate.

EXPERIMENT

c) Pure water

d) Buffer
Solution

pH

Addition of 1M
of HCL

Addition of 1M of
NaOH

2.76

11.6

4.56

5.3

From table 2, it was obtained that the solution is resistant to PH change in buffer solution
while there is no effect with pure water. In the absence of a buffer, if strong acid or strong base
was added to water, the PH will change drastically. The PH obtained for pure water that was
added with HCL was 2.76. If a strong acid such as hydrochloric acid, HCL was added to water, a
reaction will form. In this reaction, the proton (H+) from the acid binds to neutral water
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molecules to form H3O+ raising the concentration of H+. The resulting large concentration of
(H+) makes the solution more acidic. Thus the PH will drop. Subsequently if strong base was
added to water a reaction will formed. The PH obtained for pure water that was added with
NaOH was 11.6. Sodium nitrate, NaoH will release OH- ions into the water. This will result a
high concentration of OH- and makes the solution more basic. This leads to increase in the pH.
While in the presence of buffer solution, if strong acid was added to the buffer, the weak base
will react with the H+ from the strong acid to form the weak acid. Instead of reacting with water,
the H+ gets absorbed and thus pH changes only slightly. If a strong base was added to the buffer,
the weak acid will give up its H+ in order to transform the base (OH-) into water (H2O) and the
conjugate base. The added (OH-) will be consumed in this reaction. Thus, the PH will change
only slightly.

3.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


In conclusion, the objective of the experiment was to prepare a buffer solution with
specific pH measurement. Next, to determine the effectiveness of the buffer solution and to
investigate on how upon addition of base or acid solution affect the resistance of a buffer when
changing in pH. Based on the result obtained, it can deduce that the experiment of the pH
reading for buffer solution is 4.725. This is because, the value must be slightly near to expected
or specific pH value which is 5. Moreover, it can conclude that, the pH of pure water after the
addition of hydrochloric acid (HCL) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were more different
compared to addition of the two solutions above at buffer solution. The pH of pure water drop to
2.76 with addition of HCL and increase to 11.6 with addition of (NaOH). However, for buffer
solution the pH reading was 4.56 and 5.3 respectively. This is because, the concentration of H+
and OH- ion in pure water increase with addition of acid and base respectively. However, in
buffer solution the acid and base will react with weak base and weak acid respectively. There
were few possible errors that can occur during the experiment. Firstly, the pH electrodes sensing
didnt rinse with distilled water before measure the pH reading. Secondly, the buffer solution is
not completely combined in the conical flask. Moreover, the measuring cylinder was not totally
dry before the different solution was measured. Its might contribute to parallax error while
measure the volume of the solution. Thus, the ideal expected result could not be achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONS
There was recommendation to overcome the possible error. Firstly, the pH electrodes
sensing must to store in a solution of 4 M KCL or a buffer solution that has a pH reading 4 to 7.
Secondly, the electrode must not store in distilled water to avoid the ions leach out from glass
bulb. Next, swirl the buffer solution in the conical flask for at least 1 minute, to make sure the
solution is totally combined or reacted. Moreover, use towel or tissue given to make sure the
beaker, conical flask and measuring cylinder are totally dry to avoid the error of measurement.
Next, make sure the eye must be perpendicular to the measuring scale to avoid parallax error.
Lastly, repeat the experiment twice and get the average result. Thus, the ideal expected result
could be achieved.

4.0 TUTORIAL
1. Explain the theory of PH measurement
pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a water solution. The acidity or alkalinity of
a water solution is determined by the relative number of hydrogen ions (H+) or hydroxyl
ions (OH-) present. PH is measured by using PH meter. Any solution is like a small
battery. It can generate voltage depending on Hydrogen ion (H+) concentration. Acidic
solution has more Hydrogen ion concentration than alkaline solution. pH probes measure
pH by measuring the voltage or potential difference of the solution in which it is dipped.
2. Define buffer capacity and the factors affecting buffer capacity
Buffer capacity is a measure of the efficiency of a buffer in resisting changes in pH.
Conventionally, the buffer capacity ( ) is expressed as the amount of strong acid or base,
in gram-equivalents, that must be added to 1 liter of the solution to change its pH by one
unit. There are 2 major factors that affect the buffer capacity. The first factor is ratio of
the salt to the acid or base. The buffer capacity is optimal when the ratio is 1:1; that is,
when pH = pKa. Then, the second factor is total buffer concentration. The higher the
concentration of the buffer, it takes more acid or base to depleted it.
3. Discuss the importance of PH buffer in industrial system
Buffers are used in a variety of biopharmaceutical processes including isolation and
purification during protein capture, polishing, filtration, as well as chromatographic,
reaction, and crystallization steps. The use of buffers is especially important in
downstream processes to protect proteins from variations in pH. Buffers serve to protect
the protein from changes in pH by buffering or absorbing changes in pH. A well-buffered
solution will maintain its pH in spite of variations in processing, containers, and raw
materials.

REFFERENCE
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"Buffer Solutions." Buffer Solutions. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2016.


Experiment 1 Preparation of Buffer Solutions. (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2016, from
https://www.scribd.com/doc/11027Define buffer solution with example. Also discuss its types.
(n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2016, from http://www.thebigger.com/chemistry/ionicequilibria/define-buffer-solution-with-example-also-discuss-its-types/
2037/Experiment-1-Preparation-of-Buffer-Solutions

APPENDIX

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Sample of calculation.

pH = pKa + log

[ Sodium Citrate]
[Citric Acid ]

5.0 = 4.76 + log

[ Sodium Citrate]
[Citric Acid ]

0.24 = log

100.24 =

[ Sodium Citrate]
[Citric Acid ]

[Sodium Citrate]
[Citric Acid ]

1.738 [Citric Acid] = [Sodium Citrate]

Volume of Citric Acid:


1
500 ml=183 ml
2.738
183 ml
=91.5
2

Volume of Sodium Citrate:


1.738
500 ml=317 ml
2.738
317 ml
=158.5 ml
2

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