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CRIMINOLOGY TERMINOLOGY AND VOCABULARY

Admission-It is the voluntary acknowledgement in express of terms of by


implication by another whose statement legally binds him, against his
interest, of the existence or truth of a fact in dispute material to the issue.
Affidavit- A sworn statement in writing sworn before a notary or other
officer entitled to administer oath or acknowledgments.
Alibi- A defense by an accused person purporting to show that he or she
could not have committed the crime in question.
Alleged- It is a claim or statement that is alleged hasn't been proven true.
Arrest- Is the taking of a person for the commission of an offense.
Bail- Is a security given for the release of a person in custody of the law.
Casing- It is the reconnaissance and surveillance of a place to determine its
suitability for intelligence use.
Confession- It refers to the declaration of an accused expressly
acknowledging his guilt of the offense charged.
Corpus delicti-It is the body of evidence that constitute the offence; the
objective proof that a crime has been committed (sometimes mistakenly
thought to refer to the body of a homicide victim).
Criminal law-The body of law dealing with crimes and their punishment.
Cryptogram- An encrypted text message, complete with heading, written in
unintelligible text of language which implies or convey hidden meaning.
Cryptology- It is a secret writing.
Counter- Affidavit- An affidavit submitted in opposition of another affidavit.
Criminal Jurisdiction- It is the authority to hear and try a particular offense
and impose the punishment for it.
Custodial Investigation- It refers to any questioning initiated by law
enforcement officers after a person has been taken into custody or otherwise
deprived of his freedom of action in any significant way.
Criminal Procedure- It is the proceeding whereby the state prosecutes a
person for an act or omission punishable by law.

Dactyloscopy- This is the science of identification of person through


examination and comparison of fingerprint.
Decryptograph- To reconvert cryptogram into its equivalent plain text.
Delta- Is a point on the first ridge formation at or directly in front or near the
center of the divergence of the type lines.
Dangerous drugs- A term used by the Drug Enforcement Administration
(DEA) to refer to "broad categories or classes of controlled substances other
than cocaine, opiates, and cannabis products.
DNA fingerprinting (or profiling) - It is the use of biological residue found
at the scene of a crime for genetic comparisons in aiding the identification of
criminal suspects.
Elicitation-Is the technique of acquiring information or intelligence of
operational value through conversation from a person who is not aware of
the specific purpose of the conversation.
Espionage- It is the act of organized spying, usually with the goal of
uncovering sensitive military or political information.
Felony -It is an act and omission punishable by Revised Penal Code.
Fingerprint- Is a composition of the ridge outlines which appears in or the
skin surface of the bulbs on the inside of the end joints of the fingers and
thumbs.
Forensic- It is used or applied in the investigation and establishment of facts
or evidence in a court of law.
Forensic Ballistics- It is the application of ballistics principles to legal
matters.
Forensic Photography- Is the field covering the legal application of
photograph in criminal jurisprudence and criminal investigation.
Forensic Psychophysiologist- An expert in polygraph science who uses
polygraph to verify the truthfulness of a subjects statement.
Forensic Psychophysiology- It deals with the relationship and application
of psychophysiology to legal matters.
Homicide- It is defined as murder if the act was intentional and as
manslaughter if it was unintentional.

Inquest- Is an informal and summary investigation conducted by a public


prosecutor in criminal cases.
Jurisprudence-The branch of philosophy concerned with the law and the
principles that lead courts to make the decisions they do.
Mala in se- It is the acts which are thought to be wrong in and of
themselves.
Mala prohibita- It is the acts which are wrong only because society says
they are.
Misdemeanor-A crime less serious than a felony
Offense- Is an act or omission in violation of a special law.
Omission- The neglecting to do something; leaving out or passing over
something.
Jurisdiction- Is defined as the power of t e court to hear and decide cases
and execute the judgment thereon.
Pleading- It is the written statement of the respective claims and defense of
the parties submitted to the court for appropriate judgment.
Polygraph Science- It is a technique used to determine stress levels of a
person being questioned regarding a specific issue to ascertain whether
he/she is deceptive or telling the truth.
Probable Cause-It is a level of reasonable belief, based on facts that can be
articulated, that is required to sue a person in civil court or to arrest and
prosecute a person in criminal court.
Police Photography- Is the study of the general practices, methods, and
steps in taking pictures of the crime scene.
Probation- Is a disposition under which a defendant, after conviction and
sentence, is released subject to conditions imposed by the court and
supervision of a probation officer.
Put the Finger On- To identify the subject by pointing him out in person or
on a photograph.
Treason- A crime that undermines the offender's government. It refers to
the betrayal of a government or a country.
Subpoena- Is a process directed to a person requiring him to attend and
testify at the hearing or trial of an action.

Search Warrant- Is an order in writing issued in the name of the People of


the Philippines signed by a judge and directed to a peace officer,
commanding him to search for personal property described therein and bring
it before the court.
Warrant of Arrest- Is a legal process issued by a competent authority
directing the arrest of a person or persons upon grounds stated therein.
White-collar crime- It is the violations of the criminal law committed by a
person of respectability and high social status in the course of his or her
occupant.

JAYSON V. DONG-OY
ENGLISH 5(1:30-3:00 TTH)