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#######################Physics Paper 1 (Materials) A fluid is defined as any
substance that can flow. This is usually a gas or a liquid as solids made of
tiny particles can flow.Density is a measure of the mass per unit volume of a
material and measured in kg m-3. The formula is:# EMBED Equation.DSMT4 ###An
object in a fluid experiences and upwards force caused by fluid pressure called
upthrust. Archimedes Principle states that upthrust is equal to the weight of
the fluid displaced by the object. The formula is:# EMBED Equation.DSMT4 ###
Where V is the volume of the fluid displaced and g is the acceleration due to
gravity.We can work out if an object sinks by working out the resultant force of
upthrust and weight. Weight is:# EMBED Equation.DSMT4 ###As an object sinks
deeper, the force of upthrust is greater. When upthrust and weight are equal,
the object will float. Therefore, in order to float, an object must sink until
it has displaced the equivalent amount of fluid to its weight.Laminar flow
describes how a fluid moves in layers and in each layer, the fluid moves at the
same velocity over time. The lines/layers or laminar flow are called
streamlines. Streamline flow creates low amounts of drag.In turbulent flow, the
velocity at any one given point changes over time. The flow becomes chaotic and
eddies are created. Turbulent flow increases drag.The principle of aerodynamics
is to change the shape of an object in order to create laminar flow.The friction
acting against movement through a fluid is called viscous #d#r#a#g#.# #T#h#i#s#
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#g#e#ts bigger the other gets smaller. The viscosity of a fluid determines the
frictional force within a fluid.In general, fluids have a lower coefficient of
viscosity at higher temperatures. For gases, viscosity increases with
temperature.Stokes law can be used to calculate the viscous drag (F) on a
spherical object:# EMBED Equation.DSMT4 ###Where r is the radius (m) ;
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#t#e#r#m#i#n#a#l# #v#e#l#o#c#i#t#y#.# #T#h#e# #f#o#r#m#u#l#a# #s#h#o#w#s#
#t#h#a#t# #t#e#r#m#i#n#a#l# #v#e#l#o#c#i#t#y# #i#s# #d#i#r#e#c#t#l#y#
#p#r#o#p#o#r#t#i#o#n#a#l# #t#o# #t#h#e# radius.2.2 Solid MaterialsHookes Law
states that the force a spring exerts is directly proportional to the amount at
which it is extended. The amount of force is exerts is dependant on the spring
and is known as the spring constant (k) . Therefore:# EMBED Equation.DSMT4 ###
Where x is the extension.This only applies for a spring up to elastic limit
where after this the spring will no longer return to its original shape.After
elastic limit, springs no longer obey Hookes law as they are permanently
deformed. This is called plastic deformation. The spring constant (k) is equal
to the gradient of a force extension graph. The work done is equal to the area
under the graph; therefore:# EMBED Equation.DSMT4 ###and# EMBED Equation.DSMT4

###A tensile force is one that puts a material under tension. The tensile stress
in the force divided by the area that it acts on.# EMBED Equation.3 ###The
extension per unit length is called the strain. This is calculated by:# EMBED
Equation.3 ###Stress is better than force as it gives us an indication of the
size of the material. Strain is better than extension as a longer material under
a force would stretch further than a shorter material under the same force.
Youngs Modulus tells us the stiffness of a material no matter what its size.
Spring constant refers only to the experimented material. # EMBED Equation.3
###The higher the YM, the stiffer the material is so the steeper the gradient on
a stress-strain graph.The limit of proportionality is where a material obeys
Hookes law. It is where the curve is linear. The elastic limit is where the
material goes into plastic deformation and no longer returns to its original
shape. After the yield point, strain increases dramatically for only a small
increase in stress. They occur in this order.An object under tensile stress in
being pulled apart. An object under compressive stress is being squished. An
object under shear stress is being cut. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) is
the force the object can withstand before breaking. The object with the highest
stress strain curve is the strongest.Ductile materials show plastic deformation.
Brittle ones do not. Toughness is the force an object can withstand before
plastic deformation. Hard materials resist plastic deformation. Materials that
show plastic deformation are malleable.

# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####Material A is stronger than material B because it


requires more force to break it.Material A is
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