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ASE

General Static Analysis


of Finite Element
Structures
Version 14.66

E SOFiSTiK AG, Oberschleissheim, 2007

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

This manual is protected by copyright laws. No part of it may be translated, copied or


reproduced, in any form or by any means, without written permission from SOFiSTiK
AG. SOFiSTiK reserves the right to modify or to release new editions of this manual.
The manual and the program have been thoroughly checked for errors. However,
SOFiSTiK does not claim that either one is completely error free. Errors and omissions
are corrected as soon as they are detected.
The user of the program is solely responsible for the applications. We strongly
encourage the user to test the correctness of all calculations at least by random
sampling.

General Static Analysis FE

ASE

11

Task Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
Theoretical Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. Implemented Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. Beam Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1. SOFiSTiK TBeam Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. Pile Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5. Truss and Cable Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6. Spring Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7. Boundary Elements BOUN and FLEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8. Shell Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.1. Plate Structural Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.2. Membrane Structural Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.3. Elastic Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.4. Rotations around the Shell Normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.5. Twisted Shell Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.6. Eccentrically Connected Shell Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.7. Tendons in QUAD Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.8. Nonconforming Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9. Volume Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10. Primary Load Cases of Element Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11. Primary States of Single Elements for Creep Analyses . . . . . . . .
2.12. Nonlinear Analyses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13. Nonlinear Analysis of Plates and Shells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.2. Input of the Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.3. Analysis Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.4. Output of the Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.5. Miscellaneous Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14. Membrane Structures: Formfinding and Static Analysis . . . . . . .
2.14.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.2. The Membrane Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.3. Formfinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.4. Static Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.5. Unstable Membrane Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.6. Calculations of Cable Meshes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.7. Check List Notes Problem Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.8. Overview about the Used Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i

21
21
23
23
24
211
211
212
213
213
216
219
219
221
221
222
222
222
223
224
224
226
228
228
228
236
250
252
255
255
255
263
279
284
287
289
291

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

2.14.9. Necessary Program Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2.15. Modal Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.16. Masses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.17. Damping Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.18. Modal Damping and Modal Loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.19. Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

292
293
294
294
294
295

3
Input Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1. Input Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. Input Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. CTRL Control of the Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4. SYST Global Control Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5. STEP Time Step Method Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6. ULTI Limit Load Iteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7. PLOT Plot of a Limit Load Iteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8. CREP Creep and Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9. GRP Group Selection Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10. GRP2 Expanded Group Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11. HIGH Membrane High Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12. PSEL Selection of Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.13. TBEA Reduction of the Width for TBeams . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.14. MAT General Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15. NMAT Nonlinear Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.1. Invariants of the Stress Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.2. Material Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.3. Nonlinear state variables (hardening parameters) . . . . . . . . .
3.15.4. Material Law MISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.5. Material Law VMIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.6. Material Law DRUC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.7. Material Law MOHR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.8. Material Law GRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.9. Material law SWEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.10. Material Law FAUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.11. Material Law ROCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.12. Material Law GUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.13. Material Law LADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.14. Material Law DUNC (obsolete) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.15. Material Law HYPO (obsolete) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.16. Material law MEMB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31
31
31
34
329
337
339
341
343
346
353
355
357
358
359
360
361
362
364
366
368
370
372
374
381
385
387
389
391
394
396
398

ii

General Static Analysis FE

ASE

3.15.17. User defined material laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.16. REI2 Two Layer Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.17. REIQ Reinforcement in QUAD Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.18. STEX External Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.19. OBLI Inclination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.20. SLIP SLIP Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.21. MOVS Moving Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.22. LAUN Incremental Launching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.23. SFIX Fixing Beam Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.24. LC Load Case and Masses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.25. LOAD Nodal Loads and Masses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.26. NL Nodal Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.27. BOLO Line Load Acting on Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.28. ELLO Element Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.29. PILO Pile Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.30. Free Loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.31. POLO Free Point Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.32. LILO Free Line Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.33. BLLO Free Block Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.34. TEMP Temperature from HYDRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.35. LAG Loads from Support Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.36. PEXT Prestress of External Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.37. LCC Copy of Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.38. EIGE Eigenvalues and vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.39. MASS Lumped Masses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.40. V0 Initial Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.41. REIN Specification for Determining Reinforcement . . . . . . .
3.42. DESI Reinforced Concrete Design, Bending, Axial Force . . .
3.43. NSTR Nonlinear Stress and Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.43.1. Design for Structural Steelwork (DIN 18800, EC 3) . . . . . . . . .
3.43.2. Design for Reinforced Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.43.3. Iteration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.43.4. Fatigue / Stress Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.44. Nonlinear Material Analysis in ASE and SEPP. . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.45. ECHO Output Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

399
3102
3104
3106
3107
3109
3110
3112
3113
3114
3117
3118
3120
3122
3127
3128
3129
3132
3135
3139
3141
3143
3145
3147
3150
3152
3153
3158
3163
3166
3167
3168
3169
3171
3176

4
4.1.
4.2.

41
41
41

Output Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check List of the Generated Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check List of the Nonlinear Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4.7.
4.8.
4.9.
4.10.
4.11.
4.12.
4.13.
4.14.

Check List of the Analysis Control Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Check Lists of the Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process of the Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eigenvalues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Element Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonlinear Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nodal Results and Support Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal Forces and Moments at Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distributed Support Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strain Energy of Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wind Load Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41
42
42
43
44
46
47
49
410
411
412
412

5
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.
5.7.
5.8.
5.9.
5.10.
5.11.
5.12.
5.13.
5.14.
5.15.
5.16.
5.17.
5.18.
5.19.

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spherical Shell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tbeam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eigenvalue Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wind Frame with Cable Diagonals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single Span Girder with Auxiliary Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal Force Redistribution Due to Creep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sunshades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
QUADEuler Beam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beam with Cable Action According to ThirdOrder Theory. . .
Girder Lateral Buckling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plate Buckling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buckling Mode Shapes in Supercritical Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3D Tunnel Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Elastoplastic Analyses with Shell Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prestressed Plane Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reinforced Concrete Slab in the Cracked Condition (State II). .
Displacement Controlled Bearing Load Iteration . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples in the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51
51
52
57
511
518
523
527
531
539
543
546
549
555
561
567
567
568
570
571

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General Static Analysis FE

ASE

Task Description.

ASE calculates the static and dynamic effects of general loading on any type
of structure. To start the calculations the user divides the structure to be analyzed into an assembly of individual elements interconnected at nodes (Finite
Element Method). Possible types of elements are : haunched beams, springs,
cables, truss elements, plane triangular or quadrilateral shell elements and
threedimensional continuum elements.
The program handles structures with rigid or elastic types of support. An
elastic support can be applied to an area, a line or at nodal points. Rigid elements or skew supports can be taken into account.
ASE calculates the effects of nodal, line and block loads. The loads can be defined independently from the selected element mesh. The generation of loads
from stresses of a primary load case allows the consideration of construction
stages, redistribution and creep effects.
Nonlinear calculations enables the user to take the failure of particular elements into account, such as: cables in compression, uplifting of supported
plates, yielding, friction or crack effects for spring and foundation elements.
Nonlinear materials are available for threedimensional and shell elements. Geometrical nonlinear computations allow the investigation of 2nd
and 3rd order theory effects by cable, beam and shell structures.
In case of beam structures, the program can calculate warping torsion with
up to 7 degrees of freedom per node.
The analysis of folded structures or shells with finite elements requires considerable experience. The user of ASE should therefore gather experience
from simple examples before tackling more complicated structures. A check
of the results through approximate engineering calculations is imperative.
The basic version of ASE performs the linear analyses of beams, cables,
trusses, plane and volume structures.
Extended versions of ASE offer calculations of:
Influence surfaces
Nonlinear analyses
Pile elements with linear/parabolic soil coefficient distribution

Version 14.66

11

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

Creep and shrinkage


Forces from construction stages
Modal analysis, Time step method
Material nonlinearities
Geometrical nonlinearities
Membrane elements
Evaluation of collapse load
Nonlinear dynamics

12

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE

Theoretical Principles.

2.1.

General

ASE

A continuum or a plane structure can be interpreted as a statically or geometrically infinitely indeterminate structure. If an analytical solution is unknown, every numerically approximate method is based on converting this
infinite system into a finite one, in other words to discretizing it.
The advantage of the finite elements lies in their universal applicability to
any geometrical shape and almost to any loading. This is achieved by a modular principle. Single elements which describe parts of the structure in a computer oriented manner are assembled into a complete structure.
The continuous structure is represented thus by a large but finite number of
elements. A discrete solution consisting of n unknowns is calculated instead
of the continuous solution. In general, the approximate solution may represent the exact solution better with the use of more elements. The single elements of an area can be of arbitrarily small dimensions in comparison to the
dimensions of the overall structure without giving rise to any incompatibilities with the presented theory. The refinement of the subdivision is, however, subjected to certain limitations due to numerical reasons.
The Finite Element Method (FEM) employed in ASE is a displacement
method, meaning that the unknowns are deformation values at several selected points, the socalled nodes. Displacements can be obtained with an elementwise interpolation of the nodal values. The calculation of the mechanical behaviour is based generally on an energy principle (minimisation of the
deformation work). The result is a socalled stiffness matrix. This matrix
specifies the reaction forces at the nodes of an element when these nodes are
subjected to known displacements.
The global force equilibrium is generated then for each node in order to determine the unknowns. A force in the same direction which is a function of this
or another displacement corresponds to each displacement. This leads to a
system of equations with n unknowns, where n can become very large. Numerically beneficial banded matrices result, however, due to the local character of the elementwise interpolation.
The complete method is divided into four main parts:

Version 14.66

21

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

1. Determination of the element stiffness matrices.


2. Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and solution of the resulting
equation system
3. Application of loads and determination of the corresponding
displacements.
4. Determination of the element stresses and support reactions due to
the
computed
displacements.
The second step is that with most CPU time. It may use up to 90 percent of
the total CPU time. However, it has to occur only once for a static system.
The stresses jumps from element to element. The size of the jump is thus a
direct
measure
of
the
quality
of
the
FE
analysis.

22

Version 14.66

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

2.2.

Implemented Elements.

The elements shown in the following table are available in ASE. A nonlinear
analysis can occur also for some types of elements. A detailed list of the implemented nonlinear effects is written in part NSTR_1
Nonlinear
Material

Element
SPRI
TRUS
CABL
BEAM
PILE
QUAD
BRIC
BOUN
FLEX
Halfspace

2.3.

yes

no compressive forces
yes
elastic support only
yes
yes

yes

Geometrical
Nonlinearity
yes
yes
yes + cable sag
yes
yes
yes

Beam Elements

The beam element in ASE is an arbitrary haunched beam element including


shear deformations and articulated effects. It can be defined also eccentrically to the node connecting line. For haunched cross sections in the bridge
building all nodes can be defined then firmly at the top face of the superstructure.
Skew principal axes (Iyz different from 0) are taken into account. Warping
torsion can be requested for rectilinear structures.

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General Static Analysis FE

SOFiSTiK TBeam Philosophy

Automatic addition of the Tbeam parts for FE plates with beams

A plate analysis is usually sufficient and desirable for beams with effective
cross section widths which are positioned in plates. Only in a plate analysis
normal forces are not determined in the plate or in the beam! The advantage
is that the plate can be simply designed (without normal forces) particularly
for the shear checks. In addition the determined beam moments can be designed directly with the right Tbeam cross section.
Procedure: The user or the graphical input program positions the beam in the
node plane (with the Tbeam cross section), therefore in the centre of gravity
plane of the QUAD elements (see picture c). Because the beam is also positioned in its centre of gravity, the upper edge of the Tbeam looks seeming out
of the plate this is also visible in WinGRAF. The ANIMATOR displaces the
cross section a little bit downwards, so that the upper edges beam+plate appear at the same position for a better visualization. The web has to be defined
here with the corresponding effective plate width as beam cross section.
As shown in the upper picture the plate would be now twice available in the
area of the effective cross section width of the beam. Therefore these plate

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parts (Iplate = bVd3/12 with b=effective width = width of the cross section)
are diverted automatically from the stiffness of the beam ITbeam. An equivalent beam is used:
Iequivalent beam = ITbeam Iplate
The program determines then at first a bending moment of this equivalent
beam in a FE analysis. The internal forces parts of the plate (Mplate = m
plate V b) are added immediately automatically. Thus the complete Tbeam
internal forces are available for the following beam design:
MTbeam = Mequivalent beam + Mplate
The bending moments My and the shear forces Vz are added as default, for
shells also the normal forces N. The torsional moment Mt is not added as default.
Output:
The parts of the plate are already available in the printout of the beam
internal forces.
A statistic of the plate parts follows after the beam internal forces. The
maximum plate parts are compared with the maximum beam internal
forces:
Statistic Beam Additional Forces from a Slab
Loadcase
2
The printed beamforces include max. additional forces of a slab:
max. beamforce without slabaddition |
max. slabaddition
cnr
bm
Vz
My
|
Vz
My
[m]
[kN]
[kNm]
|
[kN]
[kNm]
1 2.20 max
48.60
243.78
|
43.63
5.95
min
48.60
0.00
|
43.63
0.00

For safety the internal forces are not reduced in the FE plate elements, although it would be possible about the amount of the increase of the beam internal forces. This method can be uneconomical for smaller beam heights.
Beams which are connected with kinematic constraints at the plate are also
processed, if the beams are positioned in the plate plane.
Defaults for the addition of the plate internal forces to the beam internal
forces:

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General Static Analysis FE

For slab structures (SEPP or ASE):


The single beam must have a cross section with a defined width at the
start and the end. A defined width can be generated from a Tbeam
(e.g. record SREC in AQUA) and from general cross sections (e.g.
AQUA record SECT and following). The maximum width of the cross
section is used in each case (independent of the position of the plate,
above or below). A cross section which is input without dimensions
however with stiffnesses (e.g. with record SVAL) does not known any
defined width. A plate part can therefore not be added for these beams!
The single beam is connected generally directly with the nodes of the
plate.
After an automatic mesh generation or a free mesh definition the
straight beam which is positioned in the plate plane can be combined
also with the FE mesh via kinematic constraints.
The beam reads the plate thickness and the modulus of elasticity from
these plate nodes. Different plate thicknesses are possible at the beam
start and end.
Additionally for threedimensional slab structures (ASE):
The feature can be used also for threedimensional slabs however with following restrictions:
The beams must be positioned in the same plane as the plate. The plate
parts are not added for beams which are connected eccentrically.
Special features with the input:
The beam cross section must represent the effective cross section,
therefore the web and the effective plate. If a concrete slab on a steel
girder should be considered as a composite construction, the steel
girder must be defined with the effective concrete plate as cross section! The determined internal forces and moments refer then to this
composite cross section.
The effective width (cross section width) should be chosen a little bit
smaller than to large especially over the columns, because for the plate
moment to be added the moment is used at a node at which the beam
and the plate are combined. This plate moment is processed then un-

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changeable acting about the whole width. The internal forces and moments are therefore not exactly integrated about the effective width!
The plate stiffness Iplate (without the part of Steiner) is diverted from
the total cross section stiffness Icross. If the subtrahend Iplate is
bigger than 0.8Icross, a warning is printed and the minimum stiffness of 0.2Icross is used.
For threedimensional systems the subtrahend is maximal 0.9A
cross for the area Aplate. At least 0.1Across are available then for
the fictitious beam in the FE system.
Special features with the output:
The attenuated stiffnesses are printed with ECHO PLAB FULL. If a
cross section is available at beams with different plate thicknesses (e.g.
haunches), the attenuated stiffness is printed for the minimal and
maximal plate thickness.
The plate parts are already available in the printed beam internal
forces and moments and can be designed directly.
beam at FE node

beam which is connected


with kinematic constraints

CTRL PLAB 0
added plate parts

For comparison a load case can be calculated once without input of CTRL
PLAB and the second time with CTRL PLAB 0 and another load case number.
The beam internal forces and moments of both calculations can be represented then with the same scale in a picture.
(More precise) calculation possibilities:

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General Static Analysis FE

Also with the above describes method, the normal forces occur in the compression zone (plate) first during the design of the Tbeam. Normal forces are not
considered during the calculation of the FE system. The effective width has
to be estimated manually and defined. In reality the normal forces act from
the supports into the plate. For a more precise calculation three possibilities
are described here. For all three variants the effective width is realized automatically via the normal force calculation and has not to be input:
1st The web part which is positioned below the plate can be defined as
a beam which lies eccentrically below the plate. Then two nodes lying
upon each other are however necessary for the system input. This complicates the input. Problems occur also for the design, because the sum
of the internal forces from web+plate including the parts of Steiner are
necessary for a design of the total Tbeam. The method is therefore
only reasonable for composite slabs with eccentrically defined steel
beams (see ASE example 5.3).

kinematic constraint

2nd The web can be also generated with shell elements. The same problems for the design result as for the eccentrical beam. In addition it
should be noted that the area in the intersection point plateweb is not
defined twice:

3rd The SOFiSTiK offers the eccentrical plate elements as a real alternative. The system is generated here with different thick plate elements. The plate elements get a larger thickness in the area of the
beams. A simply defined node plane which lies at the upper edge of the

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plate is here necessary in the input. All elements can be defined eccentrically below the node plane. Thereby all elements have the same
upper edge, the thicker beam elements stand only below out. Normal
forces which are considered for the design are produced due to the eccentrical position of the elements. Thereby the usual plate design is
done simultaneously the beam design a special beam design is therefore not necessary. The FE analysis uses here automatically the real
effective width via the simultaneous analysis of the normal force distribution. This method is therefore applicable not only for the analysis
of building slabs but also for analysis of concrete bridges. Each elements is processed for themselves alone during design and not the
total Tbeam cross section! This method is however only correct for
beams with moderate thickness. The design can be uneconomical for
larger beams (web height larger than 2.5plate thickness), but it is in
each case at the sure side. The simple method with fictitious beams
lying in the plate is more practical for larger web heights.

eccenticity
plane of the
node points

underside of the
QUAD elements

centroid line of QUAD


lying below the node plane

For all analysis methods the resultant internal forces and moments can be
determined with the program SIR (Sectional Results). Afterwards a design
as beam cross section is possible, also for system 2 from folded structure elements. This is especially necessary in bridge design for checks of the ultimate limit state and for checks for safety against cracking
Literature:
C. Katz J. Stieda, Praktische FEBerechnungen mit
Plattenbalken
Bauinformatik 1/92

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General Static Analysis FE


W. Wunderlich, G. Kiener, W. Ostermann, Modellierung und
Berechnung von Deckenplatten mit Unterzgen
Bauingenieur 1994
J. Bellmann, Vorgespannte schiefwinklige Plattenbalkenbrcke
7. SOFiSTiK Seminar 1994
C. Katz, Neues zu Plattenbalken
7. SOFiSTiK Seminar 1994

For usage in bridge construction see also: "Extended Tbeam philosophy"


(plattenbalken_philosophie.doc) at the bridge examples of the DIN Fachberichte (DIN_FB_SOFiSTiK.doc).

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2.4.

ASE

Pile Elements

A single pile is idealized through a straight, elastically supported beam with


shear deformations and 2nd order theory. It is numerically integrated with
the complete system of 12 differential equations. Pile elements get a minimal
constraint of the rotational spring in order to prevent instabilities. For a more
detailed description please look at the manual for the program PFAHL.
Simplifying to DIN 4014 a foundation modulus ks=Es/D (at D>1.0m D=1.0m
may be used) can be determined and from that a beam foundation k= Dks as
lineshaped foundation per m pile length.
A calculation of pile systems with negative Z dead load direction is possible.
PLC analysis for piles:
In this way also system with pile elements can be used including creep in
CSM. Shrinkage will never be taken into account for piles, creep acts for the
pile and the bedding! If GRP PHIF is input this value is taken for both the pile
and the bedding.
The pile element is not contained in the basic version.

2.5.

Truss and Cable Elements

Truss and cable elements can transfer only axial forces. In the case of nonlinear analysis the cable elements can not sustain compressive forces.
An internal cable sag is considered for geometrically nonlinear analysis. In
this case the transverse loading of the cable is calculated for the cable geometry (extensible plane prestressed cable). For an extremely large cable sag,
the cable must be subdivided into shorter individual cables. The resulting
cable chains can be analysed in a stable way with a prestress. For the control
of the internal cable sag please look at CTRL CABL too.

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General Static Analysis FE

Spring Elements

Spring elements idealize structural parts by means of a simplified forcedisplacement relationship. This is usually a linear equation which is based on
the spring constant:
P +C@u

(1)

A spring is defined with a direction (dX, dY, dZ) and three spring constants.
The here implemented element allows the following nonlinear effects which
are of course only usefully during a nonlinear analysis:
prestress (linear effect)
failure
yield
friction with cohesion
slip
spring nonlinear work laws, please refer to chapter NSTR_1
springs with a reference area AR and a nonlinear material work law

Spring forcedisplacement diagrams


A prestress displaces the corresponding effects and produces always a loading which acts on the structure. A prestressed spring gets a relaxation in the
absence of external loading or constraints. The nonlinear effects are considered both for rotational and displacement springs. Friction can be defined
with a lateral spring. The force component perpendicular to the spring effect
direction results from the product of the displacement component in the lateral direction multiplied by the lateral spring constant. The maximum value
of this force, however, is equal to the force in the primary direction multiplied
by the friction coefficient plus the cohesion. If the primary spring fails, the lateral spring gets eliminated too.

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2.7.

ASE

Boundary Elements BOUN and FLEX

The elastic boundary conditions do not represent actual elements. They describe the additional stiffnesses of the structure. Results are not saved in the
case of boundaries without number and also at the record FLEX. The effect
of the elements appears directly in the form of support reactions at the corresponding nodes.
Distributed support reactions are determined for boundary elements with
number (compare program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB). If two boundaries are
defined at an edge, the distributed support reactions are calculated once only
and they are output for the boundary with the smaller boundary number.
Single supports can not be considered by boundary elements.
A boundary element interpolates linearly the displacements between two
nodes. The resultant distribution of the stiffness matrix at the two nodes is
CR)3 @ CLCR ) CL
CR ) CLCL ) 3 @ CR
with
CR + CA @ L12CL + CB @ L12
CA,CB
L

2.8.

= spring constants at beginning/end


= distance of nodes

Shell Elements.

The shell element implemented in program ASE is a surface element. The


individual elements are plane and they lie in each case in a plane whose normal is generated through the vector product ((X3X1)(X2X4)) of the diagonals. The deviation of the elements plane from the nodes is taken into consideration by means of additional eccentricities. The local coordinate system
is oriented in such a way that the z axis is given with the normal to the elements plane and the local x axis can be selected freely. The default orientation is parallel to the global XY plane with an angle smallerequal than 90
degrees to the global X axis. If the observer looks into the positive direction
of the z axis (thus from "above"), then he watches the nodes numbered
counterclockwise. If the elements plane coincides with the global XY plane,
the local and the global coordinate systems are then identical.

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Local coordinate system


The element is implemented as a triangular as well as a quadrilateral element. The triangular element is considerably worse than the quadrilateral
element and it should be used only, if no other choice of mesh partitioning can
be found. Generally it should not to be used in the vicinity of supports.

Internal forces and moments


Because the normal element remains plane, the bending and the membrane
structural behaviour of the individual element are decoupled. The element
properties can be defined thus separately for the both components. Additionally the consideration of the components of an elastic support and a numerically conditional stiffness for the rotations around the shell normal occurs
still.
For a twisted element the membrane and plate parts are generated by decoupling. Then they are coupled with each other via the twist of the element.
Thus the element is able to represent curved shells very exactly. This was
demonstrated with corresponding benchmarks.

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The consideration of each structural behaviour can be specified in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB for each particular element. The defaulted
values are:
SYST FRAM
SYST GIRD
SYST SPAC

membrane structural behaviour only


plate structural behaviour only
additionally rotations around the normal

The elements defined in SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB without load bearing behaviour are not considered for the structure. They can be referenced, however, in the case of load cases with free loads. In this way, a load area which
consists of QUAD elements can be used for block loading of girders or three
dimensional elements.
The ASE element is defined as a general quadrilateral. The accuracy of the
solution, however, depends on the geometry of the element, thus not all conceivable element shapes are permitted.
The optimum element is the square or the equilateral triangle. Rectangles
and parallelograms are the secondbest shape and the general quadrilateral
the thirdbest. General quadrilaterals with reentrant corners are not allowed in the element formulation.
A rectangle with a large side ratio a/b has difficulties in the representation
of the twisting moments and also for the bending near a corner. A ratio of 1:5
is still tolerated in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB and it should be exceeded only in exceptions. The size ratio of two adjacent elements should not
be smaller than approx. 1:5. However, this value is relatively uncritical.
The ratio thickness to element dimension is uncritical, because a shear
correction factor is applied. It should be clear to the user, however, that the
shear deformations in the case of thick plates result in deviations from the
Kirchhoffs theory. The ratio of the thicknesses of two adjacent elements
should not be smaller than 1:10 due to its cubic effect.

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2.8.1.

General Static Analysis FE

Plate Structural Behaviour

The ASE element for the plate structural behaviour is based on Mindlins
plate theory, as described in the implementations of Hughes, Tessler and
Crisfield (2,3,4), with an extension of a nonconforming formulation.
The cross sections remain plane also according to Mindlins theory, however,
they are not perpendicular anymore to the neutral axis. The same shape functions as for the displacements are used for the additional shear rotations. The
total rotation is then the sum of the shear deformation and the bending rotation.
q x + dw ) qS x
dx

(2)

with
w
q
qS
d.../dx

=
=
=
=

deflection
total rotation
shear rotation
derivative w.r.t. x (similarly for y)

For the curvature and the shear angle one receives then
kx + dq x
dx

(3)

dq y
dy

(4)

dq
kxy + dq x ) y
dy
dx

(5)

qS x + q x * dw
dx

(6)

qS y + q y * dw
dy

(7)

ky +

A general orthotropic accretion which includes the thicknesses as well as the


elastic moduli is formulated for the internal forces and moments:
mx + Bx @ kx * m @ Bxy @ ky

(8)

my + By @ ky * m @ Bxy @ kx

(9)

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mxy + Bd @ kxy

ASE
(10)

and
vx + Sx @ qS x

(11)

vy + Sy @ qS y

(12)

with the stiffnesses


Bx +

By +

Ex @ t x3

12 @

Ey @ t y3

12 @

 Sx + 5 G @ t x
6

(13)

 Sy + 5 G @ t y
6

(14)

1 * m2

1 * m2

transverse bending stiffness


Bxy +

3
Ex @ t xy

12 @ 1 * m2

(15)

torsional stiffness
G @ td3
Bd +
12

(16)

with
Ex,Ey
G
m
tx,ty,txy,td

= elastic moduli
= shear modulus
= Poissons ratio
= plate thicknesses

In the isotropic case one must set tx=ty=txy=td=t and Ex=Ey=E.


An anisotropic Poissons ratio is not considered.
The orthotropic elastic moduli and thicknesses are rotated through the input
of an orthotropy angle OAL in the record MAT!
a) For orthotropic material (e.g. mathematical cross section of prestressed concrete or wood) it can be set:

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Bxy + Bd + Bx @ By

(17)

To reach this the mathematical thickness for txy and td must be input
in addition to the orthotropic input of Ex and Ey.
t xy + t d + t x @ 3ByBx

(18)

with Bx>By and ty=tx


b) For corrugated steel can be applied (Timoshenko)

pf
z + f @ sin p @ x ; a +1 )
2l
l

(19)

1
E @ t3
@
a 12 @ 1 * m2

(20)

@ E @ t @ f2
0.81
By +1 *
2
2

1
)
2.5
2l

(21)

Bxy [ 0

(22)

E @ t3
Bd + a @
2 12 @ 1 * m 2

(23)

Bx +

c) For web plates (yaxis in longitudinal direction) one can set:


(a/b=spacing/width of the web, tx/to=thickness of the plate/web)
13

b @ t 3o

t y + t x @1 )

a @ t 3x

(24)

t xy + t x

(25)

Bd + Bdt x ) C2 @ a

(26)

C = torsional stiffness of the web


Examples for orthotropic cases can be found e.g. in the book written by Timoshenko/WoinowskyKrieger (McGrawHill).

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2.8.2.

ASE

Membrane Structural Behaviour

The element formulation of the membrane stress state occurs either via a
classical isoparametric formulation or probably via a similarly classical non
conforming formulation written by Wilson and Taylor.
The thicknesses as well as the elastic moduli in different directions are taken
into consideration. An anisotropic Poissons ratio is not considered:
nxx + S x @ x * m @ S xy @ y

(27)

nyy + S y @ y * m @ S xy @ x

(28)

nxy + G @ t xy @ g xy

(29)

with the stiffnesses


S x + Ex @ t x2
1*m

(30)

Ey @ t y
1 * m2

(31)

E x @ t xy
1 * m2

(32)

S y +

S xy +

2.8.3.

Elastic Foundation

The QUAD element can be expanded with stiffness components in order to


describe an elastically supported area. Only appropriate inputs can activate
this foundation component.
The foundation can be defined both perpendicularly and tangentially to the
area. The nonlinear effects like failure, yielding and friction may be specified.
An elastic foundation is an engineering trick used for the approximate modelling of subsiding structures. The method is known from foundation engineering, however, it can be used also for the description of support conditions in
structural engineering.
The foundation coefficient indicates the stress resulting at a point which is
subjected to a certain displacement. It is not a material constant, it is calculated later with a settlement analysis. In principle, its value always consists

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of an elastic modulus together with a geometrical dimension. The displacements of adjacent points are independent of each other, since shear deformations are not taken into consideration with this method.
A more exact analysis of foundations according to the stiffness modulus
method is possible with the program HASE.
The easiest case is a single compressible layer of uniform thickness h. The calculation of the Winkler coefficient is achieved by applying a constant stress
and by computing the resultant displacement. In the case of hindered lateral
strain the result is
1 * m
C + E @
 + Es
1 ) m @ 1 * 2m
h
h

(33)

In analog mode one can obtain Winkler coefficients for multilayered systems. These coefficients are more acceptable as the layer becomes thinner in
comparison to its deformation. If, however, the layer is relatively thick in
comparison to the loaded area, or if it is infinitely thick, the Winkler coefficient has to be estimated in a settlement analysis at the point of interest. The
horizontal foundation has usually the same order of magnitude.
Column heads are defined sometimes with elastic foundations, especially in
the case of masonry. By defining the Winkler coefficient one must keep in
mind, that a twodimensional foundation develops a certain rotational
spring effect which is more important to the loading of a plate than the perpendicular displacement spring.
A column of the height h which is supported articulated at its foot has a rotational stiffness equal to
Cf + 3 @ EI
h

(34)

This stiffness should correspond to a rotational spring foundation with


Cf + C @ I

(35)

From that follows


C + 3 @ E
h

(36)

The corresponding value for a column fixed at its foot is 4E/h.

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Therefore it is correct to define a foundation three till four times higher, instead of the Winkler coefficient E/h, in order to describe the rotational foundation properly. If, however, the plate is supported articulated on the column,
this type of foundation should not be used in any case because of its clamping
effect against rotation. In this case it is recommended to use a single point
support of a node and distribute the load by means of rigid or elastic elements
(kinematic constraints).
The foundation can be considered optionally as a single springs at the element
nodes or as distributed foundation with a matrix. The use of single springs
is advised in the case of very stiff foundations and severe load concentrations.
The selection occurs with the input CTRL BTYP.
CTRL BTYP > 0
CTRL BTYP < 0

consistent foundation matrix (default)


single springs

Support reactions which result from a QUAD foundation are printed and
stored as nodal support reactions. Thus a graphical check of the support reactions is facilitated.

2.8.4.

Rotations around the Shell Normal

The rotational degree of freedom around the shell normal is not contained in
both load bearing behaviours. In order to prevent numerical difficulties for
threedimensional structures, the Inplanerotation of the nodes is coupled
via a weak torsional spring at the displacements of the corner nodes in an intern way.

2.8.5.

Twisted Shell Elements

If not all four nodes of an element lie in a plane (e.g. in the case of a hypershell), then the program defines an eccentric kinematic constraint of the
corner nodes at a plane element in a median plane in an intern way. Threedimensional curved structures may be analysed in this way with sufficient
accuracy.
In the case of twisted shell elements as well as geometrically nonlinear
analyses (twisted elements are generated automatically with the latter), internal springs are used now instead of the rotational stiffnesses mentioned
in the previous paragraph. These springs convert the moment loading of a
node around the shell normal to axial forces in the shell. The shear stiffness
of the elements is modified slightly with this method, however, this is the only
way to achieve moment equilibrium at the nodes of threedimensional curved
structures.

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2.8.6.

General Static Analysis FE


Eccentrically Connected Shell Elements

In the case of Tbeams, it is an advantage to lay all nodes in the plane of the
top surface of the plate and to connect the elements with different thicknesses
eccentrically to this plane. Then the Tbeam effect is realized correctly.
The position of the elements is input in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB (e.g. QUAD ... POSI=BELO).
Additional explanations can be found in the school example "Prestressed
Skewed Tbeam Bridge".

2.8.7.

Tendons in QUAD Elements

Prestressed cables defined with the program GEOS have the same element
number as the QUAD element that contains them. They are characterised
additionally with a cable number and with construction stage numbers for installation, grouting and a possible removal. They possess their own stiffness
and are processed independently from the QUAD elements. Thus not only the
deflecting loads are applied to the structure, but also stress changes in the
tendon are calculated. The input occurs by the means of GRP CS and ELLO
CS.
Prestressing cables in the QUAD elements can be used only in a geometrically linear analysis.

2.8.8.

Nonconforming Formulation

The regular 4node element is characterised through a bilinear accretion of


the displacements and rotations. This accretion describes a uniform variation of the shear force and of the bending moment via a transformation. This
element is called conforming, because the displacements and the rotations
between elements do not have any jumps. The results at the gravity centre
of the element represent the actual internal force variation fairly well, whilst
the results at the corners are relatively useless, especially the ones at the
edges or at the corners of a region.
Taylor and Wilson came up with the idea to describe more stress states
through additional functions that value is zero at all nodes. As a rule, these
functions lead to a substantial improvement of the results, however, they violate the continuity of displacements between elements. Thus they are called
nonconforming elements.
Two element variations are available in the program ASE. The selection of
the variations occurs via the CTRL option QTYP.

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QTYP 0
QTYP 1

ASE

regular conforming element according to Hughes (2)


or Zienkiewicz
nonconforming element with six functions based on
Hughes (2) or Wilson
(default value)

Elements of type 0 can describe only uniform moments and membrane forces
inside them. Elements of type 1 can describe a linear moment variation, if
they are rectangular, whereas a general quadrilateral element can only do
that approximately. Membrane forces can vary linearly.
A corresponding nonconforming triangular element does not exist. Therefore the use of these elements in combination with triangles should be
avoided, if possible.
More explanations of the element properties can be found in the manuals of
the programs SEPP and TALPA.

2.9.

Volume Elements.

The volume element (BRIC) represents an elastic body and it is defined by


means of 8 nodes. Even uniform bending states of a structure can be realized
exactly via nonconforming accretions. Orthotropic material properties can
be defined with the help of a meridian and a descend angle.
The following options are available in extensions:
Yield criteria for plastic analyses
including analytical primary stress states
Import of temperature fields from program HYDRA
(they can be applied to the structure as loading)
The following material laws are current available:
MiseDruckerPrager (as in the program TALPA)
Mohr standard implementation with only 4 input values!
phi, c, betaz, dila
Gudehus (as in the program TALPA)
Lade
(as
in
the
program
TALPA)

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2.10.

ASE

Primary Load Cases of Element Groups.

For the analysis of construction stages in tunnel structure or for the definition of load steps in geometrical nonlinear analyses it is possible to use a
previous load case. The parameters of the primary stress state are defined
groupwise for this purpose. A detailed description of the method is given in
the TALPA manual.

2.11.

Primary States of Single Elements for Creep


Analyses

The analysis of construction stages is not an easy task. It demands a special


understanding of the engineering aspects. The simulation of the effects at
simple examples must definitely precede an extensive analysis.
Construction stages can be considered with different accuracies. The easiest
way, of course, is to analyse the construction stages with the respective structural system independently on each other and then proceed with the superposition and the design of the structure. The different statical systems can be
selected through the assignment of the elements in groups.
ASE has, however, also a very efficient possibility to use stresses and deformations of a primary load case which allow the complete consideration of
effects from creep or system change.
During application the user must keep in mind that each stress state in a
single element corresponds to an external loading of the element and is in
equilibrium with that loading.
ASE calculates now equivalent forces from the internal forces or stresses of
the elements and can apply them as loading (GRP...FACL). These forces
create a deformation state which counteracts the internal forces and makes
them to zero when the statical system is not changed. If a system change has
taken place in the meanwhile or if these loads have been applied with different factors, corresponding inherent stress states result.
Following principal cases have to be distinguished:
1st Case
If the old loading is activated together with the primary state with a
factor GRP...FACL=1.0, new loads do not result. The stresses remain
the same, the deformations are zero. According to SYST...PLC the total

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deformations or at SYST...PLC=0 only the addition deformations are


output.
2nd Case
If only the primary state is applied as loading with a factor GRP ...
FACL=0, the resultant loading is the primary load case with inverted
sign. This gives rise to unloading deformations that generate a stress
state which becomes zero together with the primary stress state in the
case of free deformability.
If some elements are removed from the system of the primary stress state
along with their corresponding loads, the initial equilibrium is disturbed and
forces arise at the boundary nodes of the removed parts. The remaining elements expand to the direction of the removed parts. If the primary state is
generated analytically, the removed parts do not have to be defined once, because all necessary information can be extracted from the remaining elements.
Using ECHO LOAD EXTR one can obtain an output of the internally generated loading at every node. This option should be used generally during analyses with primary states, because it is the best means for tracking down errors
in the description of the states. The really applied nodal loads (nodal load
vectors) can be represented with the program WinGRAF.
Further instructions can be found in the description of the record GRP in the
TALPA manual or in the examples.

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2.12.

ASE

Nonlinear Analyses.

Nonlinear effects can be analysed only with iterations. This is done in ASE
with a modified Newton method with constant stiffness matrix. The advantages of the method are that the stiffness matrix does not need to be decomposed more than once and that the system matrix remains always positive
definite. The speed of the method is increased through an accelerating algorithm written by Crisfield. This method notices the residual forces developing
during the iterations and calculates the coefficients e and f for the displacement increments of the current and the previous step. A damping of the
method can be specified in the case of critical systems.
Following nonlinear material effects are implemented currently: please also
refer to chapter NSTR_1:
Spring elements (failure, yield, slip, friction, work laws)
QUAD foundation elements (failure, yield, slip, friction)
Cable elements (material work laws, compression failure)
Truss elements (material work laws)
Nonlinear bedding for PILE elements
Nonlinear beam elements
Nonlinear material laws for QUAD and BRIC elements
Geometrically nonlinear analyses with truss, spring, cable, beam
and QUAD elements, for cable elements with internal cable sag
BRIC elements (geometric stiffness)
Tendons defined in the QUAD elements with the program GEOS can be used
only in geometrically linear analysis.
For TRUS, SPRI, CABL, BEAM and QUAD and for geometrically nonlinear
analysis the initial stress matrix is added to the stresses of the primary stress
state (for TRUS, SPRI and CABL without reference to a primary stress state,
the prestress from the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB is used for this purpose see CTRL CABL). Thereby the iterations are markedly more stable

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when referring to a primary load case and the ultimate load can be calculated
more precisely. A stability failure is recognized also in this way, even in the
cases without unplanned initial deformation (an unstable system is reported,
if the stresses of the primary state exceed the buckling load, i.e. the total stiffness matrix is negative). Since it is reported here, that the PLC was actually
unstable, this feature is only meaningful in the case of small load steps.
A module for the ultimate load calculation increases or decreases the load
stepbystep until it reaches a still sustained loading.
Initial deformations of the structure can be read as results of already analysed load cases with the record SYST...PLC...FACV. With GRP...FACL=0 and
FACP=0 the initial deformation is applied without stresses. The initial deformation is saved with the results for displacements, thus it does not need
to be redefined in additional subsequent load cases. Deformations from a
modal analysis can be prescribed also as initial deformations via scaling with
FACV, see chapter 5, example Buckling Shapes in Supercritical Region.
The iteration process in ASE with SYST PROB TH2/TH3 is done well, however, a lot CPU time is necessary due to the iterations. Following procedure
is recommended for big BRIC systems in order to economize the CPU time:
In dependence to PLC stresses, a TH2 stiffness can be used with SFIX PLC.
This procedure works quick and accurate, if normal forces dont change much
in TH2. Example: see ase9_all.dat.
Nonlinear analyses are not possible with the basic version.

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2.13.

ASE

Nonlinear Analysis of Plates and Shells.

2.13.1. Overview
The LayerModel allows the layering of the material properties in a QUAD
shell element. The model can be implemented for laminated glass, laminated
wood plates or other composite plates. The layer technique can be also implemented for the nonlinear calculation of elements consisting of a homogeneous material. In this case it is used to establish the positions of the individual layers. This method is especially suited for the nonlinear calculation
of plates and shells consisting of steel and reinforced concrete. Up to now the
nonlinear construction material models, steel and concrete, have been implemented for the shellelements.
The relaxation in individual layers, due to former plastification, is considered
by consistently saving the results in all the layers of the elements (hysteresis
effect for the bending of plates). This could create residual stresses over the
crosssectional height, even after total relaxation.
By means of the concrete law one can even consider creep and shrinkage effects for a cracked shellelement (The redistribution of stress, from concrete
to the reinforced steel, due to creep and shrinkage).
Several other advantages of the layer technique become apparent during the
visualisation of the results. Besides the output of the numerical results in the
different layers of the element one also has the option to graphically view the
stresses over the element thickness in the program called ANIMATOR.

2.13.2. Input of the Materials


The calculation programs ASE or SEPP can evaluate an analysis for either
the working or the failurestress level. It is advisable to use the option
ECHO MAT YES in SEPP or ASE, which checks the material values. The
really used stressstrain curves of the material are plotted then and the significant values are printed.
Preset StressStrain Curves in AQUA
Without any different defaults for the material parameters one gets from
AQUA with following input:

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ECHO MAT FULL


$ for output of the stressstrain curves
NORM DIN 10451
$ acc. to DIN 10451
$Concrete:
CONC 1 TYPE C 25 $ standard C25/30
STEE 2 BST 500SA $ reinforcement

the stressstrain curves which are represented below for the desired concrete. Here are according to chapter 9.1.5 of DIN 10451 (02.07):
sigu (red)

Stressstraincurve for the cross section design


(parabolarectanglediagram) according to equation (65)
and (66) [4].

sigr (blue)

Stressstraincurve for nonlinear methods of the


determination of internal forces and moments according
to equation (62) with fc = fcR [4].

sigm (green) Stressstraincurve for nonlinear methods of


deformation analysis according to equation (62) with
fc = fcm [4].

AQUA plot of the standard stressstrain curves for concrete C 25/30


according to DIN 10451 (07.02)
In analog mode one gets the stressstrain curves for the reinforcement according to chapter 9.2.3 and 9.2.4 of DIN 10451 (07.02):

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AQUA plot of the standard stressstrain curves for reinforcement


500S(A) according to DIN 10451 (07.02)
Input of Arbitrary StressStrain Curves in AQUA
Examples see ase.dat ase.dat\...\nonlinear_quad\stahlfaserbeton.dat or
ase.dat\...\ase15_stahlfliessen_quad.dat in sofistikase.datenglish
ASE uses the stressstrain curves from AQUA. In this way also arbitrary
stressstrain curves which are defined manually can be considered.
Following requirements are to be considered for the input of the stressstrain
curve type in order to select the correct curve during calculation in ASE with
record NSTR. The stressstrain curve for concrete as well as for steel is defined with the item KSV in record NSTR and without the input for KSB. If
a stressstrain curve is defined for KSV and for KSB, KSV sets the curve for
concrete and KSB for the reinforcement. In this way arbitrary combinations
are possible.

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Types and designations of the stressstrain curves in AQUA and ASE


Designation of the
stressstrain curve

Type in AQUA record


SSLA

Selection in ASE NSTR


without/with safety
coefficient

sigu (red): design

ULTI

UL / ULD

sigr (blue): nonlinear internal forces and


moments

CALC

CAL / CALD

SERV

SL / SLD

sigm (green): nonlinear deformations

Following AQUA input defines a new serviceability stressstrain curve for


concrete as well as for reinforcement with the safety 1.3:
$ Input of an example stressstrain curve for serviceability limit state:
SSLA SERV 1.3 $ first SSLA record defines the type of the stressstrain curve
$ The value after type of the stressstrain curve sets the corresponding
$ safety coefficient
SSLA
EPS
SIG
TYPE
0.30
0.0
$ tensile zone
0.09
2.1
$
0
0
$
1.1
17.8
spl
$
2.0
24.0
spl
$
3.5
23.0
$ compression zone
4.5
0
$
$ reinforcement:
STEE 2 BST 500SA
$ Input of an example stressstrain curve for serviceability limit state:
SSLA SERV 1.3 $ first SSLA record defines the type of the stressstrain curve
$ The value after type of the stressstrain curve sets the corresponding
$ safety coefficient
SSLA
EPS
SIG
TYPE=POL
50
525
$ compression zone
25
525
$
2.3
500
$
0
0
$

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2.3
25
50

500
525
525

$
$
$

ASE

tensile zone

The stressstrain curves which are input in this way can be seen and checked
as modified serviceability stressstrain curve (sigm / green) in the AQUA
output of the material values and in the plot of the stressstrain curves:

AQUA plot with manually defined stressstrain curve sigm (green)


for concrete
Temporary Material Control Parameters in ASE
In ASE record CTRL item CONC there are extended input possibilities for
the material law for nonlinear reinforced concrete. On the one hand the control parameters can be input here for consideration of the multiaxial stress
state. On the other hand a temporary modification of the in AQUA defined
material values FCT and FCTK, which is only valid in the current ASE calculation, can be done here also. The individual items V2 till V4 define the following inputs:

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Control parameter for consideration of the multi


axial stress state according to Kupfer / Rsch
CTRL CONC V2

CTRL CONC V2 = 0 => no limitation, increase allowed


(default for NSTR KSV SL,SLD)
CTRL CONC V2 = 1.00 => maximum concrete compressive
stress = 1.00 * value from the uniaxial AQUA stress
strain curve. (default for NSTR KSV UL,ULD,CAL,CALD)

CTRL CONC ..V3 temporary FCT = fctm => tensile strength for tension
stiffening

CTRL CONC ..V4 temporary FCTK = fctk0.05 => tensile strength for
pure concrete
Selection of a StressStrain Curve for an ASE Calculation
The selection of a preset or manually defined stressstrain curve is done with
an input in the ASE record NSTR (items KSV and /or KSB). Possible temporarily different inputs for the concrete tensile strengths and the consideration
of the multiaxial stress state can be done with record CTRL CONC.
Check of the Material Values in ASE
In order to increase the transparency of the calculation the material values
and further definitions for the nonlinear material law which is in each case
used in the calculation are also output in ASE. For this purpose it is necessary
to set ECHO MAT YES. Then it follows here a definition of the analysis
method for consideration of the crack widths and the tension stiffening as
well as the output of all relevant parameters. In addition a presentation of the
actually used stressstrain curves of the materials as well as a detailed plot
of the concrete stressstrain curve in tensile zone are printed in the URSULA
output.

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Plot of the used concrete stressstrain curve in ASE

Detailed plot of the tensile zone of the concrete stressstrain curve in


ASE
Input for Heterogeneous Layers
Examples see
bemess.dat\...\special\bubble_deck.dat in sofistikbemess.datenglish
For laminated timber or laminated glass calculations a QUAD element can
be defined about the height also with variable material composition. The materials for the individual layers are saved at first in AQUA how usual in separate material numbers. Then MLAY is used to define a composite material,
which is input according to the layer arrangement. First the layerthicknesses t0, t1, t2, t3 and t4 are defined, which are then followed by the respective material numbers:
Layer t0 6 mm thick out of material 11,
Layer t1 3 mm thick out of material 12 etc... :

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PROG AQUA
MATE 11 E
60e3
MATE 12 E
0.8e3
$ glassplasticglass
MLAY NO 1 T0 0.006 11
T1 0.003 12
T2 0.003 12
T3 0.003 12
T4 0.006 11
END

General Static Analysis FE

MUE 0.2
MUE 0.3

$ glass
$ plastic

$$
$$
$$
$$

The intermediate layers t2+t3 were defined only for a more clear output! The
layer material No. 1 can be used only for QUAD elements.
Note: The analysis is according to plate theory, i.e. assuming that the cross
section does not have planar deformation! The displacement of the plates between each other is not taken into account. For this one would have to couple
the plates with springs!
This model is not suited for the analysis of local failure at the coupling points
of laminated glass plates, because for such an analysis the planar deformation of the crosssections is very important. At these points one could evaluate a spatial stressstate, which can only be depicted by volume elements.
Any arbitrary material can be used basically also orthotropic as layer for non
linear analyses.

At the moment only layers from the material concrete or steel are processed
nonlinearly. The loading and unloading curve is generated independent on
each other (hysteresis).

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2.13.3. Analysis Basics


Linear Analysis
Bending
The total moment of inertia of a layered element is made up by the sum of each
layers moment of inertia and the Steinerpart of the individual layers. Here
an eccentricity of the centroids position could be created due to stiffer layers
on one side of the element, e.g. sandwichelement with different toplayer
thicknesses. The eccentricity is established automatically and is considered
for simple plate bending, it also leads the correct length deformation of the
elements. This effect also becomes apparent for an eccentric connection with
a homogeneous element.
The input of orthotropic materials is not allowed, due to the occurrence of
various eccentricities in various directions. This is blocked by the program
and leads to an error message.
Linear normalstresses in the layers are generated by the strains in the
layers. They are calculated as usual by the stressstrain matrix D of the material in a layer:
ds + D *xi @ de *xi
where the matrix D can also be orthotropic.
The linear total stress is made up of all the stress components including the
allowed factors out of the ASEGRP input:
s *xi + FACP @ FCREEP2 @ s *xi*PLC
) FACS @ FCREEP1 @ D *xi @ de *xi ) e *xi*LOAD ) s *v
with:
xiPLC
FACP
FACS
FCREEP1

Primary stress (initial stress)


Factor of the primary stress
record ASEGRP
Factor of the stiffness
record ASEGRP
Stiffness reduction creep and shrinkage without PLC
FCREEP1 = 1 / (1+PHI) with PHI from record ASEGRP
FCREEP2 Reduction of the primary stress through creep and

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xiLOAD
v

General Static Analysis FE


shrinkage, by taking over the primary load case with
ro and dphi from record GRP
FCREEP2 = 1 dphi/(1 + rodphi))
(dphi = creep increment of a creep step component)
Load expansion (temperature or expansion load)
Prestress (record ELLO or GRPPREX)

The GRP factor FACL is generally multiplied to the primary loadcase as a


value of 1.0. It generates the expansion loads from the primary stresses xi
PLC. If the stresses of the PLC together with the loads of the PLC are multiplied with the factors FACL=1.0 and FACP=1.0, then the system will remain
in equilibrium and no additional expansions or displacements are created.
The FACL expansion loads are then in equilibrium with the external loads:

Load equilibrium when taking over the primary load case without any
new loads
The nodal load resulting from FACL and the element stress is generated because the element wants expand due to the primary compressive stress.
The internal forces and moments are calculated by integrating the stresses
in the layers, over the element thickness of each layer.
Shear
Initially the shear stiffnesses of the individual layers are summed up for the
stiffness determination.
The following equation is used to calculate the shear stress from the shear
force q.

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t *xi +

q @ S *xi
I @ b

For homogenous material definitions, in the linear domain, this would result
in a parableshaped shear stress distribution over the height of the element,
with the maximum value of max = 1.5 q / h. For sandwich elements, with
thick (strong) toplayers, it would mean that a nearly constant shear stress
is present in the middle of the element; given by max = 1.0 q / h (h=element
thickness).
Nonlinear Analysis STEEL
Examples see ase.dat\...\ase12_plattenbeulen.dat or
ase15_stahlfliessen_quad.dat in sofistikase.datenglish
For a nonlinear analysis, the calculation of the new linear stresses is initially made by assuming a linear material behaviour for every layer xi. The
following applies when proceeding with the primary load case:
s *xi + s *xi*PLC ) D *xi @ de *xi
and
t *xi + t *xi*PLC ) dt *xi
(simplified)
The total stress xi is therefore not just put together by the total strain
multiplied with the stiffness, instead it might be that the nonlinear eigen
stresses of the individual layers of xiPLC have to be considered. For the consistent treatment of the problem, including the correct generation of the loading and unloading curves of the layer model, it is of importance that not only
the internal forces and moments are stored in the database, but also all the
stress in all the layers and all the Gausspoints. This information is needed
for the next load case as xiPLC.
From these initial linear stresses a new linear comparison stress is calculated:
For QUAD elements the following applies:
s v + s 2x ) s 2y * s x @ s y ) 3t 2xy ) 3t 2x ) 3t 2y
(where xy = disc shear and x, y = plate shear perpendicular to the plate)

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If the so calculated linear comparison stress vxi is above the allowed stress
(by considering the hardening, which is calculated by summing up the plastic
strains, by entering a trilinear stressstrain curve); then first of all the linear
component is established (Breakthrough point through the plastic area).
Then the remaining strain increment dxi with the elastoplastic material
matrix DP is applied incrementally, with the consideration of possible
hardening. The nonlinear relaxation lies on the surface of the plastic area.
The number of plastic increments of the strain increment can be changed in
the input CTRL MSTE. The nonlinear material behaviour is according to
the elastoplastic plasticlaw, described in TALPA, which is according to van
MISE and includes hardening. For more information on this topic you are referred to Zienkiewicz"Methode der finiten Elemente".
The following diagram results from uniaxial stress:

In the case of combined stress, which is made up of normal stress (N/A M/w)
and shear force stress, it is assumed that on reaching the elasticity limit
(plastic area) the shear stress (from the shear force) remains constant and
can not be increased any further through hardening. The thus established
shear force stress is then basically substituted as a constant component into
the calculation of the comparison stress. It has started to plasticising. This
would then lead to the following: e.g. in plate bending; the shear stresses in
the plastified plate edge would not increase anymore, however in the middle
of the plate they would still get bigger, this in turn would cause a deviation
from the parableshaped shear stress distribution over the plate thickness,
which would in turn cause a concentration of the shear stresses in the middle
of the plate.

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Nonlinear Analysis CONCRETE


Main examples see ase.dat\...\nonlinear_quad\ betobeme_edin.dat and
ase.dat\...\ nonlinear_quad\ betokri2.dat in sofistikase.datenglish
The following literature was consulted on the concrete material law:
[1]

Finite Elemente im Stahlbeton


StempniewskiEibl
Betonkalender 1993 Teil1 S. 249.

[2]

Aspects of robust computational modeling for plain and reinforced


concrete
FeenstraDe Borst
Heron Volume 38 1993 No.4

[3]

Grundlagen der Neuregelung zur Beschrnkung der Rissbreite


Schiel
Heft 400 DAfStb

Following current assessments and explanations are mentioned here additionally:


[4]

Heft 525 DAfStb: Erluterungen zu DIN 10451 (September 2003)

[5]

Betonkalender 2/2004: Zilch, Rogge: Bemessung von Stahlbeton


und Spannbetonbauteilen im Brcken und Hochbau.

[6]

DBV: Beispiele zur Bemessung nach DIN 10451 Band2:


Ingenieurbau Beispiel 15: Mllbunkerwand (J.Bellmann,
J.Rtzer)

[7]

DIN 10451 Ausgabe Juli 2001 (mit Berichtigung 1, Juli 2002) z.B.
in [2]

[8]

Schneider, W.: Zustand II Berechnungen in der Praxis (Beitrag


SOFiSTiK Seminar 2003 Leipzig)

The material behaviour of reinforced concrete can be described by the following properties:
Nonlinear stressstrain curve in tension and compressive zone
Contribution of the concrete between cracks (tension stiffening)
Nonlinear material behaviour of the steel inserts

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Simplified check of the plates shear stress


Usual procedure:
The element is subdivided into NLAY layers. The stresses sigmax, sigmay
and tauxy and the principal stresses sigmaI and sigmaII are calculated
for every layers boundary. For each principal stress direction a stressstrain
curve is generated, which results from the principal stress relation in the respective direction. The thus established nonlinear stresses are then integrated over all the layers to find the internal forces. After this all the forces
of the reinforcement including the tensionstiffeningeffect are added. Finally an independent check is made for the plates shear stresses.
The following is a list of the concrete parameters taken from record CONC:
CONCFC
= calculation value of the concrete stiffness
CONCFCT
= average tension stiffness for tension stiffening
CONCFCTK = lower fractile of the tension stiffness for bare
concrete
CONCGC
= GC compression fracture energy
CONCGF
= GF tension fracture energy
CONCMUEC = friction value in the crack splice
Further inputs in ASE or SEPP:
LCBET2
CTRLNLAY

= load duration coefficient (beta2)


= number of layers to be calculated >=6,
default=10

Analysis on Serviceability Stress Level


Using the 1.0times serviceability loads the maximum desired stress is input
for this serviceability state at the material. The deformation and crack width
to be expected is in this case mostly interesting. The input of the concrete tensile strength of the (pure) concrete layer is particularly important. This value
is input in AQUA in CONC...FCTK and it can be modified subsequently temporarily in ASE with CTRL CONC V3+V4. The serviceability stressstrain
curve without any additional material safeties is requested then in ASE
(NSTR KSV SL = default).
The selection of a realistic concrete tensile strength fctk (pure strength without reinforcement) is here very important. If fctk or CTRL CONC V4 is not

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input, the plate remains in uncracked state I. It can be therefore reasonable


to decrease the value e.g. onto 60 % in order to consider a crack predamage
from construction stage (hydration heat). On the other hand realistic deflections are resulted often only with a high initial value for fctk.
Analysis with gammatimes Loads
If using gammatimes loads the corresponding material stressstrain curve
has to be selected in record NSTR in ASE. There are two possibilities according toe DIN 10451:
Analysis according to nonlinear method" according to DIN 10451
8.5.1: Here an averaged material safety of 1.3 is used. The material
strengths are modified for this purpose. They are available for DIN
10451 after AQUA and can be requested in ASE with NSTR KSV
CALD.
Example see betobeme_edin.dat in sofistikase.datenglish
Analysis in ultimate limit state NSTR KSV ULD
In both cases the pure concrete alone must include any tensile strengths.
CTRL CONC V4 0.0 or 0.01 must be input!
The increase of the steel stress due to the concrete action between the cracks
may be brought into approach (default for fct or CTRL CONC V3).
A nonlinear analysis for the ultimate limit state is particularly necessary for
additional effects from secondorder theory. Such an analysis with temporarily switchedoff tensile strength of the pure concrete causes however often big
deformations and bad convergences.
A reasonable procedure is therefore often also a determination of the internal
forces and moments with average values of the material strengths (analysis
in serviceability limit state) and a definitive design of the redistributed internal forces and moments with an average load safety coefficient (e.g. 1.45)
Futher explanations see example ase.dat\...\nonlinear_quad\ betobeme_edin.dat
Nonlinear StressStrain Curve in the Compressive Zone
The maximum concrete compression stiffness betaic, found in the compressive zone, is deduced from the principal stress relation. Betaic can either be
read from the Kupfer curve, or it can be calculated by the respective equations
[1] , pg. 260.

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Biaxial failure curve according to KupferHilsdorfRsch


With this maximum value betaic an uniaxial stressstrain line can be generated according to the concrete stressstrain curve for every of both principal
stress directions.
An increase value higher than 1.0 is only allowed for calculations in serviceability limit state. For calculations with gammatimes loads (ultimate limit
state) this increase is deactivated in the default, because it is mostly desired
that the maximum stress increases about the basic value of the concrete compressive strength betaic see CTRL CONC V2. A reduction of the permissible compressive stresses is always considered for lateral tension.
If the stress which is determined at first linearly is higher than the allowed
stress, the stress is reduced parallelly. The calculation is repeated again with
the possible modified principle stress ratio.
Tensile zone
In the tensile zone of concrete, the maximum value betaz, is always taken
as the lower fractile of the concrete stiffness fctk. The length of the descending

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curve results from the tension crack energy GF of the processing zone. Typical
values lie between 0.10 and 0.25 Nmm/mm2. The program restricts the
length of the descending curve to 5epslin see CTRL CONC VAL.
If a stressstrain curve for concrete is already defined in the tensile zone in
AQUA, then this one is used instead of the here described programinternal
curve! Thus it is possible to calculated steel fibre concrete > ase.dat\...\nonlinear_quad\stahlfaserbeton.dat.

Uniaxial stressstrain curve for the tensile zone


The element is seen as cracked as soon as the tensilestrain crosses the linear
limit value of epslin. Any further strain is stored as plastic tensilestrain and
is taken into account for reloading after an element has been unloaded (hysteresis). Due to the possibility of excessive tensile stiffness perpendicular to
the first crack, the program has to store two plastic tensilestrains at each
point (first crack and second crack).
It could be that a crack has already emerged when a primary load case is
taken over. In this case the fixed crack direction of the primary load case is
used for the calculation of the stresses. For this calculation the strains in the
direction of the crack and perpendicular to it are used. When a possible shear
stress is present at the crack it is lowered by a simple friction consideration
(Cracktoothing input with AQUACONCMUEC). This would prevent the
occurrence of a second crack perpendicular to the first crack. For biaxial
coated material, without the primary load case, two cracks are always perpendicular to each other.
Reinforcement

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The program takes the defined reinforcement as the default reinforcement.


The nonlinear analysis is then performed for the default reinforcement. An
automatic increase in lacking structural safety does not take place! It is
therefore the users responsibility to check the certainty of the convergence
of the analysis! Possible residual forces of the nonlinear iteration have to be
checked. Since these residual forces are stored as support forces they can be
checked with the program WinGRAF, this is done by generating a plot of the
support forces. During a plate analysis residual forces are also generated in
the plates plane (normal forces), this is because the program needs to find
equilibrium of the normal stresses.
Two input records can be used in ASE for the definition of the reinforcement.
With REI2 (twolayer reinforcement) one can define the reinforcement direction, concrete cover, bar diameter as well as a minimum reinforcement. REIQ
is used to import a reinforcement from a previously generated BEMESS
analysis. Without input for REI2 the reinforcement parameters are used
from BEMESSPARA or from the corresponding SSD design parameter dialog. The recommended method is used in the example betobeme_edin.dat. An
analysis can also be made with nonreinforced concrete, when no reinforcement is defined. Further information on the programs ASE or SEPP can be
found in the chapter "Definition of Reinforcement" as well as the latest
TEDDYHelp .
See also procedure at the end of the example betobeme_edin.dat
The consideration of the tension stiffening is done generally with a modification of the steel stressstrain curve described in [2] page 269. Since ASE
11.7621 the consideration in serviceability limit state (NSTR SL/SLD) occurs according to the method of Schiel (DAfStB Heft 400) or EC 2, because
more realistic deformation values result here. For the ultimate limit state
and the nonlinear determination of the internal forces and moments (NSTR
UL/ULD or CAL/CALD) the consideration of the tension stiffening is done according to the simplified method of the modified steel strains according to
DAfStB Heft 525. For a better clarity the in each case used method in ASE
is output again at the nonlinear properties of the plane elements.
Please note, that the serviceability analysis (NSTR KSV SL) should be done
usually according to Heft 400 also for DIN 10451, because it leads to a better
agreement with the test result according our experiences. In addition either
the bar diameter nor the crack distance have an influence for the strain increase betat(esr2esr1) according to Heft 525. This is not reasonable for calculations in serviceability limit state.

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Simplified method of the tensile stiffening acc. to Heft 525 (Bild H 84)
As are mentioned the methods according to Heft 400 DAfStb are used always
for calculation in serviceability limit state, because e.g. the bar diameter is
not practical for the nonlinear method according to DIN 10451. At first the
strains are determined here in the steel layers in reinforcement direction.
These strains are equal to the mean steel strains sm according to [3] Schiel
Heft 400 DAfStb. Thus the steel stress s in the cracked cross section in
cracked condition (state II) can be determined with equation (6) according to
[3], page 162 after the determination of the crack initiation stress sr which
is calculated in dependence on the corresponding strain state.
The analytical value of the crack width is determined according to Heft 400
for old DIN 1045 or for explicit input CTRL CONC V5 400.
w k,cal + 1.7 @ a m @ e sm
For the new design codes (and without the input of CTRL CONC V5 400) the
crack width is calculated according to DIN 10451 11.2.4 or according to the
Eurocode equation!
The average force of the steel insert is calculated by multiplying the steel
stress for the crack cross section in the cracked condition (state II) s with the
reinforced concrete area. This value can now be added to the concretes internal forces and moments.
The crack widths are always calculated in the direction of the reinforcement!
For nonreinforced elements it is only possible to calculate one crack direction, but the crack width can not be established. It is recommended to input
a minimum reinforcement therefore also for nonreinforced concrete in order
to get more attractive crack pictures.

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The calculated steel stress is checked with a uniaxial material law for the reinforced concrete.
The coefficient describing the connection properties is to be defined in
AQUASTEE. The factor for the influence of the load period is input in
ASELC.
For ultimate limit state the calculation is done according to Heft 525, if DIN
10451, DIN FB 102 or new EC 2 is set.
Shear force
The shear stresses for the concrete law are not calculated for each layer, as
is the case for the plastic yield criteria of STEEL, instead a simple shear limitation of the shear force is set with an assumed shear stress in the cracked
condition (state II) of
= q/z = q/(0.8 h)

(h = average of all the reinforcement layers)

If the linear calculated shear stress rises over the input value 02, then the
shear force is reduced accordingly and the element undergoes plastic shear
deformation. The value 02 is input with ASECTRL FRIC in N/mm2 and
the default value is set to 2.4 N/mm2.
The shear limitation is only calculated for the centre of gravity. Then it is proportionally assigned to all the Gauss points.
If a BEMESS calculation with punching occurs before the nonlinear ASE
calculation, then a check of the shear stresses in ASE is not done in the areas
of the punching point.
If this is not the case or if the permissible shear stress is exceeded at other
singular points, this not desired effect can be switched off via an increase of
TAU02 onto e.g. 9.9 N/mm2 if required. Then a shear or punching check has
to be done however separately.
Procedure of a Reinforced Concrete Plate Analysis
Usually the system is to be defined as a threedimensional system, this is because the crack opening will cause horizontal node displacements, even in the
plate analysis. For the special case of a reinforcedconcrete plate analysis the
system can also be entered as a girder grid SYST ROST the program SEPP
will then automatically introduce a horizontal statically determinate support.

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The first step would involve a linear analysis of the individual load cases, a
superposition of the load cases and a reinforced concrete design calculation
of the linear internal forces and moments. BEMESS will store the required
reinforcement dimensions under the design case number 1 (see BEMESS
CTRLLCR).
Subsequently a state load case has to be put together for the nonlinear
analysis. For the calculation of longterm deformations the load case components consist of self weight and a portion of the imposed load. A linear analysis of this load case is made, which is needed as a comparative reference later
on. Now the nonlinear analysis of this load case, under a different load case
number and with a predefined reinforcement, is calculated (design parameter from BEMESSPARA and input for ASEBEWQ).
The convergence of this nonlinear analysis needs to be checked. The program finds a stable solution for the case where the energy remains the same
(Energy convergence). Varying residual forces might occur due to inadequate
convergence in the normal force directions. These are generally not of importance, but should be checked with WinGRAF...nodes...residual forces.
The first load case of the nonlinear analysis is usually calculated by excluding creep and shrinkage. Subsequently another nonlinear calculation is
made, including creep and shrinkage, under a different load case number.
This is done so that the different effects can be compared and evaluated. It
is also advisable to generate several calculations where the concrete stiffness
FCTK is altered, due to the fact that this parameter has a significant impact
on the entire analysis.
The entire analysis should then be verified with the following load case results:
linear analysis of the state load case
nonlinear analysis without creep and shrinkage
nonlinear analysis with creep and shrinkage
The entire procedure for the calculation of a floor slab, in the cracked condition (state II), can be found in example betobeme_edin.dat in sofistik
ase.datenglish
Definition of the Reinforcement
The input REIQ...LCR...FACT is used to take over the reinforcement from the
design load case LCR, generated in BEMESS, with a factor FACT. But the

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amount of reinforcement is limited by a minimum and maximum value,


which is stipulated with REI2 or with the design parameters from BEMESS
PARA or the SSD design parameter dialogue box.
The new reinforcement is saved under the design load case LCRS (default
LCRS=99) and can or should be visualized and checked with WinGRAF.
The following rules apply for the concrete cover, the steel bar diameters and
the reinforcement directions:
Concrete cover: Distance to the centroid of the reinforcement:
Is taken over from the design parameters (BEMESSPARA or
SSD) or:
from a SOFiPLUS definition from the database
or from the input of record REI2 in ASE
or used as a default of 60 mm
Steel bar diameter: Same procedure as the centroid distance
default 10 mm
Reinforcement directions:
They are:
taken over at first from the design parameters
(BEMESSPARA or SSD)
possible overwrote with a SOFiPLUS definition.
For the case of an input in record REI2 in ASE, these are
taken over. (have precedence over the SOFiPLUSdefinition)
For the case where BEMESS results are taken over and no
directions have been defined by SOFiPLUS or input REI2:
Then the directions of BEMESS are used (It is still possible
to input the bar diameter and the minimum and maximum
amount of reinforcement with ASEREI2; a "" has to be
input for the reinforcement direction, if "no input" is desired
for the reinforcement direction)
Otherwise:
The reinforcement direction from SOFiPLUS or ASEREI2
is used. The smallest angle deviation is added to already
defined directions, for reinforcements from BEMESS.
0 and 90 degree steel is assumed for the case where nothing
has been defined.

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2.13.4. Output of the Results


Graphical Representation
The graphical output of the results over the thickness of the QUAD elements
is another side effect of the consistent saving of the results in all the layers.
The ANIMATOR (MenuQUADLayerStresses) is used for the visualization of the results. The following picture shows the stresses in a single
QUAD element. The element is a sandwich element, where the soft inner
layer is covered by two harder toplayers.

The next picture shows the nonlinear stresses in a concrete arched shell.
Here the cracks can be seen in the tensile zone. The thin lines are the stresses
in the reinforcement layers. The significant numerical values, e.g. the maximum steel stress, are output in addition in the dialogue box.

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The visualization of the nonlinear results from the steel and concrete law is
still possible with WinGRAF, e.g. the visualization of the crack distribution
at the underside of a plate, like in example of the reinforced concrete slab in
cracked condition.
Numerical output of the Results
The entire nonlinear results, like the crack widths or stresses in the cracked
condition (state II), can only be released by an ASE or SEPP calculation. For
this the ECHO FORC record is used. The internal forces and moments can
be released subsequently with DBVIEW, DBPRIN or MAXIMA.
Statistics of Nonlinear Effects
The available nonlinear effects are logged at the end of a nonlinear calculation in ASE:
Statistic nichtlinear effects:
==============================
Statistic plasticity: number of checked QUADgausspoints:
number of plastified gausspoints:
number of cracked gausspoints
:
Maximum concrete compression strain ............
Minimum averaged reinforcement strain ..........
Maximum averaged reinforcement strain ..........
Maximum reinforcement tension strain in crack ..
Maximum concrete compression stress ............
Maximum concrete tension in the concrete layers
Minimum reinforcement stress ...................

252

:
:
:
:
:
:
:

3960
3481
2333
0.55
0.27
0.71
1.01
16.79
1.93
54.69

[o/oo]
[o/oo]
[o/oo]
[o/oo]
[MPa]
[MPa]
[MPa]

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Maximum
Maximum
Minimum
Minimum
Minimum
Minimum

reinforcement stress ................... :


crack width in direction of reinforcement:
compression depth in local x axis ...... :
compression depth in local y axis ...... :
" at least pressed uniaxial .......... :
compression depth pressed biaxial ...... :

201.11
0.12
0.000
0.115
0.115
0.000

[MPa]
[mm]
[m]
[m]
[m]
[m]

2.13.5. Miscellaneous Information


Iteration Control Improvement of the Convergence
Concrete Law
Usually a tolerance of 0.01 is sufficient for the concrete law (record SYST
...TOL). This tolerance is also needed for the energy convergence.
The convergence problems in nonlinear calculations, which consider the
concrete law, could initially be solved by increasing the number of iterations
(SYST...ITER). If after, for example, 50 iteration the energy still increases,
the load can not be taken up anymore, this is because:
a lack of reinforcement (tensile forces can not be compensated
anymore)
the plate is to thin (compression failure)
the elements next to the singularity are to small (shear problem)
All these three problems lead to a point where the load can not be compensated anymore, due to an increase in strain. So the product of loadstrain =
energy will increase constantly.
This can only be resolved by altering the system:
increase reinforcement
adjust the dimensions
decrease the load (try a lower load step)
If the program does not reach a residual force equilibrium, even if the energy
converges (the energy seems to remain close to the limiting value), then generally it could be attributed to the following reason: The program does not
reach equilibrium in the normal direction of the plate small changes in the
strain plane generate large normal forces. Although this phenomena is
usually insignificant for plate calculations and only has a local influence on
the result. This becomes apparent when a check is performed on the residual
forces (WinGRAF...nodes...residual forces).

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If no convergence is found, the intermediate results of the iterations are saved


with the load case numbers from 90001. They can be checked in the ANIMATOR with displacements and in WinGRAF with residual forces in order to
find out the cause of the lacked convergence.
Often the convergence can be improved by the lowering of the concrete tension stiffness e.g. to 0.5 N/mm2. This is because the negative stiffness, on the
decreasing curve of the concrete stressstrain curve, is not that big and it can
be equilibrated by the positive stiffness of the reinforcement including the
tension stiffening. On the other hand it is possible that a bigger concrete tension stiffness could instantaneously release a large amount of concrete failure
energy. This energy would then spread like a chain reaction through the system and convergence would be prevented. An increase in the minimum reinforcement would also improve the convergence, because the reinforcement
would counteract the negative stiffness of the decreasing stressstrain curve.
Steel Law
Steel plates or shells do not encounter instantaneous tension failure, as is the
case for the concrete law. Besides being able to increase the number of iterations (SYST...ITER), one also has the possibility to generate a trilinear instead of a bilinear stressstrain curve, which has its advantages. The tangential stiffness in a bilinear curve is equal to zero, i.e. a strain correction of the
program would not alter the stress. Another advantage is the slowly increasing curve, which is favourable for the NewtonRaphsonmethod.
In addition the steel law allows a stepwise increase of the load, as described
in chapter "bearing load iteration".
Tangential Stiffness
For nonlinear material calculations one always works with linear initial
stiffness and compensation of the unabsorbed residual forces. An experimental material stiffness was implemented for improving the convergence of
the iterations, but it did not achieve the desired effect and was thus deactivated.
Nonlinear material calculations, according to the firstorder theory, utilize
the Chrisfield standard (CTRL ITER 0) in the iteration control. The line
search with the geometrictangential stiffness matrix is only utilized for the
case where the effects according to the secondorder theory are additional
activated (CTRL ITER 3). The material matrix is always substituted with the
linear initial stiffness and is not tangentially updated.

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Bearing Load Iteration


In a lot of cases it is of interest to establish the maximum bearing load of a
given system. To do this the bearing load iteration is applied. Here the load
is increased stepwise until the point of failure is reached. The point of failure
is interpreted as a lack in energy convergence, i.e. the system starts to fail if
the energy is steadily increased during a bearing load iteration. A description
of a simple bearing load iteration can be found in the ASE manual under
example ASE9 (QuadEulerbeam).
For nonlinear material calculations it often happens that this automatic
method does not reach adequate equilibrium, due to a lack in normal force
convergence, even if the bearing load has not been reached yet. This can be
overcome by entering a negative input for STEP under the record ULTI. Now
the load is continuously increased, even if no convergence is reached after
every individual load step. The user has to be assessed then the systems bearing capacity according to the energy convergence, the remaining residual
forces and the load deflection curve. Alternatively the procedure could gain
stability through the dynamic calculation.

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2.14.

ASE

Membrane Structures: Formfinding and Static


Analysis

2.14.1. Overview
Membrane structures are characterized by transferring of loads only with
normal forces. Bending moments and shear forces are not available. The
analysis with real membrane elements is more comfortable and more exactly
unlike the simplified processing with a truss model, because the geometry
and the stress state can be generated any exactly. An orientation of the truss
elements in defined directions is not necessary.
The first task is the formfinding during the analysis of membrane structures.
A corresponding form is searched for a desired stress state in the membrane.
A soap skin is only result here for the isotropic prestress. Forms which are
different to the soap skin need a normal force distribution which modifies itself about the structure.
If the membrane form is found, real load cases can be calculated with this new
form as initial system. The membrane must be omitted here for compression.
Further textile properties are realized mostly by a simplified linear elastic
orthotropic material law.
Edge stiffenings with edge cables, inside cables or compression arches have
to be considered in real structures.

2.14.2. The Membrane Element


The membrane element implemented in ASE can be used only for calculations with large deformations with SYST ... PROB TH3. It is activated with
the material input NMAT MEMB or with an input in SOFiMSHA...QUAD...NRA=2 (QUAD only with membrane action). The program
configuration levels ASE13 are necessary for the material nonlinear element and ASE4 for compression failure.
Properties
The membrane element described here is implemented in the FE program
ASE of the SOFiSTiK AG. It has following properties:
The membrane element processes only membrane internal forces and
moments (NX, NY, NXY).
It bears arbitrary large strains and rotations.

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It bears large twists and transmits the membrane forces from the twist
into the right direction (here forces are available perpendicular to the
thought element centre area).
It is possible to use threenoded or fournoded elements for it.
A prestress can be defined (also orthotropic).
Stress modifications can be suppressed for the formfinding.
It failures for compression (adjustable).
Orthotropic material properties can be considered (linearelastic approximation).

Nodal forces at twisted membrane element


The stiffness of the membrane element consists of the normal strain stiffness
in the element plane and of a initial stress stiffness from the prestress of the
element.

K + K 0 ) K s
Input of the Membrane element
Membrane elements are input like normal shell elements as element type
QUAD. If the element formulation NRA=2 (see SOFiMSHAQUAD) is set
immediately, the element is marked as membrane. Otherwise a normal
QUAD element can be defined as membrane with a nonlinear material input
NMAT.
Nonlinear properties can be activated in AQUA with NMAT MEMB P1 P2.
P1

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Yield strength for tension


maximum tensile strength in kN/m in warp and fill direction,
practical e.g. for geotextiles

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Old inputs with P1=0.0 or P1=1.0 are not considered.


(P1 was used formerly with another meaning.)
P2

Factor for compression survey


P2=1.0
The membrane can sustain the compression.
P2=0.0
The membrane cannot sustain the compression.
(only reasonable after formfinding)
P2=0.1
Intermediate values are possible, the elastic
modulus is reduced correspondingly for the
compression strains.

Special Features for the System Input


The system should be already defined, if possible, threedimensionally with
boundary arches. The boundary cables can be introduced then with full stiffness in the first formfinding step, because they have already the right length.
The threedimensional input has also the advantage, that the span cables
and columns can be already input in the threedimensional system. Then the
still inaccurate form of the membrane is smoothed via shrinkage" of the
membrane see formfinding.
Only for systems with high reference point it is reasonable to input the system at first twodimensionally, because the input is significantly simpler
here. The membrane can be hoisted then at marked points via nodal point displacements.
Mesh selection
Automatically generated meshes are unproblematic for systems without
high reference points. They should be avoided at high reference points. At
high reference points a radially and tangentially oriented mesh is numerically more stable and optically more beautiful due to the often orthotropic
prestress.
Mesh macros
Pregenerated macros can be used for high reference points. Macros which are
read in such a way are optimized for the registration of the stress conditions
at the high reference points and delivers a good geometry for high reference
points (The distance of the inner elements is selected deliberately near in the
initial system, because they are stretched due to the hoisting during formfinding).

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The macros are placed in the plan, adjusted to the size (stretched) and the remaining membrane area is closed with a normal element mesh.
Boundary cables
Boundary cables should be always defined with the desired final curvature
at an arch during input in the plan see chapter Free Cable Edges defined
in the Initial System with Radius.
Mixed systems
If the membrane should be calculated together with other structural
members (walls, pylons, girders), the input is mostly urgently necessary with
threedimensional initial system.
Prestress and Formfinding
As in outline mentioned in chapter Overview", the prestress is decisive for
the formfinding. Different membrane forms can be generated with different
prestressing states.
This phenomenon becomes especially clear for boundary cables: If a boundary
cable is more prestressed for a given membrane prestress, a larger cable
radius will result and thus a smaller pass of the boundary cable:

a boundary cable left with small, right with large prestress


At high reference points a too large prestress ties up the neck":

left a too small, right a too large prestress

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The user has to be known the desired form at the beginning. The pass of the
boundary cable should be used already during the system input. The input FE
mesh should include therefore the boundary cable curvature.
Soap skin
In a soap skin an isotropic prestress is available in all points of the membrane.
This prestress is determined about the surface tension of the liquid for the
genuine soap skin.
The strain stiffness disappears here in the mathematical model. The equilibrium results only from the threedimensional equilibrium of the isotropic
stresses. The stiffness of the membrane results to:

K + K s
The stiffness keeps the membrane in its form perpendicularly to the membrane area. Thought points are freely movable in the plane of the membrane
area. For the genuine soap skin the phenomenon is visible at the blurring of
the points (bubbles) on the skin surface.
The in all directions constant prestress is input in ASE with the record GRP
... PREX,PREY (acts on all element types, also on cables, beams ...).
Constant orthotropic prestress
The direction of effective span is often dominating in one direction for rectangular membrane areas. Then it is desired to set a larger prestress in this
direction than perpendicularly to it. Nevertheless the prestress is of the same
size in all points, if also orthotropically.

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orthotropic prestress in longitudinal direction larger than in transverse direction


The orthotropic constant prestress is input in ASE either with the record
GRP ... PREX,PREY in local element direction or with the record HIGH with
a high reference point distance > 999 m in global direction.
Orthotropic high reference point prestress
If genuine high reference points are available for membranes, the orthotropic
prestress is often desired with a fixed ratio of tangential/radial prestress in
order to avoid a large tying up of the membrane at the high reference point.
A radial stress which increases to the high reference point is necessary for
that.
A such axisymmetric stress state of the high reference point is generated with
HIGH. The ratio of the tangential to the radial prestress is input with the
item PTPR. In dependence on PTPR the stress increases much or not so much
to the high reference point.
Example of a high refence point at X = 5.0 m, Y = 0.0 m:
HIGH X 5.0 Y 0.0 PR1 20 PTPR 0.4 produces:
sigr in distance of 1m
= 20.00 kN/m
sigt in distance of 1m
= 8.00 kN/m (0.4*20)
and due to equilibrium reasons in distance of e.g. 10 m:
sigr in distance of 10m
= PR1*1/r*e^(PTPR*ln(r))
= 20*1/10*exp(0.4*ln(10))
= 5.02 kN/m
sigt in distance of 10m
= 2.01 kN/m (0.4*5.02)
see example file: membhoch.dat
input: HIGH XM YM ZM NX NY NZ PR1 PTPR NOG

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As a default an input for a high reference point has an effect for all QUAD elements, also for elements which are not a membrane. For mixed systems the
prestress is allocated therefore with NOG to the corresponding group. It is
also possible to input some high reference points per group. The program generates then the average value from the inputs in each element in dependence
on the distance to the different high reference points. In the following
example there are four high points and one low point in a membrane area. The
tangential part PTPR may not be too large for the high reference points, because the membrane constricts itself and tears off. The factor PTPR is input
therefore different for the five high reference points in this example.

orthotropic high reference point prestress with some high reference


points (membran5.dat)
If the distance is larger than 1000 m, the constant prestress is assumed with
a stress in direction to the high reference point always of PR1 and a stress
perpendicularly to it always of PTPRPR1 and therefore without radial reduction. The advantage of this input is the simple definition of skewed prestress
independently on the direction of the local element coordinate systems! The
stress in the QUAD elements results from the global directions!
Elastic skin
A membrane can be defined from the beginning with the real stiffness and can
be hoisted from the plane initial system at the high reference points or at the
boundary cables. It results then large stresses in direction to the high reference points in dependence on the material properties. They can be scaled,
however, by using this state with the group factors FACL+FACS. The use of
a elastic skin formfinding is described in chapter Unstable Membrane
Forms".

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Input of the Prestress for Different Groups


Definition in different groups
For membrane analyses the system has to be got already in the first step an
information about a prestress in the elements, because otherwise the system
is unstable the stiffness is zero perpendicularly to the membrane without
prestress! A load prestress which is input with ELLO is still not considered
for the system stiffness. The prestress has to be input therefore with GRP or
HIGH.
The different elements of the structure like:
membrane areas
boundary cables
structural cables
pylones and other beams
massive support elements (concrete walls ...)
are defined in different groups and can get thus different prestresses from
GRP and HIGH.
If different radii in boundary cables should be kept exactly (formfinding also
for boundary cables), then also the boundary cables should be defined in different groups. If the boundary radii were already input graphically (is absolutely recommended), it is possible to refrain the exact input of the boundary
cable prestress, because the boundary cable force results from the radius and
the membrane prestress during the formfinding.
Criteria for the Input of the Prestress
Free cable edges (free membrane edges reinforced with cables) should be
input already as arch with the desired curvature radius in the initial system.
The radius is preset in any case by the architect. If the boundary cable is defined as line in the initial system and the final edge circle should be determined by the program, then impermissible element angles are often available
due to the distorsions. The iterations are much faster and clearer, if the edge
arch has approximately the final position already in the initial system.
The prestress which should be input for the boundary cable results to:

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cable force = membrane force radius

P=nr

It is to be noted, that physical impermissible inputs do not arise. Unconsistent inputs can arise especially at the connection points of cables. In the following example an equilibrium is possible without an angle of the cable
forces, because P1 > P2+P3.

cable 2

cable 1

cable 3

Illogical preset cable prestress ((H and V can not be right)

2.14.3. Formfinding
System Definition Two Options
The initial structure can be defined with two options for the formfinding:
Definition of a threedimensional initial system with at first plane partial areas:
The boundary points of the structure are input threedimensionally.
The remaining areas are defined e.g. as folded structure. The program
takes over the formfinding of the inner area.
Definition of a plane initial system:
The structure is input twodimensionally. At arbitrary points the
structure is hoisted" then at support nodes.
Threedimensional Initial System
Threedimensional initial system without cable edges
Example angle, example file mwinkel.dat.

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A system is defined threedimensionally from two planes (folded structure).


All boundary points are supported, the lower edge is free.

Threedimensional initial system angle


The membrane prestress is defined isotropic with GRP ... SIGX SIGY in kN/m
during the formfinding step. Because the strains should not lead to stress
modifications due to the formfinding, the element stiffness is set almost to 0:
GRP FACS=1E10. The QUAD elements with the material number 1 are defined as membrane elements (NMAT 1 MEMB). ASE input:
PROG ASE
HEAD Formfinding for Threedimensional Initial Systems
SYST PROB TH3 $ for geomatrical nonlinear iterations
GRP 0 FACS 1E10 PREX 10 PREY 10 $ prestress definition 10 kN/m
LC 1 TITL Formfinding
$ formfinding without further load
END

A load case with real 1.0times stiffness should be follow after each formfinding load case for the check of the formfinding in order to guarantee that possible constraints do not lead to impermissible differences during formfinding
(see constraints during formfinding CTRL FIXZ 1).
PROG ASE
HEAD Compensation
SYST PROB TH3 PLC
GRP 0 FACS 1
$
$
LC 2
END

of Possible Residual Forces


1
$ uses the primary load case 1
elemets with full stiffness, stresses
are used from load case 1 (see record GRP)

The iterations are necessary due to the effects from thirdorder theory. The
vertical force parts (sinus() ) change due to the large displacements. In
addition the element geometries change also in part considerably. The first
ASE calculations ends successfully after 9 iterations:

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Iteration 1 Residual
Update nonlinear stiffness
Iteration 2 Residual
Iteration 3 Residual
Update nonlinear stiffness
Iteration 4 Residual
Iteration 5 Residual
Iteration 6 Residual
Update nonlinear stiffness
Iteration 7 Residual

1.889 energy

22.6089

Step

11 f=

1.000

0.239 energy
0.222 energy

30.7733
32.4090

Step
Step

21 f=
31 f=

1.487
1.814

0.134 energy
0.017 energy
0.008 energy

32.7557
32.6185
32.6450

Step
Step
Step

41 f=
42 f=
51 f=

1.838
0.604
0.607

0.003 energy

32.6701

Step

61 f=

1.178

The convergence has to be checked by the user. Indeed the programs prints
a warning in the case of inadequate convergence, but it saves the results
nevertheless.
The result of the formfinding of load case 1 is shown in the following picture.
The load case 2 does not deliver any modifications. The check of the formfinding does not show disturbances.

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Result of the formfinding threedimensional initial system angle"


For orthotropic prestress other forms which are all free form areas result in
dependence on the prestress condition:

Vlong/Vlat=1:5

Vlong/Vlat=1:2

orthotropic prestress threedimensional initial system angle"


Corresponding input files:
PROG ASE
HEAD Angle with Orthotropic Prestress
SYST PROB TH3
GRP
0
FACS 1E10
HIGH 9999 0 PR1 10 PTPR 0.2
$ PR1 = prestress radial in a distance of 1m from high reference point
$ PTPR = prestress ration tangential/radial
LC 1 TITL Formfinding
END

Free Cable Edges defined in the Initial System with Radius


Example stand roofing, example file mdach.dat

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If possible, a cable radius should be considered already during the graphical


input. That means the cable should be input in an arch (see chapter Boundary cables").
Following system was generated threedimensionally as folded structure
with plane partial meshes during a graphical input. The cable edges are displaced only horizontally in the plane at a circle:

Stand roofing initial system plane left and angular picture right
Group classification:
group 1:
group 2:
group 3:

membrane
edge cable left
edge cable right

expected membrane force XY=105 kN/m


expected radius = 16 m
expected radius = 46 m

Here the cable radius is preset instead of the cable force. The membrane prestress should have 10 kN/m in x direction, however, only 5 kN/m in y direction!
Thus a first estimated cable force of P = n r with a membrane force n=10
kN/m perpendicular to the cable results (group 2: N = 16m 10 kN/m = 160
kN).
Because the cable radius is not to be modified significantly, the cable elements
are considered with their normal stiffness (GRP ... FACS 1.0) during the calculation. A cable force modification is possible thereby. Here it is important,
that the radius of the input is kept approximately in the final result (specification of the architect).
Otherwise the membrane should be kept the stress. The membrane stiffness
is set therefore as usual with GRP ... FACS 1E10:
PROG ASE
HEAD Formfinding
CTRL CABL 0

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SYST PROB TH3
GRP
1
FACS 1E10 PREX 10 PREY
GRP
2
FACS 1
PREX 160
3
FACS 1
PREX 460
GRP
LC 1 DLZ 1 TITL Formfinding with DL
END

General Static Analysis FE

5 $ membrane 10 KN/m 5 KN/m2


$ cable N= p*r = 10*16 = 160KN
$ cable N= p*r = 10*46 = 460KN

The dead load is used simultaneously. The form is searched therefore for the
loading prestress + dead load. Only the elimination of possible constraint
forces is done again in a following calculation in load case 2:
PROG ASE
HEAD Compensation of Possible Residual Forces with FACS=1.0
$ uses primary load case 1
SYST PROB TH3 PLC 1
GRP FACS 1
$ elements now with full stiffness, stresses
LC 2 DLZ 1 TITL end of formfinding FACS=1.0
END

Because the displacement picture is not different for load case1 and 2, only
the final result of load case 2 is shown here:

Found form with prestress + dead load

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Free cable edges defined straightly in initial system
Example angle, example file mwinkel2.dat.

Such a process should be avoided, because the QUAD elements are deformed
possibly impermissible during the deformation of the boundary cable. This
distortion and rotation of the QUAD elements is very unfavourable for orthotropic prestress, because the local coordinate system of the elements and the
direction of the orthotropic prestress are turned.
Following example should demonstrate nevertheless the possibility of the
formfinding for cable edges which are input straightly. The first example
mwinkel.dat is so modified, that a upper boundary is defined as free edge
(without support conditions) and a boundary cable is generated at the boundary nodes. The membrane is defined in group 0 and the cable in group 1.
The iteration is very fast for the system and the result is reasonable, because
boundary cable curvature does not distort the QUAD elements. The cable
radius is resulted always according to following formula:
cable force = membrane force radius
or

P=nr

r = P / n = 8 kN / 2 kN/m = 4 m

Free cable edge result of the formfinding

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Plane Initial System


Plane initial system without high reference point
Example file innenhof.dat
Without additional elements like columns it is possible to define systems in
plane and to hoist at corners. Only corner nodes in the plane, boundary cables
with desired edge radii as well as meshes which are hooked in are generated
here. The system is simple hoisted then at the corner nodes about the support
displacements. The membrane becomes mostly a soap skin prestress which
is input with GRP ... PREX,PREY. The boundary cables have mostly a fixed
radius. The first estimation of the prestress of the boundary edges results
from the membrane force multiplied by this radius.
Only a formfinding in global Z direction is done in the first calculation, because the form of the boundary edges may not change in the plane! A following
calculation with FACS=1.0 is necessary for the determination of the exact
threedimensional equilibrium. Boundary edges get partially other forces
than in the plane due to the threedimensional helix orientation:
PROG
HEAD
CTRL
SYST
GRP
GRP
LC 1
NL

ASE
Formfinding in global Z direction with CTRL FIXZ 3
CABL 0 $ without inner cable sag
PROB TH3
0 FACS 1E10 PREX
2 PREY
2 $ membrane 2 kN/m
2 FACS 1E10 PREX 20*2
DLZ 1 TITL Formfinding
NO
P1 type=wz
3
8.40
127
6.06
285
3.28
399
7.76
398
8.40
355
3.98
61
3.28
1
12.18

END
PROG ASE M4
KOPF Compensation with FACS=1.0
CTRL PROB TH3 PLC 1
GRP (0 99 1) FACS 1
LC 2 DLZ 1 TITL Compensation with FACS=1.0
END

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Patio left plane initial system right result of the formfinding


Plane initial system with high reference point
The plane system input is very advantageous for systems with high reference
points. The high reference points are hoisted using the support displacements (record NL) and remain in this position for further calculations. Following input generates the formfinding for a small tangential prestress
(HIGH ratio tangential/radial prestress = PTPR=0.1):
example file membhoch.dat
PROG ASE
HEAD Input of highe reference point
SYST PROB TH3
0
FACS 1E10 $ membrane
GRP
HIGH 0 0 PR1 10 PTPR 0.1
LC 1 DLZ 1 TITL Formfinding
NL 481 WZ 6 $ 6 m heaving of the centre node
END
HEAD Compensation with FACS=1.0
SYST PROB TH3 PLF 1
GRP

FACS 1.0 $ membrane


LC 2 DLZ 1 TITL Compensation with FACS=1.0
END

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Angular picture: plane initial system result of the formfinding principle membrane force
The formfinding which begins with a plane initial mesh is to be seen also very
well for another example with four high points and one low point. The system
is here also generated very fast in the plane by copying the high reference
point macro (example file membran5.dat).
Mesh Control
It exists the danger in the formfinding step, that the nodal points become
blurred in the membrane plane. In order to avoid that, intern disc stiffnesses
are generated with the socalled mesh control during formfinding.
If this automatic mesh control does not function, further variants can be activated with the manual control CTRL ... FIXZ:

Possible displacements of membrane nodes constraints are generated perpendicularly to the drawn vectors at FIXZ=2
The automatic fixation of the nodes in the membrane plane is only used for
the formfinding QUAD elements. A formfinding is assumed, if the stiffness
factor of all QUAD elements which adjoin to a node is smaller than 0.5 (e.g.
GRP ... FACS=1.E10). If other static elements (e.g. QUAD) exists with full
stiffness or bending beams are available at a node, then no fixation is done
at this node.

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After end of the formfinding (e.g. for calculation of wind load cases) the membrane is used with full stiffness GRP ... FACS=1.0 and no fixation of the nodes
is done in the membrane plane.
Possible variants:
CTRL FIXZ=1

CTRL FIXZ=5

automatic mesh control


= default
fixes the nodes in the membrane plane for
all iteration steps
fixes generally all nodes in global XY
fixes the local z coordinate in the first iteration step
the transverse direction in further steps
fixes the local z coordinate in all iteration steps

CTRL FIXZ=4
or
5

can be used for the formfinding of boundary


cable radii

CTRL FIXZ=2
CTRL FIXZ=3
CTRL FIXZ=4

Saving of the Found Form


If the formfinding is completed, it is basically possible to put always on the
found form with SYST PLC for further calculations. A result representation
with WinGRAF is actually always desired at the formfinding system. In addition it is desired, that the ANIMATOR lets swing e.g. the deformations from
wind in relation to the formfinding system. Without further control, however,
the ANIMATOR would swing between the input system and the system deformed by the wind. In addition a new selection of the local coordinate system
of the membrane elements is sometimes reasonable, if e.g. a fibre direction
of the cloth should be defined from the high reference point.
A function SYST ... STOR is therefore available in ASE. With this function
the coordinates and the local coordinate systems of the elements can be generated newly by using the deformations of a load case PLC. Displacements of
the load cases which put on that are only output as difference displacements
to this updated system.
Following literals are indicated in this case for STOR:
STOR YES
The position of the new local coordinate system of the QUAD elements results from the strains of the primary load case PLC.

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STOR NEW, XX, YY, ZZ, NEGX, NEGY, NEGZ


The local coordinate systems are calculated newly from the new
coordinates.
see manual SOFiMSHA record QUAD KR
Example mwinkel.dat
The local coordinate systems and the stresses of the load case 2 are printed
as follows in the initial system:

Coordinate system and representation of the internal forces and moments at the initial system
After the update of the geometry with:
PROG ASE
HEAD
SYST PLC 2 STOR YES
END

the same representation is printed considerably more beautifully. The undeformed (!) structure of the updated system is represented now:

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Representation of the coordinate system and the internal forces and


moments at the updated system
With STOR YES the internal forces and moments of the primary load case
can be used and represented furthermore, because the internal forces and
moments refer to the new coordinate system.
With STOR NEW,XX ... NEGZ the internal forces and moments do not match
the new coordinate system and they are deleted during an ASE calculation
with SYST ... STOR NEW...NEGZ.
The displacements of the primary load case are deleted in any case, because
they are included now in the geometry in the new coordinates.
The current database can be saved with SYST ... STOR before an update, e.g.
with
+sys copy $(project).cdb sichxyz.cdb.
Formfinding with Loading
The dead load of the construction was input during formfinding already in the
example of the stand roofing. The found form lies then a little deeper as the
pure membrane form without dead load. The effect does not strike for a small
dead load. Also the boundary cable is very light.
It is also possible to search deliberately a form with consideration of an outside loading, e.g. with constant internal pressure.
An internal pressure of 2 kN/m2 is used during the formfinding in the
examples (mwinkel.dat). The membrane prestress is selected with 2 kN/m2.
The formfinding is done now in several steps in order to consider the new
orientation of the load area see following chapter.
PROG ASE
HEAD New formfinding with additional internal pressure2 KN/m2
SYST PROB TH3

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GRP 0 FCKS 1E10 PREX 2 PREY 2 $ membrane 2 KN/m


LC 11 TITL Formfinding internal pressure 1
ELLO 1 9999 1 TYPE PZ P 2.0
END
PROG ASE
HEAD Update formfinding internal pressure
SYST PROB TH3 PLC 11
GRP 0 FACS 1E10 $ once more formfinding without stress increase
$ due to strain of the loading !
LC 12 TITL Update formfinding internal pressure
ELLO 1 9999 1 TYPE PZ P 2.0
END
PROG ASE
HEAD Compensation with FACS=1.0
SYST PROB TH3 PLC 12 ITER 90 NMAT YES
GRP

FACS 1.0
LC 13 TITL Compensation with FACS=1.0
ELLO 1 9999 1 TYPE PZ P 2.0
END

The membrane eigenstiffness is switched off again in the formfinding load


cases 11+12 in order to prevent stress modifications in the membrane force
due to strains. The load case 12 shows following deformation picture:

Example angle with internal pressure

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load case 11
Angle with internal pressure

load case 12

Because the local coordinate systems are directed inwards, the internal pressure was input negatively in ELLO.
The lower picture shows the formfinding of a compressed air tennis hall beginning with a plane mesh. The calculation as ideal soap skin results here in
a curios corner generation. Real tennis halls leave mostly the ideal soap skin
form for the benefit of a better space utilization in the corner with the disadvantage of an orthotrop stress distribution with disturbance areas in the
corner.

Tennis hall: pumping up of a soap skin with plane initial system


tennis.dat
A further example for formfinding with internal pressure is to be found in
sechseck.dat:

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Hexagon: pumping up of a spherical shell (increase 1.0) sechseck.dat


Load Direction and Load Area
A setting up onto the load case 11 with the same load is urgently necessary
in load case 12 for the last example, because the conversion of the load into
nodal loads can be done only on basis of the element geometry of the primary
load case. On the one hand the used nodal load is to small in load case 11
the elements become larger due to the pumping up. On the other hand the
load direction of the nodal loads is not correct, because the local z axis is
twisted. A new setting up onto the load case 11 is urgently necessary in load
case 12 with a new calculation of the nodal loads using the coordinates of the
load case 11, if loaded systems have large deformations! This is done, however, fully automatically, if the load case 11 is used in the further calculation
with SYST ... PLC 11!
Furthermore a compensation in xyz is necessary in load case 12 also due to
the large curvatures. It can be recognized at the obvious horizontal expanding
of the bubble".
For all element loading it is generally valid: The load is converted into nodal
loads at the system of the primary load case. Deformations of the current
calculated load case do not twist the load anymore. It has to be calculated
therefore always with small load steps and with a new setting up onto a primary load case also for a girder which is designed for buckling, if e.g. the load
should be twisted to the local z axis of the beam in conformity with the beam
rotations!

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Formfinding for Compression Arch Shells


The form which is found with the soap skin and e.g. using negative dead load
can be used also as initial system for a compression shell. In this case the element thicknesses and the material parameters can be redefined after formfinding and the membrane elements can be converted into normal shell elements which can carry then the positive dead load and the real loads with
compressive forces, bending moments and shear forces. In SOFiMSHA the
definition NRA=2 may not be input. The switching over from the membrane
to the concrete is done with a first AQUA calculation with MAT + NMAT
MEMB for the formfinding. Then the material CONC is redefined with a following AQUA calculation.

2.14.4. Static Analysis


In general the formfinding is only a first step during the calculation of membrane structures. The loading wind and snow which is essentially for the design of the building structure must be carried by the system which is determined during formfinding. The snow load can be defined mostly very simple.
The wind load, however, depends on the height, position and direction of the
single element.
Generation of the Wind Load
If the possibilities for the input of the wind load are not sufficient in SOFiMSHA, the wind load can be defined also as block load (example membdruc.dat or umbrella.dat). With a little more expenditure the wind load can
be input also as a function of the height in dependence on the position with
angle functions.
The output of all elements including the definition of the element centre of
gravity as well as the printout of the local z axis (normal) can be done in ASE
with ECHO ELEM 4. If the list is read into a table calculation program, it can
be fast converted into a ASEELLO input by using of formulas. Then each element get its own local loading. A system has not to be calculated using
ECHO ELEM 4 in an ASE calculation CTRL SOLV 0 can be input here. The
output values refer to the system which was displaced possibly with the primary load case SYST ... PLC. Following input generates the subsequent output:

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PROG ASE
HEAD Element centre of gravitiy and normal vector for wind loading
ECHO FULL NO
ECHO ELEM 4
CTRL SOLV 0
SYST PLC 12
LC 13 DLZ 1
END
S H E L L
E L E M E N T S
ELNo
XM(m)
YM(m)
ZM(m)
1
22.267
6.178
.398
2
21.832
8.165
.326
3
20.999
3.618
.633
4
19.828
1.022
.817
5
20.687
8.110
.628
6
20.635
5.709
.978
7
20.237
7.585
.902
element centre of gravity

nx
ny
nz
.342
.082
.936
.222 .264
.939
.381
.105
.919
.412
.123
.903
.251 .283
.926
.364
.069
.929
.249 .264
.932
| normal vector |

Wind pressure till compression failure


The tensile stresses due to the prestress can not be sufficient for large wind
forces in the reality. Further compressive strains lead to folds in the membrane. They have, however, no influence on the structural behaviour for these
special cases. The system is mostly stable also with folds. The program ASE
can realized the load transfer which exists here with switching off of the compressive stresses.
A wind pressure from below which uses the prestress in transverse direction
up is used in the example stand roofing (mdach.dat). It would produce therefore folds in reality. At first the system is updated in the calculation by setting
up onto formfinding load case 2:
PROG
HEAD
HEAD
SYST
END

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System update for calculation of new displacements
from formfinding state LC 2
PLC 2 STOR YES

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Updated system coordinate systems

Side view
All elements with the stiffness factor 1.0 have to be input now for the following wind loading, because strains should generate now stress modifications
in the system. Because the full wind loading of 0.8 kN/m2 does not converge
in a step, only 0.3 kN/m2 are used at first:
PROG
HEAD
CTRL
NMAT
SYST
GRP
GRP
GRP

ASE
Wind pressure from below 0.3 kN/m2
CABL 0
1 MEMB P2 0 $ membrane without compressive stresses
PROB TH3 NMAT YES PLC 2 $ NMAT=YES due to switch off of compression
1
FACS 1
FACL 1 PREX 0 $ prestress due to FACL 1.0
2
FACS 1
FACL 1 PREX 0 $ uses from PLC, PREX is not input
3
FACS 1
FACL 1 PREX 0 $ anymore, therefore
$ all group factors should be now FACS+FACL=1.0,
$ because stress modifiction is now reasonable and necessary
LC 13 DLZ 1.0 TITL Wind pressure from below 0.3
ELLO 1000 1999 1 TYPE PZ P 0.3
END

A further load increase of the wind load till 0.4 kN/m2 is done then in load case
14 by using the convergent primary load case 13:
PROG ASE
HEAD Wind pressure from below

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CTRL CABL 0
NMAT 1 MEMB P2 0.1 $ A possible smaller compression admission should be
$ allowed in intermediate steps!
SYST PROB TH3 NMAT YES PLC 13
LC 14 DLZ 1.0 TITL Windpressure from below 0.4
ELLO 1000 1999 1 TYPE PZ P 0.4
END

In the same manner the load is increased in further partial steps till 0.8
kN/m2 in load case 18. The input control for the processing of the compressive
stresses NMAT ... MEMB ... P2=0.1 has following meaning:
If a compressive stress is available in an element, this stress is used only
0.1times. That means, that the elastic modulus for the compression zone is
decreased about this factor. The tensile stresses remain as before. In the case
of a repeated setting up onto the in each case last state the stresses are reduced here again and again, so that no compressive stresses are remaining
practically for small load step width.
It is also possible to input immediately P2 equal to 0.0. It can happen, however, that the system converges only very bad or it does not converge at all.
An attempt with P2=0.0 can be done in any case (see example membdruc.dat).
In the following picture the stresses in the centre are actually only uniaxial
for the load case 18. The stress is omitted biaxially even in four elements:

Membrane forces wind from below

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compressive stresses

left load case 88


with compressive stresses

right load case 18


with compression switching off

The file membdruc.dat is recommended as a further example with compression switching off.
Textile Material Laws
Especially textile material laws were not implemented up to now. Essential
membrane properties can be described with an orthotrop but otherwise linearelastic material according to an article in Bauingenieur 70, 1995 on page
271 by R. Mnsch and H. W. Reinhardt. Such a material can be defined at SOFiSTiK with the record MAT. It means here:
record MAT:

E
EY
MUE
G

elastic modulus in x direction


elastic modulus in y direction
Poissons ratio related to E
shear modulus

The material law reads then:


0
E m*E

e *x
s * x








m
*
E
EY
0
e
*
y
1
s
*
y

 +


*

*


2

1*m





0
g * xy
t * xy
0 G * 1 * m2

A textile material can be input therefore with different elastic modules in


warp and fill direction. Only a Poissons ratio which relates to E is possible
due to the necessary symmetry condition in the material law.
The warp direction of the elements should lie in the local x direction of the
elements. This direction has to be defined during the (graphical) input of the

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elements. In special cases it is also possible to input the angle in the material
law with the angle of anisotropy OAL.
The failure of the membrane elements for compression is set in the material
input NMAT MEMB with P2.
Examples for material input see innenhof.dat
Relaxation and Cutting Pattern
The membrane can be cut, detensioned and developed in the plane after formfinding with the program TEXTILE. Further information see manual for
TEXTILE.

2.14.5. Unstable Membrane Forms


The tangential prestress can not be chosen in an any large way already in the
simple example membhoch.dat. If the tangential prestress is input in record
HIGH about the factor 0.3, ASE prints a divergence. An ANIMATOR picture
of the load case which is nevertheless saved shows following picture:

Initial system tent roof generated in plane membhals.dat


Corresponding input membhals.dat:

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PROG ASE
HEAD Bottleneck
HEAD ASE prints divergence nevertheless look at load case 1 with ANIMATOR
SYST PROB TH3
GRUP
0
FACS 1E10
HIGH 0 0 PR1 10 PTPR 1.0 $ is soap skin but not possible!
LC 1 DLZ 1 TITL Bottleneck
NL 481 WZ 6
$ lifting of the central node 481 about 6 m
END

Obviously the large tangential stress cords up the bottleneck (PTPR=0.25) so


strong, that the membrane or soap skin cracks.
The phenomenon keeps on being examined at following example. A membrane structure is generated again in the plane. The high reference points are
not discretized here a upper rigid ring which can be displaced constantly upwards about a support spring is accepted. An isotropic prestress = formfinding of a soap skin is defined. The stiffness factor with 0.01 is input, however,
to large for the generation of the desired phenomenon of the bottleneck.
Example tent roof, example file mzelt2.dat.

Initial system tent roof generated in the plane


The formfinding with 4 m ring lifting has a still stable form:

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Initial system threedim. representation

Membrane hoisted 4 m

Due to a further lifting the neck cords up always more during the xyz compensation calculation. By looking at the picture for 4 m lifting the closing
forces of the defined membrane prestress in ring direction can be already seen
at the bottleneck. The calculation for 7 m lifting is only convergent, if the elements get a residual stiffness with FACS 0.005. The following pictures do
not show any correct membrane stress state, but they point out at an unstable
formfinding process:

This effect can be shown at a soap skin which should be hoisted with a small
ring. After a critical height the soap skin constricts itself and is detached
suddenly.
Following process is trusted by the human eye: The stress modification due
to strains are not suppressed anymore but they are allowed. The stress in the
ring area increases due to the lifting of the inner rings. The usual picture of
a deformed soap skin (or of tights which are tensed over the initial mesh) results thereby.

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Elastic mesh 1 m till 6 m hoisted

2.14.6. Calculations of Cable Meshes


With the same methods formfindings can be done also for cable meshes. Discrete cable elements are defined here instead of the membrane. As for the
membrane the cable elements can be used either as elements with constant
prestress and known length or as elements with full strain stiffness and
planned initial length. Latter one is mostly desired for the simpler filling
measuring of single cables with the same length. But it leads to distortions
in the grid in the plane projection of the displaced mesh. The lower picture
shows the concept design of a footbridge which is supported on a cable mesh
it is a research paper for the bridging of the railway station place in
Braunschweig.
At first the system is patitioned in an element grid in the plane with cables
of the same length. The boundary arches are connected at first at an approximate form. In the following formfinding steps in which the corner points of
the mesh are compulsory displaced into the desired vertical position the
boundary cables were defined at first as very elastic. That means they might
change their length arbitrarily, while the inner cables were defined with normal strain stiffness, because they should not change their position. The four
cables which are generated around the inner deep points as well as single
cables in the nearness are an exception. They have to be defined also partially
elastically in order to get a sufficient lowering of the deep points and thus a

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double curvature of the cable mesh. These during formfinding more elastic
inner cables have to be produced and installed therefore with a larger length.
Foremost the double curvature of a membrane or of a mesh creates, however,
the possibility to carry outer loads without larger deformations. The stability
becomes thereby clearly better also for the dynamic vibration inclination.
The pointwise loading due to the footbridge which is not shown here leads
to a further local subsidence of the cable mesh. This is, however, favourably
for the stability.
The compliance with a structure clearance for the lower street (shown in the
side view) which is necessary also during load action was decisive for the concept design.

Cable mesh with the necessary structure clearance

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2.14.7. Check List Notes Problem Solutions


System input:
If possible, the system should be already defined threedimensionally
with boundary arches (set local coordinate system for the arches). The
boundary cables can be used then with the full stiffness in the first
formfinding step, because they have already the correct length. The
threedimensional input has the advantage that the span cables and
the columns can be already defined in the threedimensional system.
Then the still inaccurate form should be smoothed by shrinkage" of the
membrane see > Formfinding.
Without staying construction it is also possible to input the system in
plane. Foremost then the system is hoisted by using the support displacements. In this way corrections of the height position are possible.
The input of the boundary arches is indeed simpler. Because the cable
length of a boundary arch becomes clearly longer during lifting, the
first step has to be done either with CTRL FIXZ 3 or with elastic cables
(FACS 0.001).
Definition of the boundary arches with the approximate curvature
radius during input
Usage of macros which are like a spider net for modelling of the high
reference points
Input of a central support node at the high reference points and connection of the surrounding membrane nodes at the structural points
The first calculation with SOFiPLUS is also reasonable with a triangular mesh (mesh generation triangles)
Material and calculation defaults see sofiplus_jb_membran_raum.tab
(Textile.dat).
Formfinding:
Estimation of the planned prestress of the elements (N=pr) and definition about GRP and HIGH
Input of these elements which should keep their stress in the formfinding with GRP ... FACS 1E10 The strains does not generate then additional stresses.

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Calculation of the cables without inner cable sag (CTRL CABL 0)


Termination of the formfinding always with a following load case with
full stiffness GRP ... FACS=1.0, setting up onto the last load case as primary load case
Setting up onto a primary load case:
Input of it in SYST ... PLC
A prestress may not be input at GRP ..., because it would be added to
the primary stresses. Exception: The primary stresses are not used
with GRP ... FACL=0.
GRP ... FACL=1 (default) adopts the primary stresses. So that they are
in equilibrium with the applied loads, the external loads like dead load,
internal pressure or wind load have to be used again and again. Exception: Constraint loads like support displacements NL, temperature or
prestress loads, because they are not external loads.
Static loading:
For problems with the convergence the loading (wind) should be used
with a small factor and then further increase of the load after setting
up onto this convergent state as primary state.
If a planned compression failure (input SYST ... NMAT=YES) does not
converged with NMAT ... P2=0.0, then use small load steps with e.g.
NMAT ... P2=0.1 > mdach.dat.
Problems during iterations:
A stable system is reported, then calculate only one iteration step with
CTRL ... ITER 1 and check the displacements with the ANIMATOR
(first step force density method)
Do not input the factor GRP ... FACS for the cables too small (better
FACS=0.01) or calculate it with CTRL ITER 3 V2 1
If the cables are set with full stiffness in the first formfinding but the
membrane elastically , iteration problems may be available then use
the cable stiffness with FACS 0.01. It is better set the boundary curvatures with preset cable prestresses.
Possible begin with a first formfinding in global Z (CTRL FIXZ=3)

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For insistent problems, mail the input file to the SOFiSTiK hotline

2.14.8. Overview about the Used Examples


Example

Special feature

Introduction examples: see sofistik.23\ase.dat\english\membranes


membhoch.dat
membhals.dat
membdruc.dat
Innenhof.dat

mwinkel.dat

mdach.dat

simple example with high reference point


comparison of different PTPR ratios
same example like membhoch.dat with unstable bottle
neck result
same example like membhoch.dat with compression
failure for strong wind
simple plane example without high reference points with
boundary cables, first formfinding step only in global
Z direction
formfinding for a threedimensional initial system (angle)
update of the system with new local coordinates
use of an additional internal pressure compressed air
hall
threedimensional initial system (folded structure)
boundary cable is in the initial system with radius
update of the system with new local coordinates
compression failure for large wind pressure from below

Further examples:
membran5.dat
plane initial system with 4 high reference points and
a deep point
tennis.dat
plane initial system formfinding due to load
use of a constant internal pressure compressed air hall
sechseck.dat
plane initial system formfinding with constant internal
pressure
mzelt2.dat
plane initial system and two high reference points defined
as rings, unstable formfinding soap skin,
comparison with elastic skin calculation
mwinkel2.dat
formfinding with at first straight boundary cable
comparison fournoded and threenoded elements

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2.14.9. Necessary Program Versions


For the membrane analysis the extensions ASE1 and ASE3 are necessary
additionally to the ASE basic packet, for nonlinear material analysis (compression failure) also ASE$. Explanations:
ASE1 and ASE2 nonlinear analysis with primary load cases
ASE3
geometrical nonlinear part
ASE4
material nonlinearities (compression failure)

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2.15.

ASE

Modal Analysis.

The program is able to calculate, instead of a static analysis, the mode shapes
and natural frequencies of the examined structure. The analysis of eigenvalues is more extensive than a static analysis. Therefore the user should begin
such a task with special considerations. Two analysis methods are available:
The method according to Lanczos is usually always the quickest one. Especially in the case of many eigenvalues (more than 10) it is the only practical
method. The number of the required eigenvalues depends in turn on the expected excitation frequencies. The simultaneous inverse vector iteration
should be used, if the interest is limited to a few eigenvalues only or if a check
of the number of eigenvalues below a certain frequency is required (Sturm sequence).
The modal shapes are saved like regular load cases. They can be further processed as desired, and then they can be used chiefly with the program DYNA
for a dynamic analysis.
The eigenvalues can be calculated in relation to a reference point. The so
forced decomposition of a modified equation system leads to the output of the
number of eigenvalues below the reference point for an estimate or a check
with the Sturm sequence. A small negative value can be used, if the structure
is not supported.
The algorithm finds only new eigenvectors above the reference point, if the
eigenvectors below the reference point are known and if it can filter them out
of the solution area. If these are not given, then one compulsorily gets the harmonic oscillations of the lower eigenvalues.
For the simultaneous vector iteration the higher eigenvalues converge much
more worse than the lower. Therefore it is reasonable, if enough memory is
available, to iterate a few more vectors than one needs. The method is, however, inappropriate for a large number of eigenvalues, unless a displacement
of the subarea takes place. Indeed this is possible in ASE, but it requires extensive CPU time and should not be used therefore.
The number of iterations is predetermined by the program. If the convergence is slow, one should switch generally to the Lanczos method instead of
increasing the number of iterations. The iteration is interrupted, if the
number of the maximum iterations is reached or if the maximum eigenvalue
has changed only by the factor less than 0.00001 opposite to the previous iteration.

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For the method according to Lanczos the number of the Lanczos vectors
should be selected usually twice so large as the number of the desired eigenvalues. An iteration is not necessary in this case.

2.16.

Masses.

ASE processes masses exclusively as diagonal matrix (lumped mass matrix).


Beside the advantage of simpler and in this way quicker algorithms, the problems which might arise due to the violation of the discrete maximum principle
do not exist. It should be noted as a disadvantage, that a consistent modelling
or rotational masses with oblique principal axes of inertia are not possible.
The total dead weight of the structure is applied therefore only to all nodes
in the form of translational masses. In the case of eigenvalue problems with
many unknowns and many eigenvalues the absence of the rotational masses
may lead to serious numerical problems. The accretion of rotational masses
can be requested for the QUAD elements in such cases with CTRL QTYP.
For kinematic constraints the masses are converted to rotational masses by
squaring of the lever arm.
Rotational masses are considered for beams.
A conversion of loads to masses can occur with the record MASS.
The complete calculated mass vector including the dead weight can be output
with ECHO LOAD EXTR.

2.17.

Damping Elements

Damping elements from the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB are considered for the timestep method.

2.18.

Modal Damping and Modal Loads.

The modal damping dij is defined as a product of the modal shape i multiplied
by the damping matrix multiplied by the modal shape j. This matrix is not
generally diagonal. However, ASE calculates only the diagonal terms of this
matrix and saves them as modal damping values. Different damping of the
individual modal shapes can be calculated easily in this way by specifying different damping for particular element groups.

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Also loads can be defined additionally. ASE calculates then the generalised
loads and saves them in the database for a further use with the program
DYNA.

2.19.

Literature

(1)

O.C.Zienkiewicz (1984)
Methode der finiten Elemente
2. Auflage , Hanser Verlag Mnchen

(2)

T.J.R.Hughes,T.E.Tezduyar (1981)
Finite Elements Based Upon Mindlin Plate Theory With Particular
Reference to the FourNode Bilinear Isoparametric Element.
Journal of Applied Mechanics,48/3, 587596

(3)

A.Tessler,T.J.R.Hughes (1983)
An improved Treatment of Transverse Shear in the MindlinType
FourNode Quadrilateral Element.
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 39,
311335

(4)

M.A.Crisfield (1984)
A Quadratic Mindlin Element Using Shear Constraints
Computers & Structures, Vol. 18, 833852

(5)

K.J.Bathe,E.N.Dvorkin (1985)
A FourNode Plate Bending Element Based on Mindlin/Reissner
Plate Theory and a Mixed Interpolation.
Int.Journal.f.Numerical Meth. Engineering Vol.21 367383

(6)

T.J.R.Hughes,E.Hinton (1986)
Finite Elements for Plate and Shell Structures
Pineridge Press International, Swansea

(7)

Timoshenko/WoinowskyKrieger (1959)
Theory of Plates and Shells, MacGrawHill, NewYork

(8)

Taylor,Beresford,Wilson (1976)
A NonConforming Element for Stress Analysis
Int.Journal.f.Numerical Meth. Engineering Vol.10 12111219

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Input Description.

3.1.

Input Language

The input is made in the CADINP language (see general manual SOFiSTiK:
FEA / STRUCTURAL Installation and Basics).

3.2.

Input Records

The statical system is input with a graphic input program or with the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB. Material values can be modified, however, in
ASE.
The input is divided into blocks which are terminated with an END record.
A particular system or load case can be analysed within each block. The program ends, if an empty block (END/END) is found.
The following records are defined:
Records

Items

CTRL
SYST

OPT
TYPE
FACV

VAL
PROB
NMAT

ITER
STOR

TOL
CHAM

FMAX

FMIN

EMAX

EMIN

STEP
ULTI
PLOT
CREP

N
STEP
LC
NCRE

DT
FAK1
TO
RO

INT
FAKE
NNO
T

ALF
DFAK
DIRE
RH

DEL
PRO
TYPE
TEMP

THE
DL

LCST
PRIM

SELE
DMIN

GRP

NO
FACL
CS
HING
NO
GEOM

VAL
FACD
PREX
FACB
STEA

FACS
FACP
PREY
CSDL
QUEA

PLC
FACT
PHI
MNO
QUEX

GAM
HW
EPS

H
GAMA
RELZ

K
RADA
PHIF

SIGN
RADB
PHIS

SIGH
MODD
T1

QUEY

ALP0

ULUS

QEMX

EXPO

XM
FROM
NC

YM
TO
b

ZM
INC

NX
REDP

NY
REDA

NZ
REDT

PR1

PTPR

NOG

GRP2
HIGH
*PSEL
TBEA

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Records

Items

MAT

E
OAL
TYPE
P9
NOEL
ASB
ABT
FACT

MUE
OAF
P1
P10
TOP
ASBT

REIQ

NO
MXY
NO
P8
NOG
ASTT
AB
LCB

STEX
OBLI
SLIP
MOVS
LAUN
SFIX

NAME
SX
NOSL
NO
GRP
LC

SY
NOG
TYPE
DX
PLC

LC

NO
GAMF
NNO
NO
FROM
FROM
NO

NMAT
REI2

LOAD
NL
BOLO
ELLO
*PILO
POLO
LILO
BLLO

TEMP
LAG
PEXT
LCC
EIGE
MASS
V0

32

G
SPM
P2
P11
BOTO
BST

K
TITL
P3
P12
HT
BSTT

GAM

GAMA

ALFA

EY

P4

P5

P6

P7

DHT
BSB

HB
BSBT

DHB
AT

AST
ATT

SZ
NOEL
FROM
DY

LC

FACV

VMAX

DIRE

STOR

TO
DZ

INC
XM

L0
YM

FACT
PSI0
PX
TYPE
TO
TO
TYPE

DLX
PSI1
PY
P1
INC
INC
PA

DLY
PSI2
PZ
P2
TYPE
TYPE
PE

DLZ
PS1S
MX
P3
PA
P
A

BET2
CRI1
MY
PF
PE
DPZ
L

TITL
CRI2
MZ

TYPE
CRI3

REF
ETYP

PCS

NNR
NNR
PE
NNR
DZS
SEL

X
XA
NOG
XA
DXT
PROJ

Y
YA
SEL
YA
DYT

Z
ZA
PROJ
ZA
DZT

TYPE
DX

P
DY

N=G
DZ

SEL
TYPE

PROJ
PA

DX
TYPE

DY
P1

DZ
P2

DXS
P3

DYS
NOG

NO
LCNO
NOG
NO
NEIG
NO
NO

T1
FACT
NOEL
FACT
ETYP
MX
VX

T2
TYPE
P0
NOG
NITE
MY
VY

NOG
Z
SIDE
NFRO
MITE
MZ
VZ

FACT
TOL
BETA
NTO
LMIN
MXX

EMOD
PROJ
MUE
NINC
SAVE
MYY

RELA

EXPO

LCRS

SS
ULTI
LC
MZZ

GAMU

PLC

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Records

Items

REIN

MOD
P10
STAT
SC2
SMOD
KMOD
BB
TANS

RMOD
P11
KSV
SS1
TSV
KSV
HMIN
TANC

OPT

VAL

DESI

NSTR

ECHO

LCR
P12
KSB
SS2
MSCD
KSB
HMAX

ZGRP
TITL
AM1
C1
KTAU
KMIN
CW

SFAC

P6

P7

P8

P9

AM2
C2
TTOL
KMAX
CHKC

AM3
S1
TANA
ALPH
CHKT

AM4
S2
TANB
FMAX
CHKS

AMAX
Z1
SCL
CRAC
FAT

SC1
Z2
CW
SIGS

The records PSEL and PILO are only available in the ASE version which was
expanded by the pile element.

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The records HEAD, END and PAGE are described in the general manual SOFiSTiK: FEA / STRUCTURAL Installation and Basics.

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See also:

3.3.

ECHO SYST GRP ULTI

CTRL Control of the


Calculation

Item

Description

OPT

Control option
SOLV Solution of the system
ITER Iteration method
BTYP Formulation beam elements
QTYP Formulation of QUAD ele
ments
AFIX Handling of movable degrees
of freedom
VKNO Shear forces at nodes
MSTE Number of the RungeKutta
steps
NHPM Number of the Hardening rule
parameters
TOLP Tolerance of the pile elements
CUT
Spring handling for geometri
cally nonlinear calculation
CABL Cable handling for geometri
cally nonlinear calculation
PRES Factor of the prestressing
stiffness (not prestressfactor)
DRIL Calculation of twisted shell
elements
NLAY Number of disks for QUAD
concrete rule
FRIC Maximum allowable shear
stress for QUAD concrete rule
SHEA Shear stresses for QUAD
steel rule
PLAB Tbeam components
FORM Yield process cross section
reduction

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Dimension

Default

LIT

35

ASE

Item

General Static Analysis FE

Description

FIXZ

WARP
STII
MFIX
RMAP
UNRE
SFIX

INPL
CONC
STEA

QUEA

DIFF

BRIC
CANT
BEAM
SOFT

SPRI
MCON
GIT

36

Dimension

Default

Global and local xy constraint,


Formfinding for membrane
structures
Warping torsion
Nonlinear beam stiffness
Fastened rotational degrees of
freedom
Returnmapping
BEAM prestress from the
program GEOS
Linearization of beam calcu
lation according to OeNORM
B4702
Inplane stiffnesses
Concrete in cracked condition
Formfinding cablestayed
bridges: normal force stiffness
component of beams
Formfinding cablestayed
bridges: normal force stiffness
component of QUAD elements
Saving of the difference inter
nal forces between a load case
and the primary load case
Control of BRIC elements
Primary displacements
Beam element
Replacement of rigid supports
in dead load direction with
soft spring supports
Consideration of the
eccentricity of springs
Activation of a consistant
mass matrix
Reduction of nonlinear
torsional stiffness

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Item

Description

Dimension

Default

Value of the option


possible 2nd value of the option
possible 3rd value of the option

Saving the stiffness file

WARN to switch off specific error


messages
GRAN Activation of the old GRAN
material model for BRIC
nonlinear material with
GRAN 0
AXIA, EIGE, AMAX, AGEN, ETOL,
IMAX, SVRF, VRED, SMOO, VM,
PIIA, INTE, USEP, VERT, COUN,
ELIM, NLIM, ED: See manual for the
program AQB
VAL
V2
V3
...
V9
ITER

Iteration method for the elimination of residual forces


VAL 0
Crisfield method
VAL 1
Linesearch method
VAL +2 An update of the tangential stiffness occurs, if
required.
VAL 3
1+2
Default:
for SYST PROB NONL:
for SYST PROB NONL
and nonlinear springs:
for SYST PROB THII:

VAL 0 = Crisfield method


VAL 3
VAL 3 = Linesearch with tang.
stiffness

V2 1
for every step stiffness update
V2 x
interval stiffness update is extended to x steps
Default: dependent on the system size
With an input for V2 failure mechanisms can be calculated well for

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secondorder and thirdorder theory. ASE shows a better iteration in possible failure mode shapes with following input (possible
also without PLC):
CTRL ITER 2 V2 1 $ new total stiffness after every step
SYST PROB TH3 ITER 30 PLC 15 $ 30 : simple residual
$ force iteration
Then the iteration load cases 90019030 determine the failure
mechanism.
Update of the AQB stiffness in every xth step with
CTRL ITER 3 V3 x
Default: 48 depending on the number of iterations
V3 x

BTYP Control of the formulation for BEAM elements


Only allowed for special purpose. Please refer to the DYNA manual CTRL BART.
QTYP Control of the formulation of the QUAD elements
The various additional options of the QUAD elements are defined
as the sum of the following values.
0
1
+10

standard element
nonconforming formulation
use of rotational masses (dynamic only)

Default (1)
Any input for QTYP forces a new calculation of the stiffness matrix.
AFIX

Control of the handling of the movable degrees of freedom


Recognizable undefined degrees of freedom (e.g. node rotations of
a truss) are assigned a priori a small stiffness. Loads which act on
such degrees of freedom cause very large displacements.
Instability check: If the solver detects an instability, 6 single load
cases are calculated automatically for the graphical checks under
the consideration of dynamic auxiliary stiffnesses. Furthermore
the first three eigenvalues are calculated with the same auxiliary

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stiffness. An input unequal to 1 for CTRL AFIX turns off this instability check.
0 =

1 =

2 =
3 =

4 =
5 =
6 =
7 =

Degrees of freedom which are movable exactly get an


nounced by an error message. The calculation is inter
rupted.
Degrees of freedom which are movable within the numeric
accuracy get announced by an error message. The calcu
lation is interrupted. The instability check is realized.
Degrees of freedom which are movable exactly are not used
and get a warning. The calculation is continued.
Degrees of freedom which are movable within the numeric
accuracy are not used and get a warning. The calculation is
continued.
as 0, however, recognizable undefined degrees of freedom
get a rigid support.
as 1, however, recognizable undefined degrees of freedom
get a rigid support.
as 2, however, recognizable undefined degrees of freedom
get a rigid support.
as 3, however, recognizable undefined degrees of freedom
get a rigid support.

Default: 1
VKNO Control of the averaging of the shear forces at nodes
VKNO = +1: The shear forces are calculated always positive at
nodes. The shear force in elements at intermediate supports is
positive at a side and negative at the other one. If these results are
averaged maintaining their sign, the resultant shear force is approximately 0 at the node. If, however, the absolute values are averaged, realistic shear forces are generated for the support nodes.
Pictures in the program WING show only positive values, if nodal
values are used, whereas they represent both positive and negative values, if element values are used in the program WING
(STYP ELEM).
The superposition of absolute values at a node has a negative effect: If the shear force is positive for a load case and negative for

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General Static Analysis FE


another, the absolute values are added with VKNO = +1. However,
this error is usually negligible. In the rule the shear design occurs
in the elements and not at the nodes.
VKNO = 1: The shear forces are averaged with their sign at the
nodes as well.
(Default: +1, for systems with tendons 1)

MSTE Maximum number of RungeKutta steps fory nonlinear material


MSTE acts only for the yield criteria for BRIC elements.
(Default: 4)
Explanations can be found in the TALPA manual. In many examples the program converges better with MSTE= 110.
NHPM Number of the hardening parameters
Special input for future material laws
(Default: 2)
TOLP Tolerance of the integration method for pile elements
Default: 0.0001
CUT

Handling of failed springs:


CUT = 0: Spring elements have always their full initial stiffness
at beginning of a nonlinear calculation.
CUT = 1: If the spring has failed in the primary load case, its stiffness is not taken into consideration. If a force arises in the spring,
however, during the iteration process, the spring stiffness is considered again (can lead to iteration problems). In general the iteration process with possibly failed initial stiffness from the primary load case is significantly more effective. CUT = 1 is effective
only in combination with CTRL THII.

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Default: (1)
CABL Cable handling
CABL = 0 No consideration of the internal cable sag
CABL = 1 Consideration of the internal cable sag
The consideration is not done for cables with FACS not
equal 1.0 (formfinding)
CABL = 2 Calculation of cables with FACS not equal 1.0
(formfinding) with inner cable deflection
(Default: 1)
PRES Factor for prestressing stiffness (not factor of prestress!)
PRES = x The initial stress matrix of elements is calculated
with the prestress multiplied by |x| from the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB or with PREX PREY from the record
GRP. The factor does not act, if a primary load case is considered.
The prestress of the primary load case multiplied by 1.0 is used
always here. Structures with a small initial prestress from the
program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB can be analysed in this way too
(for example CTRL PRES 100). For cable systems without a prestress from the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB or PREX (record GRP) PRES is used as cable prestress in N/mm2.
Attention: PRES does not change the prestress value but only the
stiffness for the first iteration step!
(Default: 1.0)
DRIL

Calculation of twisted shell elements


Twisted shell elements are calculated usually in a plane median
area and connected eccentrically to the nodes (Default DRIL = 1).
This kinematic constraint can be turned off with DRIL = 0.

PLAB Tbeam internal forces and moments:


The plate components are deducted automatically during the stiffness calculation for beams inside plates with cross section widths

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defined in the program AQUA. The components of the plate internal forces are added then to the results of the beam internal forces
for a subsequent dimensioning.
Restrictions:
Processing only for cross sections with defined cross section
outline (SREC,SECT...) which were defined with the program
AQUA. Also composite sections are allowed. The acting width
is taken from the concrete parts only.
Beams which are connected to the plate via kinematic con
straints are processed too, however, only if they lie in the plane
of the plate (program MONET: BEAMabs+coup).
Details:
During the calculation of plate components the plate internal
forces at the beam nodes are multiplied by the cross section
width. Therefore, the beam width should not be chosen too
large above columns.
If some QUAD groups meet at a node, the average value of the
plate internal forces is used.
Control:
PLAB

+1 = moments My are added


+2 = shear forces Vz are added too
+4 = axial forces N are added too
+8 = torsional moments MT are added too
Default: 7 = My + Vz + N
The processing is cancelled with CTRL PLAB 0
Output:
The plate components are included always in the output of the
beam internal forces and moments. Therefore the printout does
not occur before the plate node results!
A statistic of the plate components follows after the beam inter
nal forces and moments. The maximum plate components are
compared with the maximum beam internal forces.
Control of the statistic with the input ECHO PLAB 012.

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NLAY Number of disks for the QUAD concrete rule


Default: 10
FRIC

Maximum allowable shear stress for the QUAD concrete rule


For point supported slabs the allowable shear stress is exceeded
often in supportnear elements. It results in shear plastification.
For this shear plastification the punching information of BEMESS is taken into account in a nonlinear slab analysis. At
punching node, the shear plasticity check will be switched off inside an radius of columnedge+hm. Thus an increase of FRIC to
for example 9.9 N/mm2 for elimination of these sometimes unwanted shear plastification effects is only necessary in special
cases.
Default: 2.40 [N/mm2]

SHEA Shear stresses for the QUAD steel rule


1
0

Shear stresses due to shear force are taken into con


sideration by the flow rule (Default).
Shear stresses are not taken into consideration.

FORM Yield process


Control of the thickness reduction for large deformations
FORM = 1
volumeconstant behaviour (ideal plastic)
FORM = 2
elastic behaviour using the Poissons ratio
effective for QUAD, TRUS and CABL elements
(Default: 0)
FIXZ

Global or local xy constraint


Formfinding membrane structures:
For membrane elements and FACS < 0.5 a formfinding is calculated. All inner membrane nodes in the membrane plane are fixed
then:
FIXZ = 1
FIXZ = 2

fixes all internal membrane nodes in the mem


brane plane from the second iteration step
fixed the nodes in the membrane plane in all

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FIXZ = 3

FIXZ = 4

FIXZ = 5
FIXZ = 0

iteration steps
fixes generally all nodes in global XY
= formfinding in global Z
can be used also for a cable nets
fixes the local z coordinate in the first iteration
step, in further steps the transverse direction
(as for FIXZ 2)
fixes the local z coordinate in all iteration steps
no such effects

After a formfinding calculation an additional calculation should


occur with a stiffness factor multiplied by 1.0 in order to balance
possible residual forces in the membrane plane. CTRL FIXZ 4 or
5 can be used for the formfinding of the radii of edge cables.
(Default: 1)
WARP Warping torsion
WARP = 1
WARP = 1

activates the warping torsion with formulation


of a seventh degree of freedom per node.
activates the BEAM element without warping
torsion.

The BEAM element (input in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB as BEAM) can:


process eccentrical cross sections (The beam is not positioned in
the centre of gravity but in the cross section coordinate zero
point in the node connecting line.)
read and process loads of the programs SOFILOAD or STAR2
from the database
process stepbystep haunched cross sections
process prestress from the program GEOS
not output results at beam sections!
STII

Nonlinear beam stiffness factor


Tbeams (beams) are calculated linear in a normal nonlinear
slab calculation with SYST NMAT YES. Only if the nonlinear
beams are also switched on with NSTR S1 ... beams would also reduce the stiffness. But then the coupling of the Tbeam philos-

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ophy becomes difficult due to the change of centre of stiffness in


cracked beams and the elongation of beams due to crack opening.
So using linear beams, a nonlinear slab calculation is nevertheless possible with a by hand reduction of the beam stiffness. The
input CTRL STII 0.4 for example processes the beam with 40 %
stiffness. A normal force stiffness is not used then. For slab calculations (program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB ... SYST GIRD) according to cracked condition STII is preset with 0.25. The default
is 1.0 for all other calculations.
MFIX Fixing of rotational degrees of freedom
The rotational degrees of freedom are not used often for membrane, cable net and volume calculations. CTRL MFIX 1 eliminates not used rotational degree of freedoms and reduces the time
for the equation solver. The advantage is that the input
SYST...FIXS=MM in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB does
not have to occur and the program WING represents the nodes
without rotational constraints. Without input the rotational degrees of freedom are taken from SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB.
Default:
RMAP Returnmapping
For BRIC yield rules the Returnmapping method is preset (default CTRL RMAP 1). With CTRL RMAP 0 it is possible to change
to the method with plastic displacement increments. With CTRL
RMAP 2 the material routines can be activated from the program
TALPA for nonlinear BRIC volume elements (is used automatically). The Returnmapping method has particularly in the area
of tensile fracture zone a definite better convergence behaviour.
UNRE For the use of the BEAM prestress from the program GEOS following inputs are possible: (usage see ase.datrailway.dat)
UNRE = 1
Only the static determinate part of prestress is
stored. The curvature loads are not used.
UNRE = 1
Only the static indeterminate part is calculated
and stored.
UNRE = 0
The static indeterminate part is calculated and

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stored together with the static determinate
part. The beam internal forces and moments
includes both parts (= default).

SFIX

Linearization of beam elements according to OeNORM B4702


With CTRL SFIX YES (SFIX = fixed beam stiffness) only the normal forces and the AQB stiffness are used for the beam stiffness
of an otherwise linear beam calculation from a primary load case
which is input in SYST. Thus the superposition principle is valid
for the following checks.

INPL

Inplane stiffnesses
The decisive connection nodes for the beam and disk elements are
searched for the transfer of the moments around the local z axis.
The stiffnesses of the bordering QUAD elements are increased by
an inplane moment spring. Thus a pile can transmit moments
around both beam axis to the wall disks. The appropriate node
numbers are printed. The method can be switched off with CTRL
INPL 0. With CTLR INPL value it can be factorized.

CONC Concrete in cracked condition


For QUAD elements:
The length of the decreasing part of the concrete stressstrain
curve in the tensile zone is defined with CTRL CONC VAL:
CONC VAL = 0.2
defines this length to 0.2 per mille
CONC VAL= 0
The length is determined from the tensile
failure energy. This energy is not limited
with 5eps1 as in the default (without an
input for CTRL CONC).
The increase of the maximum concrete compressive stress for uniaxial compression according to Kupfer/Rsch is deactivated as a
precaution for calculations according to ultimate limit state:
CONC V2 = 0
no limitation, increase permissible,
default for NSTR KSV SL, SLD
CONC V2 = 1
maximum concrete compressive stress =
1.0 value from uniaxial AQUA stress
strain curve, default for NSTR UL, ULD,

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CONC V2 = 1

ASE

CAL, CALD
The parameter NMAT...LADE...P6 is
interpreted a length of decresing tension
stress.

CONC V3

temporarily sets the concrete strength fct


for the QUAD concrete material law

CONC V4

temporarily sets the concrete strength


fctk for the QUAD material law [N/mm2]

The calculation of plates in cracked condition is controlled with


CONC V5:
CONC V5 = 525
plates in cracked condition exactly
according to Heft 525 DAfStb (DIN 10451)
CONC V5 = 400
plates in cracked condition exactly
according to Heft 400 DAfStb
(EC2/Schiel)
without input:
Heft 400 with modifications for realistic
deflection
BRIC yield criteria for nonlinear concrete application:
A decreasing tensile strength curve can be chosen with the additional input CTRL CONC EPSY. Here EPSY is interpreted as uniaxial strain length of the decreasing part of the stress strain
curve in per mille (e.g. CTRL CONC 0.1). The input is possible for
the BRIC yield criteria MOHR, LADE and GUDEHUS. Without
the input of CTRL CONC the tensile strength is treated as a constant yielding value.
STEA With CTRL STEA the normal force stiffness component of beams
can be increased. The bending stiffness remains unchangeable.
Caution: STEA will be omitted here in future. For input: see GRP2
QUEA With CTRL QUEA the EA part of the QUAD elements can be modified.
Caution: QUEA will be omitted here in future. For input: see
GRP2
DIFF

With CTRL DIFF the difference internal forces (and displacements) between a load case and the primary load case are saved

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(nodal displacement differences = difference to SYST PLC load
case!). With that for instance the difference results (e.g. the part
from creep and shrinkage) are immediately available for a superposition in the program AQB. Usage see program CSM Construction Stage Manager.

BRIC

Control for BRIC elements


BRIC = 1
use of the old BRIC element
BRIC = 2
use of the new BRIC element with hyper
plastic rubber material Total Lagrangian
Default: BRIC 1

CANT If new groups and new nodes are activated for instance in cantilevering construction, a primary displacement has to be determined for these new nodes, although they were not still available
in the primary load case SYST PLC. This can be controlled with
CTRL CANT. Usage see program CSM Construction Stage Manager.
CANT = 0
CANT = 1
CANT = 2
CANT = +4

no action
only consideration of displacements
consideration of displacements and rotations
= tangential cantilevering construction
retention of the XY position

Default: CANT 0 = no action


BEAM Beam element
BEAM = 0
BEAM = 1
BEAM = 2
BEAM = 3

prismatic beam element (since 1987)


haunched beams first version (since 2001)
haunched beams with output of beam sections
(since 2003), warping torsion via CTRL WARP
beam element featuring implicit hinges

Default: BEAM 2 = haunched beams with output of beam sections


SOFT Replacement of rigid supports in dead load direction with soft
spring supports, also for linear analysis

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If in a graphical input a rigid line support was defined for simplification purposes, this rigid support can be changed subsequently
into a soft edge support. The support width is considered here.
However, single supports get a factor which is increased with the
spring value multiplied with 5, therefore 5 support area SOFT.
The value SOFT is here the bedding value in kN/m3. Values which
are smaller than 1000 are not possible. CTRL SOFT can be input
also simultaneously for a nonlinear analysis with corners which
are displaced upwards (see SYST PROB LIFT).
default: 5E7
SPRI

Consideration of the eccentricity of springs


Coupling spring elements account now for the real distance of the
nodes with an implicit KP kinematic constraint, i.e. a spring force
will transfer a moment.
SPRI = 0
SPRI = 1
SPRI = 8

do NOT apply excentricity of springs from real


distance
apply excentricity in any case
automatic decision:
For QUAD and BRIC connections the eccen
tricity is not applied, because in that cases a
smeared friction is assumed and QUADs and
BRICs cannot transfer such bending moments.
The eccentricity effect is also not applied for
truss and cable connections without beam
connections.

Default: CTRL SPRI 8


MCON Activation of a constant mass matrix
For eigenvalue analysis with solver LANC, SIMU and RAYL a
consistant mass matrix is activated with default CTRL MCON 2
(implemented for beam elements only).
GIT

Additional reduction of nonlinear torsional stiffness for lateral


buckling analysis (NSTR S1)

Stiffness file $d1 for program ELLA:


The program ELLA for a influence line evaluation needs the stif-

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fness file from ASE. Using group switchings in ASE, this file is not
saved, because it cannot be used for a following ASE. In that case,
the storage of the stiffness file for ELLA can be requested with
CTRL V9 1.

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Equation solver

There are several equation solvers available. They will be updated and enhanced from time to time. The user may select the optimum of them only with
some knowledge or experience depending on many system parameters. He
has the following choices:
Direct Skyline Solver (Gauss/Cholesky)
This is the classical solver of the FEMethod, it uses a skyline, i.e. the
storage needed depends on an internal numbering of the nodes and
may become quite large for 3D structures. That is why the original version uses a block mechanism to segment the equation system on disk.
Direct Sparse Solver
This types of solvers are the latest technology but still subject of research and under development. A highly efficient version is available
based on the work of Timothy A. Davis (http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/ldl)
Iterative Solver (Conjugate Gradients)
The advantage of the iterative solver is mainly the reduced requirements for strorage, but it may also reduce the computing time especially for 3D systems.
The advantage of the direct solver is especially given for multiple right hand
sides, as the effort for this step is very small compared to the decomposition
step. Thus they are the first choice for any dynamic analysis or many load
cases, because all the benefits of the iterative solvers will vanish for those
cases.
Computing times from 1996 (90 MHz) may show some of the properties of the
two solvers. The third example did not fit at all on the 500 MByte Harddisk
at these days:
System

Unknowns

Plate

42724

1739

1124

129

12

3.6

Shell

37452

1097

737

149

20

1.6

Cube

63504

12485

469

30

29.3

Computing time
(sec)
Direct
Iterativ

Storage (MByte)
equation system
Direct
Iterativ

Element
file
MByte

The selection of equation solver is done via CTRL SOLV. The first value defines the type of the solver, while the other may contain additional para-

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meters. CTRL SOLV 2 will require an additional licence ISOL = iterative


Solver".
CTRL SOLV 0 (ASE, STAR2 and TALPA, only)
For a control of loading or the Parameters of the equation system this option
will not start the solution process.
CTRL SOLV 1
Direct Skyline Solver.
The program will use automatically allocated memory special parameters
are not foreseen. However it is mandatory to select in SOFIMSHA /SOFIMSHB with CTRL OPTI 1 or 2 a minimisation of the hull to achieve good
timings and storage requirements.
CTRL SOLV 2
Iterative Equation Solver (Conjugate Gradients)
The program will use automatically allocated memory, but the iterative
solvers may be tuned by additional parameters:
CTRL SOLV 2 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6
V2
V3
V4

V5
V6

maximum number of Iterations


Tolerance in digits (5 to 15)
Type of preconditioning:
0 = only diagonal scaling (not recommended)
1 = Incomplete Cholesky
2 = Incomplete Inverse (for Multiprocessing)
ThreshholdValue for Preconditioning matrix
Maximum band width of the Preconditioning.

The iterative Solvers require a preconditioning in any case to scale the matrices We have available the following variants:
Diagonal scaling (W4=0)
Although this is the fastest method with the least memory requirements, it will need a considerable high amount of iterations and is
therefore of little use in most cases.
Incomplete Cholesky (W4=1)
This type of preconditioning suppresses the FillIn of a normal Cholseky solution of the equation system. If one has a fully populated matrix, it will however solve the total system during the preconditioning
step which lets vanish any computing time advantages.

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For any preconditioning one may restrict the numbers of entries to the preconditioning matrix either by a relative threshhold value of W5, or via a maximum number of entries via W6. The optimum choice may depend on the individual type of structure and may be found only by some tests.
The internal numbering of the nodes is not important for the iterative solver
itself, thus it would be also possible to specify CTRL OPTI 0. However the preconditioning is sensitive to the numbering scheme. We found best to use
CTRL OPTI 1.
CTRL SOLV 3
Direct Sparse Solver.
The program will use automatically allocated memory special parameters
are not foreseen. However it is mandatory to select in SOFIMSHA /SOFIMSHB with CTRL OPTI 50 a minimisation of the fill in to achieve good timings and storage requirements.
CTRL SOLV 4 to 7
Experimental solvers to be tested.
Please do not apply without contacting SOFiSTiK before and read the current
state in the HTMFile! These solvers are not released.
CTRL SOLV 9
Direct Solver (Gauss/Cholesky).
This solver is intended for rather large systems with limited memory space.
It is not available for DYNA. The program will use only the explicit allocated
memory. As a rule of thumb this memory should be large enough to allow a
block size which contains more equations than the maximum band width of
the system. If we have smaller blocks, excessive IO may occur as the blocks
have to be reused several times. However selecting a block size to large may
degrade the overall system performance due to swapping without gaining any
advantage for the solver itself.
The block size to be used may be also specified directly:
CTRL SOLV 9 W2
W2

Block size

CTRL SOLV 10/11/12


The direct solver may be also used in ASE for a substructuretechnique. Important is the mapping of the nodes between the structures. To achieve this

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one may have one CDB with the total system and all loads subdivided into
groups. From this master one may then create identical copies for any substructure. As an alternate way one may define the connecting surface with
elements of group zero which are deactivated when building the substructure. Then there are the following general steps:
Creating the substructureMatrices
Input: CTRL SOLV 11 + Group selection
A Substructure is defined by the selected groups and will be save in an
external file "projectname.ZDS".
The Interface nodes are defined as belonging to the activated and to the
deactivated groups. When creating the substructure one has to specify
all load cases with loads within the substructure at the same time as
these will be saved into the ZDS file.
The total system will be analysed by selecting the substructures with
record STEX. The node numbers of the substructure may be shifted by
a constant value, but to use a substructure several times, one has to
make a copy of the ZDSfile for each instance. If the total system consists only of substructures a definition of CTRL SOLV 10 will achieve
this without defining any groups or loads.
Computing the internal displacements and stresses of a substructure
Input: CTRL SOLV 12 + Group selection
The interface displacements from the ZDSfile will be taken and used
to solve for the rest of the unknowns in the interior of the substructure.
One should work on the different child CDBs as the results will be overwritten otherwise.
CTRL SOLV 999 (ASE only)
The old stiffnesses of the last calculation are reused.
CTRL SOLV 998: Build stiffness matrix one time in one ASE run and use it.

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Parallel Solvers
Since some time the clock frequency of the processors are stuck at about 3 Gigahertz, Moores Gesetz however is still valid if we consider parallel processing. Unfortunately the most lengthy part of FE analysis the solution of the
equation system is rather difficult to be treated with that approach. After
some experiments with workstation clusters (PVM / MPI) we have decided
to use a shared memoryarchitecture with OpenMP.
So you need a computer with several processors or cores to make use of this
features. A so called hyperthreading" only computer does not provide any
benefit at all.
SolverTypes 1 to 3 are available for that technique if you have such a computer an a license for the HighPerformance Solver ISOL". Following remarks are given:
SOLV 1

This solver performs quite well. We have obtained good real


speedup up to 1.7 for 2 processors.

SOLV 2

The Iteration itself is best for parallelization, but the convergence is strongly dependant on the preconditioning step and
the best method for this (incomplete cholesky) is not suitable
for parallel processing. The second best method (incomplete
inverse) may be parallelized perfectly, so the slightly higher
effort may be overcome if we have more than 2 processors.

SOLV 3

Again this solver may be run in parallel, where the total


structure is subdivided into subdomains, but the size of the
interface between those domains plays an important role.
However probably due to limits in the memory access we have
not yet reached significant real speed ups.

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Theoretical Speedup for SOLV 1 / SOLV 3

Theoretical Speedup for incomplete Cholesky / Inverse


The following table shows the values obtained for different solvers on a 2 Processor Pentium III with 1 Gigahertz for a spatial structure with 19611 equations for Windows 2000.

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Solver

Profile Loadbalance

Skyline serial
2 Threads parallel
direct sparse
2 Threads parallel

5456223
1600478
1585372

Iterative Solver
diagonal scaling
2 Threads
incomp. cholesky
2 Threads
incomp. inverse
2 Threads

303549

OPTI 17
LB 70/30 %
OPTI 50
LB 48/52 %
Iterations
3492
774
882

CPU 1st LC

CPU 2nd LC

24.52
15.89
7.11
5.88
5.58
4.70

0.39
0.39
0.23

312.03
179.60
85.17
58.76
132.95
82.59

312.00
179.52
84.17
57.75
132.00
81.78

0.19

The next table shows the values obtained for different solvers on a 4 Processor
Opteron with 2.4 Gigahertz for a compact spatial structure with 52788 equations for 64 bit Linux. Here the CPUTimes have been summed up for all
threads.
Solver

Profile

WallClock

CPU 1st LC

CPU 2nd LC

Skyline serial
106517384
2 Threads parallel
4 Threads parallel
Direct Sparse
15983191
2 Threads parallel
55.7/44.3
4 Threads parallel 21/37/11/31
Iterativ cholesky
871399
2 Threads parallel
(253 Iter.)
4 Threads parallel
Iterativ inverse
871399
2 Threads parallel
(265 Iter.)
4 Threads parallel

454
272
279
40
39
38
27
16
12
40
24
15

453.99
544.68
995.80
39.66
77.55
151.61
26.93
33.36
34.23
40.39
47.34
56.38

0.74

0.42

26.60

23.70

For OpenMP there are some user environment variables to control the behaviour. For a single processor with hyperthreading or a computer to be used for
many other tasks it might be useful to set the number of processors to 1, for
other compilers (PGI) however it is requested to specify numbers > 1 explicitly.:

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OMP_NUM_THREADS

Sets the number of process threads (LWP)


Default:
for version 23: number of the processor
cores
for version 24 (Linux): 1

OMP_OMP_DYNAMIC

Enables (.TRUE.) or disables (.FALSE.)


the dynamic adjustment of the number
of threads depending on the total workload,
must not be activated for SOFiSTiK.

OMP_NESTED

Enables (.TRUE.) or disables (.FALSE.)


nested parallelism.
(should not be activated currently)

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See also:

3.4.

CTRL GRP ULTI

SYST Global Control


Parameters

Item

Description

TYPE

Control option
* This input is not analyzed, the value
is taken over from generation pro
gram.
Type of the analysis
LINE Linear analysis
NONL Nonlinear analysis
TH2
Analysis according to second
order theory
TH3
Analysis according to third
order theory
TH3b Limited TH3
THII
Equal to TH3
LIFT Analysis of plates with
corners which are displaced
upwards

PROB

SYST

Dimension

Default

LIT

LIT

LINE

ITER
TOL

Number of iterations
Iteration tolerance
The tolerance refers to the maximum
load of analysis.
value multiplied with maximum
nodal load generates the
tolerance limit for residual
forces
value Absolute tolerance limit

40
0.001

FMAX

Max. f value Crisfield method


> 0.1 or negative
Min. f value Crisfield method > 0.1
Max. e value Crisfield method 0.0
Mini. e value Crisfield method 0.1

4.00

0.25
0.60
0.40

FMIN
EMAX
EMIN

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Item

Description

Dimension

Default

PLC
FACV

Primary load case of the system


Factor for displacements of PLC
Default 1.0
for buckling eigenvalue analysis 0.0
Factor for imperfection

NMAT

Yield criteria for QUAD and BRIC elements


YES
Yield criteria are used.
NO
Yield criteria are not used.

LIT

NO

STOR

Geometry update

LIT

NO

CHAM

Magnification calculation in connection


with program CSM

no magnification
1.0
magnification calculation

VMAX

Nonlinear analyses are not possible with the basic version of program.
Further explanations to PROB:
LINE

linear analysis

NONL

material nonlinear analysis


nonlinear springs
tension cut off for QUAD elements
nonlinear pile bedding
material nonlinearities
stressstrain curves for springs, cables and trusses
(may be controlled via the record NSTR)
concrete and steel rule for QUAD elements
(SYST NMAT YES is additionally necessary)
yield criteria for BRIC volume elements
(SYST NMAT YES is additionally necessary)

TH2

= NONL + analysis according to the secondorder theory


for calculation of columns and frames according to the
secondorder theory
Beam elements are calculated with TH2 with a iteration

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method in analog mode to STAR2. The normal ASE


iteration method with residual forces is used with TH3
and CTRL ITER 3 .
TH3

= NONL + geometrically nonlinear analysis


contains TH2 and additionally the effects of the
geometrical system modification, e.g. snape through,
length modification for big deformations, behaviour after
buckling

TH3b

= NONL + TH2 + effects of the geometrical system


modification only for cables, trusses and springs with kine
matic constraint.
Beams and QUAD elements are used only according to the
secondorder theory.

THII

= NONL + geometrically nonlinear analysis


(identical with TH3)

LIFT

Analysis of plates with corners which are displaced


upwards
A nonlinear analysis is started, at which also fixed sup
ports and elastic edges can be displaced upwards due to
tension. Only one load case is allowed in one ASE input,
because it is a nonlinear analysis.
For definition of support stiffnesses: see CTRL SOFT ...

The value of PLC defines a global primary load case. This is used subsequently as default for the primary load case of all group inputs. Furthermore
the displacements of the primary load case are added then and only then to
the displacements of the current load case, if the PLC has been defined in the
SYST input. In the case of geometrical nonlinear analysis the stiffness is
calculated for the deformed structure.
A predeformation with PLC and FACV effects the internal forces moments
only for PROB THII, see Chapter 2: Nonlinear Analyses and Chapter 5:
example Buckling Shapes in Supercritical Region. The application of a non
stressed predeformation is explained in the school example ase9.dat.
The stresses of the primary load case are used with GRP FACL=FACP=1. If
the loads of the primary load case are applied simultaneously, then the system is in equilibrium and no additional displacements arise (if no changes are
made in the system).

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If a primary load case with THII is defined for an eigenvalue determination,


one obtains the eigenfrequencies of the system under the stresses of the primary load case (accompanying eigenvalue analysis).
With GRP FACL=FACP=0 the deformation of a load case can be defined here
as nonstressed scaled predeformation (see Chapter 5: example Buckling
shapes in Supercritical Region).
The inputs ITER to EMIN are evaluated only for nonlinear analysis. Such
an analysis is allowed only for a single load case.
Buckling eigenvalues on a deformed structure can be requested with explicit
SYST...FACV 1.0.
Explanations to the nonlinear iteration method:
Residual forces
New displacements and thus stresses are determined after every
iteration step. It is checked, whether plasticising, cracks or any
other nonlinear effects have occurred at any elements. The plasticized elements generate different nodal loads compared to those
of the linear analysis. These nodal loads which were generated by
the elements are not anymore in equilibrium with the external
nodal loads (after the first iteration step). The remaining residual
forces are applied as additional loading during the next iteration
step. Additional deformations and a new stress state which in general is closer to equilibrium result. The maximum residual force
is printed for every iteration. If all residual forces should be output, this can be controlled with the option ECHO RESI.
Graphical control of the residual forces
If an iteration ends with residual forces, a picture of the residual
forces can be requested in the program WING with NODE SV.
Since unbalanced residual forces are stored as supported reactions, the problem zone can be localized with that. Here the real
support areas should not be printed. Often, it is advisable to fade
out the real support areas with BOX and to draw only the interior
of the structure.
Tolerance limit of the iteration

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The tolerance limit can be defined with the record SYST. Here the
reference value is the largest nodal value which is available in the
system. E.g. for a maximum nodal load of 200 kN the tolerance
limit for the residual forces is = 200 0.001 = 0.2 kN (for
TOL=0.001). In this case all loads of the system are used including
the inherent stress nodal loads of the elements.
The tolerance for nonlinear analysis can be input also absolutely
with SYST PROB NONL TOL value.
Example: With the input SYST PROB NONL TOL 0.5 the iteration is interrupted, if the maximum residual force is smaller
than the value 0.5 kN.
Iteration method
The default method for problems according to the secondorder
theory is the Linesearch method with the update of the tangential
stiffness (see record CTRL). The load increment is reduced here internally according to the available residual forces. If an iteration
step proceeds into the right direction, i.e. in the direction of an energy minimum, then a new tangential stiffness which enhances
the further iterations behaviour is generated, if necessary.
Cracked elements are considered here also with a reduced
stiffness. The Crisfield method is the default (CTRL ITER 0) for
nonlinear calculations according to the firstorder theory. For
convergence problems the user should attempt also the in each
case other method (CTRL ITER 0 or CTRL ITER 1).
Variation of iteration factors
For convergence difficulties an improvement of the convergence
behaviour can be achieved often via reduction of the maximum f
value, e.g. FMAX 1.5. If the system still not converges, FMAX can
be reduced until 0.7. However, many iteration steps are needed
then.
The Crisfield method which is implemented for the improvement
of the convergence modifies the displacement increments of the
current and of the last iteration step with the two factors f and e.
f values which become alternately larger and smaller than 1.0 are

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an indication of serious problems. The method can be influenced
in such cases by specifying maximum and minimum values of factors. A negative value for ITER switches off this method completely. By contrast, it may occur for tensile failure of stiff elements that the residual forces change very slowly. Here it is
useful to select large values for e and f (e.g. EMIN = 9999., EMAX
= 9999. , FMAX = 1000.). Generally applicable recommendations
can not be given here. It has been observed, however, that the limit
values of e should be defined essentially more generously, even if
FMAX has to be limited.
The values FMAX to EMIN are increasingly limited during the
iteration process. Thereby the convergence is improved for many
iterations.
The FMAX value is decreased automatically during the iteration
process with the input of a negative value for FMAX.

Failed foundation and tensile springs


For analyses without consideration of tensile support reactions (nonlinear
foundation or springs) the basic foundation values should not be defined too
large, because the program reduces gradually these values until the foundation fails. For too large initial values for the foundation the iteration converges extremely slowly.
For tensile failure in large regions the residual forces of the nonlinear analysis can not be redistributed anymore. The iteration becomes divergent. Additional elements with a small stiffness parallel to the failing ones may be helpful here.
Imperfection
The imperfection can be scaled automatically with the item VMAX. The inputs 1, 2, 3 for SYST ... FACV control then the direction of the scaling, if
desired.
SYST PLC 101 FACV VMAX 0.05 defines the imperfection of the primary
load case 101 with a threedimensional deformation of 5 cm.

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SYST PLC 101 FACV 1 VMAX 0.5 defines the primary load case 101 with
a maximum imperfection uX of |5 cm|. All other deformations are scaled
with the same factor.
SYST PLC 101 FACV 1 VMAX 0.05 as before, however, the imperfection
figure is defined with a negative sign.
Failure Mode Shapes
With a special control it is possible to get a more precise iteration process for
the failure mode shapes in ASE. An analysis according to the secondorder
and thirdorder theory does not converge in many cases and it is unknown
which failure mechanism will occur. At first a smaller stable load step should
be calculated in advance. Then the following input should be startet:
PROG ASE
HEAD delivers the failure in the iterations load cases 90019009.
$ Method:
$ new total stiffness after every step,
$ then continuation of the calculation without manipulation of the residual
$
force
CTRL ITER 2 W2 1
$ new total stiffness after every step
SYST PROB TH3 ITER 30 PLC 15
$ !!minus!! 30
LC 201 FACT ...
$ Factor, that will cause failure
LOAD ...

In the same way dynamic eigen mode shapes with the last stable load case
may give an information about failure problems, because the critical natural
vibration shapes in the natural frequency are clearly smaller with increasing
load. See example ase9.dat
GeometryUpdate
With SYST STOR the system which was displaced with the displacements of
the load case PLC can be stored with the updated nodal coordinates. A calculation does not occur then.
SYST STOR=YES: The new local coordinate systems of the QUAD elements
are twisted by the rotations of the load case PLC. They, however, keep the
direction defined in the input. Beam lengths are nor updated for loading .
SYST STOR=NEW: The local coordinate systems of the QUAD elements are
defined again, despite their definition in the input. Beam lengths are updated

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for loading .
SYST STOR=XX,YY,ZZ and NEGX,NEGY,NEGZ: The direction of the local
x axis is preset for the new installation of the coordinate system of the elements, cf. program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB. Beam lengths are updated for
loading.
STOR=NEW to STOR=NEGZ acts only to QUAD elements. The local coordinate systems of beams are twisted generally with the PLC displacements.
Caution:
All results of the nodal displacements are extinguished during the geometry
update. Therefore the data base must be saved absolutely before! With the
input STOR=NEW to STOR=NEGZ all other results are extinguished too, because the local directions are twisted. With the input STOR=YES it is possible to use the old stresses via the record GRP, if no beam elements are available.
With SYST STOR UZ only the z displacements are corrected. For the x or y
displacements are also possible STOR UX and STOR UY.

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See also:

3.5.

SYST GRP

STEP Time Step Method


Dynamics

Item

Description

N
DT
INT

Number of time steps


Time step
Output interval all INT steps
(not implemented yet)

ALF
DEL
THE
LCST
SELE

STEP

Dimension

Default

/LIT

Parameter of the integration method

1/4
1/2
1.

Storage load case number


Selection of results to be stored

*
*

The analysis of a time step of duration NVDT with direct (NewmarkWilson)


integration is requested with STEP. The defaults for ALF, DEL, THE correspond to the Newmark method (Constant Average).
Damping parameters are to be input with record GRP.
Saving of the results
In order to avoid large databases for the time step method the calculation can
occur only with two load cases which vary in each case. The results which are
important for the user can be stored then in separate storage load cases with
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE ... (bit pattern). Following inputs are possible:
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +1
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +2
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +4
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +8
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +16
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +32
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +64
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +128
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +256
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +512

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=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

displacements
support reactions
velocities
accelerations
beam internal forces and moments
local beam deformations
spring results
truss+cable+boundary results
QUAD results
QUAD results in nodes

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STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +1024
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +2048
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +4096
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +8192

General Static Analysis FE


=
=
=
=

nonlinear QUAD results


foundation results
BRIC results
BRIC results in nodes

default: no generation of a separate storage load case


example: see ase1.dat at the CDROM
Examples for the dynamic calculations with ASE are to be found in the SOFiSTiKSeminarContribution Nonlinear Dynamics" from 1999.

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See also:

3.6.

CTRL SYST GRP PLOT

ULTI Limit Load Iteration

Item

Description

STEP
FAK1

FAKE
DFAK
PRO

ULTI

Dimension

Default

Number of limit load iterations

Start factor of 1st load case


(overwrites the factor in record LC
FACT!)
End factor
First step of the load factor
Progression of the load factor

9999
1
2

DL

The factor acts on the dead weight too


(only if a dead weight has been activated
with GRPFACD or LCDLZ)
NO
Dead weight retains the ini
tially input factor

LIT

YES

PRIM

Automatic introduction of a primary load


case
NO
A new load step is not added
automatically to the latest
LC

LIT

YES

DMIN

Minimum step width of the load factor

The limit load iteration begins with the factor given for FAK1. Any factor
which was input in the record LC FACT is not considered in this case and it
is ineffective.
If a primary load case has been defined in SYST PLC or GRP PLC the first calculation makes already use of this given primary load case.
If the first calculation ends with a convergent iteration (notice the iteration
parameters ITER and TOL in the SYST record), a new load case is generated
with a load case number increased by 1 and the load factor is increased by
DFAK. Either the dead weight is increased or it keeps the old factor depending on the input for DL.

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If a load should not be increased during the limit load iteration, this can be
requested via the function Copy Loads with ULTI=NO in the record LCC.
With PRIM YES the new load case makes use of the stable first load case.
With PRIM NO the analysis starts as in the first load case (PLC according to
SYST PLC or GRP PLC).
If the second load case ends with convergence too, the last step of the load factor (DFAK) is multiplied by the progression PRO and used as new step. The
third load case obtains then the load factor FAK1 + DFAK + DFAKPRO and
so on.
The default values FAK1=1, DFAK=1 and PRO=2 result in the following load
steps:
Load case
Load case
Load case
Load case
Load case

1
2
3
4
5

Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor

1.00
2.00
4.00
8.00
16.00

Load deformation curves can be calculated with FAK1=1, DFAK=1 and


PRO=1 (can be represented graphically with DBVIEW, see example
ase9.dat):
Load case
Load case
Load case
Load case
Load case

1
2
3
4
5

Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor

1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00

If an iteration is divergent, i.e. equilibrium could not be reached, the last load
step is halved, if no input occurred for DMIN. With DMIN local stability problems may be eliminated. The user has to convince himself of the accuracy of
the final solution because also nonconvergent results may be saved!
The limit load iteration ends, if FAKE or the maximum number STEP are reached.
If a new stable primary load case is used, the program generates always the
new tangential geometry stiffness matrix.
Nonlinear analyses are not possible with the basic program version.

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3.7.

ULTI

PLOT Plot of a Limit Load


Iteration

Item

Description

LC
TO

PLOT

Dimension

Default

First load case number


Last load case number

NNO

Node number

DIRE

Direction

TYPE

Plot type
FACT loaddisplacement plot
TIME displacement plot on time axis
LCNO displacement plot on load case
number

LIT4

A plot of a limit load iteration can be generated with an input for PLOT. If no
input for TO is done, than the last load case number of a sequence is used
automatically. Without input for NNO the node number with the largest displacement is selected then automatically and without input for DIRE the
direction with the largest displacement.
Following dircetions can be input for DIRE:
X,Y,Z
PHIX,PHIY,PHIZ

global directions
rotation directions

VX,VY,VZ,
VPHX,VPHY,VPHZ

nodal velocities

AX,AY,AZ
APHX,APHY,APHZ

nodal accelerations

PX,PY,PZ
MX,MY,MZ

support reactions

The definition for PLOT can be done also in a separate ASE input, e.g.

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PORG ASE
HEAD
PLOT 101 NNO 200 DIRE Y
END

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3.8.

CTRL SYST GRP

CREP Creep and Shrinkage

Item

Description

NCRE

CREP

Dimension

Default

Number of creep steps (199)

RO

Relaxation coefficient according to Trost

T
RH
TEMP

Effective duration of period


Relative humidity or maturity
Temperature of concrete or time factor

days
%
degrees

0.0
40
20

BEAM

Control for takeover of the creep calculation for bending beams via creep curvatures from the program AQB or for the
calculation in ASE
AQB
Take over from AQB
ASE
Calculation in ASE

ASE

Additional inputs are necessary in the record GRP ... PHI EPS RELZ PHIF:
PHI
EPS
RELZ
PHIF

= Total creep factor of NCRE creep steps


= Total shrinkage coefficient of NCRE creep steps
(negative)
= Relaxation of the prestressing steel (is applied only in the
first creep step fully)
= Total creep step for springs + foundation

There are two different creep calculations in ASE:


1st Plate calculation according to cracked condition
For plates in cracked condition a simplified consideration of creep and shrinkage effects was implemented in a step. With an input of CREP 1 and GRP PHI
EPS creep and shrinkage are calculated as follows in a load case step without
input of a primary load case:
The elastic modulus of concrete is reduced to E=E0/(1+PHI).
The concrete is given a prestrain of EPS.
Because the shrinkage shortening acts only on the compression side at a
cracked cross section, shrinkage causes an enlargement of the bending also

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at plates. At the cracked tensile side shrinkage acts only on the cracked
width. The creep and shrinkage values affect all materials and elements,
PHIF affects springs, edges and QUAD foundations, also with a reduction of
the stiffness of 1/(1+PHIF).
2nd More complex calculation with use of a primary load case
At that the total creep is dismantled in NCRE creep intervals which are calculated in NCRE load cases. The load cases generated automatically by the first
LC load case number ascendingly.
The stresses of a primary load case which are accepted as constant during a
creep step (or of the last creep step) are converted into strains. These strains
are multiplied by the (with the modified relaxation coefficient RO) partial
creep coefficient DPHI and used as a load. Middle stresses which generates
creep are not determined.
Abrupt constraint is applied for creep of the stresses from PLC (reduction of
a constraint internal force):
ZK = Z0 ( 1 d/(1 + ROd))
ZKF = Z( 1 df/(1 + ROd))

see STAR2 manual


(springs + foundation)

For shrinkage a gradual constraint is assumed:


ZS = Z ( 1 /(1 + ROd))

(shrinkage)

with d=PHI/NCRE
Computation:
The program uses the stresses of the primary load case as stresses producing
creep. It applies the primary load case in an internal way with
FACL=FACP=ZK for the corresponding elements. For tendons the PLC is
scheduled only in the first creep step with the factor (1relz), in all further
creep steps with the factor 1.0.
At shrinkage the partial shrinkage coefficient which was reduced according
to Trost is used: loadstrain = dZKF = ZKF/NCRE
The program allows in the case of calculations with primary load case only
creep values with dphi<0.4. If the stresses producing creep are hardly reduced by creep and shrinkage, RO has to be defined in a correspondingly

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small way or more creep steps have to be input. For a prestress from the program GEOS only RO=0 is possible generally in order to avoid an unintentional reduction of the creep effect for the statically determinate part of the
prestress possible increase of NCRE. Values in the region of 0.8 are reasonable for creep of a constraint condition, for example from construction stage.
For values which are smaller than d=0.2 the importance of RO comes in the
background.
Creep and shrinkage are effective for all elements from the type BEAM,
TRUS, CABL, QUAD + BRIC. BOUN + pile elements are not incorporated!
PHIF acts only on spring and QUAD foundations. Thereby the QUAD foundation can get another creep coefficient (settlement) independently of the
QUAD element. RELZ acts only on tendons of the plate prestress.
The program extension ASE1 is necessary for creep calculations.
Creep and shrinkage for time input
If nothing is input for GRP...PHI + EPS, the creep functions are calculated
according to the time duration of the creep step from:
CREP T RH TEMP BEAM
T, RH and TEMP correspond to the record EIGE in program AQB. With
CREP BEAM can be controlled, whether the creep calculation for bending
beams via creep curvatures is taken over from AQB (CREP BEAM=AQB) or
whether it should be determined in ASE (CREP BEAM=ASE = default). Caution: Prestressed beams have to be calculated with AQB!
If a time duration T and GRP...PHI+EPS values are input, at first the creep
increments are determined described as above, but they are scaled then to the
input final creep value PHI. Without an input for the time duration T the
creep increment which is only necessary in this ASE calculation is to be defined.
No record CREP is necessary, if only beams are used and all creep curvatures
are taken over from AQB. Then only the load case of the creep curvatures
from AQB is to be used.

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General Static Analysis FE


SYST PSEL MAT LC GRP2

GRP Group Selection


Elements

Item

Description

NO

Group number
default ALL = all groups

VAL

Selection
OLD
Only damping values are
changed.
OFF
The group is not used.
YES
The group is used.
FULL Use of group + result output
LIN
YES, but material linear
LINE FULL, but material linear
(TH2, TH3 not affected)

FACS

GRP

Dimension

Default

ALL

LIT

FULL

Factor for group stiffness

PLC

Number of the primary load case


Default as in SYST

GAM
H
K
SIGN
SIGH

Parameter of an additional
analytical primary state

kN/m
m

kN/m
kN/m

0
0
1
0
0

1
0

FACL

FACL
FACD

FACP
(FACT

346

z = GAM (ZH) + SIGN


x = y = K z + SIGH
Factor of loads from primary stress PLC
Factor of dead weight in defined dead
weight direction (SYST GDIR from SOFIMSHA, SOFIMSHB)
Factor of stress from primary load case
PLC
Temperature replaced by the record
TEMP from HYDRA)

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Item

Description

Dimension

Default

HW
GAMA

Ordinate of the ground water level


Weight under water

m
kN/m

999.
10

RADA

1/sec

0.

sec

0.

MODD

Raleigh damping factor for mass proportional damping


Raleigh damping factor for stiffness proportional damping
Modal damping factor

CS
PREX
PREY

Construction stage for tendons


Element prestress in local x direction
QUAD prestress in local y direction

kN,m
kN,m

0
0

RADB

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Item

Description

Dimension

Default

PHI
EPS
RELZ

Creep coefficient (see record CREP)


Shrinkage coefficient
Relaxation of prestressing steel
AUTO automatic determination

0
0
0

PHIF

Creep coefficient for springs and foundation


Creep coefficient for elements which do
not consist of concrete (composite structures)

T1

Stiffness development of elements with


concrete according to the modified concrete age T1

days

HING

Beam pinjoint temporarily for precast


bridges
ACTI pinjoint
FIX
fixed connection
example: Single Span Girder with Auxiliary Support

ACTI

FACB

Factor for bedding properties of the


QUAD elements
Dead load of a later construction stage

FACS

Material number of PHI and EPS if in a


group different materials occur > CSM

PHIS

CSDL
MNO

The record GRP defines the participating elements as well as the stress state
which is available at the beginning of the analysis. At first the defaults for all
groups are defined with GRP ALL or GRP , e.g. GRP FULL. The following
input for a group overwrites then this default, e.g. GRP 5 NO.
An input to GRP usually enforces a newbuilding of stiffness file $d1 . It will
also be unusable for further load cases. The storage of this stiffness file is
possible with the record CTRL.
The group number of each element is obtained by dividing the element
number by the group divisor GDIV (see SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB manual

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SYST..GDIV). The defaulted group selection is that one of the last analysis
call or input block. Without any inputs all elements are used. With an input
only the specified groups are activated.
If groups are selected, the stiffness matrix must be reconstructed again. If,
however, only new damping values should be determined with already calculated eigenvalues, the literal OLD has to be input for VAL .
If the subdivision of the elements occurs in groups, it should be kept in mind
that the specification of the analytical primary state may require in certain
cases a finer subdivision than the one assumed initially by the user.
GRP input without any group number set only the given parameters for the
previous defined groups. Example:
GRP 1,2
GRP CS 5

$ without group number

Only the groups 1 and 2 are activated with CS 5.


The values GAMSIGH, FACT, HW and GAMA are only applicable to volume
elements (BRIC), i.e. only then an analytical primary stress state is reasonable. By contrast, all control parameters of a primary state from a previous
analysis have effect to all elements.
The processing of a temperature field from the program HYDRA was expanded essentially with the record TEMP. The input GRP FACT is not anymore permissible.
The primary state is necessary for nonlinear analysis and in addition it facilitates the determination of loads due to changes of the static system. The
analytical component is defined with the load SIGN which is effective in a
height H and an increase GAM. The horizontal component is obtained by
means of the lateral pressure coefficient and the vertical stress. The item
GAM has usually the same values as the items GAM/GAMA of the material
record, however, it is independent of them.

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Analytical stress states


The loading components from the stresses of the primary state are multiplied
by FACL to the load case which is to be calculated. FACD defines a dead
weight loading with the values GAM/GAMA of the material record in dead
weight direction. This loading is usually in equilibrium with the primary
state. The loads from FACL and FACD act in all load cases of the input block.
If the old loads of the primary load case ( PLC) are applied simultaneously to
a system with the loads from the primary stresses with FACL=1, these both
loading cancel themselves. New deformations do not result. Therefore the
loads from the primary stresses oppose the old loads.
The item HW specifies the ground water level in the corresponding group. Elements located below HW (Z>HW) are analysed under buoyancy.
The analysis of the tendons is controlled by CS similar to the program AQBS.
Depending on the value of CS the empty duct or the duct with the tendon or
of the grouted duct are used. If CS is not input, neither tendons nor duct deductions are considered. More explanations are to be found in the example
"Prestressed skew Tbeam bridge" (Request at SOFiSTiK).
Prestress of elements via record GRP: GRP PREX PREY
In the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB a prestress which is considered during the calculation of stiffness can be input only at TRUS
CABLSPRI.

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With GRP ... PREX PREY a real prestress can be defined in addition
to TRUSCABLSPRI also for QUAD and BEAM elements. This acts,
first of all, as a normal prestressed load. However, it is considered also
with the factor CTRL PRES for the initial stiffness. In this way membrane and cable structures can be calculated more simply according to
the thirdorder theory. A membrane high point should be input via the
record HIGH.
The value from GRP ... PREX PREY is interpreted in kN/m for QUAD,
and in kN for BEAM, TRUS, CABL and SPRI.
The GRP prestress acts also for linear calculation. A stabilization for
the error estimate can be achieved in this way at displaced systems. In
addition the prestress is considered also for an eigenvalue determination!
Differences of the input of a truss or cable prestress in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB for the GRP prestress:
PRE acts in all load cases as long as a primary load case
(PLC) is not used.
GRPPREX acts only in ASE calculations in which it is input, how
ever, in the record GRP in addition to a prestress of a primary load
case.
Creep for composite systems concrete + steel
A separate item PHIS can be input in the record GRP for elements which do
not consist of concrete. Elements of concrete are processed with GRP ...
PHI,EPS. Springs, boundary elements and elastic foundations are processed
with GRP ... PHIF without shrinkage. Elements whose cross section material
is not concrete are processed with GRP ... PHIS. Shrinkage of these elements
is considered with the value EPSPHIS/PHI.
For BEAM composite cross sections and BEAM prestressed concrete cross
sections creep and shrinkage have to be processed with the program AQB.
The prestressing steel relaxation of the QUAD tendons is determined automatically with the input RELZ AUTO in combination with the time duration
input T in record CREP. The material values STEE ... REL1+REL2 from the
program AQUA are used..
Stiffness development of elements with concrete

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For input of the temperature adjusted concrete age T1 in GRP...T1, the development of stiffness of concrete elements is taken into account. The program
CSM (version 11.57) automatically adjusts T1 in dependence on the given
temperature. The development is plotted for the first concrete material (for
ECHO MAT FULL for all concrete materials and also for calculations with
primary load case).
Function for prefabricated bridges
Temporary BEAM pinjoints can be fixed with GRP HING FIX. Thus a construction stage can be calculated with pinjoint and a final stage without pin
joint. The results can be superpositioned and designed. All pinjoints are active with the default GRP HING ACTI.
Later construction stages
With GRP CSDL the dead load of a later construction stage can be activated
already for composite beam cross sections with activated stiffness of the cross
section construction stage CS (green concrete dead load).

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3.10.

GRP TEMP

GRP2 Expanded Group


Selection

Item

Description

NO
STEA

GRP2

Dimension

Default

Group number

Formfinding cablestayed bridges:


normal force stiffness component of
beams
Formfinding cablestayed bridges:
normal force stiffness component of
QUAD elements

Orthotropic slabs:
reduction of the QUAD axial force
stiffness only in local x
Orthotropic slabs:
reduction of the QUAD axial force
stiffness only in local y

ALP0

Lower threshold for stiffness development for BRIC elements HYDRA temperature field

0.001

ULUS

Limitation of QUAD stresses in ultimate


limit analysis

QEMX

Reduction of the elastic modulus of


QUAD elements in local x direction

EXPO

Exponent for the elastic modulus according to Braunschweiger Stoffmodell" separated according to groups

1/2

GEOM

Groupwise control of the geometric stiffness from primary load case for buckling
eigenvalues

QUEA

QUEX

QUEY

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STEA With STEA the normal force stiffness component of beams can be
increased. The bending stiffness remains unchangeable.
QUEA With QUEA the EA part of the QUAD elements can be modified.
QUEX With QUEX it is possible to reduce the QUAD axial force stiffness
only in local x direction for orthotropic slabs.
QUEY With QUEY it is possible to reduce the QUAD axial force stiffness
only in local y direction for orthotropic slabs.
ALP0

With ALP0 varying material stiffness due to different hydration


degrees can be taken into account in an stress analysis of a
HYDRA temperature field. The lower threshold for stiffness development can be input here (default 0.001).
With TEMP EMOD OFF this stiffness modification can be
switched off. Please ask for example TempReifegrad.dat.

ULUS Limitation of QUAD stress in ultimate limit analysis:


With GRP2 ULUS (ultimate limit iteration capacity usage) the
load will not be enlarged, if the maximum van Mise stress in a
layer element (nonlinear concrete, steel of MLAYmaterial) reaches the value ULUS*strength. For concrete, strength is fc in
AQUA, for steel fy.
QEMX with QEMX the elastic modulus of QUAD elements can be modified in local x direction, e.g. GRP2 QEMX 0.001.
EXPO BRIC hydration:
The exponent for the BRIC hydration Emodulus can now be
input for each group. The default is the value of TEMP EXPO.
GEOM Groupwise control of the geometric stiffness from primary load
case for buckling eigenvalues
To avoid negative eigenvalues, now in each group the geometric
stiffness from the primary loadase can be switched variabel:
Input GRP2 GEOM:
0 dont scale geometric stiffness in buckling eigenvalues
1 normal geometric stiffness in buckling eigenvalues
2 as 1, but dont scale geometric stiffness for membrane
elements
3 as 1, but dont scale geom. stiffness for membranes and

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cables
1 dont use geometric stiffness at all (also in static analysis
and natural frequencies)
dont scale means, that the geometric stiffness is added to the linear stiffnesss matrix, deleted in the total geometric stiffnesss matrix and thus is not scaled with the buckling factor.
default GRP2 GEOM 2

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General Static Analysis FE


GRP

HIGH Membrane High Points

Item

Description

XM

Coordinates of the high point


Alternatively Literal NNO
YM is taken as the node number of
the high point

HIGH

Dimension

Default

m/LIT

m/
m

*
0

0
0
1

kN/m

YM
ZM

(ZM is not used yet)

NX
NY
NZ

Normal vector of the high point axis


(is not implemented yet)
Default: Z axis

PR1

Radial stress in 1 m distance to the high


point or to the direction XM, YM, ZM

PTPR

Ratio of tangential to radial prestress

NOG

Group for which this prestress is valid


Default: all groups

If genuine high points at membranes are available, an orthotropic prestress


with a fixed ratio of the tangential/radial prestress is wanted also mostly. A
radial stress which increases itself to the high point is necessary here. This
axisymmetric high pointstress state is generated with the record HIGH.
Here PR1 defines the radial stress in 1 m distance to the high point. PTPR
defines the ratio of the tangential to the radial prestress.
Example of a high point at X = 5.0 m, Y = 0.0 m:
HIGH 5 0

PR1 20 PTPR 0.4

shows:

R in 1m distance = 20.00 kN/m


correspondingT = 8.00 kN/m (0.4*20)
and from causes of the equilibrium for example in 10 m distance:

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R= PR11/re^(PTPRln(r))= 201/10exp(0.4ln(10))= 5.02 kN/m


correspondingT = 2.01 kN/m (0.45.02)
If the distance is larger than 1000 m, a constant prestress is assumed. The
stress in direction to the high point is then always PR1, the stress orthogonal
to this direction is PTPRPR1, therefore without radial reduction as described above. The advantage is in the simple input of skew prestress independently of the direction of the local element coordinate systems! The stress
in the QUAD elements results from the global directions!

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3.12.

General Static Analysis FE


GRP ECHO

PSEL Selection of Piles

Item

Description

FROM
TO
INC
REDP
REDA
REDT

PSEL

Dimension

Default

Lower pile number


Upper pile number
Increment

1
FROM
1

Reduction factor for pile stiffness


Reduction factor for axial foundations
Reduction factor for lateral foundation

1.0
1.0
1.0

PSEL can be used to deactivate certain piles or for the reduction of their bedding due to shadowing inside of a pile group. The reduction factors are determined according to code specifications or experiments.
If otherwise nothing is specified, all piles are used. Piles which are not used
have to be specified with REDP=0. PSEL inputs are saved permanently. They
are valid for every pile during any subsequent inputs so long as they are not
redefined.
Any input of PSEL causes the recalculation of the system matrix.
The record PSEL is only available in the ASE version which was expanded
with the pile element.

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3.13.

TBEA Reduction of the Width


for TBeams

Item

Description

NC
b

TBEA

Dimension

Default

Cross section number

Reduced cross section width

For bridge superstructures thin cantilevers get small bending moments or


shear forces in longitudinal direction. The multiplication of the internal
forces and moments of the FE nodes with the whole plate is then too unfavourable. The cross section width per cross section NC can be reduced now with
the record TBEA for the consideration of the haunched cover plate.

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General Static Analysis FE

MAT General Material


Properties

Item

Description

NO

Material number

E
MUE
G
K
GAM
GAMA
ALFA
EY
MXY
OAL

MAT

Dimension

Default

Elastic modulus
Poissons ratio (between 0 and 0.49)
Shear modulus
Bulk modulus
Specific weight
Specific weight under buoyancy
Thermal expansion coefficient

kN/m2

kN/m2
kN/m2
kN/m3
kN/m3
1/K

*
0.2
*
*
25
*
E5

kN/m2

deg

E
MUE
0

deg

SPM

Anisotropic elastic modulus Ey


Anisotropic poissons ratio mxy
Meridian angle of anisotropy
about the local x axis
Descent angle of anisotropy
about the local x axis
Material safety factor

1.0

TITL

Material name

Lit32

OAF

Materials which can be used for SVAL or QUAD and BRIC elements may be
defined with the record MAT and MATE. The number of the material must
not be used for other materials.
The differences between the two records are mainly the used dimensions.
MATE is analogue to CONC,STEE etc. (MPa) and has additional strength values, while MAT uses (kN/m2) analogue to NMAT. MAT has older item names
for the orthotropic parameters.

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3.15.

NMAT Nonlinear Material

Item

Description

NO
TYPE

Material number
Kind of material law
LINE Linear material
MISE Mise / Drucker Prager law
VMIS von Mise law, optional
viscoplastic extension
DRUC DruckerPrager law, optional
viscoplastic extension
MOHR Mohr Coulomb law
GRAN Granular hardening
SWEL Swelling
FAUL Faults in rock material
ROCK Rock material
GUDE Gudehus law
LADE Lade law
DUNC DuncanChang law
HYPO Schad law
MEMB Textile membrane
USP1 to USP8 and USD1 to USD8
reserved for user defined material
models

P1
P2
P3
P4
...
P12

1st parameter of material law


2nd parameter of material law
3rd parameter of material law
4th parameter of material law
...
th
12 parameter of material law

NMAT

Dimension

Default

LIT

1
!

*
*
*
*

The types of the implemented material laws and the meaning of their parameters can be found in the following pages.
In a linear analysis the yield function for the nonlinear material is merely
evaluated and output. This enables an estimation of the nonlinear regions
for a subsequent nonlinear analysis.

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If TYPE LINE is given, the material remains linear.

3.15.1. Invariants of the Stress Tensor


For the present chapter, as long as not specified differently, the following conventions hold:
I1 + s x ) s y ) s z
Deviatoric stress tensor:
s x + s x *

I1
3

s y + s y *

I1
3

s z + s z *

I1
3

J2 + 1 (s x2 ) s y 2 ) s z 2) ) t xy 2 ) t yz 2 ) t xz 2
2
J3 + s xs ys z ) 2t xyt yzt xz * s xt yz 2 * s yt xz 2 * s zt xy 2

3 3 J 3
q + 1 sin *1*
3
3
2J22

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3.15.2. Material Parameters


Nonlinear material parameters have to be selected very carefully. Especially for soil and rock mechanics the values of the site have to be used, at
least for the final design. There are some values available in literature (e.g.
EC7, DIN 1055 part 2, EAU), but these values are hardly usable for a nonlinear FEM analysis. If we cite some of the values here, we deny any responsibilities for the correct selection of values for any current project.
Angle of friction:
The angle of friction is zero for most of the fine grained soils. Friction angles
larger than 40 degrees are encountered only seldom.
Note: A slope without cohesion in the real world can never be steeper than the
angle of friction.
Cohesion:
The cohesion as well as the friction have to be clearly distinguished for
drained and undrained conditions. For fine grained soils a pore pressure is
created for sudden loading which decreases the possible friction considerably.
As time passes the water will leave the soil, the friction increases, but the
cohesion will be reduced by a factor up to 10.
Dilatancy:
The angle of dilatancy specifies the volume change of a soil with shear deformations. As a rule of thumb we recommend that for dense soils a value of
+/2, for middle dense soils a value of 0.0 and for loose soils a value of /2
is used. If the dilatancy has considerable effects (e.g. internal arches) a standard triax test will be mandatory.
Uniaxial Tensile Strength
As tensile stresses are not allowed in soils in general, a tension cut off will be
applied for most soils. However, it might be advisable to define a small uniaxial tensile strength for numerical reasons. e.g. if the soils becomes stress
free at the surface.
Multiaxial Compressive Strength
The compressive triaxial strength defines a limit like a cap on the hydrostatic
pressure and and should not be mixed up with the uniaxial strength which
is already contained within the law of MohrCoulomb and accounts for most
failure mechanisms.

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Characteristic values:
DIN 1054100 Appendix A gives characteristic values for soils as follows:
Soil type

Designation Density
DIN 18196

Weight
wet

Weight
buoan.

[kN/m 3]

[kN/m 3]

cal

SE as well
as SU with
U<6

loose
mid.dense
dense

17.0
18.0
19.0

9.0
10.0
11.0

30.0
32.5
35.0

GE

loose
mid.dense
dense

17.0
18.0
19.0

9.0
10.0
11.0

32.0
36.0
40.0

SW, SI, SU, loose


GW, GI wi- mid.dense
th 6<U<15 dense
SW, SI, SU, loose
GW, GI
mid.dense
with U>15, dense
as well as
GU
Saturated weight = weight buoyancy + 10.0

18.0
19.0
20.0
18.0
20.0
22.0

10.0
11.0
12.0
10.0
12.0
14.0

30.0
34.0
38.0
30.0
34.0
38.0

Sand, low silty


sand, gravely
sand, uniform or
poorly graded
Gravel, Boulder,
stones with small
sand content, uniform or poorly graded
Sand, Gravely
Sand, Gravel, well
graded
Sand, Gravely
Sand, Gravel, well
graded

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Soil type

Designa- Condition DIN tion


18196
Anorganic fine grai- TA
soft
ned cohesive soils
stiff
with high plasticity
hard
(wL > 50%)
Anorganic fine grai- TM and soft
ned cohesive soils
UM
stiff
with intermediate
hard
plasticity
(50% > wL > 35%)
Anorganic fine grai- TL and
soft
ned cohesive soils
UL
stiff
with low plasticity
hard
(wL < 35%)
organic Clay
OT and soft
organic Silt
OU
stiff
Peats without pre- HN and
loading
HZ
Peats with moderate preloading
Weight with buoyancy = weight 10.0
*) only based on tests

Weight cal

ck

cuk

[kN/m 2] [kN/m 2]

18.0
19.0
20.0

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

19.0
19.5
20.5

20
20
20

0
5
10

5
25
60

20.0
20.5
21.0

27
27
27

0
5
10

5
25
60

14.0
17.0
11.0

5
15
5

13.0

20

3.15.3. Nonlinear state variables (hardening parameters)


General nonlinear material laws are normally influenced by the loading history. Therefore, for every load step material point statevariables are stored
to the data base, that can be visualized with WinGRAF during postprocessing. Subsequently, the meaning of the stored values is shortly explained.
Plastification number
Value of the corresponding yield function for the uncorrected
(=linear elastic) stress state, possibly scaled to stress units. If >0
the material undergoes plastification. The value is computed for
each loading step anew. Therefore, regions that possibly have
plastified previously, still can get values <0 in a subsequent load-

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ing step. For GRAN the value of the MOHR yield function is computed, here.

Deviatoric hardening variable


Effective plastic strain (scalar value), accumulated from corresponding strain rates. It reflects the volume constant portion of
the plastic deformation.
.

e p,dev +

23 e
.

p,xx

) e p,yy 2 ) e p,zz 2 ) 1 g p,xy 2 ) g p,yz 2 ) g p,xz 2


2
.

Volumetric hardening variable


Effective plastic strain (scalar value), accumulated value from
corresponding strain rates.
.

e p,v + e p,xx ) e p,yy ) e p,zz

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3.15.4. Material Law MISE


Elastoplastic material according to van MISE or DRUCKERPRAGER with
associated flow rule.
f + p2 @ I1 ) J2 *

p1
v0
3

Application range:
Metals and other materials without friction
Parameters:
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5

=
=
=
=
=

Comparison stress
Friction parameter
Hardening module
Tensile strength z
Compressive strength (cap) c

[kN/m2]
[]
[kN/m2]
[kN/m2]
[kN/m2]

Several substitutes for P1 and P2 can be used for the calculation of common
parameters in soil mechanics. Commonly used e.g. is the compression cone:

P1 +

6c cos
3 * sin

P2 +

2 sin
3 (3 * sin )

The values for the internal cone are better suited for plane strain conditions:

P1 +

6c cos
3 ) sin

P2 +

2 sin
3 (3 ) sin )

If the DruckerPrager criterion is used for modelling concrete behaviour,


then in general uniaxial compressive strength ( fc ) and/or tensile strength (
ft ) are provided rather than cohesion and friction angle. Presuming, that also
the tensile strength is captured with the DruckerPrager yield surface, i.e.
no explicit tensile strength is provided via parameter P4, the model can be
calibrated by means of:

P1 + 2 @

f c @ f t
f c ) f t

f * f t
P2 + 1 @ c
3 f c ) f t

Parameter P4 extends the model by an explicit tension limit, often referred


to as Rankine criterion.

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By specification of parameter P5 the model can optionally be extended by a


spherical cap (in principal stress space) that limits the volumetric compressive stress to a maximum value. This can be meaningful in particular for
mainly hydrostatic compression. The cap is defined by:
f + s 1 2 ) s 2 2 ) s 3 2 * P 5 ) P 5 ) P 5 v 0
2

Reference:
M.A.Chrisfield
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures. Vol. I.
Essentials. Chapter 14. Wiley & Sons (1991)
M.A.Chrisfield
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures. Advanced Topics. Vol. II. Chapter 6. Wiley & Sons (1997)

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3.15.5. Material Law VMIS


Elastoplastic material according to van MISE with associated flow rule and
optional viscoplastic extension.
f + 3 J2 * p1 v 0
Application range:
Metals and other materials without friction. Simulation of creep effects.
Parameters:
Description

Unit

Default

P1 Yield stress

[kN/m2]

P2 Hardening modulus (tangent modulus)

[kN/m2]

0.0

[]

[]

1.0

[kNs/m2]

0.0

P10 Type of creep law (overstress function)


(0=no viscous effects, pure elasto
plastic)
P11 Creep parameter, exponent m >= 1.0
P12 Viscosity >= 0.0

Formulation of the viscoplastic material behaviour is based on the Perzyna


model. Accordingly, the viscoplastic strains are defined by

dt
g s,
 dt
+ l@
s
Ff s, g s,
@
 dt
+
h
s
t

. vp

Dvp +

t0

t0

t0

In case of an associative flowrule (e.g. von Mise material) the plastic potential g equals the yield function. The overstress function F reads
m

f(s, ) , f w 0
F +
, f t 0
0

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This frequently used form can be calibrated to reproduce a wide range of


timedependent material phenomena adequately.
Reference:
M.A.Chrisfield
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures. Vol. I.
Essentials. Chapter 14. Wiley & Sons (1991)
M.A.Chrisfield
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures. Advanced Topics. Vol. 2, chapter 6. Wiley & Sons (1997)
O.C. Zienkiewicz and R.L. Taylor (1991)
The Finite Element Method, volume 2.
McGraw Hill, London.
O.C. Zienkiewicz and I.C. Cormeau (1974)
ViscoPlasticity Plasticity and Creep in Elastic Solids a Unified
Numerical Solution Approach.
In International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering,
volume 8, pages 821845.

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3.15.6. Material Law DRUC

Elastoplastic material with a conical yield surface according to DRUCKER/


PRAGER and an optionally nonassociated flow rule. The model is extended
by means of a spherical compression cap and plane tension limits. Formulation of yield condition and plastic potential using stress invariants:
f +

2 sin
6c cos
@ I 1 ) J 2 *
v0
3 3 " sin
3 3 " sin

g +

2 sinn
@ I ) J 2
3 3 " sin n 1

This formulation describes a cone in principal stress space that either embraces the MOHR yield surface ( sign) or is inlying and tangent to it (+ sign).
For description of the materials viscoplastic extension see NMAT VMIS.
Application range:
Soil and rock with friction and cohesion. Modelling of timedependent
effects (consolidation, short term strength...)
Parameters:
Description

Unit

Default

P1 Friction angle
(< 0 inner cone, > 0 outer cone)
P2 Cohesion c

[]

0.0

[kN/m2]

0.0

P3 Tensile strength t

[kN/m2]

0.0

[]

0.0

[kN/m2]

[0/00]

0.0

[]

P1

[kN/m2]

P2

[]

[]

1.0

[kNs/m2]

0.0

P4 Dilatancy angle
P5 Cap parameter (compressive strength) c
(at the time, not used)
P6 Plastic ultimate strain u
P7 Ultimate friction angle u
P8 Ultimate cohesion cu
P10 Type of creep law (overstress function)
(0=no viscous effects, pure elasto
plastic)
P11 Creep parameter, exponent m >= 1.0
P12 Viskosity >= 0.0

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Reference:
M.A.Chrisfield
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures. Advanced Topics. Vol. II. Chapter 14. Wiley & Sons (1997)
O.C.Zienkiewicz,G.N.Pande
Some Useful Forms of Isotropic Yield Surfaces for Soil and Rock
Mechanics. Chapter 5 in Finite Elements in Geomechanics
(G.Gudehus ed.) Wiley & Sons (1977)

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3.15.7. Material Law MOHR

Elastoplastic material with a prismatic yield surface according to MOHR


COULOMB and a nonassociated flow rule. The model is extended by means
of plane tension limits. Formulation of yield condition and plastic potential
using stress invariants:
f + 1 I1 sin ) J2 (cosq *
3

sin q sin
) * c cos v 0
3

g + 1 I1 sin n ) J2 (cosq * sin q sin n)


3
3
with:

Application range: soil and rock with friction and cohesion


Parameters:
Description

Unit

Default

[]

0.0

P2 Cohesion c

[kN/m2]

0.0

P3 Tensile strength t

[kN/m2]

0.0

[]

0.0

[kN/m2]

P6 Plastic ultimate strain u

[0/00]

0.0

P7 Ultimate friction angle u

[]

P1

[kN/m2]

P2

[]

[]

1.0

[kNs/m2]

0.0

P1 Friction angle

P4 Dilatancy angle
P5 obsolete

P8 Ultimate cohesion cu
P10 Type of creep law (overstress function)
(0=no viscous effects, pure elasto
plastic)
P11 Creep parameter, exponent m >= 1.0
P12 Viskosity >= 0.0
Special comments:

The following expressions are better suited for checking the yield criterion:

f + sI *
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1 ) sin
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For description of the materials viscoplastic extension see NMAT VMIS.


Reference:
M.A.Chrisfield
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures. Vol. I.
Essentials. Chapter 14. Wiley & Sons (1991)
M.A.Chrisfield
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures. Advanced Topics. Vol. 2, chapter 6. Wiley & Sons (1997)
O.C. Zienkiewicz and R.L. Taylor (1991)
The Finite Element Method, volume 2.
McGraw Hill, London.
O.C. Zienkiewicz and I.C. Cormeau (1974)
ViscoPlasticity Plasticity and Creep in Elastic Solids a Unified
Numerical Solution Approach.
In International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering,
volume 8, pages 821845.

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3.15.8. Material Law GRAN


Extended elastoplastic material with an optimized hardening rule (single
and double hardening) for soil materials.
Application range: soil with friction and cohesion, settlement analysis
Parameters:
Description

Unit

Default

[]

0.0

P2 Cohesion c

[kN/m2]

0.0

P3 Tensile strength ft

[kN/m2]

0.0

[]

0.0

[kN/m2]

[]

1sin

[kN/m2]

P10 Exponent m >= 0

[]

0.7

P11 Failure factor 0.5 < Rf < 1.0

[]

0.9

[kN/m2]

100.0

P1 Friction angle

P4 Dilatancy angle
P5 Stiffness modulus Es,ref (GRANextended)
P6 lateral earth pressure coefficient k0
(GRANextended)
P9 Modulus for primary loading E50,ref

P12 Reference pressure pref

The extended version of the GRANmodel (twosurface model, double hardening) is activated by specification of the oedometric stiffness modulus Es,ref
(P5) only in this case the lateral earth pressure coefficient k0 (P6) takes effect. In case no input of Es,ref is provided, the basis version of the GRAN material model (singlesurface model, single hardening) is adopted.
The hardening rule is based on the hyperbolic stressstrain relationship proposed by KONDNER/ZELASKO, which was derived from triaxial testing.
Hardening is limited by the materials strength, represented by the classic
MOHR/COULOMB failure criterion. Additionally, the model accounts for the
stress dependent stiffness according to equations (46). A further essential
feature is the models ability to capture the loading state and can therefore
automatically account for the different stiffness in primary loading and un/
reloading paths.
In the subsequent notation, compression and contraction are defined as negative; for the principal stresses the relation s 1 w s 2 w s 3 holds. Accordingly,

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for the triaxial state index 3 denotes the axial and index 1 the lateral direction.
Summary of essential features:
deviatoric hardening based on the hyperbolic stressstrain relationship according to KONDNDER/ZELASKO
=> plastic straining prior to reaching shear strength
parameter:

E50,ref; Rf

MOHR/COULOMB failure criterion


parameter:

; c

optional accounting of dilatant behaviour (nonassociated flow)


parameter:

stress dependent stiffness


parameter:

m; pref

loading dependent stiffness


=> differentiation between primary loading and un/reloading
parameter:

Eur; (elastic, from MAT/MATE record)

optional limitation of tensile stress (tension cutoff)


parameter:

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The extended version (GRANextended) enhances the model by an additional


hardening twoparameter cap surface. An appropriate calibration of the
caps hardening and shape parameters is done automatically, based on the
input of physically sound input parameters and, hence, allows for
a realistic modelling of the contractant behaviour and stiffness during
primary compression (oedometric testing)
=> plastic straining
preservation of a realistic stress ratio

s
k 0 + slateral, e.g. according to Jaky as k 0 + 1 * sin
axial

parameter:

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Strength and hardening properties:


According to Kondner, the stressstrain behaviour of granular soil under
triaxial conditions can be approximated well by a hyperbolic relation.

q + s1 * s3 +

* 3
b * a @ 3

(1)

where

1 +E ] 2@E
i
50
b
q
1 + qa + f
a
Rf

(2)
(3)

Stress dependent stiffness:


Granular materials show a stiffness behaviour that is dependent on the
stress state (and the compactness of the packing). Extending the approach
from (Ohde 1939, 1951) which was derived from oedometric testing by
cohesive terms the oedometric modulus magnitude depends on the effective
axial stress state according to:

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|s3| @ sin ) c @ cos


E s + Es,ref @

p
@
sin

)
c
@
cos

ref

(4)

Parameter m generally varies between 0.4 and 0.75.


In contrast to oedometric test conditions, lateral expansion is not constrained
under triaxial conditions. Due to the changed boundary conditions the triaxial modulus stiffness E 50 deviates from the stiffness modulus. E 50 is defined
as secant stiffness that corresponds to a 50percent mobilisation of the maximum shear capacity (figure 1). Choosing the smaller compressive stress s 1
as reference stress, a relation anlogous to equation (4) can be established for
the stiffness evolution of the triaxial modulus E 50 (Kondner & Zelasko 1963,
Duncan & Chang 1970), which is then used in the model equations (1) to (3).
m

|s1| @ sin ) c @ cos


E 50 + E50,ref @

p
@
sin

)
c
@
cos

ref

(5)

An analogous approach for the elastic un/reloading stiffness yields:


m

|s1| @ sin ) c @ cos


E ur + Eur,ref @

p
@
sin

)
c
@
cos

ref

(6)

From empirical observations E 50,ref [ E s,ref


Plastic volumetric strain (triaxial stress states):
Like other plasticity models, the GranularHardening model incorporates a
relationship between activated plastic shear strains e p and corresponding
plastic volumetric strains e p,v. The according flow rule in rate form reads

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.

e p,v + ep sin y m

(7)

For the GranularHardening model, the socalled mobilized dilatancy angle


y m is defined from the wellestablished stress dilatancy theory (Rowe 1962)
as

sin y m +

sin m * sin cs
1 * sin m sin cs

(8)

(since TALPA v23.36 / ASE v14.57). Therein, the critical state friction angle
cs marks the transition between contractive (small stress ratios with
m t cs) and dilatant (higher stress ratios with m u cs) plastic flow.
The mobilized friction angle m in equation (8) is computed according to

sin m +

s 1 * s 3
2c cot * s 1 * s 3

(9)

At failure, when m 5 , also the dilatancy angle reaches its final value
y m 5 y. Accordingly, from equation (8) the critical state friction angle can
be derived as

sin cs +

sin * sin y
1 * sin  sin y

(10)

SOFiSTiK performs the computation of the critical state friction angle cs


automatically on basis of the user specification for the final angles and y.
Consideration of a constant dilatancy angle y m 5 y, i.e., the deactivation of
relationship (8) can optionally be requested by specifying CTRL MSTE
EMAX 0 (ASE: CTRL MSTE W4 0) in the corresponding TALPA / ASE run.
Special comments:
The model can easily be calibrated according to triaxial/oedometric test data.
Therefore, deformation behaviour of the material prior to failure can be captured with a good accuracy. This feature, combined with the consideration of
specific stiffnesses for primary and un/reloading, respectively, constitutes
a significant progress when compared to the behaviour of classic elastoplastic soil material models. Consequently, GRAN is particularly suited for tasks
that require more precise settlement predictions.
If no precise data is available, then the following estimations may be used for
an approximation of the properties of normally consolidated soil:

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p ref + 100kPa
m ] 0.4AAA 0.7
R f ] 0.7AAA 0.9
E 50,ref [ Es,ref
E ur,ref ] 3 @ E 50,ref
Reference:
Kondner, R.L.: Zelasko, J.S. (1963): A hyperbolic stress strain
relation for sands, Proc. 2nd Pan. Am. ICOSFE Brazil 1, 289394
Schanz, T. (1998): Zur Modellierung des mechanischen Verhaltens
von Reibungsmaterialien, Habilitationsschrift, Institut fr
Geotechnik der Universitt Stuttgart
Duncan, J.M.: Chang, C.Y. (1970): Nonlinear analysis of stress and
strain in soil, J. Soil Mech. Found. Div. ASCE 96, 16291653
Desai, C.S.: Christian, J.T. (1973): Numerical Methods in
Geotechnical Engineering, Chapter 2, McGrawHill Book Company

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3.15.9. Material law SWEL


Additional Parameters for swelling of materials
Application range: Swelling of soils in the case of unloading
Relationship between stress and swelling strains of the final state:

0s i t s 0i
log s i s v s v * p
q
i
0i
2
iR + * p1 @  10 s 0i
log 10 s c  * p 2 t s i
s 0i

i + 1..3
si =
s 0i =

principal normal stresses


equilibrium state of stress wrt swelling (initial condition),
transformed to the direction of the principal normal
stresses s i

Parameters:
Description

Unit

Default

P1 Swelling modulus Kq

[o/oo]

3.3

P2 Swelling limit stress (absolute value)


|c| > 0
(magnitude of smallest compressive stress
below which no further increase of swelling occurs)
P3 Historical swelling equilibrium stress
(absolute value) from oedometer testing
|0,hist| > |c|
P4 Viscous extension: retardation time >=
0.0

[kN/m2]

10.0

[kN/m2]

2000.0

[h]

0.0

Special comments:
Swelling of soils is a complex phemomena that is influenced by various factors. There are two swelling mechanisms of practical importance that can be
distinguished for both processes the presence of (pore) water is a common
prerequisite. The first mechanism is termed as the osmotic swelling" of clay

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minerals, which basically is initiated by unloading of clayey sedimentary


rock. The second mechanism takes place in sulphateladen rock with anhydride content. In this case the swelling effects are due to the chemical transformation of anhydride to gypsum which goes along with a large increase in
volume (61%).
For both described mechanisms a principal dependency between the increase
in volume, caused by swelling, and the state of stress was observed both in
laboratory and in insitu experiments. The formula employed represents a
generalization of the 1dimensional stressstrain relationship that HUDER
and AMBERG derived from oedometer tests for the final state. Here the time
dependent evolution of the swelling process is not considered.

The equilibrium stress state with respect to swelling s 0 is defined by means


of the GRP record. For this we use the option PLQ in order to reference a
(previously calculated) load case as primary state for swelling". This state
is regarded as an equilibrium state with respect to swelling (normally insitu
soil prior to construction work). I.e. swelling strain increments caused by an
eventual unloading" from the historical equilibrium state s 0,hist to this new
primary state" s 0 have already occurred. Swelling strain increments in the

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course of construction work are only due to unloading related to the new primary state for swelling" s 0 :
D q  + q  * q
iR
i,tot
i,hist

s
+ * p1 @ log s i
0,hist

* * p @ logss
1

0i
0,hist

s
+ * p1 @ log s i
0i

The constitutive equation reproduced above is limited to the final (stationary)


state, i.e. it relates the evolved swelling strains to the stress state that is present at time t + R. To account for time dependent behaviour, the relation is
extended to the time scale by a formal viscous approach. Correspondingly, the
rate of swelling strains is defined as

qRs * q
+
h
.q

with the retardation time h as a viscosity parameter and q denoting the


swelling strains that have developed at the considered time t. In rheological
terms this approach can be interpreted as a parallel coupling of a swelling
and a dashpot device.
The time dependent response can be calibrated via the retardation time h (P4)
the greater h the more accentuated is the retardation in the evolution of
swelling strains. For h + 0 the response is instantaneous, identical with the
nonviscous (instationary) case. Furthermore, for t R the models response converges to the instationary solution independent of the adjusted
retardation time h. This property enables application of the viscous model
also for stabilisation of the solution process, even if one is not explicitly interested in modelling time effects.
The SWEL record is specified in addition to a linear elastic or elastoplastic
basic material.
Anisotropy is not possible with this model.
Reference:
P.WittkeGattermann
Verfahren zur Berechnung von Tunnels in quellfhigem Gebirge
und Kalibrierung an einem Versuchsbauwerk.
Dissertation RWTHAachen, Verlag Glckauf 1998

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W.Wittke
Grundlagen fr die Bemessung und Ausfhrung von Tunnels in
quellendem Gebirge und ihre Anwendung beim Bau der
Wendeschleife der SBahn Stuttgart.
Verffentlichungen des Institutes fr Grundbau, Bodenmechanik,
Felsmechanik und Verkehrswasserbau der RWTHAachen 1978
W.Wittke, P.Rissler
Bemessung der Auskleidung von Hohlrumen in quellendem
Gebirge nach der Finite Element Methode.
Verffentlichungen des Institutes fr Grundbau, Bodenmechanik,
Felsmechanik und Verkehrswasserbau der RWTHAachen 1976,
Heft 2, 746
Nichtlineare Stoffgleichungen fr Bden und ihre Verwendung bei
der numerischen Analyse von Grundbauaufgaben. Mitteilungen
Heft 10 des BaugrundInstituts Stuttgart (1979)

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3.15.10. Material Law FAUL


Discrete shear surfaces (crevice planes)
f1 = tan c + < 0
g1 = tan +
f2 = z < 0
g2 = f2
Application range:
Additional discrete faults to a given rock material supplementing the
normal plastic material laws of the basic material.
Parameters:
Description

Unit

Default

[]

0.0

P2 Crevice cohesion c

[kN/m2]

0.0

P3 Crevice strength ftu

[kN/m2]

0.0

P4 Crevice dilataion angle

[]

0.0

P5 Meridian angle of crevice plane (OAL)

[]

(*)

P6 Descent angle of crevice plane (OAF)

[]

(*)

[kNm/m2]

0.0

P1 Crevice friction angle

P9 Tensile fracture energy Gf


Special comments:

This material law may be specified up to three times in addition to any other
nonlinear material law, allowing the consideration of different multiple
fault directions.
Specification of meridian angle OAL and descent angle OAF follows the instructions given in the descriptions for input records MAT /MATE. For planar systems the value OAL directly defines the slope of the stratification, i.e.
the angle between the local x direction and the global X direction. Input for
OAF is not evaluated for the plane case.
For P9>0 a scalar damage model with exponential softening of the tensile
strength is applied. The softening obeys

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ft + f tu @ exp* w @

ASE

f tu
G f

where w denotes the crack opening. In this context, the tensile fracture energy G f represents an objective material parameter. In order to minimize discretization dependent spurious side effects, a characteristic element size is
incorporated into the softening formulation. This requires, however, a sufficiently fine finite element discretization in the corresponding system domains.
In case of P9=0 a tension cutoff with respect to ftu without consideration of
softening is executed.

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3.15.11. Material Law ROCK


Elastoplastic material with oriented shear surfaces
f1 = tan (p1) p2 + < 0
g1 = tan (p4) +
f2 = p3 < 0
g2 = f2

(Kluftflche/Fault)

f3 = tan (p6) p7 + < 0


g3 = tan (p9) +
f4 = I p8 < 0
g4 = f4

(Felsmaterial/Rock)

Application range:
Plane strain conditions and anisotropic material
Parameters:
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5

=
=
=
=
=

P6
P7
P8
P9

=
=
=
=

Default values:

Crevice friction angle


Crevice cohesion
Crevice tensile strength
Crevice dilatancy angle
Angle of crevice direction
with respect to x axis (0180)
Rock friction angle
Rock cohesion
Rock tensile strength
Rock dilatancy angle

[degrees]
c [kN/m2]
z [kN/m2]
[degrees]
[degrees]

(0.)
(0.)
(0.)
(0.)
(*)

[degrees]
c [kN/m2]
z [kN/m2]
[degrees]

(0.)
(0.)
(0.)
(0.)

Special comments:
This law ignores the effect of the third principal stress acting perpendicularly
to the model. One can, however, specify the strength of the rock as well as the
strength of the sliding surfaces, which are defined by the angle P5 (default
value is that of an anisotropic material). The flow rule of the shear failure is
nonassociated if P4 is different from P1.

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Any of the two limits can be deactivated in special cases by specifying = c


= 0.0.
Reference:
W.Wunderlich,H.Cramer,H.K.Kutter,W.Rahn
Finite Element Modelle fr die Beschreibung von Fels Mitteilung
Nr. 8110 des Instituts fr konstruktiven Ingenieurbau der Ruhr
Universitt Bochum, 1981.

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3.15.12. Material Law GUDE


Elastoplastic material in its extended form according to Gudehus with non
associated flow rule.
f = q2 c7 p2 + c6 p c5 < 0
g = q2 c9 p2 + c8 p
with:
p = (x + y + z)/3
= (3sin)/(3+sin)

3 3 @ J3
q + 1 g ) 1 @ J 2 * g * 1 @
2 @ J2
2g

c5 = (12c2cos2)/A ; A = (3sin )2
c6 = (24c cos sin)/A
c7 = (12 sin2)/A
c8 = (24c cos sin)/B ;

B = (3sin )(3sin)

c9 = (12 sinsin)/B
Application range: soil and rock with friction and cohesion
Parameters:
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Default values:

friction angle
cohesion
tensile strength
dilatatancy angle
compressive strength (cap)
plastic ultimate strain
ultimate friction angle
ultimate cohesion

[degrees]
c [kN/m2]
z [kN/m2]
[degrees]
c [kN/m2]
u [o/oo]
u [grad]
cu [kN/m2]

(0.)
(0.)
(0.)
(0.)
()
(0.)
(P1)
(P2)

Special comments:
This law is capable of describing a multitude of plane or curved yield surfaces.
For =1 a circle in the deviatoric plane is obtained. The dilatation angle is
usually set either to zero or equal to the friction angle.

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By specification of parameter P5 the model can optionally be extended by a


spherical cap (in principal stress space) that limits the volumetric compressive stress to a maximum value. This can be meaningful in particular for
mainly hydrostatic compression. The cap is defined by:
f + s 1 2 ) s 2 2 ) s 3 2 * P 5 ) P 5 ) P 5 v 0
2

Reference:
W.Wunderlich, H.Cramer, H.K.Kutter, W.Rahn
Finite Element Modelle fr die Beschreibung von Fels Mitteilung
8110 des Instituts fr konstr.Ingenieurbau der Ruhr Universitt
Bochum, 1981

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3.15.13. Material Law LADE


Elastoplastic material according to LADE with nonassociated flow rule.

*27 ) p1 @

3
g + I1 *27 ) p4 @

f + I1

@ I v 0
m

p
 a
I1

@ I

p
 a
I1

with
pa = 103.32 kN/m2 = atmospheric air pressure
I1 + * s 1 * P 3 * s 2 * P 3 * s 3 * P 3
I3 + * s 1 * P 3 @ s 2 * P 3 @ s 3 * P 3
Application range: all materials with friction including rock and concrete
Parameters:
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Default values:

Parameter ""
Exponent "m"
Uniaxial tensile strength
Parameter "" for flow rule
Compressive strength (cap)
Plastic ultimate strain
Ultimate Parameter ""
Ultimate Exponent "m"

[kN/m2]
c [kN/m2]
u [o/oo]

()
()
(0.)
()
()
(0.)
(P1)
(P2)

Special comments:
Material LADE has shown very good compliance between analytical and experimental results. In practice therefore, the parameters can be taken from
experiments on the materials strength. The law at hand can also describe
concrete or ceramics. A simple comparison with the material parameters of
the MohrCoulomb law can be made only if the invariant I1 is known.
Due to the nonphysical parameters the calibration of the LADE yield function might not seem straight forward at first sight. For this reason, the basic

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procedure for a material with known uniaxial tensile and compressive


strength (e.g. concrete) is described in the following. Of particular interest is
the section of the threedimensional yield surface with one of the principal
planes (> Kupfer Curve").
Parameter P2 (exponent) affects the curvature (convexity) of the yield surface
towards the hydrostatic axis the larger P2 the stronger the curvature. In
this manner P2 determines the shape of the intersection curve. For most
types of concrete a value of P2 between 1.0 and 2.0 is reasonable.
Using the known quantities of uniaxial tensile and compressive strength and
the chosen parameter P2, P1 can now be determined from the condition: For
the stress state corresponding to the uniaxial compressive stress limit the yield
condition must be fulfilled.
We rewrite the yield function as:

I31
I1
P 1 + * 27@p
I3
a

The considered stress state is defined by (translated reference system):


s I + s II + * ft
s III + * ft ) f c
I1 + s I ) s II ) s III ,

I3 + s I @ s II @ s III

Where ft+ P 3 and fc are the magnitudes of the uniaxial tensile and compressive strength, respectively, I1 and I3 the required invariants for this
stress state. Substituing into the rewritten yield function yields the yet unknown parameter P1.
The following table contains exemplary parameters for selected concrete
types, derived from the procedure described above (classification according
to EC2, Ultimate Limit State).

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Strength
class
C20/25
C30/37
C40/50
C50/60

fcd
[kN/m2]
13333
20000
26667
33333

P3 (fctk;0.05)
[kN/m2]
1500
2000
2500
2900

P2
[]
1.0

P1
[]
24669.11

1.5

324095.87

1.0

43466.02

1.5

689515.99

1.0

63426.77

1.5

1153410.57

1.0

88162.15

1.5

1778218.62

By specification of parameter P5 the model can optionally be extended by a


spherical cap (in principal stress space) that limits the volumetric compressive stress to a maximum value. This can be meaningful in particular for
mainly hydrostatic compression. The cap is defined by:
f + s 1 2 ) s 2 2 ) s 3 2 * P 5 ) P 5 ) P 5 v 0
2

Reference:
P.V.Lade
Failure Criterion for Frictional Materials in Mechanics of
Engineering Materials, Chap 20 (C.s.Desai,R.H.Gallagher ed.)
Wiley & Sons (1984)

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3.15.14. Material Law DUNC (obsolete)


Hypoelastic material based on DuncanChang.
Loading:
p6

maxp3 * s I, 0
p7 @ 1 * sinp1 @ s I * s III
Et +1 *
@ p 4 @

pa
2 @ p2 @ cosp1 * 2 @ s I @ sinp 1

Unloading and reloading:


p6

maxp3 * s I, 0
Et + p 5 @

pa

pa = 103.32 kN/m2 = atmospheric air pressure


Application range:
Deformation analyses with little plastification and with stress paths not very
different from a triaxial test.
Parameters:
P1
P2
P3
P4

=
=
=
=

P5 =
P6 =
P7 =

Friction angle
Cohesion
Tensile strength
Reference elastic modulus
during loading
Reference elastic modulus
during unloading
Exponent (w 0)
Calibration factor (w 0)

Default values:
[degrees]
c [kN/m2]
z [kN/m2]
[kN/m2]

(0.)
(0.)
(0.)
()

[kN/m2]

()

[]
[]

()
()

Special comments:
The model distinguishes between primary loading, unloading and reloading
different moduli for loading and un/reloading can be specified.
Loading is defined as an increase of the stress level S:

1 * sinp1 @ s I * s III

S +

2 @ p @ cosp * 2 @ s @ sinp 

I
2
1
1
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The initial state should be calculated linearly in doing so, parameters defining the loading history are initialized and the resulting stress state is interpreted as loading".
After having passed a deviatoric stress minimum in case of unloading, a primary loading branch is traced again, thus the simulation of cyclic loading behaviour is possible.
The original law according to DUNCAN/CHANG has been modified in order
to allow for a better simulation of the plastic flow in soil materials. Poissons
ratio is not kept constant but is defined as a function of the tangential modulus of elasticity and the bulk modulus. The bulk modulus is kept constant in
this case.
With P6=P7=0 one can define a law having a constant elastic modulus for
loading and unloading respectively.
In order to avoid numerical difficulties, the elastic modulus in the MAT record
should not be chosen smaller than the initial elastic modulus.
Anisotropic materials are not possible with this model.
Reference:
J.M.Duncan, C.Y.Chang
Nonlinear Analysis of Stress and Strains in Soils
J.Soil.Mech.Found.Div. ASCE Vol 96 SM 5 (1970) ,16291653
C.S.Desai, J.T.Christian
Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, 8188
McGrawHill Book Company

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3.15.15. Material Law HYPO (obsolete)


Hypoelastic material according to Schad.
Bulk and shear moduli during loading:
K = p1 p7 p p8 qmax
G = p2 p5 (I+III) p6 q
Bulk and shear moduli during unloading:
K = p3
G = p4
where:
p = (x + y + z)/3
q = I III
Application range: isotropic materials
Parameters:
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Initial bulk modulus


Initial shear modulus
Bulk modulus for unloading
Shear modulus for unloading
Parameter
Parameter
Parameter
Parameter
Tensile strength

Default values:
[kN/m2]
[kN/m2]
[kN/m2]
[kN/m2]
[]
[]
[]
[]
[kN/m2]

()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
(0)

Special comments:
According to MohrCoulomb, this law must have a vanishing shear modulus
at failure, thus the following expressions are obtained:
p2 = p6 2 c cos
p5 = p6 sin
Anisotropic Material constants are not possible with this model.

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Reference:
H.Schad
Nichtlineare Stoffgleichungen fr Bden und ihre Verwendung bei
der numerischen Analyse von Grundbauaufgaben. Mitteilungen
Heft 10 des BaugrundInstituts Stuttgart (1979)

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3.15.16. Material law MEMB


Parameters for textile membranes
P1

Maximum yielding force in kN/m


default: no yielding for tension

P2

Factor for compression stiffness


0.0
no compressive stress possible
1.0
full compressive stress possible
0.1
intermediate values for scaling the elasticity modulus

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3.15.17. User defined material laws


Parameters for userdefined material laws (USP1..USP8 und USD1..USD8)
For the advanced user the modules TALPA (for QUADelements) and ASE
(for BRICelements) offer the possibility to plug in selfdeveloped nonlinear
material models via an interface (currently only for WINDOWSOS). The following paragraphs describe the interface in detail.
The userdefined material models have to be provided in a Dynamic Link Library (DLL) with arbitrary name. The variable SOFISTIK_USERMATDLL
must be set with the name of this DLL. This can either be done by specification of
SET SOFISTIK_USERMATDLL=my_material
at the CMDcommand prompt or via adding the entry
SOFISTIK_USERMATDLL=my_material
into the SOFISTIK.DEF file. In both cases the user defined material models,
in the DLL my_material.dll, are loaded at runtime. The interface routine itself reads:
The parameter list consists of:
NMAT3D_USD( Ss, SsPrim, deltaSn, SnIe, StateV, Mtype,
ParMat, ElcMat, D, C, Ctrl, deltaTime, iNonl,
iUpd, iErr, NrEl, iGP )

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Input parameters:
Parameter

Dim

Type

Description

Ss

Double

SsPrim

Double

deltaSn

Double

SnIe

Double

Elastic stress tensor (trial stress)


[xx,yy,zz,xy,xz,yz]
Stress tensor primary state
[xx,yy,zz,xy,xz,yz]
Strain increment related to primary state
[xx,yy,zz,xy,xz,yz]
not used

StateV

10

Double

State variables

Mtype

ParMat

12

Integer Identifier for material type


USP1USP8 > 101108
USD1USD8 > 109116
Double Nonlinear material parameters P1P12

ElcMat

16

Double

(6,6)

Double

Elastic material constants from record


001/No:1, @1@14 (where appropriate multiplied with factor of stiffness FACS!).
Additionally FACS at pos 15 and, as the
case may be thickness of QUADelement at
pos 16.
Elastic material stiffness matrix

(6,6)

Double

Elastic compliance

Ctrl

Single

Control values from CTRL MSTE record

deltaTime

Double

not used

NrEl

Integer Element number

iGP

Integer Identifier for GaussPoint

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Return values:
Parameter

Dim

Type

Description

Ss

Double

Updated stress tensor [xx,yy,zz,xy,xz,yz]

SnIe

Double

not used

StateV

10

Double

Updated state variables

(6,6)

Double

iNonl

iUpd

iErr

3102

Updated (tangential) material stiffness


matrix
Integer =0
for linearelastic response
=1
for nonlinear response
Integer =0
no update of stiffness matrix
=1
update of stiffness matrix (only
ASE)
Integer Error indicator
=0
no error
=1
error > program terminates
=99 no user defined material model
provided > program terminates

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See also:

3.16.

SYST GRP REIQ

REI2 Two Layer


Reinforcement

Item

Description

NOG
NOEL

Group number
Element number

TOP
BOTO

REI2

Dimension

Default

Top reinforcement angle


Bottom reinforcement angle
Without input: Use of the direction from
the program BEMESS (see REIQ)

degree
degree

HT
DHT
HB
DHB

Top reinforcement distance


Top reinforcement distance of the layers
Bottom reinforcement distance
Bottom reinforcement distance of the
layers

m
m
m
m

0.06
0.01
0.06
0.01

AST
ASTT
ASB
ASBT

Minimum top reinforcement


Minimum top transverse reinforcement
Minimum bottom reinforcement
Minimum bottom transverse reinforcement

cm/m
cm/m
cm/m
cm/m

BST
BSTT
BSB
BSBT

Maximum top reinforcement


Maximum top transverse reinforcement
Maximum bottom reinforcement
Maximum bottom transverse reinforcement

cm/m
cm/m
cm/m
cm/m

AT
ATT
AB
ABT

Top reinforcement diameter


Top transverse reinforcement diameter
Bottom reinforcement diameter
Bottom transverse reinforcement dia
meter

m
m
m
m

0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010

It is only necessary for nonlinear calculations of plates according to cracked


condition.

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If NOEL is not given, the reinforcement input is valid for all QUAD elements
of the group NOG. With an input for NOEL, only for this element the inputs
are considered despite an input for NOG.
An input for BST, BSTT, BSB, BSBT limits a reinforcement read from the
program BEMESS see REIQ.
TOP, BOTO = Angle between local x axis and 1st reinforcement direction
Only symmetrical bilinear or trilinear stressstrain curves are accepted from
the program AQUA. For example BST 500/550 with trilinear stressstrain
curve in the ultimate limit state with loads multiplied by 1.75:
PROG AQUA
CONC 1 B 25 FC 17.5 QC 0.2 FCT 3.21 FCTK 1.00
STEE 2 BST 500
SSLA EPS
SIG TYPE=POL
10
550 ; 4.62 550 ; 2.38 500
2.38
500 ;
4.62
550 ; 10
550

0 0 ;

FCT is the concrete tensile strength for tensionstiffening, FCTK is the tensile strength of the bare concrete. For the checks in the ultimate limit state
FCTK should be input in a maximally small way (e.g. 0.04 N/mm2).
The input reinforcements are saved in the database (see REIQ) and can be
represented graphically with the program WinGRAF or WING for control
purposes.

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See also:

3.17.

SYST GRP REI2

REIQ Reinforcement in QUAD


Elements

Item

Description

LCR

REIQ

Dimension

Default

Design case number from the program


BEMESS (number of a reinforcement
distribution)

FACT

Multiplication factor

1.0

LCRS

Stored number of the reinforcement distribution

99

With REIQ a reinforcement can be used from the program BEMESS for a
nonlinear calculation of plates and shells according to cracked condition.
LCR is the reinforcement of the design load case LCR from the program BEMESS (without an input for CTRL LCR in the program BEMESS it is the
number 1).
The compiled reinforcement considering an input for REI2 (or corresponding
dates in the data base, for example from SOFiPLUS) is saved then in the design load case LCRS.
For the concrete cover, the bar steel diameters and reinforcements directions
the following rules are valid:
Concrete cover (centre of gravity distance of the reinforcement bars):
These values are not used from the program BEMESS. They are
used:
either from the database (SOFiPLUSDefinition)
or from input of the record REI2 in ASE
or as default with 6 cm.
Bar diameter: same procedure as for centre of gravity distance:
default 10 mm
Reinforcement directions:
They are:

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used at first from a SOFiPLUS definition
If inputs are available in record REI2 in ASE, these are used
then.
If BEMESS results are used and a direction from SOFiPLUS
or an input REI2 are not defined yet:
Direction is used from BEMESS (Nevertheless an input is pos
sible in ASE REI2 for diameters and for minimum and maxi
mum reinforcement quantities for the reinforcement direc
tion a "" must be defined for no input).
Otherwise:
The reinforcement direction from SOFiPLUS or ASE REI2 is
used. A reinforcement from BEMESS is added to the already
defined directions with the smallest angle deviation.
If nothing is defined, reinforcement bars are used with an angle
of 0 and 90 degree.

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See also:

3.18.

GRP SYST

STEX External Stiffness

Item

Description

NAME

Name of the external stiffness file

STEX

Dimension

Default

LIT24

A complete external stiffness can be added with STEX. External stiffnesses


are generated currently only by the program HASE for the halfspace (stiff
ness coefficient method) and for substructures.
The project name is the default for NAME. The mere input of STEX (without
name) suffices usually.

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See also:

3.19.

General Static Analysis FE


GRP SYST LC

OBLI Inclination

Item

Description

SX
SY
SZ
LC
FACV
VMAX
DIRE

STOR

OBLI

Dimension

Default

Inclination in X direction
Inclination in Y direction
Inclination in Z direction

0
0
0

Load case number of a available load


case
Factor for displacements of LC
Factor for imperfection
Scaling direction of imperfection
XX,YY,ZZ

LIT

SUM

Storage of the inclinations


SUM Saving of the total inclination
DIFF Saving only the additional in
clination

With OBLI it is possible to input a global inclination of the system. With the
input of SX=1/200 for example all nodes get an inclination of
ux=1/200height. The used height is the height above the node which is the
lowest one in dead weight direction (see program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB
record SYST GDIR).
The global inclination affects also the linear calculation according to first
order theory. It acts on all elements and also on mixed systems for example
from beam and shell elements. In the same way a imperfection of the beam
axes is considered due to the misalignment > lateral buckling.
The input OBLI must occur before the definition of the load cases and acts
then for all load cases of this ASE calculation.
Imperfection
With OBLI LC FACV an additional load case can be defined for imperfections, also if another primary load case is used with SYST PLC. The imperfection load case in OBLI is used always as a nonstressed one and the normally

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usual input GRP ... FACL is not necessary. Thus the input is easier and simultaneously more flexible. The input SYST ... FACV should be omitted in future.
Alternatively (to FACL) a maximum imperfection can be scaled with OBLI
VMAX. DIRE defines the scaling direction if necessary (without DIRE the
maximum diplacementvector is scaled). For example OBLI LC 91 VMAX
0.050 DIRE YY describes an imperfection affin to load case 91 with a maximum value in global Y direction of 50 mm.
An imperfection has here effects on the internal forces and moments of the
first and secondorder theory. Note please, that an imperfection via OBLI
does not generate local beam curvatures, however, a polylinelike continuous
beam imperfection.
For usage see example ase9.dat.
The sum of the displacement from the inclination plus additional deformation
is output with the default STOR=SUM. The inclination can be controlled then
graphically.
Only the additional deformations are output and saved as inclinations with
STOR=DIFF. However, the use of such a load case as primary load case is then
not anymore possible.
Further possibilities for the input of imperfections:
affin imperfections from scaled primary load case
imperfections from eigenvalues described in the Chapter 5
example: Buckling Shapes in Supercritical Region (file ase13.dat)
precurvature of beams for example with temperature load
deltat/h or local curvature ELLO .. TYPE KY or KZ

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3.20.

General Static Analysis FE

SLIP SLIP Cable

Item

Description

NOSL
NOG
NOEL

SLIP cable number


Group number of the cable elements
Element number of the cable element

SLIP

Dimension

Default

SLIP Cable are a number of cable elements that get a forced common normal
force. Thus they can slide so to speak at intermediate points. The common
normal force is determined from the total strain of the corresponding cables
divided by their total length.
The function is only permissible for nonlinear analysis. The definition of a
SLIP Cable which is input in an ASE calculation is maintained in the database. It is used also in the following calculations. A new SLIP input in a
further ASE calculation or a SLIP input without further parameters deletes
the SLIP Cable definition in the database.
Examples:
SLIP NOSL 4 NOG 4 assigns all cables of the element group 4 to the SLIP
Cable No 4.
SLIP NOSL 5 NOEL 717,718,719 summarizes the cable elements to the SLIP
Cable 5. The single cables 717+718+719 will have the same normal force in
the final result.
If you have interest, please request the example slip.dat.

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See also:

3.21.

V0 LAUN

MOVS Moving Spring

Item

Description

NO
TYPE

MOVS

Dimension

Default

Spring number
Type
1 Use of the contact nodes
3 Use of QUAD elements

FROM
TO
INC

Start number of the nodes or elements


End number of the nodes or elements
Increment
AUTO Automatical node chain
search

1
FROM+1
1

L0

Initial length for springs without end


node N2

For the dynamic time step analysis it can be defined with the record MOVS
(moving spring) that the wheel springs of a train which goes over the bridge
search themselves for the current contact nodes of the bridge. Thus a train
ride is implemented with all effects of the trainstructureinteraction. The
mass of the train is considered with the current train position. The contact
nodes are determined from the particular relative displacement of the going
train and the deformed bridge. Damper which are acted parallelly to the contact springs are converted also to the particular interpolated contact node.
A spring NO is defined as moving spring. Following types are possible:
TYPE=1
TYPE=2

The spring searches for the contact nodes of the nodes


FROM TO INC.
The spring acts on one of the QUAD elements FROM TO
INC.

With an input for L0 the definition of the springs is more simple, because only
a direction has to be input and no node for kinematic constraint. In SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB or the graphical input only a normal spring without 2. node
must be defined. The direction of the spring DX,DY+DZ then only defines the

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General Static Analysis FE

rough direction in which the spring will look for a contact. The length important for first contact will then be defined in ASE L0.
If you have interest, please request the examples moving_springs.
Example
with
moving
superstructure
on
fixed
ase.dat\deutsch\bridge\movs_incremental_launching_2.dat

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See also:

3.22.

MOVS

LAUN Incremental Launching

Item

Description

GRP

Group number

DX
DY
DZ

Total displacement

XM
YM

Coordinates of a centre point

LAUN

Dimension

Default

ds/r
m
m

0
0
0

m
m

The record MOVS (moving supports) is extended here to linear analysis for
incremental launching. An input shifts the nodes of the element group GRP
with DX,DY,DZ. An input of XM and YM rotates around the centre point with
DX [rad] as arc length. Starting on a PLC primary load case, the launching
input is the new total displacement.
Example see movs_incremental_launching_principle.dat

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See also:

3.23.

General Static Analysis FE


GRP

SFIX Fixing Beam Stiffness

Item

Description

LC

PLC

SFIX

Dimension

Default

Load case number of the stiffness from


the program AQB

Load case number of the maximum compressive normal force

Linearization of beam calculations according to OeNORM 4702:


With SFIX LC PLC (SFIX = fixing of the beam stiffness) the minimum of the
AQB stiffness is determined from a series of load cases LC. With that and together with the geometrical stiffness from the normal force of a PLC an otherwise linear beam calculation is performed, so that the superposition principle
is valid for the following checks.
The use is more explained in the school example SFIX.HTM.

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See also:

3.24.

LOAD NL ELLO BOLO PILO POLO LILO BLLO LAG LCC


MASS

LC Load Case and Masses

Item

Description

NO

LC

Dimension

Default

FACT

Load case number


ALL
All load cases
Factor for all loads

1.0

DLX
DLY
DLZ

Dead weight factor in global X direction


Dead weight factor in global Y direction
Dead weight factor in global Z direction

0.0
0.0
0.0

BET2

Coefficient for crack width calculation


0.5 = longtime loading
1.0 = shortterm loading

0.5

TITL

Load case designation

LIT24

TYPE

Type/Action of load case

GAMU
GAMF
PSI0
PSI1
PSI2
PS1S

Unfavourable safty factor


Favourable safty factor
Rare combination value rare
Frequent combination value frequent
Quasipermanent combination value
Nonfrequent combination value

*
*
*
*
*
*

CRI1
CRI2
CRI3

Criteria I
Criteria II
Criteria III

0
0
0

LC activates a load case. All loads which are input after the LC record are assigned to this load case. The factor FACT affects all loads of the type BOLO,
LOAD and ELLO as well as POLO, LILO and BLLO, however, not the temperature, strain and prestressing loads! It does not affect DLX, DLY or DLZ
dead loads. The loads are saved in the database without factor.

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LC ALL calculates all load cases stored in the database.


For a negative dead load direction which is defined in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB with SYST GDIR (e.g. SYST...GDIR=NEGZ) a positive
value has to be input in LC DLx for a load in dead load direction (negative global direction). An error message follows for the input of a negative value (e.g.
LC DLZ 1.00), because a double negation is misleading. A warning follows
for a negative inputs unequal to 1.00 (e.g. for earthquake).
Positive as well as negative values for DLZ are possible for SYST
GDIR=POSZ in program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB.
During dynamic analysis ASE determines the dead weight of all elements according to its definition in the material records respective the cross section
parameters. Additional masses can be defined with the record MASS. Therefore for eigenvalue determinations the dead load has not to be input in the record LC. For the dynamic time step method the mass inputs from ASE or
DYNA are transformed to dead loads now with an input LC...DLZ, because
these are used as masses and therefore they have to produce dead load. Vertical slab eigenvalues can be avoided with MASS FACT.
If dead loads should be used from the program SOFiLOAD, then only the load
case number NO has to be input for LC. If factors of the structural dead
weight or other loading are defined after a LC record, all loading data for that
load case will be deleted, to allow the redefinition of loading for a given load
case.
If no designation was input, the program generates automatically a title from
the dead load factors as well as from the support sum.
The action type and the corresponding safety factors and combination coefficients may be defined already here for a later superposition with program
MAXIMA. Several literals which are described in detail in the record ACT of
the program SOFILOAD are possible for TYPE. If safety factors and combination coefficients which are different from the default should be used,
these can be input here. If the superposition factors are defined with the program SOFiLOAD or MAXIMA, nothing is to be input here for TYPE to PS1S.
Values CRI1 to CRI3 are very general parameters of the load case. They may
be used freely for postprocessing via DBVIEW. You may specify them in advance or set them after the analysis by reading some results from the database. (e.g. a system dimension, a strength reduction etc.) TALPA uses CRI1

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for the safety factor of the material needed by analysis according to Fellenius.
The criterias are set subsequently without further inputs with:
LC TYPE PROP CRI1 ... CRI2 ... CRI3 ...

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See also:

3.25.

General Static Analysis FE


LC NL BOLO ELLO POLO LAG LCC

LOAD Nodal Loads and


Masses

Item

Description

NNO

Number of the node on which the load


acts

PX
PY
PZ

Load in X direction
Load in Y direction
Load in Z direction

MX
MY
MZ

Moment about the X direction


Moment about the Y direction
Moment about the Z direction

LOAD

Dimension

Default

kN
kN
kN

0
0
0

kNm
kNm
kNm

0
0
0

The input of support displacements occurs with the record NL which is


adapted to the program STAR2 > see next page.

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3.26.

NL Nodal Load

Item

Description

NO

Node number

TYPE

Type and direction of the load

P1
P2
P3

Load values or direction components

PF

Factor for P1 to P3

NL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN,m
kN,m
kN,m

0
0
0

It can be input for TYPE:


P
PX
PY
PZ

=
=
=
=

Load (P1,P2,P3) in (X,Y,Z) direction


Load P1 in X direction
Load P1 in Y direction
Load P1 in Z direction

M
MX
MY
MZ

=
=
=
=

Moment (P1,P2,P3) in (x,y,z)direction


Moment P1 about X direction
Moment P1 about Y direction
Moment P1 about Z direction

WX
WY
WZ

= Support displacement in X direction in m


= Support displacement in Y direction in m
= Support displacement in Z direction in m

DX
DY
DZ

= Support rotation about X direction in rad


= Support rotation about Y direction in rad
= Support rotation about Z direction in rad

This input can be used also in order to consider a restraint displacement for
elastically supported nodes. The following case differentiation is planned for
an exemplary input NL 318 WZ=0.01:
Case 1:
Node 318 is fixed in z direction:
Node 318 has a restraint displacement of uz = 1 cm

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General Static Analysis FE

Case 2:
Node 318 is supported with a stiff spring with a spring stiffness
of cp=1E20 kN/m:
Node 318 has a restraint displacement of uz = 1 cm
Case 3:
Node 318 is supported elastically via a spring with the spring stiffness of e.g. cp=1E6 kN/m:
The base point of the spring is displaced by uz = 1 cm. The node
318 may get a little smaller displacement due to statically indeterminate support condition. The spring gets a tensile force corresponding to the restraint displacement. (Case 3 is processed differently than in the program STAR2!)
Case 4:
Node 318 is a free node:
Node 318 has a restraint displacement of uz = 1 cm and gets a
corresponding support reaction.
Support displacements with NL
If a primary load case is used and support displacements are input, the input
support displacement is used then as the new total displacement (no addition
to the primary displacement).

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See also:

3.27.

LC LOAD ELLO LILO

BOLO Line Load Acting on


Nodes

Item

Description

FROM
TO
INC

Start node number


End node number
Increment

TYPE

Direction of the loading

PA
PE

Start load value


End load value

REF

Axis for the increase


XX
global X axis
YY
global Y axis
ZZ
global Z axis
S
developed length

BOLO

Dimension

Default

1
FROM+1
1

LIT

PZ

kN,m
kN,m

PA

LIT

All nodes are loaded from FROM to TO in increments of INC.


The following load types are available:
PXP
PYP
PZP
PX
PY
PZ
PS

or
or
or

MX
MY

Version 14.66

PXS
PYS
PZS

Load in X direction in kN/m


Load in Y direction in kN/m
Load in Z direction in kN/m
Load in X direction in kN/m
Load in Y direction in kN/m
Load in Z direction in kN/m
Load in longitudinal direction in kN/m
Moment about the X direction in kNm/m
Moment about the Y direction in kNm/m

3121

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MZ
M

General Static Analysis FE


Moment about the Z direction in kNm/m
Moment about the longitudinal direction
in kNm/m

The loads PXP, PYP and PZP are loads per projected length (e.g. wind or
snow). The other loads refer always to the actual length (e.g. dead weight or
water pressure).
The input of REF is required only for PE which is unequal to PA and for a discontinuous load distribution (broken boundary).
Edge loads:
An edge defined in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB can be loaded with
BOLO also without node input. For BOLO FROM the edge number of the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB has to be defined. The input TO must be
omitted then. A free load input with LILO is in general simpler for plane
structures.

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See also:

3.28.

LC BLLO PILO

ELLO Element Loading

Item

Description

FROM

TO
INC

Start element number


default ALL = all elements of this type
Input of literal GRP will take
item TO as group number:
ELLO GRP 5 ... will load group 5
End element number
Increment

TYPE

Type of the loading

Load value

DPZ

ELLO

Dimension

Default

ALL

FROM
1

LIT

PZ

Load increase in z direction


(only QUAD)

*,m

ETYP

Element type
BEAM Load acts only on BEAM
elements
QUAD Load acts only on QUAD
elements
BRIC Load acts only at BRIC
elements
TRUS Load acts only on TRUS
elements
CABL Load acts only on CABL
elements

LIT

QUAD
(BEAM)

PCS

Construction stage number (type PRE)


ELLO PCS 11 generates loading for
slabtendons with ICS1=11 of GEOS

All nodes are loaded from FROM to TO in increments of INC.


If there are QUAD elements in the system, the default for ETYP is QUAD.
If QUAD elements are not available, the default is BEAM. The loading on

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General Static Analysis FE

elements with another type than the default must be defined explicitly with
ETYP. Only elements which are active according to the current combination
of groups and element formulations can be loaded.
DPZ can be used to define loads which are variable with the depth (e.g. earth
or water pressure), but only for QUAD elements. In such case P describes the
pressure acting on Z = 0 and DPZ is the increase with the depth. Thus the
loading results for a point according to the formula:
P(Z) + P ) Z @ DPZ
The following load types are available:
Value

Meaning

Dimension

PX
PY
PZ
PXP
PYP
PZP
PXS
PYS
PZS

Local x loading
Local y loading
Local z loading
Global X loading
Global Yloading
Global Z loading
Global X loading
Global Y loading
Global Z loading

kN/m*
kN/m*
kN/m*
kN/m*
kN/m*
kN/m*
kN/m*
kN/m*
kN/m*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

TEMP
DT

Temperature increase
Temperature difference
(topbottom)
Temperature increase
(rightleft)
Temperature increase
(bottomtop)

degrees
degrees

*
*

DTY
DTZ

*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*

degrees

degrees

m*: The dimension of the load depends on the loaded element type. At beams,
cables and trusses the dimension is kN/m, at QUAD elements kN/m, at
BRIC elements kN/m.
It is marked in this table, which load type acts on which element type
(Q=Quad, B=BRIC, S=BEAM, F=TRUS, CABL).

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The difference between PXP and PXS is that PXS is determined as a load referring to the actual element surface (e.g. dead weight) while PXP refers to
the projection of the element surface to the YZ plane (e.g. snow).
Loads DTY and DTZ are only reasonable for beams with geometrically defined cross sections.
The following additional load types are available:

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General Static Analysis FE

Value

Meaning

Dimension

EX
EY
EZ

Strain local x
Strain local y
Strain local z

0/00
0/00
0/00

*
*

*
*
*

KX
KY
KZ

Curvature local x
Curvature local y
Curvature local z

1/km
1/km
1/km

*
*

PMX
PMY
PMXY
PVX
PVY
PNX
PNY
PNXY
PVZ
PMZ

Prestress mxx
Prestress myy
Prestress mxy
Prestress vx
Prestress vy
Prestress nx
Prestress ny
Prestress nxy
(not implemented yet)
Prestress Mz

kNm/m,kNm
kNm/m,kNm
kNm/m
kN/m
kN/m,kN
kN/m,kN
kN/m
kN/m

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

PRE

Prestress from GEOS

IMX
IMY
IMXY
IQX
IQY
INX
INY
INXY

Influence area mx
Influence area my
Influence area mxy
Influence area vx
Influence area vy
Influence area nx
Influence area ny
Influence area nxy

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

kNm

*
*

The prestress load types generate an appropriate stress state and the corresponding strain and curvature loads for the analysis of statically indetermi-

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nate parts. The prestress of the ELLO input has no influence to the initial stiffness of the elements (see record GRP).
Unlike the program STAR2 also the BEAM element does not get any loading
due to the shortening for a statically determined support in ASE. No internal
forces and moments remain then in the beam (in the program STAR2 the
prestress remains in spite of shortening).
In the case of load type PRE prestress from the program GEOS, the prestressing forces of the GEOS tendon groups with the construction stage
number CS are are used for the defined QUAD elements. The load value P has
to be then 1.0. However, a value which is unequal to 1.0 can be input, if the
required prestressing steel area is sought in the design procedure. Nevertheless the prestressing steel areas which are multiplied by 1.0 remain saved
then in the database! A construction stage number CS must be input in the
record GRP. The example GRP ... CS 0 ; ELLO 1 9999 1 TYPE PRE P 1.0 CS
1 applies the prestressing loads of the 1st construction stage to the net cross
sections. Thus the calculated deformations cause no stresses in the prestressing steel.
With the types IMX to IQY singularities are installed in the element and a
loading is generated. With that the influences area is determined for a corresponding internal force. The load value is usually then 1.0. Only an element
is should be loaded per load case.
After output of the deformation uz of the influence area load case in isoline
representation (program WING ISOL VZ) the influence area can be evaluated easily by hand for single loads for example for a SLW. For other loads
(block load) the isoline representation supplies the areas to be loaded which
must be input then in a further ASE calculation.
Influence areas can be calculated only with the expanded version ASE1.

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See also:

3.29.

General Static Analysis FE


LC ELLO BOLO

PILO Pile Loading

Item

Description

NO

Pile number

TYPE

Type of loading
PX
Local x loading
PY
Local y loading
PZ
Local z loading
PXP
Global X loading
PYP
Global Y loading
PZP
Global Z loading
PXS
Global X loading
PYS
Global Y loading
PZS
Global Z loading

PA
PE

Start load value


End load value

A
L

Depth of load start in global Z direction


Length of load in global Z direction
(Default: up to the pile end)

PILO

Dimension

Default

LIT

PZ

kN/m
kN/m

!
PA

m
m

0
*

The difference between PXP and PXS is that PXS is determined as a load referring to the pile length while PXP refers to the YZ plane.
Further explanations are to be taken from the PFAHL manual.
Only one load case per input block can be analysed for a nonlinear analysis.

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3.30.

ASE

Free Loads.

Free loads are a possibility, which is very friendly for the users to put the loads
at an arbitrary position of the structure. The loads are converted into equivalent nodal loads. Moments are not converted into forces couples, however, in
analog mode into nodal moments. All QUAD elements are examined for loading, even the ones which are without element stiffness.
All loads can be an input in absolute global coordinates or in reference to any
arbitrary node of the structure.
The problem of ambiguous loading may arise, if the user defines some elements which lie upon each other or if coupled nodes with identical coordinates exist in the system. For point and line loads the least extensive solution
is to define each load a single time only. Here the program uses the very first
found element. This is not generally possible for block loads, therefore all
found elements are loaded. In the default with PROJ=ELEM the program
uses only loaded elements, which lie in the plane of the load (storey). Besides
other inputs of PROJ the user can control the load accretion via the specification of group numbers and normal directions for the elements and the loading.
An additional FRA number which describes the ratio of the loaded area to the
defined load area is calculated and output for all loads. Any value other than
1.0 causes a warning in the output.
ECHO LOAD can be used in order to output and check the generated nodal
loads.

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3.31.

General Static Analysis FE


LC LOAD LILO BLLO

POLO Free Point Load

Item

Description

NNR

POLO

Dimension

Default

Reference node

X
Y
Z

Global load coordinates


They refer possibly to the node (NNR).

m
m
m

0.
0.
0.

TYPE
P

Load type and direction


Load

LIT
kN

PZP
0.

NOG

Element group number


if several groups are possible

SEL

Selection of elements
ALL
no further selection
POS
only elements with local z in
the direction of global Z
NEG
only elements with local z
against the global Z direction

LIT

ALL

PROJ

Line of vision for determination of the


loading location
ELEM load coordinate in elements
plane
XX,YY, line of vision
ZZ

LIT

ELEM

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Free point load


POLO describes point loads which are applied independently of the element
mesh.
The following load types are available:
Value

Meaning

Dimension

PX
PY
PZ
PXP
PYP
PZP

Local x loading
Local y loading
Local z loading
Global X loading
Global Y loading
Global Z loading

kN
kN
kN
kN
kN
kN

MX
MY
MZ
MXX
MYY
MZZ

Local x moment loading


Local y moment loading
Local z moment loading
Global X moment loading
Global Y moment loading
Global Z moment loading

kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm

During evaluation the program examines for all QUAD elements whether the
load lies inside the elements plane (PROJ=ELEM). For buildings only the
storeys with the correct Z coordinate are loaded here.

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The determination of the Z coordinate is difficult for the loading of curved


areas. A line of vision can be input then with PROJ. An element is loaded only,
if it is located in the line of vision beginning from the load point with coordinates X, Y and Z. The load type is irrelevant here.
If several elements are possible, the element selection can be specified more
exactly with NOG and SEL. If, however, some elements are still possible, the
very first found element is used.
The program transforms the load into nodal loads acting on the neighbouring
nodes. ECHO LOAD can be used for the output and the check of the generated
nodal loads. With the program WinGRAF a graphic representation of the
really used elements is possible.

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See also:

3.32.

LC BOLO POLO BLLO

LILO Free Line Load

Item

Description

NNR

LILO

Dimension

Default

Reference node

XA
YA
ZA

Coordinates of the load start point


They refer possibly to the node (NNR).

m
m
m

0.
0.
0.

DX
DY
DZ

Load dimensions

m
m
m

0.
0.
0.

TYPE

Load type and direction

LIT

PZP

PA
PE

Start load value


End load value

kN/m
kN/m

0.
PA

NOG

Element group number


if several groups are possible

SEL

Selection of elements
ALL
no further selection
POS
only elements with local z in
the direction of global Z
NEG
only elements with local z
against the global Z direction

LIT

ALL

PROJ

Line of vision for determination of the


loading location
ELEM load coordinates in elements
plane
XX,YY, line of vision
ZZ

LIT

ELEM

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Free line load


LILO describes line loads which are applied independently of the element
mesh. The program transforms the load into nodal loads acting on the neighbouring nodes.
The following load types are available:
Value

Meaning

PX
PY
PZ
PXP
PYP
PZP
PXS
PYS
PZS

Local x loading
Local y loading
Local z loading
Global X loading
Global Y loading
Global Z loading
Global X loading
Global Y loading
Global Z loading

kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m

MX
MY
MZ
MXX
MYY
MZZ

Local x moment loading


Local y moment loading
Local z moment loading
Global X moment loading
Global Y moment loading
Global Z moment loading

kNm/m
kNm/m
kNm/m
kNm/m
kNm/m
kNm/m

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The difference between PXP and PXS is that PXS is determined as a load referring to the actual load length in element plane (e.g. dead weight) while PXP
refers to the projection of the load length to the YZ plane (e.g. snow).
The selection of loaded elements occurs with NOG, SEL and PROJ as in the
record POLO. Only the first found element is loaded.

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3.33.

General Static Analysis FE


LC ELLO POLO LILO

BLLO Free Block Load

Item

Description

NNR

BLLO

Dimension

Default

Reference node

XA
YA
ZA

Coordinates of the first load corner


They refer possibly to the node (NNR).

m
m
m

0.
0.
0.

DX
DY
DZ

Coordinate differences of the third load


corner

m
m
m

!
!
0.

DXS
DYS
DZS

Coordinate differences of the second load


corner

m
m
m

DX
0.
0.

DXT
DYT
DZT

Coordinate differences of the fourth load


corner

m
m
m

0.
DY
0.

TYPE

Load type and direction

LIT

PZP

P1
P2
P3

Load value at corner 1


Load value at corner 2
Load value at corner 3

kN/m
kN/m
kN/m

0.
P1
P1

NOG

Element group number


if several groups are possible

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Item

Description

Dimension

Default

SEL

Selection of elements
ALL
no further selection
POS
only elements with local z in
the direction of global Z
NEG
only elements with local z
against the global Z direction

LIT

ALL

PROJ

Line of vision for determination of the


loading location
ELEM load coordinates in elements
plane
XX,YY, line of vision
ZZ

LIT

ELEM

AL

Rotational angle (only allowed for a block


load area in the XYplane)

degree

BLLO describes general block loads which are applied independently of the
element mesh. The program transforms the load into nodal loads acting on
the neighbouring nodes.
The selection of loaded elements occurs NOG, SEL and PROJ as in the record
POLO. If several elements are possible, all these elements are loaded with
BLLO. The value PERC becomes then larger than 1.
The input of loads acting on the element mesh can occur effectively with
ELLO.
The load area may not have any reentrant corners. Only the values DX and
DY has to be defined for rectangular load areas. The relations DY=DYS+DYT
and DX=DXS+DXT have to be fulfilled for a parallelogram. For threedimensional load areas all three values DX, DY and DZ must be input always, even
if they are zero.
The sequence of the load values can be selected freely. However, the 2nd load
value is always valid for the load corner specified with DXS, DYS and DZS.
For different load values P1, P2 and P3 the load value at the 4th load corner
is extrapolated linearly, i.e. the load area remains plane. Thus the load value
at the 4th corner depends on the geometry of the load area.

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Block load
The following load types are available:

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Value

Meaning

Dimension

PX
PY
PZ
PXP
PYP
PZP
PXS
PYS
PZS

Local x loading
Local y loading
Local z loading
Global X loading
Global Y loading
Global Z loading
Global X loading
Global Y loading
Global Z loading

kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m

MX
MY
MZ
MXX
MYY
MZZ

Local x1) moment loading


Local y moment loading
Local z moment loading
Global X moment loading
Global Y moment loading
Global Z moment loading

kNm/m
kNm/m
kNm/m
kNm/m
kNm/m
kNm/m

The difference between PXP and PXS is that PXS is determined as a load referring to the actual element area (e.g. dead weight) while PXP refers to the
projection of the elements area to the YZ plane (e.g. snow). In the case of plane
structures (FRAM, GIRD, PLAN) the loads refer always to the elements
area.
1)

Moment around the local x axis

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3.34.

General Static Analysis FE


LC GRP GRP2

TEMP Temperature from


HYDRA

Item

Description

NO

Load case number of the temperature


calculation

T1
T2

Time of the interval beginning


Time of the interval end

NOG

TEMP

Dimension

Default

sec
sec

0
T1

Element group which is to be loaded


Default: all groups

FACT

Factor of the loading

1.0

EMOD

Stiffness modification of the elastic


modulus for BRIC elements with
HYDRA temperature fields, see also
GRP2 ALP0
YES
Consideration of the stiffness
modification
OFF
No consideration of the
stiffness modification

LIT

YES

RELA

Consideration of the relaxation via a


reduced E modulus according to Technischen Empfehlungen Bautechnick
BAW / Wesche (example
Reifegrad_Kriechen_Vergleich.dat)
YES
Consideration
NO
No consideration

LIT

NO

EXPO

Exponent for the elastic modulus according to Braunschweiger Stoffmodell"

1/2

After a transient temperature calculation with the program HYDRA the element group NOG with the temperature differences of the time T2T1 from
the HYDRA load case NO can be loaded with this record. With that changing

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material properties or support conditions can be examined in the course of the


temperature development (e.g. variable elastic modulus during setting of the
green concrete). The time values T1 and T2 are arbitrary. For missing exact
time values from the program HYDRA the temperature is interpolated linearly between two available time values or an end temperature is used. For
T1=T2 the temperature is used to this time.
If a stationary calculation occurred, the temperature is used fully in spite of
an input for T1 and T2.
The temperature loading is applied currently only to BRIC and QUAD elements.
The input via GRP...FACT omits and is not anymore possible.
For the hydration of volume elements the elastic modulus can be still modified according to the "Braunschweiger Stoffmodell" with an exponent:

a * a0
E + E28 @
1 * a0

EXPO

The input is done with TEMP ... EMOD YES EXPO ...

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3.35.

General Static Analysis FE


LC LOAD LCC

LAG Loads from Support


Reactions

Item

Description

LCNO

LAG

Dimension

Default

Number of the load case with the reaction forces

FACT

Load factor

1.0

TYPE

Selection of transferred support reactions


PZ
Only PZ support reactions
are transferred.
PP
Only PP support reactions
are transferred.
FULL Forces and moments are
transferred.

LIT

PZ

Z coordinate of the generated POLO loads

TOL

Tolerance for consideration of support


forces

0.1

PROJ

Name of the project from which the support reactions should be used

LIT

With LAG the support reactions of a higher storey can be applied to the current lower storey. Thus the loads can be summarized from the roof up to the
basement. The support reactions of the lowest storey can be used then for the
dimensioning of the foundation. Wall loads have to be considered in each
storey here.
All support reactions which are farer outside the structure than TOL are ignored via an input for TOL (default 0.1 m).
Without a definition of a project name all support loads of the load case LCNO
in the current database are considered as nodal loads in the current load case
which is specified with LC (the support loads are the support reactions multiplied by 1).

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If a project name is input, the support loads are applied as free POLO loads
with the coordinates of the support nodes of this external project database.
The Z coordinate can be modified in this case e.g. in order to apply the support
loads of a plate which was analysed as SYST GIRD to a higher storey of a
threedimensional structure.

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3.36.

General Static Analysis FE

PEXT Prestress of External


Cables

Item

Description

NOG
NOEL

Group number or
Number of a cable of the cablechain

P0
SIDE

Prestressing force at stressing anchorage


Prestressing side
POSX, POSY, POSZ, NEGX, NEGY,
NEGZ

BETA

Unintensional wobble angle (imperfect


inclination)
Friction coefficient
Slip at stressing anchorage

MUE
SS

PEXT

Dimension

Default

kN

degree/m

Cable groups or single cables can be selected with the record PEXT for prestressing. The cable side which is prestressed is defined with SIDE. For
example POSX defines the cable side with the larger X coordinate.

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Example: See external_tend__PEXT_cdutil.dat and external_tendon_friction.doc

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3.37.

General Static Analysis FE


LC LOAD LAG

LCC Copy of Loads

Item

Description

NO

LCC

Dimension

Default

Number of an already defined load case

FACT

Load factor

1.0

NOG

Group number for loaded elements

NFRO
NTO
NINC

Smallest node number


Largest node number
Increment of the node numbers

NFRO
1

ULTI

Load factor increase at the ultimate load


iteration
YES
OFF
see record ULTI
Prestress, temperature loads and settlements will never increase!

YES

PLC

Temperature and strain loads for primary load cases


YES
no use of temperature and
strain loads automatically
LC had been active in PLC
NEW use of all loads
Load acts for the first time

NEW

LCC can be used to copy loads from other load cases into the current load case.
All loads of the types LOAD, NL, BOLO, ELLO, PILO, POLO, LILO, BLLO and
LAG are transferred. ELLO inputs for prestress loads from the program
GEOS are accepted as well. However, here the user must pay attention to the
settings in the GRP CS record. Dead weight loads DLX, DLY, DLZ of the LC
record are not transferred.

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The load case NO may have been defined already during a previous analysis
or it may appear in the same input block for the first time. In the second case,
however, it must have been defined before the current load case. All loads can
be multiplied by a factor during copy. The loads were saved in the database
in each case without the load case factor.
Moreover, in the case of nodal loads (record LOAD, BOLO) only specific loads
can be copied purposely through the selection of a region NFRO to NTO in
steps of NINC. For loads upon elements (record ELLO) NOG can be used to
assort loads groupwisely. This is also valid for the free loads (record POLO,
LILO, BLLO).
If a load cases was already considered in the primary load case, only real loads
have to be defined again when using the primary load case. Temperature or
strain loads must not be defined again, because they act additive. These loads
are extracted now automatically with PLC = YES. If for instance the load factor LC ... FACT is increased during a limit load iteration, the difference temperature is used additionally. Default is PLC NEW, all loads are used.

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3.38.

General Static Analysis FE


SYST GRP LC LOAD

EIGE Eigenvalues and


vectors

Item

Description

NEIG

Number of the sought eigenvalues

ETYP

Method for eigenvalue calculation


Buckling eigenvalue solver for large
system
BUSI Simultaneous vector iteration
BULL Method of Lanczos
BURA Method of Rayleigh
BUCK uses the fastest solver for the
current system
Dynamic eigenvalue solver
SIMU Simultaneous vector iteration
LANC Method of Lanczos
RAYL Method of Rayleigh
REST

EIGE

Dimension

Default

LIT

LANC

Eigenvalues already available

NITE
MITE
LMIN

Number of iteration or Lanczos vectors


Maximum number of iterations
Eigenvalue shift

1/sec

*
*
0

SAVE
LC

Number of the generated load cases


Load case number of the smallest eigen
mode shape

<10
2001

The input of EIGE causes the use and possibly the determination of eigenvalues and eigenmode shapes. If eigenvectors have already been calculated,
ETYP = REST as well as the load case number LC have to be input. This is
planned for the subsequent calculation of modal damping values or loads.
The masses from dead load are used always. All further masses (record
MASS) from the generation program and ASE are considered additionally.
Vertical slab eigenvalues can be avoided with MASS FACT.

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If loads are defined additionally to EIGE, the modal loads are determined and
saved in the database. A further analysis does not occur.
The mode shapes are saved completely in the database in a compact form.
This is sufficient for a regular dynamic analysis. They can be saved as regular
load cases too. The latter form is to be selected, if a graphic representation of
the eigenvectors with the program WinGRAF or evaluations of element
stresses in the program DYNA should occur.
Eigenvalue determinations are not possible with the basic program version.
Explanations:
The eigenvalue problem can be displaced by one value. This is applied for
structures that are not supported (eigenvalue of zero as the smallest value)
as well as for the check of the numbers of eigenvalues via a Sturm sequence.
During the displacement the number of the ignored eigenvalues are recognizable in the number of the sign change in the determinant.
The choice of method for the eigenvalue analysis depends on the number of
the sought eigenvalues. The simultaneous vector iteration can be used in the
case of few eigenvalues. The number of iterations may be reduced, if a somewhat expanded subspace for the eigenvalue iteration is used. Therefore the
default value for NITE is here the minimum between NEIG+2 and the
number of the unknowns. The iteration is interrupted, if the number of the
maximum iterations (default max (15,2NITE)) is reached or if the maximum
eigenvalue has changed only by the factor less than 0.00001 opposite to the
previous iteration.
The method according to Lanczos is significantly quicker than the vector iteration, if a large number of eigenvalues is sought. A good accuracy is achieved,
if the number of the vectors NITE is at least the double one of the sought eigenvalues (default). Unlike the vector iteration the larger eigenvalues are
usually worthless for NITE=NEIG.
The modal damping is calculated from the defined dampings of the groups
after the determination of the eigenvalues.
The vibration mode shapes are stored as load cases with ascending load case
numbers beginning with LC. Since the eigenvectors in certain cases may have
large amplitudes, the output of element stresses or support reactions is not
usually desirable. It should be turned off with the record ECHO.

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For the problematic of the eigenvalue analysis cf. chapter 2.13.

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3.39.

MASS Lumped Masses

Item

Description

NO

MASS

Dimension

Default

Node number

MX
MY
MZ

Translational mass
Translational mass
Translational mass

t
t
t

0.
MX
MX

MXX
MYY
MZZ

Rotational mass
Rotational mass
Rotational mass

tm2
tm2
tm2

0.
0.
0.

LC
PRZ

Load case for mass conversion


Factor in percent
PRZ=100
full conversion
default= PSI2 value of the load case
Selection of load direction
PG or PXX or PYY or PZZ

LIT

PG

SELE

Example see ase4.dat. The masses are additional to those defined in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB. They are maintained over several input sets
until they are redefined. Please notice that only SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB
masses also produce dead load in a static analysis! ASE additional masses
dont act as dead load e.g. dlz in a static load cases [except in a time step analysis where they act as dead load and dynamic mass}! MASS 0 can be used to
delete all masses. With MASS LC 0 masses defined in a previous run can be
taken.
A mass acts usually the same in all three coordinate directions and thus, it
need to be defined independently only for special cases. Rotational masses
with inclined axis are not used in ASE.
The dead weight of the entire structure is always applied in the form of
translational masses. If necessary, rotational masses must be defined separately with MASS. If the dead weight of a structure is not to be applied, the
dead weight of the material or the cross section should be input as zero.
MASS can be used also to import nodal loads from the database as masses to
ASE. The load case number must be input in LC. The conversion factor has

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to be defined in PRZ. PRZ = 100 means full mass conversion. Other loads then
loads in dead weight direction must be selected with SELE. Please check the
sum of masses in the output! The input
MASS LC 12 PRZ 100

creates translational masses from all loads of load case 12 in the direction of
the dead weight. By default the masses are applied as X, Y and Z mass. If this
is not desired, they can be factorized additionally with MX,MY and MZ, e.g.
MASS LC 12 PRZ 100 MX 1.0 MY 0.2 MZ 1.0.
Masses can get also a factor with MASS. For this purpose the literal FACT
has to be input for NO. This can be reasonable particularly for larger systems,
where it is favourable to suppress many low frequencies which are not essential for the analysis. With the input
MASS FACT MZ 0.01

The mass in global Z direction is reduced to one percent only. So vertical slab
eigenvalues of big buildings can be avoided. MASS FACT works additive to
MASS inputs and has an effect on the automatic element dead load mass.
The use of the record MASS is explained in the example ase4.dat "Natural
Frequencies of a Cylindrical Shell".

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See also:

3.40.

MOVS

V0 Initial Velocity

Item

Description

NO

Node number

VX
VY
VZ

Initial velocities in global directions

V0

Dimension

Default

m/sec
m/sec
m/sec

0
0
0

An initial velocity V0 in m/sec is defined for the node NO.

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See also:

3.41.

General Static Analysis FE


DESI

REIN Specification for


Determining Reinforcement

Item

Description

MOD

REIN

Dimension

Default

Design mode
SECT Reinforcement in cut
BEAM Reinforcement in beam
SPAN Reinforcement in span
GLOB Reinforcement in all
effective beams
TOTL Reinforcement in all beams

LIT

SECT

RMOD

Reinforcement mode
SING Single calculation
SAVE Save as minimum reinforcem.
SUPE Superposition with minimum
reinforcement
ACCU Superposition with existing
LCR reinforcement
ACSA Comb. ACCU and SAVE
ACSU Comb. ACCU and SUPP
NEW New definition of the reinfor
cement distribution (for
special cases only)

LIT

SING

LCR

Number of reinforcement distribution


a negative value reinitializes all
Grouping of prestressing tendons
Factor for continuous reinforcement

0
1.0

P6
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12

Parameter for determining


reinforcement
(See notes)

*
*
*
*
*
0.20
*

TITL

Title of the design case

LIT24

ZGRP
SFAC

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Any number of types of reinforcement distribution can be stored in the database. Under number LCR, the most recently calculated reinforcement for
graphic depictions and for determinations of strain is stored. LCR=0 is reserved for the minimum reinforcement. This makes it possible, for instance,
to design some load cases in advance and to prescribe their reinforcements
locally or globally as defaults. The input value RMOD refers to the minimum
and link reinforcement:
SING
SAVE
SUPE
ACCU
ACSA
ACSU

creates new LCR reinforcements using the given


stored minimum reinforcement
ignores the stored minimum reinforcement and overwrites
it with the current reinforcement.
uses the stored minimum reinforcement and overwrites it
with the possibly higher values of this run.
Superposition with existing LCR reinforcement
Combination from ACCU and SAVE
Combination from ACCU and SUPP

With REIN RMOD ACCU LCR nnn it is possible to add up to 255 reinforcement results as active reinforcement of this run. It will be saved with the last
defined LCR entry
SUPE cannot be used during an iteration, since then the maximum reinforcement for an iteration step will not be able to be reduced. STAR2 therefore ignores a specification of SUPE, as long as convergence has not been reached.
AQB can update or superpose the reinforcements at a later time: with REIN
RMOD SUPE but without any DESI input.
A specification of BEAM, SPAN, GLOB or TOTL under MOD refers to interpolated sections or sections with the same section number. For all connected
ranges with the same section, the maximum for the range multiplied with
SFAC is incorporated as the minimum reinforcement. The design is done separately in each case for each load, however, so that the user can recognize the
relevant load cases.

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General Static Analysis FE

Distribution of reinforcements
As the existing reinforcement has a considerable impact on the shear design,
AQB will perform an intermediate superposition after the design for normal
force and bending moments. However, use of minimum reinforcement in ultimate load design has also a detrimental effect on the shear reinforcement,
since the lever of internal forces is reduced. The user can take the appropriate
precautions by specifying a minimum lever arm in AQUA.
Since this latter effect is especially strong with tendons, AQBS can give
special effect to the latter in ultimate load design. This option is controlled
with ZGRP:

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ZGRP = 0

Tendons are considered with both their area and their


prestressing. Normal reinforcement is specified at the
minimum percentage.
The relative loading capacity is found.

ZGRP > 0

Tendons are specified with their full prestressing, but


with their area (stress increase) only specified in so
far as necessary. Normal reinforcement if installed
only if the prestressing steel alone is not sufficient.
A required area of prestressing steel is determined.

ZGRP < 0

Tendons are specified with their prestressing, only


specified in so far as necessary, otherwise the same
like ZGRP > 0.

If ZGRP < > 0 has been specified, the tendons are grouped into tendon groups.
The group is a whole number proportion which comes from dividing the
identification number of the tendon by ZGRP. Group 0 is specified with its
whole area, the upper group as needed. Any group higher than 4 is assigned
group 4. The group number of the tendons is independent of the group number
of the nonprestressed reinforcement.
Assume that tendons with the numbers 1, 21, 22 and 101 have been defined.
With the appropriate inputs for ZGRP, the following division is obtained:
ZGRP
ZGRP

0
10

All tendons are minimum reinforcement


Tendon 1 is group 0 and minimum reinforcement
Tendons 21 and 22 are group 2 and extra
Tendon 101 is group 4 and extra
ZGRP 100 Tendons 1, 21 and 22 are minimum reinforcement
Tendon 101 is group 1, extra
An example of the effect can be found in Section 5.1.5.3.
Notes: Parameters for determining reinforcement
The following parameters are not to be changed by the user in general:
P7 Weighting factor, axial force
P8 Weighting factor moments

Default
5
2

Typical
0.5 50
2

When designing, the strain plane is iterated by the BFGS method. The
required reinforcement is determined in the innermost loop according
to the minimum of the squared errors.

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MIN ( (NNI)2 + F1(MYMYI)2 + F2(MZMZI)2 )
F1 = P7 (zmaxzmin)P8
F2 = P7 (ymaxymin)P8

The default value for P8 leads to the same dimensions for the errors.
The value of P7 has been determined empirically. With symmetrical reinforcement and tension it is better to choose a smaller value, with multiple layers and compression a larger one. For small maximum values
of the reinforcement the value of P7 should be increased.
Default
P9 Factor for reference point of strain
1.0
P10 Factor for reference point of moments
1.0

Typical
1.0
0.21.0

Lack of convergence in the design with biaxial loading can generally be


attributed to the factors no longer shaping the problem convexly, so
that there are multiple solutions or none. In these cases the user can
increase the value of P7 or can vary the value of P10 between 0.2 and
1.0, for individual sections. In most cases, however, problems are
caused by specifying the minimum reinforcement improper.
P11 Factor for preference outer reinforcement
Reinforcement which is only one third of the lever arm, is allowed to be
maximum one third of the area of the outer reinforcement. P11 is the
factor to control this. For biaxial bending P11=1.0, for uniaxial bending
P11=0.0

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See also:

3.42.

REIN NSTR

DESI Reinforced Concrete


Design, Bending, Axial Force

Item

Description

STAT

Load condition and code


NO
Save reinforcement only
SERV Serviceability loads
ULTI Ultimate loads
NONL Nonlinear analysis combin.
ACCI Accidental combination
Control for material of cross section
Control for material of reinforcements

KSV
KSB
AM1
AM2
AM3
AM4
AMAX
SC1
SC2
SCS
SS1
SS2
C1
C2
S1
S2
Z1
Z2

Minimum reinforcement for beams


Minimum reinforcement for columns
Minimum reinforcement
statically required cross section
Minimum reinforcement
depending on normal force
Maximum reinforcement
Safety coefficient concrete bending
Safety coefficient concrete compression
Safety coefficient concrete shear
Safety coefficient reinforcing steel
Safety coefficient structural steel
Maximum compression
Maximum centric compression
Optimum tensile strain, see below
(= limit for symmetric reinforcements)
Maximum tensile strain
Maximum effective compressive strain
of prestressing steel
Maximum effective tensional strain
of prestressing steel

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DESI

Dimension

Default

LIT

*
*

%
%
%

0
*
*

o/oo
o/oo
o/oo

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

o/oo
o/oo

*
*

o/oo

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Item

Description

Dimension

Default

SMOD

Design mode shear


NO
No shear design

LIT

TVS
MSCD

Deductional shear stress / stress limit


Maximum tensile longitudinal stress

N/mm2
N/mm2

*
*

KTAU

Shear design for plates


K1
not staggered for normal slabs
(DIN 1045 17.5.5. equ. 14)
K2
not staggered for slabs with
evenly distributed loading
(DIN 1045 17.5.5. equ. 15)
K1S
like K1, but staggered
(DIN 1045 17.5.5. Table 13 1a)
K2S
like K2, but staggered
num
coefficient k for equ. 4.18 EC2
0.0
no shear check

/LIT

TTOL
TANA
TANB

Tolerance for the limit values


Lower and upper limit for inclination of
struts of shear design (tan = 1/cot )

0.02
*
*

SCL

Section class for steel and composite sections


1 No limits on steel stress
2 Outmost compressive yield stress
is limited
3 Compressive stress is limited to
the yield value
4 Yield stress will be applied as limit
in the tensile and compressive
region

Design may be performed for various safety concepts. When designing for
ultimate load or combinations with divided safety factors, the load factor
must be contained in the internal forces and moments. One way to accomplish
this is with the COMB records.

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With KSV and KSB will be controlled the material law. As the correct default
is taken from the INIfile selected with the design code NORM, it is only for
very special cases that you may enter:
EL
ELD
SL
SLD
UL
ULD
CAL
CALD
PL
PLD

linear elastic, but without tension if concrete


linear elastic with added material safety factor from AQUA
serviceability without safety factors
serviceability with added material safety factor
from AQUA
ultimate design without safety factors from AQUA
ultimate design with safety factors from AQUA
Calculatoric mean values
Calculatoric mean values with safety factors from AQUA
plastic nominal without safety factors
plastic design with material safety factors from AQUA

The safety factors referenced above refer to the values defined with the material in AQUA. Without D" only the factors SC1 to SS2 of the DESI record
are applied, which are all preset to 1.0 however. With Option D" we have to
distinguish between two different cases:
If the values defined in DESI are < 1.0 or SC1 is not equal SC2 or the
design code has special provisions for that (ACI, SNIP), the safety factors are multiplicative. Printed stresses contain only the safety factors
of the materials.
In all other cases the given value will replace that of the material. The
additional safety factor for high strength concrete will be applied
additionally. Fibre materials (e.g. Carbon fibres) keep their safety factor.
PL resp. PLD will modify for some design codes (DIN, EC, ACI) the stress
strain law to a constant equivalent stress block, i.e. the stress value and the
strain range will be modified according to the provisions of those codes.
The minimum reinforcements AM1 to AM4 apply to all cross sections; they
are input as a percentage of the section area.
The relevant value is the maximum of the minimum reinforcements:
Absolute minimum reinforcement (AM1/AM2)
Minimum reinforcement of statically required section
Minimum reinforcement defined in cross section program AQUA
Minimum reinforcement stored in the database

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Note:
The statically determined portion of the forces and moments of prestressing
is always deducted when determining the external forces and moments. This
contribution is found from the location of the tendons and their tensile force.
AQB only: A specification of the bifurcation factor BETA in record BEAM is
changed to additional moments according to DIN 1045 17.4.3 resp. Eurocode
4.3.5.6. resp. DIN 1045 neu 5.6.4. resp. OeNORM B 4700 2.4.3. or other design
codes. The design will always generate both bending axis. The output of the
extra moments is given with the forces of the combinations.
Defaults for strain limits and safety coefficients depend on the selected design
code and the type of load combination. They may be specified in the INIfile
of the design code. If SC1 and SC2 are defined different (e.g. old DIN 1045,
ACI), then the safety factors of the reinforcements will be also interpolated
if SS1 is equal to SC1.
The maximum strain depends on the stressstrain curve. The value of 2.2 is
reduced for example at the old DIN or high strength concrete automatically.
The values Z1 and Z2 do not limit the range of possible strains, but the maximum corresponding values are used as strain increments for the tension
members in the section. This is necessary, for instance, when designing with
partial prestressing under DIN 4227 Part 2.
According to DIN 10451 8.2 (3) some bending structures should have a
height of the compressive zone not larger than 0.45 d, or 0.35 d for high
strength concrete. If this is not fulfilled a minimum shear link according to
13.1.1. (5) has to be provided. As the maximum compressive strain is fixed
(3.5 per mille), this is equivalent to the request that the steel strain has at
least a value of 4.278 or a higher value for C55 on.
Thus the control of this paragraph is easily performed via the steel strain. An
equivalent formulation is given in OENORM 4700, where it is requested that
the steel should reach the yield strength. As the old DIN 1045 had the more
general formulation for the same ductile request, that the compressive reinforcement is not allowed to be considered with a larger value than the tensile
reinforcement
Thus AQB provides symmetric reinforcements for all design codes when the
steel strain does not exceed the value of S1, fulfilling the request for ductility
in that way.

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This design operation is also suitable for nonreinforced sections. In that case
the program produces internal forces and moments which are in the same
proportion to each other as the external forces and moments. The safety factors SC1 and SC2 have to be defined dependent on the design code. The program then shows the relative load carrying capacity and prints a warning if
this should fall below 1.0.
The shear design finds the lever of internal forces for all load cases with compression and tension forces in the section, and finds the shear stress and
shear reinforcement resulting from shearing force and torsion. The shear
stress limits are set automatically depending on SMOD and the material. Deviating values for the shear stress limits can be defined within AQB with a
record STRE (under 4227 only) or TVS. Since in case of excess of the shear
stress limits no design more occurs, this can be exceeded onto own responsibility of the user with a tolerance.
For the reduction of the shear capacity for tensile members the normal stress
pc is limited to the value MSCD. The default is selected with the mean tensile strength fctm.
Consideration of the shift of the envelope line of the tensile force (shift rule)
depends upon the CTRL option VM. The ratio Ved/Vrd,max and the value of
the shift will be saved to the database.
If a section is to be considered as a plate has already been defined with the
section itself. The definition of KTAU is thus only effective for those sections.
For sections with tendons, the bond stress for every tendon will be evaluated
according to DIN 4227 chapter 13 as the increment in tendon force divided
by the periphery and the length given by BETA in record BEAM. (Use negative factors for bending members)

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3.43.

General Static Analysis FE


REIN DESI

NSTR Nonlinear Stress and


Strain

Item

Description

KMOD

NSTR

Dimension

Default

Determining stiffness
S0
State definition without
change of stiffnesses
S1
Secant stiffness from given
curvatures
SN
Secant stiffness from given
moments
K0
Plastic strains without itera
tion
K1
Plastic strains from given
curvatures
KN
Plastic strains from given
moments
T0
Tangent stiffness without
iteration
T1
Tangent stiffness from given
curvatures
TN
Tangent stiffness from given
moments

S0/S1

KSV
KSB

Control for material of the cross section


Control for material of the reinforcements and tension stiffening

*
*

KMIN
KMAX

Minimum stiffness
Maximum stiffness

0.01
4.00

ALPH
FMAX

Damping factor
Acceleration factor

0.4
5.0

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Item

Description

CRAC

CW
BB

HMIN
HMAX
CW
CHKC
CHKT
CHKS

Dimension

Default

Type of crack width design


TAB
with a limitation of steel
stress and optional distance
EC2
Eurocode EC 2
1045
Heft 400 / DIN 1045 old
DIN
DIN 10451 (May 2000)
4227
Prestressed concrete DIN4227
4700
OeNORM B 4700
BS
BS 5400 / IS 456 / IRC
SNIP SNIP 2.03.01
EHE
EHE

LIT

Crack width or factor for environment


Factor 2 (0.5 to 1.0)
resp. t of DIN 1045 new (0.25)
resp. reduction acc. 3.2.2. B4700 (0.0)
resp. tension stiffening stress for BS
resp. Factor l of SNIP 2.03.01
resp. factor k2 of the Spanish EHE
Minimum height of zone (nominal cover)
Maximum height of tension zone
Crack width or factor above"

mm/

0.2/1
0.5

mm
m
mm/

0.0
0.8
CW

Stress to be checked for section


Stress to be checked for tendons
Stress to be checked for reinforcement
all values either explicit in MPa or
relative (+) to material strength fy / fc
relative () to material strength ft / fck

/MPa
/MPa
/MPa

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Item

Description

FAT

Fatigue design check


DINF according to DIN / DINFB
Allowable stress sway for reinforcements
Inclination of struts for reinforcements
Inclination of struts for concrete stress

SIGS
TANS
TANC
DUMP

History of the nonlinear stresses for a


sequence of dynamic load cases (DYNA
CTRL ELC)
file name

Dimension

Default

LIT

N/mm2

*
0.756
0.571

Lit96

With NSTR a nonlinear tension and strain determination is carried out.


This contains checks in the state II or plastic checks generally. "Byproducts"
are the determination of stress ranges or crack widths and nonlinear secant
stiffnesses.
Different variants are provided for determining the strain condition, because
of the complicated iterative calculation with STAR2 (see Section 2.7.5.). Selecting another method than S0 only makes sense within AQB if an iterative
calculation in alternation with STAR2 is being used, see procedure PS (cf.
5.2.2. prefabricated column). The default for KMOD is S0 within AQB, while
S1 within STAR2.
The calculation can be carried out with different material values and safeties.
This is controlled via KSV and KSB. With that one can define also deviating
stressstrain curves. Meant in this case:
EL
ELD
SL
SLD
UL
ULD
CAL
CALD
PL
PLD

linear elastic, but without tension if concrete


linear elastic with material safety factor
service nominal without material safety factor
service design with material safety factor
ultimate nominal without material safety factor
ultimate design with material safety factor
Calculatoric mean values
Calculatoric mean values with safety factors from AQUA
plastic nominal without material safety factor
plastic design with material safety factor

TS0

tension stiffening (only at KSB)

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The default values are dependant on the input to DESI according to the selected design codes (INIfiles), Without a DESI the following values are appropriate:
without crack width (Ultimate load)
with crack width (Serviceability)

KSV=KSB=CALD or SLD
KSV=KSB=SL

3.43.1. Design for Structural Steelwork (DIN 18800, EC 3)


Design elasticplastic
NSTR S0 KMIN 0.7

It will be checked if the forces can be supported by calculating internal


forces with nonlinear stress strain relations. A warning will be
printed, if the resistance is not sufficient.
Clause (755) of DIN 18800 part 1 respective (123) in part 2 require that
M<1.25 Mmax,elastic for some selected cases. This should mainly establish a limit on the redistribution of forces, as especially the plastic
hinge method with second order analysis would then require rather
large imperfections. Unfortunately this clause is not really useful if
normal forces are present, so we recommend to mark with KMIN 0.7
all sections where the stiffness is reduced to less than a factor of 1/1.41,
as the control of plastic strains and curvatures makes much more
sense. KMIN 0.0 will enable clause 755 however.
NSTR S1 KSV PLD

Very large (fully plastic) strains will be created. Internal forces should
have the same ratio as given moment and shear force, a relative bearing capacity will be printed. Clause 755 will be applied directly unless
KMIN > 0 is given explicitly.
Design plasticplastic
When iterating between STAR2 and AQB a calculation according to the
yield zone theory is allowed. A limit on the plastic moment as requested
for the plastic hinge method is not necessary.
The design check of the b/tratio has differences for the elastic region and the
fully plastic region. As an interpolation is not foreseen, AQB will use the more
restrictive formulas whenever the maximum stress is within 1 o/oo of the

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yield limit. With NSTR DEHN S0 table 15 of DIN 18800 is used, for all other
cases table 18.

3.43.2. Design for Reinforced Concrete


To calculate the correct strain condition, knowledge of the actual existing reinforcement is needed. If the latter was not defined in AQUA as the minimum
reinforcement, then an appropriate DESI record needs to have been calculated in advance. The most recently determined distribution of reinforcements for each case is saved in the database. This is not valid, however, for
internal forces and moments of the load case 0 !
Specifying a value for CRAC will perform a check of the crack width and/or
the limit diameter with the diameters defined in AQUA and possible reference areas. Some design codes provide formulas for a direct calculation of the
crack width, others provide tables with allowable steel stresses and/or distances of reinforcements. The distance is calculated for a linear reinforcement based on the total area and the specified diameter.
The parameter CW is in nearly all cases the necessary crack width (wk, cal)
and will be preset accordingly.
EC 2 / DIN 1045 / B 4700:
CW is the necessary crack width (wk, cal), with a default of 0.2 mm. The reduced values for restraining loading of thick cross sections under EC 2 must
be converted by the user (e.g. by wk = 1.3/1.70.2 = 0.15). The coefficient 2
must be specified (item BB), the coefficient 1 is calculated from the bond coefficient k1 (0.8/k1) by analogy to the CEB code.
DIN 10451 does not need any other factors for the crack width itself. For
nonlinear methods including Tension Stiffening however formulas are given
in Paper 525 of DAfStB section 8.5 (page 36), BB is used to specify the value
t.
For B 4700 the value BB will control an interpolation between tables 7/8 and
9/10. BB=1 selects mostly constraining, while BB=0 (default) selects mostly
loading (no constraint).
Because not only the codes to the crack width but also their interpretation
change continuously, it is very probable that with different versions slightly
different results show.

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DIN 4227:

The more recent design check according to Appendix A1 is selectable via record STRE. NSTR calculates the obsoleted original form where CW is the factor for environmental conditions. The following values can be used:
Environment 1
Environment 2
Environment 3

CW = 1.0
CW = 0.75
CW = 0.50

(default)

BS 5400 / IS 456:
These design codes classify three possible crack width values (0.30, 0.20 and
0.10 mm). For the analysis we need the nominal cover Cnom of table 13 (BS
54004) resp. table 16 of IS 456 to be specified at item HMIN. The tension
stiffening effect is introduced by a stress of BB at the height of the centroid
of the reinforcement.
SNIP 2.03.01:
For the design you have to select a crack width. The calculation of the crack
width is done for the completed crack pattern according to equation 144. The
input value BB is used for an explicit parameter l, which is in general preset
by the concrete class.
EHE:
This Spanish design code is rather similar to the Eurocode (BB is factor k2).
It classifies four possible crack width values (0.40, 0.30, 0.20 and 0.10 mm).
But then then formulas for the effective height and the crack distance and the
mean strain quite different. Thus there is no dependency on the bond properties of the reinforcements. The distance of the longitudinal bars is always
taken as 15 , because we have not enough information available for more
details. Tension stiffening is treated as with EC 2.

3.43.3. Iteration Methods


Static calculation with nonlinear stiffnesses in AQB is successful only if
STAR2 is called again with a new iteration as a restart after AQB, and this
process is repeated until convergence occurs. Thus it is recommended to define these records within STAR2 and to increase the number of iterations
within STAR2.

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Selection of the optimum iteration method is difficult. The user should start
with SN for lightly loaded systems and with S1 for more heavily loaded systems, and should then shift to K1 or K0 if necessary. When there are many
similar systems, it pays to find the optimum method by experimentation.
To prevent endangering the iteration procedure, only changes of stiffness of
a certain magnitude are permitted. A value of 0.4 for ALPH means that in
each step the stiffness can decrease at most to 0.4 times its last value, or increase at most to 1/0.4 times its last value. ALPH is preset to 0.4 in STAR",
but to 0.01 in AQB itself. Independently of that, the stiffnesses remain limited to the range between KMIN and KMAX, referenced to the elastic stiffness.
With critical systems, which exceed their loading capacity in the course of the
iteration, it may be necessary to limit the maximum acceleration factor with
FMAX. A value of less than 1.0 damps the iteration procedure. A value of 0.0
turns the procedure off. The default of FMAX is 2.0 at a calculation with
NSTR KMOD SN and CTRL INTE 4.

3.43.4. Fatigue / Stress Range


For coupling joints and other constructions it may be required to design for
fatigue with a given stress range. This can be easily accounted for by defining
several load cases for the same section. If the fatigue check needs also the
permanent stress, you should include one load case of type MAXP in the
analysis. To save the stress range in the database an extra load case number
is required to be specified via COMB GMAX LCST ...
AQB will keep track of maximum and minimum stress and will compare the
resulting difference with a given threshhold value specified for concrete and
Steel with AQUA. A value of SIGS from this record will limit the values of all
reinforcements to that given value.
If the limit value for the reinforcements is exceeded, AQB will increase the
area of reinforcements accordingly, but without a reanalysis of the load cases
with the changed values. All printed results are therefore valid for the reinforcement before the analysis. Special notice should be given to the fact, that
without a preliminary design only the minimum reinforcement for longitudinal and shear links are used.
For the fatigue design check according to DIN 10451 resp. DIN FB102 the
Literal FAT DINF should be entered, further definitions might be done with
records LC and BEAM or within the material definition (AQUA).

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It might be helpful to increase the volume of print out via ECHO NSTR EXTR
in such cases.

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3.44.

General Static Analysis FE


Nonlinear Material Analysis in ASE and SEPP.

Nonlinear material analyses can be activated or deactivated with different


parameters:
SYST PROB NONL
activates a material nonlinear analysis.
Using SYST PROB TH2, TH3B, TH3 or THII additional geometric nonlinear effects are activated.
SYST ... NMAT YES
activates material nonlinear effects for shell and volume elements:
for shells:
concrete rule (AQUACONC)
steel yielding (AQUASTEE)
membranes (AQUANMATMEMB)
for volume elements: soil mechanical yielding criteria
(AQUANMATMOHR...)
GRP...LINE
switches off nonlinear effects of a group.
NSTR Without input of a record NSTR:
same as NSTR S0.
NSTR S0
Beam, cable and truss elements are analyzed with a linear material behaviour. Spring elements are analyzed with a nonlinear
spring work law if defined. The nonlinear spring effects GAP,
CRAC, YIEL and MUE are taken into account in a nonlinear
analysis.
NSTR S1 or SN
Beam elements are analyzed nonlinear via an internal AQB calculation, Cables, truss and spring elements take into account all
non linear effects.
Material safety factors see following table *1).
See example file aseaqb.dat.
NSTR S1 KSV PL (or PLD):
For beam elements the internal forces and moments are limited
in a simple way to the full plastic values of the program AQUA
(without internal AQB calculation). See example file

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ase_dehn_pld.dat.
Cable, truss and spring elements as described in NSTR S1".
The following table lists all possible material nonlinear effects which are
available in ASE. It shows also the essential inputs and possibilities for the
activation or deactivation of different effects. In an input only with SYST
PROB NONL without further definitions the behaviour =standard" is active!

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Elementtype
NL effect
Beam elements

Cables + truss
material stress
strain curves
Cables
compress.failure
Springelements
gap,crac,yiel,mue
Spring elements
*3) spring stress
strain curves
Spring elements
*4) material stress
strain curves
QUAD bedding
tension cut off

General Static Analysis FE

material
input
AQUACONC
AQUASTEE
AQUASSLA

NSTR S1/SN *1) = standard


(fullplastic:
NSTR S0
NSTR S1 KSV PLD) GRP LINE
= standard
CONC/STEE/SSLA NSTR S1/SN
NSTR S0
GRP LINE

SPRI
AQUASARB and
SPRIMNO
AQUASSLA and
SPRI+AR

3174

= standard *2)

GRP LINE

= standard

GRP LINE

= standard

GRP LINE

= standard

GRP LINE

AQUABMATCRAC = standard *5)

AQUABMATMUE
AQUACONC
AQUASTEE
AQUASSLA *8)
AQUAMAT
NMAT MEMB *10)
Volume elements
AQUAMAT...
BRIC
NMAT MOHR...
Halfspace contact HASEPLAS PMAX
friction
QUAD elements
of concrete/steel
*7)
Membrane elements

activated in ASE: deactivated:

= standard *6)

GRP LINE
or CRAC=9999
GRP LINE

SYST...NMAT YES = standard *9)


*9)
GRP LINE
SYST...NMAT YES = standard
GRP LINE
SYST...NMAT YES = standard
*11)
GRP LINE
= standard *12)
only SYST LINE

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*1) Important is the input of the material safety factor with NSTR...KSV:
Using NSTR always the stressstrain curves of the program AQUA are taken
into account. In this case the material safety factors are not used for KSV SL,
UL, CAL. On the other hand the AQUA material safety factors are multiplied
for KSV SLD, ULD, CALD. In the first part of the ASE output the maximum
stresses for the materials are printed.
Due to different defaults in the programs AQB / STAR2 / ASE the items KSV
and KSB should be input. The usage of material safety factors for the stiffness
determination (NSTR) is interpreted differently by the specialists. For a ultimate limit check without further design the input ULD or CALD is reasonable (without modifications of the material stressstrain curve in the program AQUA). SL has to be used for calculations in the serviceability state.
Default for the material safety factors of nonlinear analyses:
With an input of a record NSTR:
default for KSV=ULD = stressstrain curve for the ultimate limit state
with the material safety factor (SCM) of the program AQUA
With that also the stiffness of linear elements is changed!
Without an input of a record NSTR all elements are analyzed with the linear E modulus. So a simple nonlinear analysis will give the same displacements as a linear analysis (provided that nonlinear effects do not occur).
At the end of a nonlinear ASE calculation a statistics is printed with the
available nonlinear effects.
*2) Cables which are loaded in the transverse direction (e.g. by dead load)
never fail due to compression in a geometrical nonlinear analysis TH3 with
the default, because the inner cable sag produces always a tensile force (see
CTRL CABL). For the input SYST PROB NONL or with CTRL CABL 0,
cables cannot get an inner cable sag and fail due to pressure load!
*3) Springs can be defined with a nonlinear spring stressstrain curve in the
program AQUA. Please refer to example ase_feder_arbeitslinie.dat.
*4) For soil analysis (e.g. tunnel calculations) springs can be defined also via
an effective area AR and a material number. Then ASE calculates a nonlinear spring characteristic curve by using the material stressstrain curve
SSLA of the program AQUA.

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*5) Without further input in program AQUA a QUAD bedding is preset with
CRAC=0, i.e. QUAD elements can have a tension cut off. See example
ase_bettnl.dat.
*6) Without further input in program AQUA no friction coefficient MUE is
preset, i.e. horizontal forces can be transferred without limitation, if the element is not cracked (no tension cut off).
*7) QUAD elements with simple MAT input are analyzed linearly. Only
QUAD elements of CONCRETE or STEEL can be analyzed nonlinearly with
the input SYST...NMAT YES .
*8) Also for shell elements, ASE uses the concrete stressstrain curve of
AQUA. The concrete tensile strength can be changed temporarily with CTRL
CONC V3 V4.
*9) Often only nonlinear springs or bedding should be taken into account in
a nonlinear analysis. Therefore the material nonlinear QUAD elements
are deactivated in the default (default SYST ... NMAT=NO). If required, they
have to be activated explicitly with SYST ... NMAT YES.
*10) A membrane failure due to pressure must be activated via AQUA...
NMAT MEMB P2=0 and ASE...SYST NMAT YES.
*11) For volume elements (BRIC) various soilmechanical material rules can
be defined in AQUA...NMAT MOHR.... Example see ase14.dat. BRIC elements which are defined with CONCRETE or STEEL are analyzed linear.
*12) Details see program HASE. Example see hase9.dat.

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See also:

3.45.

CTRL SYST GRP

ECHO Output Control

Item

Description

OPT

A literal from the following list:


NODE Nodal values
GRP
Group parameters
MAT
Material parameters
ELEM Element values
LOAD Loads
DISP Displacements
FORC Internal forces and moments
NOST Internal forces and moments
at the nodes
BEDD Foundation stresses
REAC Support reactions
LINE Distributed support reactions
PLAB Statistics Tbeam compo
nents
EIGE Eigenvalues
RESI Residual forces during ite
ration
ERIN Error estimates
STAT Statistics + group + plots
NNR
Nodal displacement during
iterations
ENR
Element stresses during
iteration
LSUM Sum of the loads
STRG Tendon group stresses
BDEV Local beam deformations
STOR Database memory location
FULL All the above options

Version 14.66

ECHO

Dimension

Default

LIT

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Item

General Static Analysis FE

Description

Dimension

Default

/LIT

STRE, NSTR, DESI, REIN, SHEA,


LC, BSEC, CRAC, B2T, USEP: See
manual for the program AQB
VAL

Output extent
OFF
No calculation / output
NO
No output
YES
Regular output
FULL Extensive output
EXTR Extreme output
07
See output description for
BRIC

Default:
ECHO LOAD
ECHO DISP,FORC,REAC,NOST,BEDD
as well as NO for NODE and MAT and YES for all other

YES
NO

for small beam systems < 1000 nodes additionally:


ECHO LOAD
ECHO DISP,FORC,NOST,BEDD
ECHO REAC

FULL
NO
YES

for very small beam systems < 100 nodes additionally:


ECHO DISP,FORC

YES

The record name ECHO should be repeated in every record to avoid confusion
with similar record names. See chapter 4 for the effect of ECHO.
For the check of the iteration ECHO NNR xxx prints the node displacements
of the node xxx after each iteration (10 nodes maximum). Only the displacement component of the current analysis step is output (without primary load
case component). ECHO ENR is implemented so far only for cables.
With ECHO BDEV EXTR a storage of the local beam deformations can be enforced for primary load case processing. An outprint in ASE is not implemented, please use DBVIEW, DBPRIN or WINGRAF for this.
The printout of the saved norm of the energy of the groups is done with ECHO
STAT, REAC or GRP FULL.

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With ECHO FORC OFF the calculation of eigenvalues can be done without
saving of the element internal forces and moments.

Version 14.66

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General Static Analysis FE

Settings for reduction of database memory size with ECHO STOR ... (Bit pattern):
ECHO STOR 0
ECHO STOR +1

does not save anything from following values:


saves the dead loads for representation in program
WING
ECHO STOR +2 saves displacements and accelerations for repre
sentation in program WING
ECHO STOR +4 saves QUAD nonlinear results for representation
in program WING
ECHO STOR +8 saves residual forces for nonlinear calculation for
representation in program WING
ECHO STOR +16 saves displacements and residual forces of the
intermediate iteration
default: saving everything

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Output Description.

The results of the FE analysis are:

4.1.

Check List of the Generated Structure

The table of nodal values is mostly identical to the table of the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHB and is output with ECHO NODE YES. For evaluation
of unstable systems the equation numbers may be printed with ECHO NODE
FULL as well.
ECHO MAT YES causes the output of the material parameters.

4.2.

Check List of the Nonlinear Parameters

These are output with SYST NMAT=YES for nonlinear analyses with QUAD
shell elements only (concrete or steel material rule).

4.3.

Check List of the Analysis Control Parameters


ELEMENT GROUPS
No
Group number
facS
Stiffness of the group
facL, facD, facP
Primary load case factors
FakB
Factor for bedding of QUAD elements
facT
Factor for temperature load case
from HYDRA
PLC
Primary load case
HW
Ground water level
T1
Concrete age in days (GRP ... T1)
ANALYTICAL PRIMARY STRESS STATE
Nr
Group number
GamP
Specific weight
GamP
Specific weight under buoyancy
HP, KP, sigP, sigH
Primary state parameters
Type of analysis
Calculation with nonlinear material properties
(SYST PROB NONL)

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General Static Analysis FE

Geometrically nonlinear analysis

(SYST PROB THII)

Primary state for displacements of the total system is load case ...
(SYST PLC)

4.4.

Check Lists of the Loads

The check lists of the loads are taken over from the program SOFiLOAD. Or
in the case of the load input in ASE they are generated in analog mode to the
SOFiLOAD output.
SUM OF LOADS CASE
LC
Load case
PXX, PYY, PZZ,
Load sums
MXX, MYY, MZZ
SUM OF MASSES
TMX(t) TMY(t)
Translatory masses
TMZ(t)
RMX(tm2) RMY(tm2)
Rotational masses
RMZ(tm2)
total
Total mass
active
Active part
The loads are stored in the database without load case factor. However, they
are output with this factor.

4.5.

Process of the Analysis

For nonlinear calculations the in each case maximum residual force is output with the corresponding energy norm (sum from nodal forces nodal displacements of all nodes) in the list of the iterations. The residual force is
printed firmly in the dimension kN, the energy norm in kNm, however,
multiplied by the factor 106, 103, 10 or 10 according to the size. For linear
systems without primary load case the system energy is equal to the printed
energy norm/2. The e/f values indicate the correction factors of the Crisfield
method (see chapter 3, record SYST).
Example of a converging iteration:
Iteration
Iteration
Iteration

42

1 Residual
2 Residual
3 Residual

5.578 energy
2.478 energy
.000 energy

21.3532 e/f
36.3192 e/f
48.2837 e/f

.000
.000
.329

1.000
1.701
1.799

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ASE

The user has to check for a nonlinear calculation whether the residual forces
are sufficiently small. In the case of calculations with nonlinear material
properties there is no error message, if the residual forces can not be counterbalanced fully.
During ultimate load calculations the convergence is checked automatically
and a new calculation is generated with a new load step.
Example:
ULSiteration 1 loadcase 1 with loadfactor 1.000 was converged.

The residual forces can be checked with ECHO RESI:


RESIDUAL
nodeno
PX,PY,PZ,
MX,MY,MZ

F O R C E S ITERATION
1
Node number
Unbalanced residual force

A graphic control can occur in program WING with NODE SV, because unbalanced residual forces are saved as support reactions.

4.6.

Eigenvalues

Provided that eigenvalues are calculated, they are output in a table with the
corresponding frequencies and error limits. The errors of the eigenvalues constitute a measure of the accuracy of the frequencies and, if their values are
larger than 103, they may indicate as well the presence of possible multiple
eigenvalues which could be overlooked.
EIGENFREQUENCIES
Using Lanczos method
or
Using simultaneous vector iteration
Iteration vectors
Input with EIGE record
Iterations
Required iterations for SIMU
No.
LC
Eigenvalue (1/Sec2)
Relative error
omega (1/sec)
frequency (Hertz)

Version 14.66

Number of natural frequency


stored as load case LC
Error limits
Circular frequency

43

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General Static Analysis FE

Period (sec)
activated mass *
modal damping

4.7.

Element Results
BEAM FORCES
Beam x(m)
N, Vy, Vz, Mt, My, Mz,
Mb, Mt2

AND MOMENTS
Section identification
Internal forces and moments

PILE FORCES, MOMENTS AND REACTION


S
Pile No. x(m)
Section identification
N, Vy, Vz, Mt, My, Mz
Internal forces and moments
Pa, Pt
Foundation forces long., transv.
SHELL FORCES
ElNo.
mxx, myy, mxy
mI, mII, alfa
vx, vy
nxx, nyy, nxy
nI, nII, alfa

AND MOMENTS
Element number
Plate moments (kN/m)
Principal moments and their angle
Plate shear forces (kN/m)
Membrane axial forces (kN/m)
Principal axial forces and their angle

The internal forces and moments are output in the centre of gravity of the element for every QUAD element. The principal moments and the principal
axial forces are output with the option ECHO FORC FULL only. The input of
ECHO FORC EXTR causes the output of the internal forces and moments at
the integration points of the elements as well.
The angles between the direction of mI or nI and the local x axis are output.
Positive moments produce tensile stresses at the bottom side of the plate.
ELASTIC SUPPORT OF QUADRILATERALS
Number
Element number of the QUAD
element
p(kN/m2)
Foundation stress perpendicularly
to the element
pt(kN/m2)
Tangential foundation stress
P(kN)
Resultant perpendicular foundation
force (elements foundation force in kN)

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Foundation stresses are output only with ECHO FORC FULL. ECHO FORC
EXTR results in the output of the foundation values at the corners too. The
value P represents the corner force resulting from the foundation stresses of
this element.
STRESSES IN
Element Number
IP
sigx, sigy, sigz
tauxy, tauxz, tauyz
sigI, sigII, sigIII
dx,dy,dz

3D

ELEMENTS
Element number
Integration point 0=gravity centre
Stresses in global system XYZ
Shear stresses
Principal stresses
Principal stress directions

Output control for volume elements BRIC:


ECHO FORC =
0
1
2
3
4 or 5
6
7

no output
(NO)
internal forces in the centre of
gravity
(YES)
additionally principal stresses I,
II, III
(FULL)
additionally principal stress
directions
(EXTR)
internal forces in centre of gravity
and integration points
additionally principal stresses I,
II, III
additionally principal stress directions

The same ECHO input values are also applicable in the case of ECHO NOST.
Plastification mark: If an element is plasticized, a P is printed behind the
stress values.
TRUSS
Load case
ELNO
P (kN)
u (mm)

ELEMENTS

FORCES AND
SPRINGS

Version 14.66

Element number
Axial force
Elongation l
DISPLACEMENTS

OF

45

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General Static Analysis FE

Load case
Number
P (kN)
Pt (kN)
M (kNm)
u (mm)
ut (mm)
phi (mrad)
FORCES
Number
N (kN)
u (mm)
ut (m)
f0 (mm)
Nm (kN)
L_NO (mm)

Element number
Axial force
Lateral force
Moment
Spring displacement, elongation
Lateral displacement
Rotation
IN

CABLE ELEMENTS
Element number
Max. cable force above
Elongation l
Cable sag perpendicularly to chord 1)
Cable sag in load direction
Cable force at midpoint
Element length after normal force
relaxation

1)

is calculated only for geometrically nonlinear analysis and CTRL CABL


>0. The program calculates the loading and the sag f0 in the direction of the
load. These can be output for all iterations with ECHO ENR CableNo.

4.8.

Nonlinear Results
N O N L I N E A R
Elem. ()
z ()
sigx,sigy,tau (MPa)
sigI,sigII (MPa)
sigv (MPa)
sigvlin (MPa)
depth (mm)
fy ()

N O N L I N E A R
Elem.
Rich

46

MATERIAL STEEL
Element number
^ = top side (negz) v bottom side
Stresses at side z
Principal stresses at side z
Equivalent stress at side z
Equivalent stress calculated with
eps*Elinear
Depth of plastification
Plastification number
sigvlin/sigzul1
with sigzul = tensile strength (MPa)
MATERIAL CONCRETE
Element number
Observed direction w.r.t. x

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE


epso (o/oo)
epsu (o/oo)
x/d ()
sigbo (MPa)
sigbu (MPa)
sigso (MPa)
sigsu (MPa)
wcalo (mm)
wcalu (mm)

ASE

Upper strain (negz) in direction RICH


Lower strain (posz)
"
Depth of compressive zone
"
Upper edge concrete stress
"
Lower edge concrete stress
"
Upper steel stress, cracked condition "
Lower steel stress, cracked condition "
Upper crack width wkcal
"
According to Heft 400 DAfStb
at the
bottom side
"

ECHO FORC YES prints out both reinforcement directions which were input
with REI2, while ECHO FORC FULL prints also the values in principal stress
directions at the top and the bottom side. Crack widths can be calculated only
in the directions of the reinforcement.
In the element centre of gravity the maximum of the nonlinear effects of the
four Gauss points of an element is stored in order to show the in each case
most unfavourable value in the graphics.
In the graphical representation (program WinGRAF) with ISOL YIEL
(FLIU,FLIL) the plastification number is obtained as siglin/signl1 (siglin =
concrete stress computed linearly from the strain, signl = nonlinear stress).
The most unfavourable value from the tensile or the compressive zone is used.
In the case of unreinforced concrete the crack width is set to 1 mm for the
graphical representation of the crack pattern (a crack width can be computed
only in context with reinforcement).
Statistics of plastification:
For nonlinear calculations a statistics of the number and type of the plasticized Gauss points is printed in the result file. For area elements of concrete
the compressive stresses which are larger than the linearity limit of 1/3r are
output as a plastification, cracks as overflow of the tensile strength. For
plates of massive steel an overflow of the linearity limit is calculated always
as a plastification independently of tension/pressure.

4.9.

Nodal Results and Support Reactions


ELEMINATED FORCES FROM
CONSTRAINTS
Node
Node number

Version 14.66

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General Static Analysis FE

PX, PY, PZ
MX, MY, MZ, Mb

Constraint forces

The table of constraint forces is output only with ECHO REAC FULL.
NODAL DISPLACEMENTS
Node No
Node number
uX, uY, uZ
Displacement
phiX, phiY, phiZ
Rotation
Clockwise rotations are positive.
NODAL REACTIONS AND RESIDUAL
FORCES
Node No
Node number
PXX, PYY, PZZ
Support reaction
MXX, MYY, MZZ
Restraint moment
Forces arise at all nodes with supports, kinematic constraints or elastic
edges. The output is controlled with ECHO REAC:
OFF

Forces are not calculated. Thereby more main memory is available, what may be favourable for large systems.

NO

Forces are calculated and saved in the database. An output does


not occur.

YES

Forces are output for all nodes, if they exceed a certain tolerance
or if a support node is concerned. If forces appear at free nodes,
then either a support has been defined by mistake or the available
machine precision is not sufficient for the solution of the system.
For nonlinear analyses the residual forces are a direct measure
of the quality of the iterative solution.

FULL The constraint forces are output too.


SUM OF REACTIONS AND LOADS
Load case
PX, PY, PZ, MX, MY, MZ 1st line= sum of the support reactions
2nd line= sum of the loads
The output of the two lines serves as a check. The sum of the support reactions
has to be equal to the sum of the loads.

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The sum of the support reactions and loads is an important index for the completeness of the loads and the accuracy of the entire analysis. In the case of
linear analysis an error message is issued, if there is a noteworthy deviation
of the two values.

4.10.

Internal Forces and Moments at Nodes

SHELL FORCES
load case
group
node
mxx, myy, mxy
mI, mII, alfa
vx, vy
nxx, nyy, nxy
nI, nII, alfa
STRESSES IN
Load case
sum
Group
Node
sigx, sigy, sigz
tauxy, tauxz, tauyz
sigI, sigII, sigIII
dx,dy,dz

IN

NODES

Element group
Node number
Plate moments (kN/m)
Principal moments and their angle
Plate shear forces (kN/m)
Membrane axial forces (kN/m)
Principal axial forces and their angle

NODES OF

3D E L E M E N T S

Sum of the load


Element group
Node number
Stresses in global system XYZ
Shear stresses
Principal stresses
Principal stress directions

The output is controlled with ECHO NOST, which has the same effect as
ECHO FORC.
Determination of the results at the nodes:
The internal forces and moments and stresses of the adjacent elements are
averaged in groups for each node and they are stored or output. The output
is controlled with the ECHO option NOST.
This averaging is not always allowed, e.g. in the case of jumps of the values
between elements and especially for bends in folded structures, where shear
forces change into axial forces. The program does not determinate the results
in following cases:
If at a node the thickness of the bordering elements jumps.

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General Static Analysis FE

If at a node the material number changes.


If the direction of the local coordinate system jumps more than 5 degrees.
Two or more results are output then at the very same node. In program BEMESS the two results are calculated then with the relevant thickness and the
relevant material number.
At the group boundaries the results become also average provided that there
no jump in the material number, the thickness or the local coordinate system
is available.
Kinematic constraints are ignored for the averaging (except for INTE). If
needed, a known point of discontinuity can be described with double coupled
(KF) nodes.

4.11.

Error Estimates

ERROR ESTIMATES SHELL FORCES


elno.
Element number
mxx, myy, mxy
Error estimates for plate moments
vx, vy
Error estimates for plate shear forces
nxx, nyy, nxy
Error estimates for membrane axial
forces
ERROR ESTIMATES QUADELEMENTS
LC
Load case
type
Internal force or moment
dimension
Dimension of the internal force
maximum val
Maximum value of the internal force
maximum error
Maximum error of the internal force
element
Found in element ...
ERROR ESTIMATES BRICSTRESSES
element number
Element number
sigx, sigy, sigz
Error estimates for stresses
tauxy, tauxz, tauyz
Error estimates for shear stresses
ERROR
LC
type

410

ESTIMATES BRICELEMENTS
Load case
Internal force or moment

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE


dimension
maximum val
maximum error
element

ASE

Dimension of the internal force


Maximum value of the internal force
Maximum error of the internal force
Found in element ...

The averaging of the results at the nodes allows the estimation of the error
in individual elements. This error describes the average size of the jump in
the results from one element to the other. The average values as well as the
values at the element centre are usually considerably more precise.
With ECHO ERIN YES the maximum magnitude of the internal forces and
moments and the presumed maximum error for every load case are printed
in the protocol file. With ECHO ERIN FULL the errors are output in all the
elements.
The error estimates are stored in the database and can be represented
graphically. The user should take a closer look and possibly refine regions
with high error estimates.
Additional instructions are to be found in the manuals of the programs SEPP
and TALPA.

4.12.

Distributed Support Reactions

The following result values are output for each boundary for which a designation has been input:
DISTRIBUTED
LC
No.
nodeno
pX, pY, pZ
mn
mn
average
sum
length
sum all boundaries

FORCES ALONG NODES


Load case
Boundary number and designation
Node number
Distributed support reaction in kN/m
Distributed clamping moment in kNm/m
about the axis of the boundary
2nd value, if boundary is a broken line
Average support reaction in kN/m
Total support reaction of the boundary
in kN
Length of the boundary
Total support reaction of all boundaries

The output can be controlled with ECHO LINE. With ECHO LINE YES only
the sums of the boundaries appear, with ECHO LINE FULL the individual values are output too.

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411

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4.13.

General Static Analysis FE


Strain Energy of Groups

For primary load cases the strain energy of the groups is printed with the
input ECHO STAT, FORC or GRP FULL:
Strain energy of groups
load case

Load case number

group
Energy
=% of sum

Group number
Energy in kNm
Percentage part

4.14.

Wind Load Generation

With ECHO ELEM 4 an output of all QUAD elements with centre of gravity
coordinates and normal direction can be requested. With that a further processing can occur for load generation with a spreadsheet program (wind load
on a cooling tower).

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Examples

5.1.

General Information

ASE

ASE has essentially the same elements as the programs SEPP or TALPA. Except for the nonlinear and axialsymmetrical possibilities of the program
TALPA, most of the examples from the manuals SEPP and TALPA can be
analysed with ASE as well.
Particularly the basic properties of the elements are documented extensively
in both other manuals.

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51

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5.2.

General Static Analysis FE


Spherical Shell.

The following example of a spherical shell with uniform loading is characterized by an available theoretical solution.

Spherical Shell
The ratio of thickness to radius amounts only to 1/1000. Thus the system behaves essentially as a membrane. Serious disturbances occur at the boundaries.
An effective model is constructed practically with the symmetrical properties
of the structure. Thus it is sufficient to examine a sector of 10 degrees for instance.
A refinement at the boundary is suggested due to the disturbances.

Model of the spherical shell


The inner node has always the constraint ZPMM, since it has no degrees of
freedom except for the displacement in the Z direction. Global conditions can

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ASE

be used as boundary conditions of the nodes of the first boundary, if the edge
is one of the global coordinate axes. If the coordinate axis, however, is placed
along the bisecting line of the angle, the boundary has to be defined with polar
coordinates.
The constraints of the nodes along the boundary can be described with PRMT,
if the horizontal normal of the boundary is selected as direction of the support.
The constraint of the simply supported node, however, requires special considerations. An additional input of PZ is possible here, but it is not permitted
generally because it may contradict to the coupling condition. It is best therefore to define the moment boundary condition similarly to the other nodes and
subsequently define a constraint PT (= two directions restrained) in a 90 degrees rotated direction.
The constraints of the nodes of the second boundary can be defined either with
the same method or with symmetric conditions. In the case of a symmetric
condition each node of one boundary has to be coupled with FIX SYM at its
partner node with the same radius at the opposite boundary.
The choice between the various methods is to a certain degree a matter of
taste. Considerations relating to the local coordinate systems may affect the
decision to certain degree.
In the following input the Y axis was placed on the bisecting line of the angle:
PROG
HEAD
NORM
STEE
END

AQUA
SPHERICAL SHELL UNDER OUTSIDE PRESSURE SECTOR 10 DEG RADIAL Y
DIN 18800
1 S 235

PROG GENF
HEAD SPHERICAL SHELL UNDER OUTSIDE PRESSURE SECTOR 10 DEG RADIAL Y
HEAD REFINEMENT TOWARD BOUNDARY
SYST SPAC
NODE
1 35. 0
0 ZPMM COOR SP
( 3 13 2) 35. 85 ( 4 4) PRMT DX COS(5) SIN(5)
( 4 14 2) 35. 95 ( 4 4) PRMT DX COS(5) SIN(5)
(15 23 2) 35. 85 (25 1) PRMT DX COS(5) SIN(5)
(16 24 2) 35. 95 (25 1) PRMT DX COS(5) SIN(5)
25 35. 85
30 MT
DX COS(5) SIN(5)
25
FIX PT
DX SIN(5) COS(5)
26 35. 95
30 MT
DX COS(5) SIN(5)
26
FIX PT
DX SIN(5) COS(5)

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General Static Analysis FE

GRP 0 T 0.035
QUAD 1 1 3 4 ; 2 3 5 6 4 DNO 1 ENO 12 NNO 2
END

The input for ASE is brief:


PROG ASE
LC 1 TITL SPHERICAL SHELL OUTSIDE PRESSURE
ELLO 1 12 1 PZ 14.5
END

The output begins with the loads:


Load Case
1 SPHERICAL SHELL OUTSIDE PRESSURE
Factor forces and moments
1.000
Factor dead weight
DLXX
0.000
Factor dead weight
DLYY
0.000
Factor dead weight
DLZZ
0.000
Loads acting on QUADelements
Elements
Load Prim
from
to
inc Type LC/CC
1
12
1 Pz
Sum of Loads
LC Title
1 SPHERICAL SHELL OUTSIDE

Load
val.
14.50

PXX[kN]
0.0

Dimension

Variation
dP/dX
dP/dY

dP/dZ

[kN/m2]

PYY[kN]
139.7

PZZ[kN]
385.6

Afterwards the internal forces and moments at the gravity centres of the elements and the displacements and forces at the nodes which are presented
here in an abbreviated form are printed.
Shell Forces and Moments
Loadcase
1
SPHERICAL SHELL OUTSIDE
elno.
mxx
myy
mxy
vx
vy
nxx
nyy
[kNm/m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m]
1
0.14
0.14
0.00
0.00
1.57 257.59 290.86
2
0.02
0.15
0.00
0.00
0.33 241.19 264.04
3
0.01
0.05
0.00
0.00
0.08 243.97 254.55
4
0.02
0.05
0.00
0.00
0.01 256.47 253.31
5
0.06
0.18
0.00
0.00
0.19 242.65 253.31
6
0.21
0.63
0.00
0.00
0.79 241.49 250.48
7
0.53
1.48
0.00
0.00
0.03 379.43 251.94
8
0.12
0.04
0.00
0.00
4.61 669.94 261.64
9
1.66
5.67
0.00
0.00 14.15 887.75 280.31
10
5.33
16.88
0.00
0.00 23.21 480.75 296.45
11
9.09
27.45
0.00
0.00 13.08 1489.84 276.04
12
6.05
15.34
0.00
0.00
50.34 5633.58 163.44

54

nxy
[kN/m]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Version 14.66

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General Static Analysis FE


Nodal Displacements
Loadcase
1
SPHERICAL SHELL OUTSIDE
Node
uX
uY
uZ
phiX
No
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mrad]
1
0.000
0.000
36.405
0.000
3
0.005
0.057
35.996
0.326
4
0.005
0.057
35.996
0.326
5
0.009
0.105
35.844
0.128

phiY
[mrad]
0.000
0.029
0.029
0.011

phiZ
[mrad]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

14.138
34.236
34.236
45.231
45.231

1.237
2.995
2.995
3.957
3.957

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

MX
[kNm]
0.44

MY
[kNm]
0.00
0.16
0.16
0.02

MZ
[kNm]
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.00

4.89
3.57
3.57
0.15
0.15

2.61
1.95
1.95
0.09
0.09

. . .
22
23
24
25
26

0.010
0.612
0.612
1.710
1.710

0.118
6.996
6.996
19.548
19.548

35.153
22.408
22.408
0.000
0.000

Nodal Reactions and Residual Forces


Loadcase
1
SPHERICAL SHELL OUTSIDE
Node
PX
PY
PZ
No
[kN]
[kN]
[kN]
1
0.0
61.9
3
610.1
53.4
4
610.1
53.4
5
584.9
51.2
. . .
22
23
24
25
26

198.4
2050.7
2050.7
1975.5
1975.5

17.4
179.4
179.4
172.8
172.8

Sum of Reactions and Loads


LC Title
1 SPHERICAL SHELL OUTSIDE

192.8
192.8

PXX[kN]
0.0
0.0

Shell Forces in Nodes


loadcase
1 SPHERICAL SHELL OUTSIDE
node
mxx
myy
mxy
vx
[kNm/m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m] [kN/m]
1
0.14
0.14
0.00
0.00
3
0.08
0.04
0.00
0.00
4
0.08
0.04
0.00
0.00
5
0.02
0.01
0.00
0.00

Version 14.66

PYY[kN]
139.7
139.7

group
vy
[kN/m]
1.57
0.95
0.95
0.20

PZZ[kN]
385.6
385.6

0
nxx
[kN/m]
257.59
252.65
252.65
235.72

nyy
[kN/m]
290.86
277.45
277.45
259.30

nxy
[kN/m]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

55

ASE

General Static Analysis FE


. . .

22
23
24
25
26

7.59
10.54
10.54
1.72
1.72

23.68
31.08
31.08
0.09
0.09

0.58
0.53
0.53
0.35
0.35

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

18.14
31.71
31.71
50.34
50.34

21.11
2998.50
2998.50
8219.55
8219.55

286.25
219.74
219.74
163.44
163.44

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

The values are in excellent agreement with those of the theoretical solution
as indicated in the following table. A uniformly partitioned element mesh
with 8 elements and a mesh with regular elements without nonconforming
formulation were examined for comparison too.
Value

theoret.
solution

myy
mxx

30.3
10.6

31.1
10.7

11.6
4.1

23.5
7.9

8.2
3.3

nxx ()
nxx (+)
nyy

813

271

937
8220
288

360
5706
356

560
7576
261

693
5230
536

vy ()
vy (+)

22

19
+50

9
+26

12
+19

9
+13

56

refined mesh
QART 1
QART 0

uniform mesh
QART 1
QART 0

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE


5.3.

ASE

Tbeam.

Beams which are available in the building construction are calculated in general without consideration of normal forces in the plate therefore without
eccentrically connected beams with equivalent Tbeams.
If nevertheless this problem should be analysed more exactly, the system of
the Tbeam can be described as a plate and an eccentric underhanging beam
with the area of web. The nodes of the beam have to be coupled with KF at
those of the plate. An error concerning the shear transmission is made with
this formulation, so that the normal subdivision of the span into some elements is necessary even in the case of pure beam structures.
For plate structures with crossing girders and in general for Tbeams with
slim webs an analysis with eccentrically connected QUAD shell elements is
in practice significantly easier in the input and more practical for the result
evaluation. The example presented here illustrates only a comparative
analysis with eccentrically connected beam.

System beamplate
A simply supported singlespan girder with a large span is described in order
to show the differences between a pure Tbeam and a mixed plate girder
structure.
A distinction is made subsequently between a beam structure (a continuous
beam with Tbeam cross section SVAL 1) and a FEBEAM structure
(QUAD elements as a top plate and an eccentrically placed continuous beam
with web cross section SREC 2).

Version 14.66

57

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General Static Analysis FE

Tbeam
The structure with uniform load is input as follows:
PROG AQUA
HEAD SINGLE SPAN TBEAM
NORM DIN 10451
CONC 1 C 30
$ C 30 =
C30/37 !
STEE 2 BST 500SA titl bar reinforcement
STEE 3 BST 500MA titl mesh reinforcement
$ TBEAM B/D/BO/DO = 30/100/150/20
SREC 1 B 0.30 H 1.00 HO 0.20 BO 1.50 MNO 1
SREC 2 B 0.30 H 0.80 MNO 1
END
PROG GENF
HEAD SINGLE SPAN TBEAM
SYST SPAC FIXS MZ OPTI NO GDIV 50000
GRP 0 0.20
$ BEAM STRUCTURE
NODE 1 FIX PPYM ; 2 8.0 ; 3 16.0 FIX XPMZ
BEAM 1001 1 2 ; 1002 2 3
$ TBEAM STRUCTURE
NODE 11 0.0 0.75 ; 15 = 0.75 ; 13 FIX PPYM
171 16.0 0.75 ; 175 = 0.75 ; 173 FIX XPMZ
MESH 11 171 175 15 M 16 N 4 MNO 1
NODE (16 176 10) 0. 0. 0.50 FIX KF (13 10)
BEAM (201 216 1) (16 10) (26 10) NCS 2

58

Version 14.66

ASE

General Static Analysis FE


END
PROG ASE
HEAD UNIFORM LOAD
LC 1 ; ELLO 1001 1002 1 PZS 15.0 ETYP BEAM
ELLO
1 199 1 PZS 10.0
END

The formulation of the boundary conditions is critical, if the structure is not


free from constraints in the axial force direction. The reference nodes should
be defined then accurately at the gravity centre of the neutral axis. The resultant displacement at midspan according to the beam theory (beam structure) is 9.593 mm and the resultant moment is 480 kNm. The stress distribution in the cross section results in the following partial internal forces for the
plate and the web:

Stresses in Tbeam
By contrast, the analysis of the FEBEAM structure produces the following
values with a subdivision of the span into 16 elements:

Beam structure
FEBeam str.

Displacement

Nweb

Mweb

Nplate

Mplate

9.59 mm
9.55 mm

679.0
672.7

130.36
133.6

679.0
675.

10.18
9.75

The results coincide very well.


Nodal Displacements
Loadcase
1
Node
uX
uY
uZ
No
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
2
0.000
0.000
9.593
(BEAM structure)
81
0.354
0.012
9.555
(FEBEAM structure)

Version 14.66

phiX
[mrad]
0.000

phiY
[mrad]
0.000

phiZ
[mrad]
0.000

0.092

0.361

0.000

59

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

The design of such structures constitutes a special problem. There are no


problems in computing the stresses, but an engineering sense is necessary for
the calculation of the required reinforcement. For example, for C 30/37 and
BST 500 a reinforcement of 11.7 cm is required for the Tbeam. If only the
web is designed, the program selects a cross section in pure tension and computes approximately 12 cm for the most tensile side and approximately 3.5
cm for the "least tensile" side of the cross section.

510

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE


5.4.

ASE

Eigenvalue Analysis.

The following example shows the calculation of the eigenvalues of a circular


cylindrical shell.

Cylindrical shell
The input is in a parametric form in order to consider simply different mesh
refinements.
PROG
HEAD
NORM
STEE
END

AQUA
NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF A CYLINDRIC SHELL
DIN 18800
1 S 235

PROG GENF
HEAD NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF A CYLINDRIC SHELL
SYST SPAC
LET#1 8
$ NUMBER OF SEGMENTS VARIABLE 1 TO 9
LET#2 28.64/#1
$ ELEMENT FLARE ANGLE
LET#3 3.048/#1
$ ELEMENT LENGTH
NODE (1 #1+1 1) 6.096 (0 #2) 0 F COOR CY
TRAN 1 #1+1 1 DZ (#3 #3) DNO (10 #1*10 10)
TRAN 1 9999 1 ALPH 90 BETA 9014.32 THET 90 DNO 0
GRP 0 T 0.03048
QUAD (1 #1 1) (1 1) (11 1) (12 1) (2 1) $$
DNO 10 ENO (10*(#11)+1 1) NNO 10
END

The eigenvalues are computed now according to both methods, first according
to the Lanczos method.

Version 14.66

511

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General Static Analysis FE

PROG ASE
HEAD
MASS 0 $ to delete possible additional masses in database
EIGE 7 LANC
END

The output begins with the sum of the masses and the eigenvalues:
Sum of Masses
TMX[t]
total
2.222
activ
2.083

TMY[t]
2.222
2.083

Eigenfrequencies
Using Lanczos Method
Iteration vectors
No.
LC
Eigenvalue
[1/Sec2]
1
1 2.82862E+03
2
2 7.43345E+03
3
3 2.26713E+04
4
4 4.32428E+04
5
5 5.27588E+04
6
6 9.51546E+04
7
7 1.81121E+05
8
2.24765E+05
9
2.77531E+05
10
4.00794E+05
11
5.89990E+05
12
1.25812E+06
13
5.87842E+06
14
4.74006E+07
* activated mass in %
sum of active mass,

TMZ[t]
2.222
2.083

RMX[tm2]
0.000
0.000

RMY[tm2]
0.000
0.000

RMZ[tm2]
0.000
0.000

14
Relativ frequency
Period aktivated
modal
error
[Hertz]
[sec] mass [%]*
damping
1.22E19
8.465 0.118139
24.63219
0.00000
2.35E18
13.722 0.072876
27.18657
0.00000
5.78E13
23.964 0.041729
31.00171
0.00000
1.18E07
33.096 0.030215
25.38651
0.00000
4.27E08
36.557 0.027355
18.14918
0.00000
3.05E05
49.095 0.020369
24.47535
0.00000
8.72E03
67.734 0.014764
20.61970
0.00000
1.94E02
75.454 0.013253
2.89E01
83.845 0.011927
4.26E01
100.758 0.009925
3.99E01
122.248 0.008180
2.11E01
178.518 0.005602
1.03E+00
385.878 0.002591
5.35E+00
1095.751 0.000913
= product |u|*M = displacement*mass, in relation to the
u scaled on a maximum displacement or rotation of 1.00.

Also the eigenvalues of the higher vectors are output for the information. It
can be seen that the seventh eigenvalue is already a little more inaccurate,
therefore the number of 14 vectors is absolutely required.
The in comparison performed analysis according to the method of the simultaneous vector iteration gives the following eigenvalues:
Eigenfrequencies
Using simultan vectoriteration
Iteration vectors
Iterations
No.
LC
Eigenvalue
Relativ

512

9
18
frequency

Period

aktivated

modal

Version 14.66

ASE

General Static Analysis FE


[1/Sec2]
1
1 2.82862E+03
2
2 7.43345E+03
3
3 2.26713E+04
4
4 4.32428E+04
5
5 5.27588E+04
6
6 9.51546E+04
7
7 1.77851E+05
8
1.81146E+05
9
2.25478E+05
* activated mass in %
sum of active mass,

error
[Hertz]
[sec] mass [%]*
damping
3.47E08
8.465 0.118139
24.63219
0.00000
8.74E09
13.722 0.072876
27.18657
0.00000
5.35E09
23.964 0.041729
31.00171
0.00000
1.09E08
33.096 0.030215
25.38650
0.00000
1.65E08
36.557 0.027355
18.14918
0.00000
3.75E08
49.095 0.020369
24.47430
0.00000
4.79E04
67.119 0.014899
21.19257
0.00000
2.59E07
67.738 0.014763
2.55E06
75.574 0.013232
= product |u|*M = displacement*mass, in relation to the
u scaled on a maximum displacement or rotation of 1.00.

The values and the printed error limits confirm the results of both methods.
Comparing both methods the simultaneous vector iteration method is the
better one, if only the first eigenvalue is sought with a tolerance of 0.0001
(three vectors). The Lanczos algorithm achieved in the case of three vectors
an accuracy of 0.01, in the case of 6 vectors an accuracy of 0.000001.
The rest of the output includes by default only the modal shape displacements. The element stresses, however, are calculated and stored for the program DYNA.
Stresses, internal forces and moments or support reactions are calculated
from the displacement vectors as static load cases. Support reactions which
represent the maximum accelerating forces at the nodes arise thus at all
nodes with masses.
The representation of the vibration mode shapes occurs as a deformed structure with the program WING with following input:
PROG
HEAD
SIZE
VIEW
LC 1
LC 2
LC 3
LC 4
END

WING
4 0 ; STRU 0 0
ANGL 110 120 20
; DEFO YES 1. ; STRU
; DEFO YES 1. ; STRU
; DEFO YES 1. ; STRU
; DEFO YES 1. ; STRU

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

;
;
;
;

AND
AND
AND
AND

;
;
;
;

DEFO
DEFO
DEFO
DEFO

NO
NO
NO
NO

;
;
;
;

STRU
STRU
STRU
STRU

CONT
CONT
CONT
CONT

Several viewing directions are usually needed in order to clearly recognise


the forms of a mode shape. The coordinate axes are frequently very helpful
hereto. The scaling factor must usually be chosen substantially smaller than
for static load cases. The following graph shows the third modal shape of the

Version 14.66

513

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

above example. The subsequent figures show modal shapes 1 to 3 viewed in


the direction of the axis of the cylinder.

Vibration mode shape 3, isometric view

514

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE

ASE

Modal shapes 1 to 3
For a dynamic analysis with the program DYNA it is possible to define additionally a load configuration to the eigenvalue calculation or for the post processing of existing eigenvalues. ASE multiplies the load vector with the eigenvectors and stores the modal loads in the database.

Version 14.66

515

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

At first additional masses are defined in a further ASE calculation. It is to be


noted that a dead load factor has not to be input since the dead load is activated automatically as mass. Furthermore also temperature, prestress and
strain loads may not be defined. The elements may not get a prestress from
the program GENF.
PROG ASE
HEAD additional masses
ECHO disp,reac,forc,nost no
LC 92 TITL additional_masses
ELLO 71 78 1 TYPE PZS P 2.0 $ 2.0 KN/M2 in first element line
END

The output follows:


Load Case
92 ADDITIONAL_MASSES
Factor forces and moments
Factor dead weight
DLXX
Factor dead weight
DLYY
Factor dead weight
DLZZ
Loads acting on QUADelements
Elements
Load Prim
from
to
inc Type LC/CC
71
78
1 PZZ

1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

Sum of Loads
LC Title
92 ADDITIONAL_MASSES
Sum of Reactions and Loads
LC Title
92 ADDITIONAL_MASSES

Load
val.
2.00

Dimension

Variation
dP/dX
dP/dY

dP/dZ

[kN/m2]

PXX[kN]
0.0

PYY[kN]
0.0

PZZ[kN]
2.3

PXX[kN]
0.0
0.0

PYY[kN]
0.0
0.0

PZZ[kN]
2.3
2.3

In the next ASE calculation the additional masses of the load case 92 are used
and the total masses and the eigenfrequencies are determined:
PROG ASE
HEAD
MASS 92
$ (can be
$ of load
EIGE 7 LC
END

$ converts PZloads of load case 92 into masses


checked with GRAF by plotting the total nodal loadvector
case 92)
101

The output follows:

516

Version 14.66

ASE

General Static Analysis FE


Sum of Masses
TMX[t]
total
2.454
activ
2.315

TMY[t]
2.454
2.315

Eigenfrequencies
Using Lanczos Method
Iteration vectors
No.
LC
Eigenvalue
[1/Sec2]
1 101 2.16234E+03
2 102 5.66126E+03
3 103 1.77307E+04
4 104 3.67825E+04
5 105 4.38873E+04
6 106 7.22422E+04
7 107 1.56277E+05
8
1.91636E+05
9
2.03138E+05
10
4.29945E+05
11
6.67785E+05
12
1.00814E+06
13
5.05524E+06
14
4.81389E+07
* activated mass in %
sum of active mass,

TMZ[t]
2.454
2.315

RMX[tm2]
0.000
0.000

RMY[tm2]
0.000
0.000

RMZ[tm2]
0.000
0.000

14
Relativ frequency
Period aktivated
modal
error
[Hertz]
[sec] mass [%]*
damping
8.76E20
7.401 0.135119
26.56052
0.00000
8.00E19
11.975 0.083507
28.96872
0.00000
1.13E13
21.193 0.047186
31.93917
0.00000
1.46E07
30.524 0.032761
26.30272
0.00000
3.39E08
33.342 0.029992
23.11740
0.00000
3.85E06
42.778 0.023377
21.43210
0.00000
8.40E03
62.917 0.015894
21.16607
0.00000
3.63E02
69.672 0.014353
1.62E01
71.732 0.013941
1.53E01
104.358 0.009582
6.19E01
130.058 0.007689
2.63E01
159.802 0.006258
8.03E01
357.842 0.002795
5.32E+00
1104.252 0.000906
= product |u|*M = displacement*mass, in relation to the
u scaled on a maximum displacement or rotation of 1.00.

The control of the masses should occur in any case:


dead mass of elements (of 1st ASE calculation:)
sum of loads of LC 92 = 2.32 kN =
sum of masses for EIGELC 101107

Sum of Masses
TMX[t]
total
2.454

TMY[t]
2.454

TMZ[t]
2.454

RMX[tm2]
0.000

2.222 T
0.232 T

2.454 T
=========

RMY[tm2]
0.000

RMZ[tm2]
0.000

For the calculation of eigenvalues for a stressed system: see examples


ASE9.DAT and ASE13.DAT.

Version 14.66

517

ASE
5.5.

General Static Analysis FE


Wind Frame with Cable Diagonals.

A wind frame crossed with tensile diagonals is represented here as an


example for the application of the nonlinear effects of trusses and cable elements.

Wind frame
The input for the programs AQUA and GENF read as follows:
PROG
HEAD
NORM
CONC
STEE
STEE
SVAL
END

AQUA
CABLE ELEMENT WIND FRAME FROM STAR2 MANUAL
DIN 10451
1 C 30
$ C 30 =
C30/37 !
2 BST 500SA titl bar reinforcement
3 BST 500MA titl mesh reinforcement
1 1 A 0.001

PROG
HEAD
SYST
NODE
TRUS
END

GENF
CABLE ELEMENT WIND FRAME FROM STAR2 MANUAL
FRAM GDIR NEGY
1 0 0 F ; 2 0 3 ; 3 3 3 ; 4 3 0 F
(1 3 1) (1 1) (2 1) ; CABL 11 1 3 ; 12 2 4

For the input of ASE it has to be considered that the load cases are analysed
in separate blocks. This is in general mandatory for nonlinear load cases. A
maximum of 5 iterations is allowed in the SYST record. The input of the first
load case reads:
PROG ASE
HEAD Failure cable 2

518

Version 14.66

ASE

General Static Analysis FE


SYST NONL ITER 25
LC 1 ; LOAD 2 10.0
END

The results of the analysis are:


Analysis parameters
Calculation with nonlinear material properties
Nonlinear material proberties are used for:
Springelements[CRAC,YIEL,MUE,GAP], pilebedding, QUADbedding
Only linear material proberties are use for:
QUAD and BRIQelements
Truss, cable, Beam, pile und boundaryelements
Beamelements
Definition of load type in this output:
PZZ load in global direction Z in reference to the element length
PZP load in global direction Z in reference to the projection
Pz load in local direction z
PG load in dead load direction in reference to the element length

Load Case
1
Factor forces and moments
Factor dead weight
DLXX
Factor dead weight
DLYY
Loads acting on Nodes
Node
PX[kN]
PY[kN]
MB[kNm2]
2
10.0

1.000
0.000
0.000

PZ[kN]

Sum of Loads
LC Title
1
Iteration sequence
Iteration 1 Residual
Iteration 2 Residual
Iteration 3 Residual
Iteration 4 Residual
Forces in TrussElements
Loadcase
1
Number
N[kN]
u[mm]
1
0.0
0.000
2
10.0
1.060

Version 14.66

PXX[kN]
10.0

5.578
2.478
0.000
0.000

energy
energy
energy
energy

MX[kNm]

MY[kNm]

PYY[kN]
0.0

22.6267
38.4868
51.1633
51.1633

MZ[kNm]

PZZ[kN]
0.0

e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f

0.000
0.000
0.329
0.000

1.000
1.701
1.799
1.000

L_N0[mm]

519

ASE
3

General Static Analysis FE


10.0

1.060

Forces in CableElements
Loadcase
1
Number
N[kN]
u[mm]
ut[mm]
f0[mm]
Nm[kN] L_N0[mm]
11
14.1
2.119
4242.639
12
0.0
3.618
failed
L_N0 = elementlength after normal force relaxation
Nodal Displacements and Reactions
Loadcase
1
Node
uX
uY
phiZ
No
[mm]
[mm]
[mrad]
1
0.000
0.000
0.000
2
5.116
0.000
0.000
3
4.057
1.060
0.000
4
0.000
0.000
0.000
Sum of Reactions and Loads
LC Title
1 sum_PX= 10.00 kN

PY
[kN]
10.0

0.0

10.0

PXX[kN]
10.0
10.0

PX
[kN]
10.0

PYY[kN]
0.0
0.0

MZ
[kNm]

PZZ[kN]
0.0
0.0

Statistic nichtlinear effects:


Statistic nonlinear effects of truss members:
no of elem.:
elements in the nonlinear part of the stress strain curve:

Statistic nonlinear effects of cable members:


no of elem.:
Number of cables failed under compression......... :
Number of cables with inner deflection ........... :
" in the nonlinear part of the stress strain curve:

2
1

The load is reduced to 9 kN in a second input block. The load case 1 is considered as primary load case PLC 1 in record SYST.
PROG
HEAD
HEAD
SYST
LC 2
END

ASE
Smaller load, however, furthermore failure cable 2
Displacements have to be reinitialized at first!
NONL ITER 25 PLC 1
; LOAD 2 9.0

The table of the element groups with the information of the used primary load
case is printed additionally in the output. The cable 2 fails still.
Primary state for displacements of total system is load case

520

Version 14.66

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General Static Analysis FE


Elementgroups
No
facS
0
1.000

facL
1.000

facD
0.000

facP
1.000

facB
1.000

PLC
1

HW [m]

Forces in CableElements
Loadcase
2
Number
N[kN]
u[mm]
ut[mm]
f0[mm]
Nm[kN] L_N0[mm]
11
12.7
1.907
4242.640
12
0.0
3.256
failed
L_N0 = elementlength after normal force relaxation

The cable 2 gets a tensile force of 1 kN in the third input block. The load case
2 is here the primary load case.
PROG
HEAD
HEAD
SYST
LC 3
END

ASE
Now negative load, cable 2 with a little tensile force
Failure cable 1
NONL ITER 25 PLC 2
; LOAD 2 1.0

The number of the necessary iterations increases to 10. Now a failure of the
cable 1 is to be seen.
Iteration sequence
Iteration 1 Residual

5.578

energy

22.6280 e/f

Iteration 2
Iteration 3
Iteration 4
Iteration 5
Iteration 6
Iteration 7
Iteration 8
Iteration 9
Iteration 10

2.478
1.707
0.984
0.309
0.206
0.127
0.017
0.003
0.002

energy
energy
energy
energy
energy
energy
energy
energy
energy

38.4899
51.1688
47.5597
49.1081
49.4929
49.9666
50.0760
50.1005
50.1063

Residual
Residual
Residual
Residual
Residual
Residual
Residual
Residual
Residual

Forces in TrussElements
Loadcase
3
Number
N[kN]
u[mm]
1
1.0
0.106
2
0.0
0.000
3
0.0
0.000
Forces in CableElements
Loadcase
3
Number
N[kN]
u[mm]
11
0.0
0.286

Version 14.66

e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f

0.000

1.000

0.000
0.329
0.204
0.177
0.069
0.131
0.013
0.023
0.051

1.701
1.799
0.670
0.600
1.026
2.764
0.849
1.148
1.088

L_N0[mm]

ut[mm]

f0[mm]

Nm[kN]

L_N0[mm]
failed

521

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

12
1.4
0.212
L_N0 = elementlength after normal force relaxation

522

4242.640

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE


5.6.

ASE

Single Span Girder with Auxiliary Support.

A 60 m long girder which is fixed at both ends is assembled from two precast
parts by using an auxiliary support. The loading consists of the dead weight
only. The auxiliary support is removed after establishing a monolithic connection.

Singlespan girder
At first the materials, the cross section and the static system are defined as
two single span girders with the programs AQUA and GENF. A spring which
is allocated to the group 9 is input for the auxiliary support.
The input for AQUA and GENF is:
PROG
HEAD
NORM
CONC
STEE
STEE
SREC
END

AQUA
TWO SPAN GIRDER WITH CONSTRUCTION STAGES
DIN 10451
1 C
25
$ = C25/30
2 BST 500MA TITL mesh reinforcement
3 BST 500SA TITL bar reinforcement
1 B 1.0 H 1.5 MNO 1 MRF 3

PROG GENF
HEAD TWO SPAN GIRDER WITH CONSTRUCTION STAGES
$ ASEMANUAL
SYST FRAME GDIV 1000 GDIR POSY
NODE 1 0 0 F ; 2 30. 0 ; 4 60 0 F
GRP 1
BEAM 1 1 2 AHIN MY
2 2 4 AHIN MY EHIN MY
GRP 9 $ auxiliary support

Version 14.66

523

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General Static Analysis FE

SPRI 2 NA 2 DY 1 CP 1E20 $ of better 1E7 for elastomer bearing


END

The calculation for the load case 1 dead load is done with ASE. All groups inclusive the auxiliary support are activated with the record GRP. HING ACTI
defines here the articulated joints of the beams.
The input for ASE reads:
PROG ASE
HEAD Construction Stage Articulated System with Auxiliary Support
HEAD Effect like two singlespan beams
GRP (0 99 1) HING ACTI
LC 1 ; ELLO 1001 1002 1 PYS 10.0
END

The following internal forces and moments result:


Beam Forces and Moments
Loadcase
1
beam
x
N
Number
[m]
[kN]
1001
0.000
0.0
30.000
0.0
1002
0.000
0.0
30.000
0.0

Vy
[kN]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Vz
[kN]
150.00
150.00
150.00
150.00

Mt
[kNm]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

My
[kNm]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Mz
[kNm]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

The moments of the two single span girders are not visible here, since the results are given at the two ends only. A graphic representation with the program WinGRAF shows the actual moment distribution.
Then the program ASE is used once more in order to change the static system
and calculate it simultaneously:
and ASE is started with:
PROG ASE
HEAD Final Stage without Hinges
SYST PLC 1
GRP (0 99 1) HING FIX
GRP
9 OFF $ delete auxiliary support!
LC 2 ; ELLO 1001 1002 1 PYS 10.0
END

The record ELLO is used to apply all the loads which acts to this time. The
input data for SYST have the effect that the load case 1 is used as primary load

524

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General Static Analysis FE

case. The beam joints are removed and replaced through fixed connections
with HING FIX in the first record GRP. The auxiliary support is deleted via
switching off of the group 9.
Primary state for displacements of total system is load case
Elementgroups
No
facS
1
1.000

facL
1.000

facD
0.000

facP
1.000

facB
1.000

PLC
1

HW [m]

Elementgroups activated hinges


no
hinge
1
fixed
Definition of load type in this output:
PZZ load in global direction Z in reference to the element length
PZP load in global direction Z in reference to the projection
Pz load in local direction z
PG load in dead load direction in reference to the element length

Load Case
2
Factor forces and moments
Factor dead weight
DLXX
Factor dead weight
DLYY
Primary load case

1.000
0.000
0.000
1

Loads acting on Beamelements


Number Type
a[m]
l[m] Loadval
ze[m]
1001 PYY
0.000 30.000
10.00
1002 PYY
0.000 30.000
10.00
Sum of Loads
LC Title
2

Loadval Dimens.

PXX[kN]
0.0

ya[m]

za[m]

ye[m]

[kN/m]
[kN/m]

PYY[kN]
600.0

PZZ[kN]
0.0

If the middle support still existed, the external load (ELLO) would be in equilibrium with the primary stresses. No additional deformations or stresses
would arise.
Due to the removal of the middle support the missing support reaction acts
now as a downward point load and the middle node settles by 45 mm. Using
SYST PLC 1 these additional deformations are added to the old deformations
of the load case 1 (phiZ=1.5 mrad) and they are output as total deformations of the load case 2: (uY=45 mm, phiZ= 1.5 mrad).

Version 14.66

525

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

Nodal Displacements and Reactions


Loadcase
1
Node
uX
uY
phiZ
No
[mm]
[mm]
[mrad]
1
0.000
0.000
0.000
2
0.000
0.000
1.500
4
0.000
0.000
0.000
Nodal Displacements and Reactions
Loadcase
2
Node
uX
uY
phiZ
No
[mm]
[mm]
[mrad]
1
0.000
0.000
0.000
2
0.000
45.007
1.500
4
0.000
0.000
0.000

PX
[kN]

PX
[kN]

PY
[kN]
150.0
300.0
150.0

MZ
[kNm]
0.00

PY
[kN]
300.0

MZ
[kNm]
2250.00

300.0

2250.00

0.00

The internal forces and moments are now:


Beam Forces and Moments
Loadcase
2
beam
x
N
Number
[m]
[kN]
1001
0.000
0.0
30.000
0.0
1002
0.000
0.0
30.000
0.0

Vy
[kN]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Vz
[kN]
300.00
0.00
0.00
300.00

Mt
[kNm]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

My
[kNm]
2250.00
2250.00
2250.00
2250.00

Mz
[kNm]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

The resultant moment distribution shows the superposition of moments of


the load case 1 with those of the load case due to the change of supports (force
of 300 kN at midspan of a girder fixed at both ends). This result
(MaxM=MinM=2250 kNm) does not correspond to that of a singlespan
girder with uniform load (MaxM=1500 kNm, MinM=3000 kNm).
The analysis with QUAD elements is fairly similar for this.

526

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE


5.7.

ASE

Internal Force Redistribution Due to Creep.

It is not the task of this manual to offer a complete overview of the different
creep theories. More explanations can be found e.g. in the manuals of the programs STAR2 and AQB. The method implemented in ASE, which convert the
stresses of an arbitrary load case to creep deformations, allows a generalised
procedure.
The creep law describes the relationship between creep deformations and acting stress:
 + f @ sEb
However, it is of little importance how one takes the variable creep coefficients and elastic moduli into consideration. More important is the relation
that defines the creep deformations as a function of the stresses of one or several load cases. Such creep laws are generally valid only for constant acting
stress. This is given only for statically determinate structures according to
firstorder theory. The structure deforms free of forces in this case.
For statically indeterminate structures, however, the stress changes due to
constraints. This results in a relatively complicated differential equation
which of course can not be solved exactly by ASE. The alternative solutions
are either the use of creep coefficients which take this effect into consideration or a numerical integration of the differential equation.
An acceptable solution is offered by the Trost method with a relaxation coefficient. Instead of a complicated differential equation, an algebraic relation
with a relaxation coefficient, which can be defined usually with = 0.8 without significant loss of accuracy, results from an introductory analysis.
t  + 01 ) f ) DsE @ 1 ) f
The resultant decrease of the internal forces and moments from constraint
for progressively applied constraint is
Z + Z R

1
1 ) f

and for suddenly applied constraint

Z + Z 0 1 *

Version 14.66

f
1 ) f

527

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

A stepbystep constructed twospan girder with different creep coefficients


of the two spans is examined as an example. This example can be found in the
book Stahlbeton Spannbeton (Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete) written
by Rusch/Jungwirth, Volume 2, page 224.

Twospan girder
The structure is defined with two groups in program GENF:
PROG
HEAD
ECHO
NORM
CONC
STEE
STEE
SREC
END

AQUA
CREEP REDISTRIBUTION FOR CONTINUOUS BEAM WITH CONSTRUCTION STAGES
MAT,SECT EXTR
DIN 10451
1 C
25
$ = C25/30
2 BST 500MA TITL mesh reinforcement
3 BST 500SA TITL bar reinforcement
1 B 1.0 H 1.5 MNO 1 MRF 3

PROG GENF
HEAD CREEP REDISTRIBUTION FOR CONTINUOUS BEAM WITH CONSTRUCTION STAGES
SYST GDIV 1000
NODE 1 0 0 PP ; 2 20. 0 PP ; 3 40 0 PP
GRP 1 ; BEAM 1001 1 2
GRP 2 ; BEAM 2001 2 3
END

The first construction stage (left singlespan beam) as well as the second one
are defined in ASE as described in the previous chapter. The socalled single
casting stage can be analysed as a third load case. This is the case, if the structure is constructed monolithically in one stage.
PROG ASE
HEAD CONSTRUCTION STAGE 1
GRP 1
LC 1 ; ELLO 1001 TYPE PYS 30.0
END

528

Version 14.66

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General Static Analysis FE

PROG ASE
HEAD CONSTRUCTION STAGE 2
SYST PLC 1
GRP 1,2 FACL 1 FACP 1 FACD 0
LC 2 TITL WITH CONSTRAINT T=0
ELLO 1001 2001 TYPE PYS 30.0
END

The resultant internal forces and moments in load case 2 show a support moment with the half regular value of a twospan girder.
Beam Forces and Moments
Loadcase
2
WITH CONSTRAINT T=0
beam
x
N
Vy
Vz
Number
[m]
[kN]
[kN]
[kN]
1001
0.000
0.0
0.00
262.50
20.000
0.0
0.00 337.50
2001
0.000
0.0
0.00
337.50
20.000
0.0
0.00 262.50

Mt
[kNm]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

My
[kNm]
0.00
750.00
750.00
0.00

Mz
[kNm]
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

The internal forces and moments from constraint have been produced exactly
by means of the GRP loading. In a third step one can provide this stage of the
sudden constraint with the appropriate Trost coefficient instead of 1.0. The
result is for group 1 (beam 1001) with PHI=2.18:
FAKL + 1 *

2.18
 + 1.0 * 0.794
1 ) 0.8 @ 2.18

The input
PROG ASE
HEAD CREEP OF THE IMMEDIATE CONSTRAINT
SYST PLC 2
GRP 1 FACL 1.00.794
$ PHI = 2.18
GRP 2 FACL 1.00.849
$ PHI = 2.62
LC 4 TITL WITH CONSTRAINT T=INFINITE
ELLO 1001 2001 TYPE PYS 30.0
END

produces following results:


Beam Forces and Moments
Loadcase
4
WITH CONSTRAINT T=INFINI
beam
x
N
Vy
Vz
Number
[m]
[kN]
[kN]
[kN]
1001
0.000
0.0
0.00
231.69

Version 14.66

Mt
[kNm]
0.00

My
[kNm]
0.00

Mz
[kNm]
0.00

529

ASE

2001

General Static Analysis FE


20.000
0.000
20.000

0.0
0.0
0.0

0.00
0.00
0.00

368.31
368.31
231.69

0.00
0.00
0.00

1366.12
1366.12
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

Rsch indicates a value of 1380 kNm. The value My = 1500 kNm of the
singlecasting stage is given for comparison.

530

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE


5.8.

ASE

Sunshades.

Sunshades
The analysis which was carried out for a roof in a camel race track in Near
East is shown here as a real life example. The umbrellalike structure consists of precast reinforced concrete plates which are anchored with struts at
four steel composite columns. The joints between plates are poured subsequently. A reinforced concrete beam which is used as stiffening and as support
for the plates is placed in the longitudinal direction along the roof ridge. The
structure is 10 m high and has plan dimensions of 4515 meters. Due to symmetry only one half of the structure was discretised.
The following input for the program AQUA defines as cross sections 1 and 2
the composite cross sections with standard steel profile and concrete materials, as cross section 3 the pure steel cross section of the struts and as cross
section 4 the reinforced concrete tie.
PROG
NORM
CONC
STEE
STEE
SECT
CIRC
SECT
CIRC
SECT
CIRC

AQUA
DIN 10451
1 C 30
$ C 30 =
C30/37 !
2 BST 500SA TITL bar reinforcement
3 S 235
1 ; SV AY 0 0
1 R .3365 ; CIRC 2 R .3187 ; CIRC 3 R .3187 3
2 ; SV AY 0 0
1 R .2665 ; CIRC 2 R .2487 ; CIRC 3 R .2487 3
3 ; SV AY 0 0
1 R .09685 ; CIRC 2 R .08435

Version 14.66

531

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

SREC 4 H 0.30 B 1.00


END

In order to avoid unnecessary work, first the nodes of a plate were defined
easily with the help of cylindrical coordinates. All other nodes were generated
then easily by means of rotation and displacement with the record TRAN.
Small corrections were required additionally at the symmetry plane. The
joints between the precast components were modelled as kinematic constraints. So one obtains the forces which are required for the dimensioning
of the joint seals.
The definition of the elements is a diligence task which can be made easier
with the copying function of the text editor. It is noted that the example comes
from a time when graphical input capabilities as those of MONET or SOFiPLUS were not yet available. One would probably choose graphical input
today. The figures depict the structure in plan and in elevation.
Due to limited space only the first page of the GENF input is reproduced here.
The complete input can be found in the enclosed files.
PROG GENF
HEAD CONCRETE UMBRELLAS
SYST SPAC GDIV 50000
NODE 1 0
0
0
2 2
203.245 0 1 COOR CY ; 3 = 156.755 ==
38 9.402 203.245 == ; 43 = 156.765 ==
8 3.234 203.245 == ; 13 = 156.755 ==
44 11.402 203.245 == ; 49 = 156.755 ==
6 2.6
185
== ; 7 = 175 ==
45 10.2
195
== ; 48 = 165 ==
46 9.5
185
== ; 47 = 175 ==
MESH 2 6 M 2 ; 3 7 M 2
38 43 13 8 5 5
NODE 20 5.701 203.245 0 1 ; 25 = 156.755 ==
MAT 1
GRP 0 T .22
$
TRAN 1 49 1 DY 4.5 ALPH 90 90 41.926 50
51 99 1 7.794 4.5 7 90 90 180 50
51 99 1 0 9 DNO 100
101 149 1 0 9 DNO 100
51 99 1 3.897 11.25 BETA 60 DNO 150
51 99 1 3.897 15.75 BETA 120 DNO 200
51 99 1 0
9
BETA 180 DNO 350
51 99 1 0
18
BETA 180 DNO 250
1 49 1
BETA 180 DNO 450

532

Version 14.66

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General Static Analysis FE


1
$
NODE
MESH
NODE
MESH
NODE
MESH
NODE

2
2
10
46
10
453
453
461
497
461

MESH
$
NODE 38
45
15
27
8
20
... ...
... ...

49 1
6.427
6
5.583
.753
40
6.427
457
5.583
.753
491

DY
0
M
0
0
M
0
M
0
0
M

9
5.772
2
5.015
.677
5
5.772
2
5.015
.677
5

0 4.5 11 F ;
0 13.5
6
0 6.36 0.417
0 9.828 0.677
0 0
0.677
0 2.64 0.417

Version 14.66

BETA 180 DNO 350


COOR

CA

5.867

40

1.367

1.228

457

5.867

5.269

491

39 0

4.5

;
;
;

21
33
14

0
0
0

1.367

5.269

1.228

6 ; 44 0 13.5 11 F
8.172
11.640
0.828

0.677
0.417
0.677

533

ASE

General Static Analysis FE


249
294

248

295
288
243

242

289

296

247

237
282

290

236

283

297

241
246

231
276
291

298
344
299

292

225
270

278

338
293

272

326
281

345
339
333

268

321

263
308
315

346

340

334

217

322

316

323

317

232
187
181
226

221

198

216
212

260
211
261 256254
207 210
252
203205
206 209
262 257
255

204

253
302
304
310306

175
220

215

192
186

169
214

180
174

208
163
168

202
153
162
155
161
157

309
328

227

222

258
213
259

314
269

327

218

266
267

238
193

223

219
264
265

274
320
275

233

228
273

244
199

239

224

279
280

332
287

234

229

271
286

245

230

277
285

240

235

284

191

197

185

173

179

167
166

172

178

184

190

196

45
151
44
301
201
394
149
251

347

341

335

329

156
160
154
159
143
152

311307
305
312
303
388

318
313
382

324
330

158
137

319
376

336
342

165

389

364
331

377

195

119
176

130
124

365
343
352
359
354
360
356

189

136

371

337
358

183
170
125

142

383

348

177

131
164

395 33 148

325
370

171

182
113
118

366

372

378

367

373

379

384

390

396

27

147

141

135

188
103
105
111
107
112

129

123

117

122

116

349
444
351

101
99
194
357
361
355
362
438
353

385

391

397

21

146

140

134

128

368
432
363

115
374
127

433

139

392

421
440

387
408

434

422

416

80
74

132
63
68

393
402
404
410406

138
53
55

409

428

92
86

126
69

415
446

98

120
75

398 15 145

414
381

427

114
81

133

386
375
420

439

108
87

121
380

369
426

445

106
110
104
109
93
102

91

97

85

73

79

67
66

72

78

84

90

96

62
57 61

51
399
38
494
49
39
401
144

447

441

435

429

423

417

411407
405
412
488
403

56 60
54
52
43

59

418
482
413

424
430

65
37
58

419
476

442

470
425

448

83

489

36

477

24

465

451
449

443
452
459
454
460
456
453
455
457
461

95

19
76

30

471

458
437

89

25
70

42

483

464
431

77

31
64

495 20 48

436

71

13
82
18

478

466

472

467

473

479

484
485

490

491

496

497

14

47

46

41

40

35
34

3
88
5
11 7
106 4 2
12

29
28

23

17

22

16

1
94

Plan view

534

Version 14.66

ASE

General Static Analysis FE


249
294

248
295
243
288

242
289
237
282
236
283

247
296

241
290
246
297

231
276
284
235

291
240

234
285

292
239

230
277
225
270

229
278

298
245
344
299
199
244

271
224
219
264

223
272

265
218

273
222

266
217
258
213
259
212
260
211
256
207
210
254
205 261
252
203
257
206
262
209
308
163
208
255
204 263
253
202
302
153
309
162
155
304
310
161
157
306

274
221

279
228

286
233

280
227

332
287
187
232

338
293
193
238

326
281
181
226

345
198

267
216
268
215

320
275
220
175

339
192
333
186

269
314
214
169

327
180
321
174

315
168
334
185

322
173

328
179

316
167
317
166

323
172

329
178

335
184

197
340
191 346

45

151
301
201
394
149
251
156
307
311
160
154
305
312
159
143
388
303
152

44

341 347
190
196

318
165
137
382
158
313

324
171
330
177

376
131
319
164

148
395
33

336
183
189
342

325
170
370
125

142
389
383
136

195
348

119
364
331
176

130
377
124
371

113
358
182
337
118
365

147 390
396
27
141

135
384

343
188
352
103
354
105
360
111
356
107
359
112

129
378

123
372

366
117

122
373

116
367

349
101
194
351
444
99

140
21
146 391
397

385
134

379
128

106
357
361
110
355
104
362
109
102
438
353
93

368
115
363
87
108
432

121
374
127
380

81
426
114
369

133
386
139
392

98
445

120
375
75
420

15
145
398

439
92
433
86

126
381
69
414

80
427
74
421

132
387
63
408
415
68
393
138
53
402
409
62
404
55
410
61
406
57

434
85

73
422

428
79

416
67
417
66

72
423

429
78

84
435

144
399
494
49
401
51

97
91 446
440

39
407
56
411
60
54
405
59
412
52
43
488
403

38

441
90 447
96

65
418
58
37
482
413

71
424
77
430

64
419
31
476

20
48
495

436
83
442
89

25
470
425
70

42
489
36
483

448
95

19
464
76
431

30
477
24
471

13
458
82
437
18
465

14
47 490
496
41

46 491
497
8
40

35
484
34
485

3
452
88
443
5
454
460
11
7
456
106
461
457
4 4
455
253
12
459

29
478
28
479

23
472

17
466

22
473

467
16

1
449
451
94

Elevation
The dead weight (LC 4), wind (LC 5 and 6) and 3 temperature load cases were
analysed subsequently. Snow load was not anticipated!
PROG
HEAD
HEAD
LC 1

ASE
CONCRETE UMBRELLAS
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE: TBELOW TABOVE = 40 K
TYPE T

Version 14.66

535

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

ELLO 1 499 1 DT 40
END
PROG
HEAD
HEAD
LC 2
ELLO
END

ASE
CONCRETE UMBRELLAS
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE : 40 K
TYPE T
1 499 1 TEMP 40

PROG
HEAD
HEAD
LC 3
ELLO
ELLO
END

ASE
CONCRETE UMBRELLAS
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE : T = 40 K BETWEEN RIGHT AND LEFT SIDE
TYPE T
1 249 1 TEMP +5
251 499 1 TEMP 5

PROG
HEAD
HEAD
LC 4
END

ASE
CONCRETE UMBRELLAS
DEAD LOAD
TYPE G1 DLZ 1.0

PROG
HEAD
HEAD
ECHO
LC 5
ELLO
ELLO
END

ASE
CONCRETE UMBRELLAS
WIND PARALLEL TO XAXIS
FULL NO
TYPE W
1 249 1 PZ
1.25
251 499 1 PZ 1.25

PROG
HEAD
HEAD
ECHO
LC 6
ELLO
ELLO
END

ASE
CONCRETE UMBRELLAS
WIND PARALLEL TO XAXIS FROM BELOW
FULL NO
TYPE W
1 249 1 PZ
1.56
251 499 1 PZ
1.56

The two following pictures show the distribution of moments and membrane
forces for load case 1 ( DT = Tbottom Ttop= 40 degrees K). Any attempt to reproduce here even parts only of the alphanumeric output would largely increase the size of this manual.

536

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE

ASE

Principal moments of load case 1

Version 14.66

537

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

Membrane forces of load case 1

538

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE


5.9.

ASE

QUADEuler Beam.

A simple Euler beam fixed at its bottom is used as an example of the analysis
of shells according to secondorder theory. The geometrically nonlinear
analysis gets started with CTRL THII.
The small horizontal load at the top is necessary in order to induce an initial
horizontal displacement. Any load or imperfection can be used in principle.
On the one hand it should be sufficiently large to cause a nonlinear iteration,
but on the other hand it should not affect unintentionally the result. The application of horizontal loads is usually the most practical. Additional initial
imperfections can be omitted then.
Structure data:
Height 4 m, Width 20 cm, Thickness 10 cm

QUAD Euler beam


Input:

Version 14.66

539

ASE
PROG
HEAD
NORM
STEE
END

General Static Analysis FE


AQUA
QUAD EULER BEAM
DIN 18800
1 S 235 QS 0.0

PROG GENF
HEAD QUAD EULER BEAM
SYST SPAC
NODE NO
X
(1
5
1) 0
(11 15
1) 0
GRP 0 T 0.1
MESH N1
N2
N3
N4
1
5
15
11
NODE NO FIX
1,11 F
END

Y
0
0.2
M
4

N
1

Z
(0 1)
(0 1)
MNO
1

PROG ASE
HEAD Limit Load Iteration geometrically nonlinear
ECHO DISP,REAC,FORC,NOST NO
ULTI 18 FAK1 1.0 DFAK 1.0 PRO 1
SYST PROB THII ITER 20 TOL 0.0001
LC 1 ; LOAD 5,15 PX 0.01
LOAD 5,15 PZ 50
END

An ultimate limit load iteration is started with the input ULTI 18 FAK1 1.0
DFAK 1.0 PRO 1. It begins with a load factor of 1.0 (FAK1). The load is increased then by a factor of 1.0 each time, if the previous step is recognized as
a stable one. A load step is considered as stable, if the residual force iteration
achieves the accuracy TOL within the 20 iterations specified by SYST. When
the above tolerance is not satisfied after the 20 iterations, the last load step
is halved.
The following load steps were processed automatically in the present
example (summary at the end of the results file):
Summary of the
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration

540

load step iterationen:


1 loadcase
1 with loadfactor
2 loadcase
2 with loadfactor
3 loadcase
3 with loadfactor
4 loadcase
4 with loadfactor
5 loadcase
5 with loadfactor
6 loadcase
6 with loadfactor
7 loadcase
6 with loadfactor

1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
5.000
6.000
5.500

was
was
was
was
was
was
was

convergent.
convergent.
convergent.
convergent.
convergent.
instabil.
instabil.

Version 14.66

ASE

General Static Analysis FE


ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

loadcase
loadcase
loadcase
loadcase
loadcase
loadcase
loadcase
loadcase
loadcase
loadcase
loadcase

6
7
8
8
8
8
9
10
10
11
12

with
with
with
with
with
with
with
with
with
with
with

loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor

5.250
5.375
5.562
5.469
5.422
5.398
5.410
5.428
5.419
5.423
5.423

was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was

convergent.
convergent.
instabil.
instabil.
instabil.
convergent.
convergent.
instabil.
convergent.
convergent.
convergent.

The buckling load according to the theory of elasticity without horizontal load
amounts to
 + 540kN ,
P ki + p 2 @ EI
s 2k
The program calculates with the small horizontal load a value of 542 kN
(5.422250).
The displacements and the internal forces and moments increase sharply and
at a load of 300 kN they are already twice as big as those of the firstorder
theory.

Loaddeformation curve
A buckling eigenvalue determination as well as a concurrent eigenvalue
analysis are available in the complete example ase9.dat (SOFiSTiKCD).

Version 14.66

541

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

Loaddeformation curves are be drawn with the program DBVIEW.

542

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE


5.10.

ASE

Beam with Cable Action According to


ThirdOrder Theory.

A straight series of beams with articulated supports is loaded laterally. Only


half of the structure is analysed due to symmetry. Despite the horizontal restraint the linear analysis considers merely the bending action of the beam.
Axial forces do not arise.

Beam series
Input:
PROG
HEAD
NORM
STEE
SVAL
END

AQUA
BEAM DEVELOPING CABLE ACTION BY THIRDORDER THEORY
DIN 18800
1 S 235
1 A 0.01 IY 0.0001/12

PROG GENF
HEAD BEAM DEVELOPING CABLE ACTION BY THIRDORDER THEORY
SYST SPAC
NODE NO X FIX ; 1 0 PPMX
11 10 PXXM ; (2 10 1) (1 1)
BEAM (1 10 1) (1 1) (2 1) NR YY
END
PROG ASE
ECHO FULL NO; ECHO DISP YES
ULTI 9 FAK1 1.0 DFAK 2.0 PRO 2
SYST PROB TH3 ITER 40 TOL 0.0001
LC 1 FACT 1.0 ; ELLO 1 10 1 PZS 0.01
END
PROG ASE
ECHO FULL NO ; ECHO DISP YES
SYST PROB LINE
LC 99 FACT 511 ; ELLO 1 10 1 PZS 0.01
END

Version 14.66

543

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

A geometrically nonlinear analysis is requested with SYST PROB TH3. ULTI


9 ... leads to an automatic load increase. Since the last stable load case during
an ultimate load iteration is always considered as primary load case, a new
stiffness can be determined in this case always (stiffness due to cable action
including geometrical components of the deformed structure and initial
stress components of the tensile cable force). Even high load steps can be analysed as stable in this way. If such a high load would consider in one step the
program would not be able to reach the equilibrium due to the very small initial stiffness (flexural stiffness only).
Summary of the
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration

load step iterationen:


1 loadcase
1 with loadfactor
1.000 was convergent.
2 loadcase
2 with loadfactor
3.000 was convergent.
3 loadcase
3 with loadfactor
7.000 was convergent.
4 loadcase
4 with loadfactor 15.000 was convergent.
5 loadcase
5 with loadfactor 31.000 was convergent.
6 loadcase
6 with loadfactor 63.000 was convergent.
7 loadcase
7 with loadfactor 127.000 was convergent.
8 loadcase
8 with loadfactor 255.000 was convergent.
9 loadcase
9 with loadfactor 511.000 was convergent.

A summary of the displacements shows the strong influence of the cable action. Although the load factor in load case 9 already amounts to 511 the displacements are only 23 times bigger than those of load case 1 with load factor
1. Load case 99 with load factor 511 was analysed linearly for comparison. It
is evident that the combined stiffness in load case 9 is about 23 times bigger
than the pure bending stiffness of the linear analysis.
NODAL DISPLACEMENTS
Node
uX
No
[mm]
LC1
11
0.000
LC2
11
0.000
LC3
11
0.000
LC4
11
0.000
LC5
11
0.000
LC6
11
0.000
LC7
11
0.000
LC8
11
0.000
LC9
11
0.000
LC99
11
0.000

uY
[mm]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

uZ
[mm]
11.451
28.616
48.542
70.640
95.973
125.959
162.247
206.828
262.170
6083.333

phiX
[mrad]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

phiY
[mrad]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

phiZ
[mrad]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

Load case 99 can not reproduce the actual loadbearing behaviour due to the
missing cable action in linear analysis.

544

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE

ASE

Graphical representation results in the following figure (10times magnified): The linearly analysed load case 99 can not be plotted due to its large deformation (LC 99, beam axis directed steeply downwards, immense deformation).
In order to assess the loadbearing action load case 99 was plotted scaled
down (LC 99b), so that the midspan deflection is equal to that of load case 9.
One can recognise the hyperbolic cable line (LC9, rather circular, thick solid
line) in comparison to the linear bending line (parabolic shape with stronger
curvature at midspan, LC 99b, thin line, about 2 mm above line of LC 9 in figure).
A prestress has to be specified in program GENF, if cable structures are to
analysed fully without the bending components. This prescribes an initial
stress stiffness that makes the structure stable at the beginning even in the
cases of articulated chains.

Cable structural behaviour

Version 14.66

545

ASE
5.11.

General Static Analysis FE


Girder Lateral Buckling.

A solid cross section 20 cm wide, 100 cm high is examined with a span width
of 20 m and simple torsional restraint. A small torsional loading at midspan
serves as initial imperfection:

Girder lateral buckling


PROG
HEAD
NORM
CONC
STEE
SREC
END

AQUA
GIRDER OVERTURNING
DIN 10451
1 C 30
$ C 30 =
C30/37 !
2 BST 500SA TITL bar reinforcement
1 H 1 B 0.20 MNO 1

PROG GENF
HEAD GIRDER OVERTURNING
SYST SPAC
NODE NO X FIX ; 1 0 XPMX
11 10 PXXM ; (2 10 1) (1 1)
BEAM (1 10 1) (1 1) (2 1) NR YY
END
PROG
ECHO
ULTI
SYST
LC 1

546

ASE
FULL NO ; ECHO DISP YES
20 FAK1 1.0 DFAK 1.0 PRO 2
PROB TH3 ITER 35 TOL 0.00001
FACT 1.0 ; ELLO 1 10 1 PZS 1.0

Version 14.66

ASE

General Static Analysis FE


LOAD 11 MX 0.005
END

A rotation of the beam and thus of its principal axes may cause a lateral movement of the beam since a part of the vertical load acts on the weak axis. It is
important for working with primary load cases to define the load as global,
because in the case of local load definition the load direction would rotate
along with the girder (not within an ASE iteration analysis, since only the
rotation of a primary load case causes a load rotation!).
The critical load results analytically to:
pki + 28.32 @

EIz @ GIt
l3

+ 28.32 @ 28.309E6 @ 0.667E3 @ 11.796E6 @ 2.32E3 20 3 + 80.47kNm


The ultimate load iteration computes a load of 77.25 kN/m:
Summary of the load step iterationen:
ULSiteration 1 loadcase
1 with loadfactor
1.000 was convergent.
ULSiteration 2 loadcase
2 with loadfactor
2.000 was convergent.
ULSiteration 3 loadcase
3 with loadfactor
4.000 was convergent.
ULSiteration 4 loadcase
4 with loadfactor
8.000 was convergent.
ULSiteration 5 loadcase
5 with loadfactor 16.000 was convergent.
ULSiteration 6 loadcase
6 with loadfactor 32.000 was convergent.
ULSiteration 7 loadcase
7 with loadfactor 64.000 was convergent.
ULSiteration 8 loadcase
8 with loadfactor 128.000 was instabil.
ULSiteration 9 loadcase
8 with loadfactor 96.000 was instabil.
ULSiteration 10 loadcase
8 with loadfactor 80.000 was instabil.
ULSiteration 11 loadcase
8 with loadfactor 72.000 was convergent.
ULSiteration 12 loadcase
9 with loadfactor 76.000 was convergent.
ULSiteration 13 loadcase 10 with loadfactor 84.000 was instabil.
ULSiteration 14 loadcase 10 with loadfactor 80.000 was instabil.
ULSiteration 15 loadcase 10 with loadfactor 78.000 was instabil.
ULSiteration 16 loadcase 10 with loadfactor 77.000 was convergent.
ULSiteration 17 loadcase 11 with loadfactor 77.500 was instabil.
ULSiteration 18 loadcase 11 with loadfactor 77.250 was convergent.
ULSiteration 19 loadcase 12 with loadfactor 77.375 was instabil.
ULSiteration 20 loadcase 12 with loadfactor 77.250 was convergent.

The nodal displacements of node 11 at midspan are output in the following


table:
NODAL DISPLACEMENTS
Node
uX

Version 14.66

uY

uZ

phiX

phiY

phiZ

547

ASE

LC1
LC2
LC3
LC4
LC5
LC6
LC7
LC8
LC9
LC10
LC11
LC12
LC99

No
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11

General Static Analysis FE


[mm]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

[mm]
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.009
0.038
0.171
1.474
3.295
6.697
8.727
9.485
9.485
0.000

[mm]
4.416
8.831
17.662
35.323
70.644
141.261
282.314
317.521
335.119
339.520
340.620
340.620
375.318

[mrad]
0.002
0.004
0.007
0.015
0.030
0.067
0.274
0.529
0.998
1.275
1.379
1.379
0.062

[mrad]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

[mrad]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

The loss of stability is evident, since the rotation phiX at midspan increases
rapidly with only a small load increase starting from load case 7. Load case
99 with load factor 85.00 is linearly analysed for comparative purposes and
results in a rotation of only a part of the nonlinear value (0.062 opposite
0.274). There is no lateral movement uY for LC 99.
The ultimate load result of 77.25 kN/m is in very good agreement with the
theoretical solution.
The convergence is a little worse for standard steel profiles which are weak
in torsion, because the large difference between the high bending stiffness
and the small torsional stiffness may lead to numerical problems. A convergent result is always smaller than the actual ultimate load, however, always
at the safe side (a high accuracy is required as shown during an analysis with
primary load cases)! Rapidly increasing displacements or rotations are an indication here for the beginning of an instability. Possible warping forcetorsional stiffnesses are to be added by hand to the torsional stiffness according
to SaintVenant! The method works with additional axial forces as well and
can model thus lateral torsional buckling effects too.

548

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE


5.12.

ASE

Plate Buckling.

A 1 cm thick steel plate with 1.200 x 2.400 m dimensions has articulated supports at its edges and is subjected to a compressive force in the direction of
its long dimension. A small point load at node 202 is applied as initial imperfection. Notice that this imperfection has little to do with the resultant
buckling shape. It should be only asymmetric.

Plate buckling
Input:
N=8
$ GLOBAL VARIABLE N = MESH PARTITION
PROG AQUA
HEAD PLATE BUCKLING
NORM DIN 18800
ECHO MAT VOLL
STEE 1 S 235
SSLA ULTI 1.10
$ Material Safety Coefficient 1.10
SSLA EPS SIG TYPE=POL $ Trilinear Stressstrain Curve
10
370
5
370
1.039 240
0
0
1.039
240
5
370
10
370
END
PROG GENF
HEAD PLATE BUCKLING
ECHO NO
SYST SPAC GDIV 50000
LET#1 101

Version 14.66

549

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

LET#2 101+$(N)*100
LET#3 101+$(N)*100+$(N)*2
LET#4 101+$(N)*2
GRP 0 T 0.01
NODE NO X Y
#1 0
0
; #2 0 1.2
#3 2.4 1.2 ; #4 2.4 0
MESH #1 #2 #3 #4 M $(N) N $(N)*2 MNO 1
NODE NO FIX
(#1 #2 100) PZ ; (#1 #4 1)
PZ
(#2 #3 1)
PZ ; (#4 #3 100) PZ
#1 PP ;
#2 YP
END
PROG ASE
LET#1 101 ; LET#2 101+$(N)*100
LET#3 101+$(N)*100+$(N)*2
LET#4 101+$(N)*2
ECHO REAC,FORC,NOST,BEDD NO
ULTI 25 FAK1 100 DFAK 100 PRO 2
SYST PROB TH3 TOL 0.0001
LC 1 FACT 1.0 ; LOAD 202 PZ 1E3
BOLO #1 #2 100 PXS 1
BOLO #4 #3 100 PXS 1
END

The ultimate load iteration exhibits serious convergence problems for factor
500:
Summary of the load step iterationen:
ULSiteration 1 loadcase
1 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 2 loadcase
2 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 3 loadcase
3 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 4 loadcase
4 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 5 loadcase
4 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 6 loadcase
4 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 7 loadcase
5 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 8 loadcase
6 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 9 loadcase
7 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 10 loadcase
8 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 11 loadcase
8 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 12 loadcase
9 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 13 loadcase 10 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 14 loadcase 10 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 15 loadcase 10 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 16 loadcase 10 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 17 loadcase 11 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 18 loadcase 12 with loadfactor

550

100.000
200.000
400.000
800.000
600.000
500.000
550.000
650.000
850.000
1250.00
1050.00
1150.00
1350.00
1250.00
1200.00
1175.00
1187.50
1212.50

was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was

convergent.
convergent.
convergent.
instabil.
instabil.
convergent.
convergent.
convergent.
convergent.
instabil.
convergent.
convergent.
instabil.
instabil.
instabil.
convergent.
convergent.
convergent.

Version 14.66

ASE

General Static Analysis FE


ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration

19
20
21
22
23
24
25

loadcase
loadcase
loadcase
loadcase
loadcase
loadcase
loadcase

13
14
15
16
16
16
16

with
with
with
with
with
with
with

loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor
loadfactor

1262.50
1362.50
1562.50
1962.50
1762.50
1662.50
1562.50

was
was
was
was
was
was
was

convergent.
convergent.
convergent.
instabil.
instabil.
instabil.
convergent.

After processing the critical load range by factor 500, the load can be increased again. The displacements at point 505 (= midspan, first buckling)
show at load factors 500550 a strong increase of the uZ deviation:
Nodal Displacements
Node
uX
No
[mm]
LC1
505
0.029
LC2
505
0.057
LC3
505
0.114
LC4
505
0.143
LC5
505
0.168
LC6
505
0.224
LC7
505
0.343
LC8
505
0.473
LC9
505
0.548
LC10 505
0.573
LC11 505
0.593
LC12 505
0.649
LC13 505
0.736
LC14 505
0.882
LC15 505
1.132
LC16 505
1.132

uY
[mm]
0.008
0.017
0.034
0.042
0.033
0.001
0.107
0.283
0.400
0.432
0.449
0.480
0.550
0.716
1.130
1.130

uZ
[mm]
0.014
0.036
0.164
1.045
6.305
12.175
19.962
26.399
29.498
30.373
30.943
32.326
34.572
38.412
45.049
45.049

phiX
[mrad]
0.013
0.026
0.055
0.071
0.076
0.079
0.079
0.072
0.069
0.069
0.069
0.071
0.073
0.075
0.078
0.078

phiY
[mrad]
0.011
0.029
0.117
0.274
0.599
2.166
6.786
11.945
14.126
14.225
13.776
12.098
10.989
10.994
13.080
13.080

phiZ
[mrad]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.004
0.011
0.023
0.034
0.045
0.057
0.075
0.107
0.157
0.157

With a 10 % load increase only (from LC 4 = 500 kN/m to LC 5 = 550 kN/m)


the displacement uZ at node 505 increases around 603 percent from load
case 4 to load case 5 (from 1.045 to 6.305 mm)!
According to Betonkalender 1987I S.435 "Strength of plane structures" the
critical buckling load without imperfection amounts to

4 @ p 2 @ E @ h 2
pkr +
@ t + 527kNm
12 @ b21 * m3
A comparison of the first analysis LC 1 (load factor 100) with load case 5 (load
factor 550) shows additionally that the buckling shape is relatively independent of the starting imperfection. In fact, the latter ones are not be recognized
in load case 5.

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General Static Analysis FE

First load step displacement (linear result)


LC 1, load factor 100, magnified 8000 times

Geometrically nonlinear analysis


LC 5, load factor 550, magnified 50 times
Examining the renewed increase of the sustained load, one can recognize
based on the deformation and axial force graphs that the load, after the buckling of the inner field, can be withstood by means of large compressive forces
in the regions of the supports. These support regions can not buckle due to the
linear support! The main part of the longitudinal force is relayed there, and
a shear field is formed at the area of application.

552

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General Static Analysis FE

ASE

Principle membrane forces load case 4 before buckling

Principle membrane forces load case 14 after buckling


Plastification of the material should also be checked parallel to this analysis
according to thirdorder theory. ASE can perform an analysis with nonlinear material simultaneously with a geometrically nonlinear analysis. The
input for it is:
PROG ASE
HEAD
LET#1 101 ; LET#2 101+$(N)*100
LET#3 101+$(N)*100+$(N)*2
LET#4 101+$(N)*2
ECHO REAC,FORC,NOST,BEDD NO
NSTR KSV ULD $ Failure Stressstrain Curve in addition with AQUAsafety
ULTI 25 FAK1 100 DFAK 100 PRO 2

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General Static Analysis FE

SYST PROB TH3 TOL 0.001 NMAT YES


LC 21 FACT 1.0 ; LOAD 202 PZ 1E3
BOLO #1 #2 100 PXS 1
BOLO #4 #3 100 PXS 1
END

0.255

0.111

0.474

0.0557
0.0279

0.446

0.118

0.0279

0.116

0.272

0.307

0.362

0.388

0.334

0.418

0.139
0.111
0.0836
0.0557
0.0279

0.0557

0.502
0.530

0.0836

0.0279

0.167
0.139
0.111
0.0836
0.0557

0.557

0.279
0.251
0.223

0.390
0.362
0.334
0.307

The stable calculations end now at about 870 kN/m. A contour line presentation of the plastified zones leads to the following picture:

0.195
0.167

0.279
0.251
0.223
0.195

0.307

0.485

0.374

0.859

0.369

0.518

0.195
0.223
0.251
0.279

0.307
0.223
0.251
0.279

0.0279
0.0557
0.0836
0.111
0.139

0.111

0.0836

0.272

0.362

0.474

0.116

0.334

0.502

0.118

0.0279

0.307
0.334
0.362

0.522

0.257

0.0557

0.390

0.0279
0.0557
0.0836
0.111
0.139
0.167

0.446

0.418

0.0279
0.0557

0.167
0.195

0.388

Geometrical and material nonlinear analysis

554

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General Static Analysis FE


5.13.

Buckling Mode Shapes in Supercritical Region.

A regular ultimate load iteration without imperfection is started at first with


constant external pressure for a silo. It ends with a load step of 1.219:
PROG
HEAD
ECHO
ULTI
SYST
LC 1
END

ASE
FULL NO ; ECHO STAT FULL
10 FAK1 0.10 DFAK 0.20 PRO 1.5
PROB THII PLC 0 ITER 25 FMAX 3 TOL 0.001
; ELLO 1 9999 1 TYPE PZ 1000

Summary of the load step iterationen:


ULSiteration 1 loadcase
1 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 2 loadcase
2 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 3 loadcase
3 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 4 loadcase
4 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 5 loadcase
5 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 6 loadcase
5 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 7 loadcase
5 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 8 loadcase
6 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 9 loadcase
6 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 10 loadcase
6 with loadfactor

0.100
0.300
0.600
1.050
1.725
1.388
1.219
1.303
1.261
1.219

was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was

convergent.
convergent.
convergent.
convergent.
instabil.
instabil.
convergent.
instabil.
instabil.
convergent.

Displacements of load case 6


Using the stress states of the load cases 3 and 6 the vibration mode shapes
are determined now considering the element stresses:

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ASE
PROG
HEAD
ECHO
ECHO
ECHO

General Static Analysis FE


ASE
EIGENVALUE ANALYSIS
FULL NO ; ECHO EIGE ; SYST PROB THII PLC 0 ; EIGE 3 LC 101 ; END
FULL NO ; ECHO EIGE ; SYST PROB THII PLC 3 ; EIGE 3 LC 131 ; END
FULL NO ; ECHO EIGE ; SYST PROB THII PLC 6 ; EIGE 3 LC 161 ; END

It is to be seen, itself that the eigenvalue determination supplies different


vibration mode shapes. The system becomes increasingly more tender due to
the compressive load with increasing normal stress the eigenfrequencies
become smaller. While the structure is swinging under load multiplied by 0.6
still quite fast (first frequency 29.52), under load multiplied by 1.219 (primary
load case 6) the frequency decreases to 7.35 Hertz already clearly. The first
vibration mode shape is now equal to the critical first buckling mode shape:

LC 161 = first vibration mode shape under stresses of load case 6


Eigenfrequencies
Using Lanczos Method
Iteration vectors
No.
LC
Eigenvalue
[1/Sec2]
1 101 5.65320E+04
2 102 6.14512E+04
3 103 7.24965E+04
1
2
3

131
132
133

556

3.43974E+04
3.93786E+04
4.25738E+04

Relativ
error
1.70E05
2.01E04
1.80E04

14
frequency
[Hertz]
37.841
39.453
42.853

Period
[sec]
0.026426
0.025346
0.023336

aktivated
mass [%]*
25.34235
23.05468
48.02222

modal
damping
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

2.10E07
3.89E06
2.27E05

29.518
31.583
32.839

0.033878
0.031663
0.030452

22.66512
26.19929
20.53174

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

Version 14.66

ASE

General Static Analysis FE


1
2
3

161
162
163

2.13418E+03
2.13419E+03
4.85068E+03

4.57E11
3.71E11
5.42E07

7.353
7.353
11.085

0.136008
0.136008
0.090215

20.05050
20.05058
22.81404

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

The three buckling mode shapes are supposed to be applied now scaled as
nonstressed imperfection (In the test example ase9.dat also the use of a non
stressed imperfection is explained).
At first the maximum deflections of the vibration mode shapes are printed
here:
PROG DBPRIN
HEAD MAX. DISPLACEMENTS OF THE EIGENVALUES FOR SCALING:
ECHO SELE NO
ITEM NODE DISP
LC 161 ; PRIN MAMI
LC 162 ; PRIN MAMI
LC 163 ; PRIN MAMI
END
Loadcasenumber name
161 Eigenform

7.35 Hz

Nodal Displacements
name
Maximum
Minimum

ux
uy
uz
Phix
Phiy
Phiz
[mm]
[mm]
[mm] [mrad] [mrad] [mrad]
145.174 160.972 337.178 393.349 440.006 347.662
151.79 129.02 337.18 470.86 437.81 347.66

Loadcasenumber name
162 Eigenform

7.35 Hz

Nodal Displacements
name
Maximum
Minimum

ux
uy
uz
Phix
Phiy
Phiz
[mm]
[mm]
[mm] [mrad] [mrad] [mrad]
160.971 151.785 337.176 440.006 470.860 347.664
129.02 145.17 337.18 437.81 393.35 347.66

Loadcasenumber name
163 Eigenform

11.08 Hz

Nodal Displacements
name
Maximum
Minimum

ux
uy
uz
Phix
Phiy
Phiz
[mm]
[mm]
[mm] [mrad] [mrad] [mrad]
147.528 147.528 315.044 395.196 395.197 273.735
147.53 147.53 315.04 395.20 395.20 273.74

The imperfections should be scheduled with the maximum amplitude of 5 mm


per vibration mode shape. Therefore they are overlaid with the factor 5mm/

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General Static Analysis FE

maxuz. Thus the third vibration mode shape LC 163 is added with the factor 5mm/616.9mm to the other ones. At first an empty load case which includes the displacements from the program MAXIMA and which can be used
for the following load case as a primary load case has to be generated:
PROG ASE
HEAD GENERATION OF AN EMPTY LOAD CASE LOAD ALMOST 0
ECHO FULL NO
LC 201 FACT 0.001 ; ELLO 1 9999 1 TYPE PZ 1000
END
PROG MAXIMA
HEAD DISPLACEMENTS FROM VIBRATION MODE SHAPES COPY SCALED TO LC 201
ECHO FULL NO ; ECHO TABS YES
COMB 1 STAN
$ superpostion without coefficients!
LC 161 G FACT 5/337.2
$ RESULT IS MAX. IMPERFECTION OF 20 MM FOR VIBRATION MODE SHAPE 1
LC 162 G FACT 5/337.2
$ RESULT IS MAX. IMPERFECTION OF 20 MM FOR VIBRATION MODE SHAPE 2
LC 163 G FACT 5/315.0
$ RESULT IS MAX. IMPERFECTION OF 20 MM FOR VIBRATION MODE SHAPE 3
$
^ 315.0 MM = MAX. DISPLACEMENT uz LC 163 (FROM DBPRINOUTPUT)
SUPP 1 EXTR MAX ETYP NODE TYPE UZ LC 201 $ ADDS THE DISPLACEMENTS INTO LC 201
END

The load case 201 contains now the superpositioned deformations and (almost) no internal forces and moments. An ultimate load iteration follows with
consideration of this load case 201. It ends now already with the load factor
1.022:
PROG ASE
HEAD new ultimate load
ECHO FULL NO
ULTI 10 FAK1 0.10 DFAK
SYST PROB THII ITER 25
LC 202 ; ELLO 1 9999 1
END
Summary of the
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration
ULSiteration

558

iteration with displacements from LC 201


0.20 PRO 1.5
FMAX 3 TOL 0.001 PLC 201
TYPE PZ 1000

load step iterationen:


1 loadcase 202 with loadfactor
2 loadcase 203 with loadfactor
3 loadcase 204 with loadfactor
4 loadcase 205 with loadfactor
5 loadcase 205 with loadfactor
6 loadcase 206 with loadfactor
7 loadcase 207 with loadfactor
8 loadcase 207 with loadfactor

0.100
0.300
0.600
1.050
0.825
0.938
1.106
1.022

was
was
was
was
was
was
was
was

convergent.
convergent.
convergent.
instabil.
convergent.
convergent.
instabil.
convergent.

Version 14.66

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General Static Analysis FE


ULSiteration 9 loadcase 208 with loadfactor
ULSiteration 10 loadcase 208 with loadfactor

1.064 was instabil.


1.022 was convergent.

With DBVIEW a load deformation curve is drawn for the displacement uz


of the node No. 645:

UZ
U0

Load deformation curve node 645


Explanations:
With the first ultimate load iteration (curve A = load cases 17) a ramification
problem without imperfection is processed. The deformations increase almost linearly; from a specific point (ramification point) no further load increase is more possible. The program recognizes this because the tangential
stiffness becomes negative for this an extract from the log file of the first
ultimate load iteration of a step with a too large load factor:
Parameter of System of Equations
1 / MP:
(Direct Gauss block solver)
Number of unknowns
3606
Bandwidth
294
Number of blocks
1
Size of profile
712783
Blocksize
1948800
Iteration 1 Residual
2901.878 energy
Logger schreibt 80:LFE
Logger schreibt 80: 1
Update nonlinear stiffness

Version 14.66

1.1353

Step

11 f=

1.000

559

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General Static Analysis FE

+++++ Warnung Nr.


204 in Programm TRIN
Gleichungssystem meldet negative Determinanten. Es wird versucht durch
temporre
Abminderung der nichtlinearen Steifigkeitsanteile Gleichgewicht zu erzielen
+++++ Warnung Nr.
204 in Programm TRIN
Gleichungssystem meldet negative Determinanten. Es wird versucht durch
temporre
Abminderung der nichtlinearen Steifigkeitsanteile Gleichgewicht zu erzielen
+++++ Warnung Nr.
203 in Programm TRIN
Gleichungssystem meldet negative Determinanten
Iteration 2 Residual 9875364864. energy 22.8935 Step 21 f= 1.019
+++++ Warnung Nr. 2201 in Programm TVERS
Upgedatete tangentiale Steifigkeit wird negativ. Iteration abgebrochen
Logger schreibt 80:LFE
+++++ Warnung Nr.
196 in Programm VERS
Verschiebungen oder Verdrehungen sind sehr gro.
Mgliche Ursache: Moment auf QUADKnoten, FachwerkGelenkkette ...
TIME NEEDED
10 SECONDS, TOTAL
85 SECONDS
ULSiteration 5 loadcase
5 with loadfactor
1.725 was instabil.
Update nonlinear stiffness
loadcase
5

Curve B (load cases 201208) shows the load deformation curve with the imperfection from the first three scaled vibration mode shapes. The ultimate
load is smaller now, what on one hand results from the scheduled deformation
(u0) and on the other hand, however, the load deformation curve of a shell
has in general a reducing curve after the ramification point, that one can imagine form point A to the point B. The reducing curve can not be processed
currently with the program ASE.

560

Version 14.66

General Static Analysis FE


5.14.

ASE

3D Tunnel Analysis.

3D tunnel
A tunnel excavation according to NATM (New Austrian Tunnelling Method)
is examined as an example of a threedimensional analysis with volume elements. The input of the program GENF has a parametric form and it is very

Version 14.66

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General Static Analysis FE

extensive despite the use of input loops. An alternative input option consists
in the generation of a node disk with a graphical generator and then in the
copying several times along the direction of the tunnel. An accurate consideration of the partitioning in group numbers is required a priori, because the
groups have to be controlled separately during the various construction
stages. The following subdivision was chosen in the present case:
Group numbering:
Disks in tunnels direction
Element:
BRIC
Ground
BRIC
Calotte
BRIC
Base
QUAD Calotte
QUAD Base
QUAD Outer layer

1 2 3 4
Group number:
1 2 3 4
11 12 13 14
16 17 18 19
21 22 23 24
26 27 28 29
6

5
5
15
20
25
30

The ground elements of groups 15 describe the soil outside the tunnel shell.
Groups 2130 model the shotcrete shells.
Group 6 is only necessary for the graphic representation of contour lines at
the structures overlay. It is not used in the analysis, it is only activated in program WING (without QUADshell overlays BRIC results can be represented
as principal stress crosses only).
The input for ASE is not as extensive as the input for GENF and it is reproduced here. The input block 1 is used several times:
PROG ASE
HEAD CONSTRUCTION STAGE I RELAXATION CALOTTE 1
LET#4 1
$ LOAD CASE
$BLOCK BEG1
LET#5 #41
$ PRIMARY LOAD CASE
ECHO FULL NO
CTRL MSTE 105
SYST PROB NONL ITER 20 FMAX 3 NMAT YES
LET#1 5 $ NUMBER OF DISKS IN LONGITUDINAL TUNNEL DIRECTION
LET#2 0.25
$ LOOSENING FACTOR
LET#3 0.50
$ STIFFNESS FACTOR FRESH CONCRETE
MAT NR E
MUE D
GAM
GAMA
1,2 125000 0.35 1.00 22.0 12.0
3 30E6
0.20 0.15 25.0 15.0
NMAT 1 GUDE 20.000 1.000 9999 20.000 P10 0.80

562

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General Static Analysis FE


LC #4
$BLOCK END1
$BLOCK SET1
GRP
NO
( 1 0+#1 1)
11
(12 10+#1 1)
(16 15+#1 1)

FACS
1.0
#2
1.0
1.0

FACP
1.0
#2
1.0
1.0

PLC
#5
#5
#5
#5

FACL
1.0
#2
1.0
1.0

FACD
1.0
#2
1.0
1.0

GAM
22.0
22.0
22.0
22.0

H
12
12
12
12

K
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

SIGN
0 $ BRIC OUTSIDE
0 $ BRIC INSIDE UPSIDE
0 $ BRIC INSIDE UPSIDE
0 $ BRIC INSIDE
$ DOWNSIDE

END
PROG ASE
HEAD CONSTRUCTION STAGE II
LET#4 2
$ LOAD
$BLOCK SET1
GRP
NO
FACS FACP
( 1 0+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
(12 10+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
16
#2
#2
(17 15+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
21
#3
1.0
END

EXCAVATION CALOTTE 1 / RELAXATION BASE 1


CASE
PLC
#5
#5
#5
#5
0

FACL
1.0
1.0
#2
1.0
1.0

FACD
1.0
1.0
#2
1.0
1.0

$
$
$
$
$

BRIC
BRIC
BRIC
BRIC
QUAD

PROG ASE
HEAD CONSTRUCTION STAGE III RELAXATION CALOTTE 2 /
LET#4 3
$ LOAD CASE
$BLOCK SET1
GRP
NO
FACS FACP PLC FACL FACD
( 1 0+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC
12
#2
#2
#5
#2
#2
$ BRIC
(13 10+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC
(17 15+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC
21
1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD
26
#3
1.0
0
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD
END
PROG ASE
HEAD CONSTRUCTION STAGE 4 EXCAVATION CALOTTE 2 /
LET#4 4
$ LOAD CASE
$BLOCK SET1
GRP
NO
FACS FACP PLC FACL FACD
( 1 0+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC
(13 10+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC
17
#2
#2
#5
#2
#2
$ BRIC
(18 15+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC
21
1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD
22
#3
1.0
0
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD
26
1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD

Version 14.66

OUTSIDE
OUTSIDE UP
INSIDE DOWN
INSIDE DOWN
UP

EXCAVATION BASE 1

OUTSIDE
INSIDE UPSIDE
INSIDE UPSIDE
INDSIDE DOWNSIDE
UPSIDE
DOWNSIDE

RELAXATION BASE 2

OUTSIDE
INSIDE UPSIDE
INSIDE DOWNSIDE
INSIDE DOWNSIDE
UPSIDE
UPSIDE
DOWNSIDE

563

ASE

General Static Analysis FE

END
PROG ASE
HEAD CONSTRUCTION STAGE 5 RELAXATION CALOTTE 3 /
LET#4 5
$ LOAD CASE
$BLOCK SET1
GRP
NO
FACS FACP PLC FACL FACD
( 1 0+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC
13
#2
#2
#5
#2
#2
$ BRIC
(14 10+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC
(18 15+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC
21,22
1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD
26
1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD
27
#3
1.0
0
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD
END
PROG ASE
HEAD CONSTRUCTION STAGE 6 EXVACATION CALOTTE 3 /
LET#4 6
$ LOAD CASE
$BLOCK SET1
NO
FACS FACP PLC FACL FACD
GRP
( 1 0+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC
(14 10+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC
18
#2
#2
#5
#2
#2
$ BRIC
(19 15+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC
21,22
1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD
23
#3
1.0
0
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD
26,27
1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD
END

EXVACATION BASE 2

OUTSIDE
INSIDE UPSIDE
INSIDE UPSIDE
INSIDE DOWNSIDE
UPSIDE
DOWNSIDE
DOWNSIDE

RELAXATION BASE 3

OUTSIDE
INSIDE UPSIDE
INSIDE DOWNSIDE
INSIDE DOWNSIDE
UPSIDE
UPSIDE
DOWNSIDE

PROG ASE
HEAD CONSTRUCTION STAGE 7 RELAXATION CALOTTE ROOF 4 / EXVACATION BASE 3
LET#4 7
$ LOAD CASE
$BLOCK SET1
GRP NO
FACS FACP PLC FACL FACD
( 1 0+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC OUTSIDE
14
#2
#2
#5
#2
#2
$ BRIC INSIDE UPSIDE
(15 10+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC INSIDE UPSIDE
(19 15+#1 1) 1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ BRIC INSIDE DOWNSIDE
21,22,23
1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD UPSIDE
26,27
1.0
1.0
#5
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD DOWNSIDE
28
#3
1.0
0
1.0
1.0
$ QUAD DOWNSIDE
END

The elements of the surrounding soil are secured sufficiently with the shotcrete shell. By contrast, the elements of the excavation region are analysed
linearly, because the local front can not stand alone numerically with the

564

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General Static Analysis FE

given material parameters (20 degrees friction angle and 1 kN/m2 cohesion).
More accurate investigations could be necessary for the local front, if necessary. The nonlinear iteration leads to results with good convergence:
for load case

Iteration sequence
Iteration 1 Residual
Iteration 2 Residual
Iteration 3 Residual
Iteration 4 Residual
Iteration 5 Residual
Iteration 6 Residual
Iteration 7 Residual

22.140
14.367
3.294
1.028
0.266
0.121
0.063

energy
energy
energy
energy
energy
energy
energy

4.3019
4.4802
4.7338
4.7624
4.7670
4.7677
4.7678

e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f

0.000
0.000
0.106
0.085
0.163
0.110
0.136

1.000
1.041
2.462
1.118
1.359
1.118
1.402

The representation of the plastification is done purposely with contour lines


which are drawn at the QUAD element group 10 (not activated during the
analysis in ASE) as well as at the existing QUAD elements of the shotcrete
shell. For load case 2 here:
PROG WING
HEAD
SIZE LP 0
SCHH H1 H3 H4 ; 0.25 0.12 0.14
COLO MONO
VIEW STAN 6 2 2 POSZ
COLO C5 1200 3001 3001 3001 2000 C10 1
GRP 0,6
GRP 1,2,3,4,5
$ BRIC OUTSIDE
GRP 13,14,15
$ BRIC INSIDE UPSIDE
GRP 17,18,19,20
$ BRIC INSIDE DOWNSIDE
GRP 21,22
$ QUAD UPSIDE
GRP 26
$ QUAD DOWNSIDE
LC 2
VISI HIDD LINE
STRU 0 0 MARK 0 MFIX 0 ; AND ; ISOL YIEL SCHH 0 STYP BRIC
END

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Plastified regions for load case 2

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5.15.

ASE

Elastoplastic Analyses with Shell Elements.

An elastoplastic analysis with shell elements is explained in the example


Plate Buckling.
Additional examples and further explanations for the material laws STEE
(steel) and CONC (concrete) can be found in the leaflet SOFiSTiKSeminar
1994.

5.16.

Prestressed Plane Structures

The school example: Prestressed Skew Tbeam Bridge can be requested.

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5.17.

General Static Analysis FE


Reinforced Concrete Slab in the Cracked
Condition (State II).

The example betobeme_edin.dat from sofistikase.dat... was discretisized as


plate system with a graphical input. The serviceability load cases are calculated at first and deigned with BEMESS. The here determined necessary reinforcement is saved under the design load case number 1.
A loading is now generated for the nonlinear calculation in serviceability
limit state. This is load combination with dead load and a part from the imposed load for the longterm deformations to be determined. The minimum
reinforcement 3.77 cm2/m of was already defined in the first BEMESSPARA
calculation. The reinforcement which is necessary from the normal design is
read about the input REIQ.
PROG ASE
HEAD Serviceability Limit State with SL
CTRL CONC V3 2.90 V4 0.60*2.0 $ temporary adaption of the tensile strengths
$ see AQUACONC
$ V3=
FCT = tensile strength for tension stiffening
$ V4=
FCTK = tensile strength pure concrete
SYST PROB NONL iter 90 TOL 0.002 NMAT YES
REIQ LCR 1 FACT 1.0 LCRS 99 $ Bewehrung aus BEMESS incl. Mindestbewehrung
301 FACT
1.00 BET2 0.5 TITL SLS serviceability SL
LC
ELLO 1 9999 1 PZZ 6
$ 6 kN/m2
dead load
ELLO 1 9999 1 PZZ 3*0.70 $ e.g. factor for this SLS state
NSTR KSV SL
END

The calculation is done here with ASE, however, it can occur also with PROG
SEPP, if SEP4 is set in the authorization file name.nam. The input SYST ...
NMAT YES is important, because the QUAD elements are processed only
then nonlinearly with the concrete law. The actually used material parameters should be checked in the calculation output!
The convergence of the nonlinear calculation has to be checked in any case.
A look in the file .prt or .erg shows, that a sufficient convergence of the residual forces was reached with the used concrete tensile strength:

Iteration
Iteration
Iteration
Iteration

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1
2
3
4

Residual
Residual
Residual
Residual

72.887
66.342
45.552
57.400

energy
energy
energy
energy

4.0596
4.3677
5.1877
5.6622

e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f

0.000
0.000
0.365
0.523

1.000
1.076
3.640
1.556

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General Static Analysis FE


Iteration

5 Residual

56.359

energy

6.0344 e/f

0.811

2.018

4.285
4.343
4.447
4.457
4.468
4.479

energy
energy
energy
energy
energy
energy

7.8341
7.8344
7.8348
7.8349
7.8349
7.8350

0.000
0.591
0.583
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.297
1.182
1.166
0.297
0.297
0.297

...
...
Iteration
Iteration
Iteration
Iteration
Iteration
Iteration

67
68
69
70
71
72

Residual
Residual
Residual
Residual
Residual
Residual

e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f
e/f

Especially the energy as product from load vector deformation vector converges very well. It is also seen the file .prt, that the number of the equations
increases to 5031 unknowns in opposite to the linear calculation with 2517
unknowns, because the horizontal deformations must be used here.

Crack distribution at the underside of the plate LC 301


After the first load case 301 a nonlinear calculation with creep and shrinkage is started now in load case 302. If the system includes more groups, all
groups have to be defined, also groups without creep and shrinkage coeffients.
Otherwise these groups are missing for the stiffnesses:
PROG ASE
HEAD With creep and
SYST PROB NONL iter
CREP 1 ; GRP (0 199
REIQ LCR 1 FACT 1.0
LC
302 FACT
LCC 301 $ SLS
NSTR KSV SL
END

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shrinakge
90 TOL 0.002 NMAT YES
1) PHI 2.0 EPS 22E5
LCRS 99 $ reinforcement from BEMESS incl. min reinf.
1.00 BET2 0.5 TITL SLS+CS

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The results of another calculation clarifies once more the influence of the concrete tensile strength to the maximum displacement:

linear calculation of load case


nonlinear without C+S betaz=1.00 N/mm2
(nonlinear without C+S betaz=2.14 N/mm2
nonlinear with C+S
betaz=1.00 N/mm2
nonlinear with C+S
betaz=2.50 N/mm2

LC 200 vmax= 3.7 mm


LC 201 vmax= 5.6 mm
LC vmax= 3.8 mm)
LC 202 vmax=28.9 mm
LC 203 vmax=11.4 mm

The underside of the plate does not cracked at the calculation of the load case
203. The deformation is therefore only about the factor 1+PHI = 1+2.0 = 3.0
higher in opposite to the linear calculation of the load case 200. The plate
cracks below, however, with a large surface at the calculation of the load case
202. The crack widths are here clearly larger as for load case 201 due to the
creep and shrinkage effects of the concrete.

5.18.

Displacement Controlled Bearing Load


Iteration

A singlespan beam, having a length of 5 m and a thickness of 40 cm, is loaded


at midspan with a displacement controlled press. The load is calculated with
25 iterations 2 mm. The input of the bearing load iteration looks as follows:
PROG ASE
HEAD
CTRL NLAY 20
ULTI 25 FAK1 0.1 DFAK 0.1 PRO 1 $ constant step width 0.1
SYST PROB NONL ITER 20 NMAT YES
REI2 ht 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.01 AST 0 0 ASB 5.13 5.13 dt 0.012 0.016 0.012 0.016
LC 1 BET2 0.5 TITL bearing load iteration
LOAD 6,106 PZ 0.002*1E20 $ 2 mm constraint deformation for laod factor 1.0
END

System and Loading 10 QUAD elements generates the singlespan


beam
The internal forces and moments in the middle and the adjacent elements behave as follows:

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for load factor 0.5 = 0.52mm = 1 mm press displacement, the middle


elements 5+6 crack
for load factor 2.0 = 2.02mm = 5 mm press displacement, the adjacent
elements 4+7 crack
these will then reach the crack moment of 80 kNm/m, which was already decisive for the first crack.

Internal forces and moments for two elements during the displacement
controlled loading
X = the two middle elements 5+6
 = the two adjacent elements 4+7
Further examples for creep and shrinkage:
ase.dat\...\nonlinear_quad\ betokri2.dat = statically determined supported
single span girder
for "nonlinear methods" in connection with beams see also
ase.dat\...\nonlinear_beam\aseaqb_1.dat

5.19.

Examples in the Internet

Different statics examples are to be found in the Internet at www.sofistik.com


References/Examples.

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