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Reliability Assessment of Complex Power Systems

and
the Use of NEPLAN Tool

Master Thesis
by:

Shima Mousavi Gargari

Master thesis written at the School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of


Technology, KTH, 2005/2006.
Supervisors:
Dr. Lina Bertling, KTH, School of Electrical Engineering
Dr. Gabriel Olguin, ABB Corporate Research
Examiner:
Dr. Lina Bertling, KTH, School of Electrical Engineering
XR-EE-ETK 2006:011

Abstract
Consumers of electrical energy expect a network to support their apparatuses with
continuous and reliable supply. That is the supply should be continuously available on
demands. Such an expectation from the power systems makes planners to consider the
reliability studies as an important task besides all the other analyses required for
assessing the system performance. Results from such kind of studies equip the planners
with an appropriate knowledge over a system performance at different load points and
consequently help them to identify weak points of the system and decide on possible
available solutions for improving the system reliability e.g. more investments at the weak
points. Until fairly recent, the inherent reliability of a power system was specified in term
of N-1 criterion known as deterministic approach which says that the system must
withstand a simple contingency or loss of equipment. As it is clear, such evaluation
approach is based on determined system behaviors, however the power system behaviors
are stochastic and the failures may occur randomly. Therefore, it is of necessity to
consider the possible random behavior of the systems to perform an accurate and precise
reliability assessment. New techniques and consequently new computer software
packages have been recently developed in which, in contrast to deterministic approach,
the idea of using historical performance of the power system components and modeling
the stochastic behavior of faults have been considered.
As mentioned previously, from customers point of views the supply should be always
available i.e. no interruption is expected, while practically, due to such stochastic
behaviors of the system, supplying the load centers with 100% reliable power source is
somehow impossible, however, the probability of the supply interruptions to the load
centers can be reduced with more investment at the planning phase. Blackouts events in
North America and Europe are good examples for showing that not always the system
can guarantee the continuous supply to its customers. It is evident that there is a
confliction between reliability and economical constraints which in case may lead to
difficult managerial decisions. Therefore, it is important to find out if a certain load point
or a specific part of the system deserves more investment or not. Such information can be
provided by reliability studies.
The power system comprises several complex subsystems. Each subsystem has its own
relevant impact on the reliability of the overall system. Transmission systems reliability
is not an exception in this category.
Busbars, transmission lines and switches
functioning may have an extreme influence on the overall system performance.
Researches indicate that stations configurations and their fundamental components are
important factors which should not be ignored in reliability studies. Failures of station
components lead to temporary removal of the failed components and consequently
temporary modification of the station configuration. Creating such changes in the
protection system configuration can make the system more vulnerable to the disturbances
that may occur. Besides tripping of one circuit breaker may result in multiple switch
functioning and consequently multiple line outages. Therefore, the relevant load centers

will experience supply interruption at least for a certain time required for removing the
failed breakers and re-closing the affected ones.
This thesis work presents a research conducted on evaluating the system reliability as a
result of a bulk power system performance. This research work was accomplished by
using the university version of commercial software designated as NEPLAN. The
quantitative analyses illustrated in this work provide information on how the
contributions of sub systems impact the reliability of the overall system. Also, it indicates
that, how the contribution of the station components may cause different results. One of
the important aspects of this work is to illustrate the application of the computer software
package, NEPLAN, in reliability analyses. Three different test systems have been taken
under consideration in this work. Due to some restriction in using the university version
of the software some simplifications have been applied for the two of the test systems. A
simple distribution system has been implemented in NEPLAN, and the results have been
validated by comparing the results to the ones obtained from another reliability solver
known as RADPOW, developed in KTH, for reliability evaluation of distribution system.

ii

Acknowledgment
This thesis work is a part of a long term research cooperation within EKC (Swedish
Center of Excellence in Electric Power System) between KTH and ABB Corporate
Research. This work has been performed within RCAM (Reliability Centered Asset
Management) group in the School of Electrical Engineering, KTH and has been financed
by EKC and ABB Corporate Research. The financial support is acknowledged.
I would like to express my deep appreciation to Dr. Lina Bertling, my supervisor and
examiner from KTH, for all her supports, advices and encouragements.
Hereby, I also gratefully acknowledge Dr. Gabriel Olguin, my supervisor from ABB, for
sharing his opinions with me, giving me valuable comments to improve my work and
supporting me during the course of this work.
Also I am really grateful to professor Math Bollen, from STRI, for allocating his valuable
time to help me in my work and sharing his ideas with me to give me a deep insight over
my work.
It is also deserved to thank the people in the School of Electrical Engineering for
providing me the opportunity to study and learn more.
Besides, I would like to thank the persons in the BCP group for providing me an access to
the NEPLAN tool.
Appreciation also goes for friends and colleagues in RCAM group in the School of
Electrical Engineering, KTH, and other friends inside and outside Sweden.
And Finally I would like to express my sincere gratitude and deepest appreciation to my
parents and my brothers for their consistent supports and encouragements.
Shima Mousavi Gargari
Stockholm,
June, 2006

iii

Definitions
Definition 1: Any events that cause a violation in system characteristics e.g. buses
voltages, circuits currents, active and reactive power are defined as fault.
Definition 2: Outage refers to any system state in which the component is not available
to perform its intended function. Outages can be categorizes as Forced outages and
Scheduled outage.
Definition 3: Forced outage is the outage which results from emergency conditions [1]
and requires the components disconnection either manually or automatically.
Definition 4: Scheduled outages are usually performed foe construction, maintenance or
repair purposes [1].
Definition 5: Failure refers to any outage events that prevent the system from supplying
the load centers.
Failures are divided to two main categories based on the restoration time.
1- Permanent failure
2- Temporary failure
Definition 6: Credible events are defined as the failure mode which has the most
significant impact on the system.
Definition 7: Curtailable load refers to the load category which has not a significant
importance in the system and they can be disconnected from the system during remedial
action for a certain period.
Definition 8: Firm load refers to the load that can not be remained unsupplied in the
system. Thus not be disconnected during a remedial action.
Definition 9: Availability is the probability of the component to be available or in service
[2].
Definition 10: Unavailability is the probability of component being out of service [3].
Definition 11: Failure rate is the probability that the component will fail [3].
Definition 12: Repair rate is the probability that the out of service component will return
in service mode [3].

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Table of Contents

Table of contents
Abstract............................................................................................................................... i
Acknowledgment.............................................................................................................. iii
Definitions......................................................................................................................... iv
Table of contents ............................................................................................................... v
1. Introduction................................................................................................................... 1
1.1. Background ............................................................................................................ 1
12. Power system reliability evaluation....................................................................... 2
1.3. Research objective ................................................................................................. 4
1.4. Thesis scope and outline ........................................................................................ 4
2. Composite system adequacy assessment by applying analytical approach............. 6
2.1. Introduction............................................................................................................ 6
2.2. Analytical approach............................................................................................... 7
3. Overview of NEPLAN software................................................................................. 17
3.1. Introduction.......................................................................................................... 17
3.2. Application study ................................................................................................. 21
3.3. Validation of the results....................................................................................... 26
4. System Studies............................................................................................................. 28
4.1. Background .......................................................................................................... 28
4.2. Overview of test systems RBTS, IEEE RTS and Birka system ....................... 29
4.3. RBTS Studies........................................................................................................ 32
4.4. IEEE-RTS test system ......................................................................................... 46
4.5. Birka system study............................................................................................... 51
5. Alternative Reliability Tools ...................................................................................... 54
5.1. Introduction.......................................................................................................... 54
5.2. Composite power reliability tools ....................................................................... 55
5.3. Transmission/distribution reliability tools ........................................................ 60
6. Closure ......................................................................................................................... 66
6.1. Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 66
6.2. Future work.......................................................................................................... 67
References........................................................................................................................ 68
Appendix........................................................................................................................... A
A. Sample test system .................................................................................................. A
B. IEEE-RTS .................................................................................................................B
C. RBTS ......................................................................................................................... E
D: Birka Nt .................................................................................................................. F

Chapter 1. Introduction

1. Introduction

1.1. Background
Electric power system is one of the most complexes and complicated man-made systems
exist in this world. The basic function of the power system is to supply its customers with
electrical energy as economically and reliably as possible. The power systems are
subjected to many changes in order to fulfill this basic function. For instance, nowadays
interconnecting the neighboring systems to enhance the efficiency of the overall system
and support deficit power regions with the excessive power in surplus areas, is a common
practice. Modifying the system does not necessarily imply that the system is capable of
supporting the load centers with 100% reliable source. The blackout events happened in
Europe and North America showed that the power systems are not as reliable as they are
expected [4]. However, identifying the weak points of the system and reinforcing those
areas in an appropriate way may result in achieving the higher reliability and lower
probability of interruption.

Chapter 1. Introduction

Nowadays, due to increases in load demands, interconnecting the neighboring power


systems is a common practice in order to increase the stability, reliability and cost
efficiency. The role of transmission system which refers to transfer the bulk power from
power station to load centers is highly significant in interconnected systems.
Transmission lines outages may result a significant abnormality in system performance
and may possibly result in supply interruptions in the load centers. Statistics indicates that
transmission systems are less subjected to outages comparing to the distribution systems,
however, their outages may result in longer interruptions in the load centers.
Due to inherent stochastic characteristics of the power systems, not always the system
can guarantee the continuous supply to the load centers i.e. facing supply interruptions in
a practical system is unavoidable, however, the probability of its occurrence can be
reduced by more investment during planning stage. It is evident that there is a confliction
between reliability and economical constraints which in case may lead to difficult
managerial decisions. Results for reliability studies may provide the planners an
appropriate benchmark to decide if a certain part of the system deserves more preliminary
investment during planning phase or not.

12. Power system reliability evaluation


Generally, the term of reliability refers to the ability of a component or a system to
perform its intended function. In field of power system, such evaluation can be defined as
analyzing the ability of the system to satisfy the load demands. Therefore, power system
reliability assessment is performed in two main domains; system adequacy and system
security. The term of system adequacy relates to existence of sufficient facilities within a
system to meet the consumers demand, whereas system security refers to the ability of
the system to respond to disturbances arising within a system [5], [6]. Although these
concepts are not independent of each other, the reliability evaluation is conducted only in
one of the mentioned domains, either adequacy or security, and mostly in adequacy one.
The research described in this work is focused on adequacy analysis.

System reliability

System adequacy

System security

Figure 1.1. Reliability evaluation domains [5], [6]

A power system can be divided into three main functional regions [1], [5], [6] designated
as generation, transmission and distribution systems. Reliability evaluation of the power
systems can be performed in either each individual functional zone or at the hierarchical
levels obtained from combining the functional regions.
2

Chapter 1. Introduction

Generation System

HLI

HLII
Transmission system

HLIII
Distribution System

Figure 1.2. Hierarchical levels for reliability evaluation [5], [6]

HLI analyses refer to evaluating the generation systems and its ability to supply the load
points. In this level, the transmission systems and their associated influences on the
reliability of the overall system are disregarded. The adequacy indices in this level are
loss of load expectation (LOLE), loss of energy expectation (LOEE), failure frequency
and its relevant duration (FF and FD).
HLII studies can be used to assess the adequacy of an existing or proposed system
including the impact of various reinforcement alternatives at both the generation and
transmission levels [6]. The adequacy evaluation in this level, results in achieving two
different set of indices related to the system load points (individual bus) and the overall
system. The most important indices in this level are failure frequency and its duration (FF
and FD).
Finally the level associated to the overall power system analysis including all the
functional zones, starting from generation units and terminating at costumers load points
[6] is known as HLIII evaluation. Generally, due to complexity of a practical power
system, assessment in this level is not performed by considering all three functional
zones; instead, the distribution system which receives its reliability data from the load
point indices of HLII is evaluated. The common reliability indices in this level are system
average interruption frequency index (SAIFI), the system average interruption duration
index (SAIDI) and the customers average interruption duration index (CAIDI).
The reliability evaluation of power system can be performed based on either deterministic
or probabilistic techniques. Deterministic methods have been used considerably in
practical applications. The main drawback of such techniques is their disability to
respond to a stochastic behavior of the practical system, such as random failure
3

Chapter 1. Introduction

occurrence. Such impediments have led to utilizing the application of stochastic method
for reliability evaluation which results in more accurate and precise prediction on the
system reliability.
The result of performing the reliability study is illustrated by reliability indices. The
reliability indices, which are the numerical parameters, reflect the capability of the
system to provide the customers by acceptable level of supply. Two fundamental
methodologies are applied to calculate such indices. These methods can be categorized as
an analytical approach and a simulation approach. In the analytical approach the system
is represented by its mathematical equivalent model. The reliability indices are calculated
by applying the direct numerical solution on the equivalent model. On the other hand, the
simulation approach deals with analyzing random behaviors of the system in order to
estimate the reliability indices. Even though the results of the analytical approach are not
as precise as the one for simulation approach, applying this method consumes a
comparatively shorter computational time which is an important factor in reliability
studies.
Reliability assessment in this thesis work has been conducted in adequacy domain with
main focus on transmission system, by applying the analytical approach.

1.3. Research objective


The main aim of this research work is to perform a reliability study of power system with
main focus on the transmission system, by applying analytical approach and utilizing the
NEPLAN tool. This research work is a part of a long term project in which the main goal
is to develop the new techniques and their computer implementations suitable not only
for reliability evaluation of a traditional power system (AC system), but also convenient
for reliability assessment of a complex power systems where new technologies such as
HVDC are employed in transmission systems in order to enhance the efficiency of the
overall power system [7].

1.4. Thesis scope and outline


This thesis work is organized in 6 chapters.
Chapter 1 introduces the basic reliability concepts and different approaches available for
assessing the reliability of power system.
In Chapter 2, the main concern is with describing the reliability evaluation of composite
power system by applying the analytical approach and introducing the relevant reliability
indices.
In Chapter 3, a detail explanation and description about NEPLAN software which is used
as an analytical solver has been presented.

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 4 illustrates the application of the mentioned analytical solver for practical
systems. In this chapter, three different test systems; modified RBTS test system,
modified IEEE-RTS and Birka system have been presented and implemented in
NEPLAN. The results of reliability evaluations have been introduced in this chapter.
In Chapter 5, some commercial and non commercial tools used for reliability assessment
of power systems convenient for evaluating comparatively large systems are introduced.
In Chapter 6 very short conclusions and discussions on possible future work have been
presented.

Chapter 2. Composite system adequacy assessment by applying analytical approach

2. Composite system adequacy assessment


by applying analytical approach

2.1. Introduction
The basic function of a composite power system is to generate and deliver a required
electrical energy to the load centers. From consumers point of view, the interruption in
supply is not ideal, that is the customers prefer not to encounter any disconnection from
network. Besides sometimes such interruptions are not desired from the supplier point of
view, especially when the cost of compensation that should be paid to the customers of
the network in case of interruption in supply is comparatively high. Therefore, in order to
evaluate the system performance and reduce the probability of supply interruption and
consequently reducing the possible social and economical disasters, it is an important
task to study how often the system may encounter outages and how such outages
influence the loads of the network,. Performing such studies require an appropriate
knowledge over a system. That is, it is necessary to verify what kind of outages may
occur in a practical system.
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Chapter 2. Composite system adequacy assessment by applying analytical approach

Generally, inadequacy of the individual load points is caused by the distribution system
[6], however, the outages in bulk power systems affect a larger section of the system.
Considering the severity of the outages in the load centers caused by unreliability of the
composite power systems, predicting the possible weaknesses within these regions is an
important task in planning criteria. A considerable role of transmission system and its
fundamental components in such studies is evident. The reliability assessment by
focusing on the transmission system can be performed either on HLII level or on the
transmission system individually.
Due to the complexity of power system, its stochastic nature and its extremely large
number of component, performing an adequacy assessment and analyzing the system
performance for a practical system, is a very sophisticated work and requires a long
computational time. Such analyses include many aspects such as load flow analysis,
contingency assessment, generation rescheduling, transmission overload alleviation, load
curtailment and etc [6]. In this thesis work it has been tried to cover all the procedures
required in analytical approach. The load flow analyses have not been explained here,
however, readers are referred to references on power systems analysis for detailed
information regarding different load flow analyses. Application of load flow has been
also explained in reference [8] and [9].
In following section analytical approach applied for reliability analysis of the bulk power
system has been presented.

2.2. Analytical approach


As explained in previous chapter, the analytical approach is one of the most common
methods applied for reliability assessment of power systems. Results obtained from
applying this approach provide an appropriate benchmark for evaluating the system
performance and its reliability. In this section it has been tried to describe analytical
approach briefly.
In analytical approach the system is represented by its mathematical equivalent model.
Direct numerical solutions are applied to provide the reliability indices.
Generally, there are five main procedures in analytical approach.
-

State space diagram generation


System state enumeration
System state analysis
Remedial action
Reliability indices

Each of the mentioned procedure has been explained in following parts.

Chapter 2. Composite system adequacy assessment by applying analytical approach

2.1.1. State space diagram generation


An important and basic stage in performing the reliability investigation is to generate the
appropriate reliability model. In this level the physical system is transferred to the simple
model which is convenient for reliability studies. The system model can be generated by
applying the Markov process.
Markov process is a stochastic and memory less process in which the present state of the
system is independent of all former states except the immediately proceeding one [8],
[10]. In Markov process the transition rates are assumed to be constant. Figure 2.1 shows
the state space model for a single component which can have either in service or out of
service modes.
S1

Up

S2

Down

Figure 2.1. Markov model for one component

Practically, systems include more than a component. Generally, each component can be
repaired in case of any outages and will be return back to the operating status after the
certain time required for reparation.
Figure 2.2 shows the Markov model for a system consists of two repairable independent
components is shown in.
S1
Up
Up

1
S2

Down
Up

Up
Down

S3

1
Down
Down

S i is a state of the system

S4
Figure 2.2. Markov model for 2-repair able-independent-component [5], [6]

where, i and i are the failure rate and repair rate of component i respectively.
The given model in Figure 2.2 is represented by IEEE committee for the independent
events.

Chapter 2. Composite system adequacy assessment by applying analytical approach

The transitional probability matrix for the model shown in Figure 2.2 is given in
Eequation 2.1.
0
1
2
(1 + 2 )

( 1 + 2 )
0
1
2

1 =

0
( 2 + 1 )
2
2

0
( 1 + 2 )
2
1

2.1

General approach in order to obtain the state probably is to solve the Equation set 2.2.a.
This approach is applicable for the system consists of either independent or dependent
component. More explanation can be found in [8], [10].

[PS 1

PS 2

PS 3

PS 4 ] [1 ] = 0

2.2.a

PS 1 + PS 2 + PS 3 + PS 4 = 1

For a system with n component the probability of each state can be calculated through
Equation set 2.2.b.

[PS 1

PS 2 . . . PS n ] [ ] = 0

2.2.b

PS 1 + PS 2 + ... + PS n = 1

where, [ ] is general transitional probability matrix for the model and PS i is a probability
of state i .
Figure 2.3 shows the Markov model proposed for dependent outages. The probability of
existence of each state can be calculated by applying the Equation set 2.2.b.
Up
Up

1
S2

Down
Up

Up
Down

S3

1
Down
Down

S i is a state of the system

S4
Figure 2.3. Markov model for 2-repair able-dependent-outages [5], [6]

Practically, the number of possible system state in the composite power system
evaluation is extremely large when both dependency and independency of outages
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Chapter 2. Composite system adequacy assessment by applying analytical approach

considered in evaluation. Therefore, applying Equation set 2.2.b to calculate the system
state probability is complicated. Generally, to simplify the calculation the assumption of
independency may consider in reliability evaluation of the composite power system. By
such assumption Equation set 2.2.b will be simplified to the one presented in Equation
2.3. Note that to calculate the state probability for dependent outages such as station
originated outages equation 2.2.b should be used. The probability of encountering state i
and its associated failure rate and repair rate for independent events can simply be
obtained through Equation set 2.3. [5], [8], [11].
Ps i = Pk Qm
k U

s i =
s i =

mD

mD

2.3

k U

where
Pk and k = Availability and failure rate of the component k respectively
Qm and m = unavailability and repair rate of the component m respectively
si and si = Repair rate and failure rate of the state i respectively
U = Set of in-service components in state i
D = Set of out of service components in state i

Pk =

k + k
k
Qki =
k + k

2.4

The result from Equation sets 2.2.b and 2.3 can be used to calculate the frequency of
encountering each state. The frequency of each state is the probability of being in that
specific state multiple by the departure rate from that state [5]. Such indices can be
calculated by applying Equation 2.5.

f si = Psi ( si + si )
d si =

[8]

P si
f si .8760

2.5

Applying the equations presented in 2.3 to 2.5, for the 2-component- repairable system
shown in Figure 2.2 yields:
Ps1 = P1 P2
where;

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Chapter 2. Composite system adequacy assessment by applying analytical approach

P1 =

1 + 1
2
P2 =
2 + 2
si = i = 0 System state repair rate

si = i = 1 + 2

System state failure rate

f s1 = P1.P2 (1 + 2 )

The same calculation can be done for the other states. Table 2.1 presents the results of
this calculation.
Table 2.1. System state data for 2-repairable-componet system

State
S1

Probability
P1.P2

S2

P1.Q2

S3

Q1.P2

S3

Q1.Q2

Repair
rate
0

Failure
rate
1 + 2

Frequency

1
2
1 + 2

2
1

Q1.P2 (1 + 2 )

Q1.Q2 ( 1 + 2 )

P1.P2 (1 + 2 )
P1.Q2 ( 1 + 2 )

Now these results can be used to calculate the availability and unavailability of the both
series and parallel systems. For a system with series components it is of necessity that all
the components operate simultaneously in order to be in operating mode. For instance a
system with two series components shown in Figure 2.4.a requires functioning of both
components in order to be available.
Com. 1
Com. 1

Comp.2

Com. 2

(a)

(b)

Figure2.4. System with 2 repairable components (a) Series system, (b) Parallel system

Considering the Markov process for this case yield that only the state 1 is the success
mode and the other three states are the outages modes. Therefore, the availability of this
system is equal to the probability of being in state 1 and the unavailability of this system
is equal to the summation of the probability of being states 2, 3 and 4.

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Chapter 2. Composite system adequacy assessment by applying analytical approach

When the system is a parallel system, functioning of one of the components is enough to
keep the system in operation or success mode. Figure 2.4.b shows a simple parallel
system. Applying the Markov process for this system yield that only state 4 is the state in
which the system encounters outage, and states 1, 2 and 3 are the states in which the
system operates successfully. That is the availability of such system is equal to the
summation of the probability of being in states 1, 2 and 3 and unavailability of the system
is equal to probability of being in state 4.

2.1.2. System state enumeration


One of the significant drawbacks of applying the Markov technique to achieve the
reliability model is the extremely large number of generated states which assigns a large
computational effort for reliability evaluation. Assume a system contains n components,
by applying Markov process the total number of the states which should be evaluated for
reliability studies will be 2 n .This leads to consume long computing time, which is not
desired in reliability analysis. Therefore, some techniques should be applied in order to
reduce the size of state space diagram.
Several techniques such as enumerating the states in form of a tree graph, truncation of
the states and contingency and ranking can be applied to reduce the number of the states
for the system under study.
The tree graph enumeration technique used in adequacy analysis is depth-first [8], in
which the enumeration starts from level zero and continue from up to down and left to
right direction. In Figure 2.3 it has been tried to illustrate this approach for system which
consists of three components.

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Chapter 2. Composite system adequacy assessment by applying analytical approach

U1
U
2
U 3

D1
U
2
U 3
D1
D
2
U 3

D1
D
2
D3

U 1
D
2
U 3
D1
U
2
D3

U 1
U
2
D3

U 1
D
2
D3

U i : In service operation mode for component i


Di : Out of service mode for component i

Figure 2.3. Depth-first enumeration techniques for 3-component system

In another method known as truncation of the state space, the size of the space can be
reduced by eliminating the states which has the lower probability of occurrence. System
state probability decrease when the system level increased [8]. This can be done by
performing the analysis up to certain level of probability.
Another method for reducing the number of states is contingency and ranking. In this
approach only the credible events are considered. As defined previously the credible
events are the failure events which have the most significant impact on the system
performance. In order to choose the appropriate contingencies, it is necessary to obtain a
deep understanding over the system under study and the factors that may cause a failure.
Various solution techniques and their associated software packages depending upon the
adequacy criteria employed and the intention behind the studies are developed and made
available in order to analyze the adequacy of a power system [6]. Each software packages
has a special predefined failure modes based on the intention behind its development.
Such tools are mostly dealing with reliability assessment of either the transmission
system or the composite power system and known as network based programs. Generally,
in network-based programs failure is defined in terms of line overloads and unacceptable
bus voltage level [12]. Network solution [8] which applied in network-based program can

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Chapter 2. Composite system adequacy assessment by applying analytical approach

be a network flow, AC load flow, fast decoupled load flow and DC load flow depends on
the purpose of the study. AC load flow and fast decoupled one are the most popular
programs while they provide the complete information on system characteristics. When
the main concern is the reactive power balance then the DC load flow is the most
appropriate program. Reader refers to [6] and [8] for detailed explanation.
By applying the mentioned techniques a suitable model for reliability studies will be
obtained. The next stage is to study how the possible outages influence the system
performance.

2.1.3. System state analysis


One of the main parts in reliability assessment is to analyze the impact of the possible
failures that may occur in a practical system on the performance of the overall system.
For instance how the overloaded transmission lines influence the overall power systems,
is an important issue in reliability study of the bulk power systems. Network solutions
can be applied to perform such analyses. In case of any violation in system characteristics
the system state is defined as an abnormal state and requires the remedial action in form
of corrective action or load curtailment to clear the abnormality.

2.1.4. Remedial action


After identifying the violation in the system, remedial actions are applied. Remedial
action is applied to alleviate the system abnormal conditions [8]. Therefore the main
emphasis is on clearing the abnormality of the system due to the special contingency.
This can be performed by applying corrective action such as removing the failed
component or rescheduling the generation unit and re-supplying the loads. After
performing the corrective action to re-supply the load if the violation still exists, then
load curtailment will be required. The contingency which led to load curtailment
contributes to provide the reliability indices.

2.1.5. Reliability indices


Reliability indices are numerical parameters that reflect the capability of the system to
provide its customers by an acceptable level of supply. They estimate the system
reliability by providing the quantitative measures at each individual load point or for the
whole system. In composite power evaluation, as described before, two sets of indices
which indicate the performance of the whole system or the performance at each
individual load buses within a system may obtain. The main reliability indices in the
composite power system evaluation are frequency of interruption and the associated
duration. These two indices are important as they indicate the expected frequency and
duration of load supply interruption [11].
The load point indices are represented in Equations 2.6 to 2.11. [5], [8].
The main reliability indices in HLII are given in following:

14

Chapter 2. Composite system adequacy assessment by applying analytical approach

Failure Probability ( FP ):

FP =

siF

Failure Frequency(FF) [occ yr ] :


FF =

siF

2.7

si

Failure duration(FD) [hour distrubance] :

FD =
-

2.6

si

FP
8760
FF

Expected energy not supplied(EENS) [MWh yr ] :


EENS =

siF

si

Lc.si 8760

2.9

Expected power not supplied(EPNS) [MW yr ] :


EEPS =

siF

2.8

si

Lc.si

2.10

Expected load curtailed(ELC) [MW yr ] :


ELC =

siF

si

Lc.si

2.11

F is a specific system failure state.


p si and f si are the probability and frequency of each failure state respectively.
Lc , si is a load curtailed at a specific bus or for overall system in system state si .
For reliability evaluation with main focus on the transmission system or distribution
system the overall system results obtained from HLII can be replaced by indices obtained
from HLIII. The software employed for this thesis work has been developed for
reliability evaluation of transmission and/or distribution systems and has the capability of
providing indices results from HLIII. The indices obtained from HLIII are presented in
the following.
Reliability indices for HLIII [5], [13]:
System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI) [int yr , cust ] :

15

Chapter 2. Composite system adequacy assessment by applying analytical approach

Total Number of Customers Interruption


=
Total Number of Customers Served

SAIFI =

N
N
i

2.12

System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) [h yr , cust ] :


Sum of Customers Duration Interruption
=
Total Number of Customer Service

SAIDI =

U N
N
i

2.13

Customers Average Interruption Index (CAIDI) [h int .] :


CAIDI =

U N
N

Sum of Customers Duration Interruption


=
Total Number of Customer Interruption

2.14

Average Service Availability Index (ASAI) [%]:


ASAI =

Customer hours of available Service


=
Customers hours service Demands.

N 8760 U N
N 8760
i

2.15

where, N i represents the number of customers at load point i , i [1 yr ] is a expected


failure rate per year at load point i , U i is the unavailability of load point i

16

Chapter 3. Overview of NEPLAN software

3. Overview of NEPLAN software

3.1. Introduction
NEPLAN is an electric power analyzer which has been developed by the BCP group in
Switzerland. This software package is used mainly for transmission and distribution
systems analyses. It includes optimal power flow, transient stability and reliability
analyses [14]. NEPLAN reliability software can be used to provide not only the reliability
indices for both the individual load points and the overall power system, but also it can be
used to provide the cost of unreliability. NEPLAN is based on Markov process and
enumeration techniques. This implies that the approach in NEPLAN follows the same
procedure that has been explained in the pervious chapter. Figure 3.1 shows the
evaluation approach taken in NEPLAN to achieve the reliability indices for both load
point ant the overall system.

17

Chapter 3. Overview of NEPLAN software

Processing of
network data

Creating possible outage


events combination

First order outage events

Single stochastic
outage

Second order outage events

Single deterministic
outage

Two
stochastic outages

Single stochastic and


deterministic outages

Effect analysis of each outages mode on system performance

Normal

System
performance

Abnormal
Alleviating the abnormality of
the system

Normal

System
performance

Abnormal
Load curtailment

Registering the failure rate

Load point indices, failure


frequency, duration, etc.

Overall system indices

Figure.3.1. Flowchart for reliability evaluation in NEPLAN

18

Chapter 3. Overview of NEPLAN software

The first step is to analyze all the input data required for load flow analysis and data
required for reliability evaluation. After processing the data and solving the load flow
program for the system in order to obtain the system characteristics in normal condition,
the system will be modeled by applying the Markov process. The achieved model will be
reduced to the reasonably small model by applying the contingency and ranking or the
truncation of states techniques. But as noted before, applying such techniques require a
deep understanding over practical systems i.e. it is necessary to know what kind of
outages may occur in practical system. In NEPLAN the predefined outages events in are
categorized in two groups i.e. first order contingencies and second order contingencies.
The second step is to create a first order and second order outage combinations. First
order contingencies deal with single stochastic outages and single deterministic outages.
Generally the single deterministic group does not contribute in interruption frequency
while it causes no supply interruption to the loads of the system. Single stochastic
outages group includes several modes such as independent single outage, common mode
outage, ground fault and unintended switch opening. The reliability input data for these
categories are failure rate and repair time and the output data are failure frequency and its
relevant duration.
Second order contingencies can be considered either as two stochastic outages or
stochastic and deterministic outages. In the case of overlapping of two stochastic outages
the failure frequency is calculated by applying equation 3.1 or 3.2. The failure frequency
for overlapping of stochastic and deterministic outages is obtained through equation 3.3.
For independent outages [15],
FF = A B (rA + rB )

3.1.

where A and B are the failure rate and ri is their relevant repair time.
For dependent outages where the second outage may occur with the probability of Pr as a
consequent of the first outage, like a second short circuit due to delay in clearing the first
short circuit in network, the failure frequency is calculated by applying 3.2 [15].
FF = A PrB

3.2.

As cited previously the deterministic outage itself may not cause supply interruption in
load, but simultaneous occurrence of deterministic and stochastic outages may result in
forced outage, which leads to load failure. In such case the failure frequency at load
points obtained by applying 3.3 [15].
FF = A B rB

3.3.

where A and B are the failure rate for stochastic and deterministic outages respectively
and ri is the relevant repair time for maintenance (deterministic outage).

19

Chapter 3. Overview of NEPLAN software

After reaching the appropriate reliability model, all the possible outages combinations
which have been contributed to provide the reliability model will be analyzed
individually to verify their impacts on the system performance. If the created outages
result in any variation in system characteristic such as fluctuation in bus voltages, the
corrective action such as disconnecting the faulty line and supplying the load in an
appropriate way is performed. After performing the corrective action, if the abnormality
still exists, the remedial action i.e. load curtailment will be required. The failure
frequency of that specific state which results in load curtailment will be calculated. For
second order combinations the failure frequency in NEPLAN is calculated by applying
Equations 3.1 to 3.3. The calculated failure frequency will be registered in order to
contribute for final reliability calculation. This procedure will be continued to analyze all
the possible outage events that may occur within a practical system.
The last step after studying all the possible outage events is to sum up the registered
failure frequency relevant to a specific load bus and calculated the relevant indices at
each individual load point and overall system. Table 3.1 and 3.2 shows the indices for
each individual load points and overall power system provided by NEPLAN.
Table 3.1. Load point indices [15], [16]

Index
Interruption Frequency

Unit

[1 yr ]

Interruption Duration

[min yr ]
[hrs yr ]

Mean Time of interruption

min, hrs
[kW yr ]
[MW yr ]
[kWh yr ]
[MWh yr ]
[ $ yr ]

Power not supplied


Energy not supplied
Interrupted cost

Description
Expected frequency of supply interruption per year
Expected probability of interruption in minute or hours per year
Average duration of customer interruption
Product of interrupted power and its interruption frequency
Product of interrupted power and its interruption probability
Cost of supply interruption

Table 3.2. Overall system indices [15], [16]

Index

Unit

N
SAIFI

[1 yr ]

SAIDI

[min

CAIDI
ASAI
F

T
Pr
P
W
C

yr ]

[1 yr ]
h
[min yr ]
[MW yr ]
[MWh yr ]
[CU yr ]

Description
Total number of customers not served
System average interruption frequency index
System average interruption index
Customer average interruption duration index
System average availability
System load interruption frequency
System load interruption frequency
System load interruption probability
Total interrupted load power
Total load energy not supplied
Total load interruption cost

20

Chapter 3. Overview of NEPLAN software

3.2. Application study


Figure 3.2 shows a small test system implemented in NEPLAN in three different modes
in order to clarify a reliability calculation approach. The hand calculation for southern
part of the system has been illustrated in the following part, to demonstrate how the
software calculates the indices.

LP-5

CB

TR

DISC

LP-6

Figure 3.2. Test system [13]

Mode 1:
In this mode there is no connection between bus 5 and 6. Therefore neither disconnect
switch nor connection link exist. The model has been shown in Figure 3.3.
LP-5

LP-6

CB

TR

DISC

Figure 3.3. Test system without disconnect switches [13]

21

Chapter 3. Overview of NEPLAN software

Hand calculation of Load point indices for LP6:


As noted previously in this part reliability indices for southern part of the sample system
which supplies the load point 6 will be calculates by hand.
Equations 3.4 and 3.5 can be applied to calculate the failure frequency and associated
duration for the series and parallel components.
For series components:
S = i i
RS =

r
i

[13]

3.4

[13]

3.5

For parallel components or second order failure combination:


(r + r )
12 = 1 2 1 2
1 + 1 r1 + 2 r2
r r
r12 = 1 2
r1 + r2
Figure 3.4 shows the southern part of the sample test system.
BB4

CB6

BB5

CB7

TB3

CB8

BB6

LP-6

Figure 3.4. The circuit which feeds load point 6

FF = BB 4 + CB 6 + BB 5 + CB 7 + TR 3 + CB 8 + BB 6
FF = 0.001 + 0.02 + 0.001 + 0.02 + 0.015 + 0.02 + 0.001
FF = 0.078 1

yr

Failure duration calculation for load point 6:


i ri
RS =

0.001 2 + 0.02 24 + 0.001 2 + 0.02 24 + 0.015 15 + 0.02 24 + 0.001 2


0.078
RS = 21.42 [h yr ]
RS =

22

Chapter 3. Overview of NEPLAN software

System Indices:
System indices can be calculated by applying equations 2.12-2.15
Applying equation these equations yield:

SAIFI =

0.103 80 + 0.078 100


= 0.09
80 + 100

SAIDI =

0.103 21.42 60 100 + 0.078 23.362 60 80


= 124.78 [min yr.cust ]
100 + 80

CAIDI =

0.103 23.362 100 + 0.078 21.42 80


= 22.63 [h]
0.103 100 + 0.078 80

ASAI =

[int

yr.cust ]

(100 + 80) 8760 (0.103 23.362 100 + 0.078 21.42 80)


10 = 99.976 [%]
180 8760

Results obtained from NEPLAN:

Load point indices:


Table.3.3. Load point indices for system illustrated in 3.2 obtained from NEPLAN

Load Point
L-5
L-6

Failure Frequency [1 yr ]
0.103
0.078

Failure Duration [h ]
5.362
21.425

Overall system indices:


Table 3.4. Overall system indices for system illustrated in figure 3.2

Index
N
SAIFI

Unit
-

[1 yr ]

180
0.092
124.748

CAIDI

[min yr ]
[h]

ASAI

99.976

SAIDI

23

22.631

Chapter 3. Overview of NEPLAN software

Mode 2:
In this mode the disconnect switch has been incorporated for reliability calculation. It is
worth to note that, this switch has been considered to be in open mode at the begining.
The single line diagram of the circuit is illustrated in Figure 3.5.
LP-5

LP-6

Figure 3.5. Single line diagram of the test system, open disconnect switch [13]

Load point indices:


Table.3.5. Load point indices for test system when DICS switch is open

Load Point
L-5
L-6

Failure Frequency [1 yr ]
0.103
0.078

Failure Duration [h ]
1.011
1.014

Overall system indices:


Table 3.6. Overall system indices for test system, DISC switch is open

Index
N
SAIFI

Unit
-

[1 yr ]

180
0.091

CAIDI

[min yr ]
[h]

1.012

ASIA

99.999

SAIDI

5.501

In this part, the failure frequency is the same while the disconnect switch is open and it
has no influence on the interruption frequency in the load points. However, the duration
has been influenced. That means, whenever there is any interruption occurred in each part
of the system, the disconnect switch can be closed and the affected load point has the
possibility to partially supply from the other part of the system. That is, re-supplying at
least a part of the interrupted load in the shorter period is possible by closing this switch.

24

Chapter 3. Overview of NEPLAN software

Mode 3:
Disconnect switch is closed in this evaluation:
LP-5

LP-6

Figure 3.7. Single line diagram of the test system, Closed disconnect switch [13]

Load point indices:


Table.3.7. Load point indices for test when DICS switch is close.

Load Point
L-5
L-6

Failure Frequency [1 yr ]
0.063
0.063

Failure Duration [h ]
1.049
1.049

Overall system indices:


Table 3.8. Overall system indices for test system, DISC switch is close.

Index
N
SAIFI

Unit
-

[1 yr ]

180
0.063

CAIDI

[min yr ]
[h]

1.049

ASIA

99.991

SAIDI

3.966

In this mode, since the disconnect switch was closed from the beginning it has been
contributed in reliability calculation. The results show that the failure frequencies in both
load points have been decreased.

25

Chapter 3. Overview of NEPLAN software

3.3. Validation of the results


A comparison has been made between the results from NEPLAN and another reliability
tool known as RADPOW to validate the obtained results.
RADPOW is a reliability tool developed in KTH School of Electrical Engineering for
reliability assessment of distribution system. This tool was developed based on analytical
approach [13]. A new version of RADPOW which has been recently developed, includes
simulation approach [25]. This software package has been explained more in detail in
Chapter 5. It is worth mentioning that in this work the term of RADPOW refers to
analytical approach of this solver, and term of Simulation refers to Simulation approach
of RADPOW.
Comparisons of the results obtained from NEPLAN and RADPOW for the test system in
three different modes have been shown in following tables.
Mode 1:
Table.3.9. Failure frequency index obtained from different software for Mode 1.

Failure
Frequency
LP-5
LP-6

Neplan
[1 yr ]
0.103
0.078

RADPOW
[1 yr ]
0.103
0.078

Simulation
[1 yr ]
0.103
0.078

( NEP RAD)

( NEP Sim)

0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000

Table.3.10. Unavailability index obtained from different software for Mode 1.

Unavailability NEPLAN
[h yr ]
LP-5
0.0964
LP-6
0.470

RADPOW
[h yr ]
0.097
0.471

Simulation
[h yr ]

( NEP RAD) ( NEP Sim)


0.0006
0.001

Mode 2:
Table.3.11. Failure frequency index obtained from different software for Mode 2.

Failure
Frequency
LP-5
LP-6

NEPLAN
[1 yr ]
0.103
0.078

RADPOW
[1 yr ]
0.103
0.078

Simulation
[1 yr ]
0.103
0.078

( NEP RAD)

( NEP Sim)

0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000

Table.3.12. Unavailability index obtained from different software for Mode 2.

Unavailability NEPLAN
[h yr ]
LP-5
0.104
LP-6
0.079

RADPOW
[h yr ]
0.104
0.079

Simulation
[h yr ]
0.104
0.079

26

( NEP RAD) ( NEP Sim)

0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000

Chapter 3. Overview of NEPLAN software

Mode 3:
Table.3.13. Failure frequency index obtained from different software for Mode 3.

Failure
Frequency
LP-5
LP-6

NEPLAN
[1 yr ]
0.063
0.063

RADPOW
[1 yr ]
0.064
0.064

Simulation
[1 yr ]
0.064
0.064

( NEP RAD)

( NEP Sim)

0.001
0.001

0.001
0.001

Table.3.14. Unavailability index obtained from different software for Mode 3.

Unavailability

LP-5
LP-6

NEPLAN
[h yr ]
0.066
0.066

RADPOW
[h yr ]
0.065
0.065

Simulation
[h yr ]
0.065
0.065

( NEP RAD) ( NEP Sim)


0.001
0.001

0.001
0.001

The small differences between the results obtained from these tools can be justified by
considering the possible different assumption defined for each tool. However, these
differences are small enough to be neglected.

27

Chapter 4. System studies

4. System Studies

4.1. Background
Three test systems, two composite power systems and one distribution system are utilized
in this thesis work. Roy Billinton reliability test system designated as RBTS [17] and
IEEE-RTS [18] have been used in wide range in reliability studies. These test systems
have been developed for educational purposes and are used enormously for composite
power reliability evaluations. These test systems as well as a small part of the distribution
system in Stockholm city, so-called as Birka system, have been implemented in the
NEPLAN the results have been presented in the following sections.

28

Chapter 4. System studies

4.2. Overview of test systems RBTS, IEEE RTS and Birka


system
The reliability test system designated as RBTS was developed in university of
Saskatchewan for educational and research purposes. The small size of this test system
makes it a suitable test system to conduct large number of reliability studies in reasonable
time. The RBTS comprises of 6 buses; 2 generator buses and 5 load buses. The 2
generator buses consist of 11 generators. The buses are connected via 9 transmission
lines. The total installed capacity is 240 MW and the system peak load is 185MW . The
voltage level on transmission line is 230kV .
The second test system designated as IEEE-RTS was developed by the Subcommittee on
the Application Methods in the IEEE Power Engineering Society to provide a common
test system for reliability studies. This test system is a 24-bus system comprises 10
generator buses, 10 load buses and 4 intermediate buses. The total number of generation
units available in generator buses is 32 units. The buses are connected through 33
transmission lines. The system has divided two Northern and Southern part. In northern
part the voltage level is 230kV and in southern part is 138kV . The total installed capacity
in generation units is 3405MW and the total peak load is 2850 MW . The southern part is
power deficit area while the northern part is surplus power area.
Birka system is a practical distribution system in Stockholm city.
Figures 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 show the single line diagram of these test systems respectively.
The data for the systems required for load flow and reliability studies, including
generation units data, transmission lines and load model data are given in Appendix A.

29

Chapter 4. System studies

2 40 MW
1 20 MW

1 10 MW

1 40 MW
4 20 MW
2 5MW

Bus 2

Bus 1

20 MW

4
Bus 4

Bus 3

85MW

Bus 5

20 MW

9
Bus 6

20 MW

Figure 4.1. Single line diagram of the RBTS [17]

30

40 MW

Chapter 4. System studies

G
G

B.18

B.21

B.22

B.17

B.23
G
G

B.16

B.19

B.20

B.14
G

B.15
B.13

B.24

B.11

B.12

B.9

B.3

B.10

B.6

B.4
B.5

B.8

B.1

B.2
G

B.7
G

Figure 4.2. Single Line diagram of the IEEE-RTS [18]

31

Chapter 4. System studies

220 kV

c1
c2

c8

c3

c9
c4

c10

110 kV

bus

c5

transformer

cable
c6
c7

c15

c49
c50

c53

c52

c19
c20

c23

c27

c40

c43

c24

c21

c17

load
point

c36

c38

c55

c58

supply
point

c37
c16

c57

fuse

c13

c54

c51

c56

c12

33 kV

c14

breaker

c11

c39

c25

c18

c22

11 kV

c28

c11

c26

c46

c41
c42

c44
c45

c47
c48

SL

HD
c29
c30

c31

c32
c33
c34
c35
LH11

Figure4.3. Single line diagram for Birka system [13]

4.3. RBTS Studies


4.3.1. The base case studies for the Modified RBTS test system
Base case studies provide appropriate information in reliability study to obtain the affects
of the system modifications. In the base case studies the sub stations elements are
considered to be ideal and also the common mode failures are disregarded.
It is noteworthy to mention that in this work the substations for RBTS and IEEE-RTS
systems have been simplified due to limited number of nodes in university version of the
tool. That is the implemented test systems in NEPLAN are the modified ones and are not
the same as the practical ones. Figure 4.4 shows the modified RBTS test system. The
substation in generation sides has been simplified due to restriction in number of possible
nodes. For IEEE-RTS, the station configuration is simplified to only 1 circuit breaker.
32

Chapter 4. System studies

N23

N22
G
G

N11

N14

LINE3

N23

G
5

N21

N24

Bus 1

N25

N12

20 MW

Bus 2

LINE2

N13

LINE1

LINE7

LINE6

N33
N36
N32
3

N43

LINE4

N35
2

Bus 3
4

N51
N31

20 MW

40 MW

N62

LINE9
1

N41
N52

Bus 6

85MW
Bus 5

Bus 4

LINE8

N42

N44

N45

LINE5

N61

: is Circiut breakers

: is generator

: is node

LIN

: is transmission Line

20 MW
Figure 4.4. Schematic of the implemented model

The load point indices can be calculated by assuming either a constant load level (a peak
load) or a load duration curve. The results obtained from the former one is called as the
33

Chapter 4. System studies

annualized indices and the ones for latter one called as annual indices. Since in the
second calculation the load variation versus time is considered, the calculated indices are
more accurate and close to reality compared to the ones obtained from the first
calculation. However, the first approach consumes less computational time. In NEPLAN
it is possible to define the load duration curve up to 4 steps. In this evaluation the
reliability of the power system has been studied under the peak load of the system.
Therefore the obtained results are the annualized indices.
The curtailment of the load at the appropriate system buses in the event of capacity
deficiency [6] is an important consideration in reliability evaluation. Normally, load can
be assumed as firm load and curtailable load [6], [8]. This implies that practically it is not
possible to curtail more than a specific part of the load in case of deficit power. In this
study 20% of the load is allowed to be curtailed. Besides, it is necessary to mention the
load priority to assign a load curtailment order in case of deficit power in network. There
are several issues which are used in order to classify the load and to determine the load
curtailment philosophy. Some features such as economic priority can be used to assign a
load curtailment sequence.
Basically, some loads are more important than the other load within a system. Therefore
each load buses could be classified regarding its importance within a system. NEPLAN
has the capability of performing the load shedding regarding the defined priority of load
buses. The priority order can be arranged based on economic factor. The cost of energy
not supplied can be an appropriate index to allocate the priority of load curtailment for
each load buses.
The cost of energy not supplied and the priority of load curtailment for RBTS are given
in Tables 4.1 and 4.2 respectively.
Table 4.1. Cost of energy not supplied for RBTS [2]

Bus

Cost of energy not supplied


[$ kWh]
7.41
2.69
6.78
4.87
3.63

2
3
4
5
6

Table 4.2. Priority of load for RBTS [2]

Priority order
1
2
3
4
5

Bus
2
4
5
6
3

34

Chapter 4. System studies

For the base case study as mentioned previously the station originated outages and
common mode outage have not been considered. The evaluation has been performed by
considering the peak load values. The results are presented in following tables.
Table 4.3. Load point annualized indices for RBTS for base case study.

L-2
L-3
L-4
L-5
L-6

Failure
Frequency
[1 yr ]
0.01
0.038
0.123
0.002
0.002

Duration
[h]

1.000
1.000
2.849
5.000
5.000

Probability
[min yr ]

0.600
2.280
21.107
0.685
0.685

Power not
supplied
[MW yr ]
0.200
3.229
4.939
0.046
0.046

Energy not
supplied
[MWh yr ]
0.200
3.229
14.071
0.228
0.228

Figure 4.5. Load point annualized indices for RBTS for base case study.

Results shown in Table 4.3 and Figure 4.5 imply that the load point 4 is the weakest point
in the system for the base case study. The failure frequency and the interruption duration
at this load point is higher than the ones for other load points. Since the dependent
outages (station originated and common mode outages) have been disregarded in this
study, the provided indices are not an appropriate benchmark to evaluate the adequacy of
the system or each load point. But as mentioned before, they can be used to compare the
contribution of the different kind of dependent outages on the adequacy.
Table 4.4 shows the annualized indices for the overall power system. Although these
indices are mainly used for distribution system, they can be used to indicate the reliability
of the overall system when the focus is on transmission system. As it is already evident

35

Chapter 4. System studies

from the results, the system performance is considerably high and the probability of
encountering load interruption is quite low.
Table 4.4.Overall system annualized indices for RBTS

System indices
SAIFI [1 yr ]
SAIDI [min yr ]
CAIDI [h]
ASAI (%)
F [1 yr ]
T (h)
Pr [min yr ]
P [MW yr ]
W [MWh yr ]

0.035
5.071
2.401
99.99
0.174
2.367
24.671
8.46
17.957

One of the interesting features of NEPLAN is its ability to register the different outage
combinations and demonstrate their relevant effect analysis. Such kind of information
may help the planners to identify that how the mal operation of the components may lead
to unreliability of the system. Table 4.5 indicates one of the created outage combinations
for the presented system under given assumption. For the base case study under the peak
load, 138 outage combinations have been created in NEPLAN. In this section only two of
the possible failures are shown.
Table 4.5. Sample outage combination for RBTS under peak load and base case study

Outage Combination
Outage Combination 1
Failed Element
Protection tripping

Type of Element

Element name

Generator
Circuit Breaker
Circuit breaker
Generation unit

GEN11
CB-11*
CB-13*
GEN11

Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
*CB-11 is the circuit breaker number 1 in bus 1.
*CB-13 is the circuit breaker number 3 in bus 1.

GEN12
GEN13
GEN14
GEN22
GEN23
GEN26
GEN21
GEN27
GEN25
GEN24

Influenced feeders/generation
units

36

Chapter 4. System studies

As shown in Table 4.5, when generator 1 in bus section 1 encounters any failures, the
circuit breakers 1 and 3 in bus section 1 are tripping in order to isolate the fault. As a
result of circuit breakers operation, the mentioned generation unit will be disconnected
from the system. Consequently, the available generated power with in a system will be
less than the normal operation mode. As a result of deficit power within the system, due
to loss of the generation unit, the other generation units should increase their production
in order to compensate for the lack of power in the area. In case if the other generation
unit hit their maximum capacity before compensating for the deficiency, the load
curtailment which is assigned by load curtailment philosophy should be applied. In this
case the available capacity of the generation units have the possibility to cover the
deficiency. That is, there is no need to curtail the load when this outage occurs. Table 4.7
shows another sample of the evaluation which results in load curtailment.
Table 4.6. Sample outage combination for RBTS under peak load and base case study

Outage Combination
Outage Combination 5
Failed Element
Protection tripping
Influenced feeders/generation
units

Opening switch after an hour


01:00:00
Involved elements
Closing switch after an hour
01:00:00
Involved elements
Influenced load
Influenced generation unit

Type of Element

Element name

Generator
Circuit Breaker
Circuit breaker
Generation unit

GEN22
CB-21*
CB-22*
GEN11

Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit

GEN12
GEN13
GEN14
GEN22
GEN23
GEN26
GEN21
GEN27
GEN25
GEN24

Disconnect switch

GEN22

Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Load
Generation Unit
Generation Unit
Generation Unit
Generation Unit
Generation Unit
Generation Unit
Generation Unit
Generation Unit
Generation Unit

CB-22
CB-21
L-2
GEN11
GEN13
GEN14
GEN23
GEN26
GEN27
GEN21
GEN25
GEN24

37

Chapter 4. System studies

As a result of failure in generator 2 in bus section 2, the circuit breakers 1 and 2 in bus
section 2 are tripping to isolate the fault. But by their tripping operation not only the fault
is isolated but also the load which is connected at the mid point of these breakers will be
isolated from the rest of the system and will face interruption for a certain period. It will
take an hour to remove the failed generator and re-closed the circuit breakers. Therefore,
in such case re-supplying the interrupted load will take 1 hour. Besides, due to failure of
the generation unit other generators in the system have been affected too. That is they
should increase their capacity in order to compensate for the lost generation unit.

4.3.2 System studies incorporating station originated and common cause


outages
In previous section the station configurations and its fundamental components outage
were not incorporated in the reliability evaluation. Practically, station related outages can
have considerable impact on the reliability of a composite generation and transmission
system [19]. When one of the breakers encounters failure, the other breakers might be
switching. As a result of breakers tripping, the relevant lines will be disconnected and
consequently the loads fed through these lines will be interrupted. The probabilities
associated with station originated and multiple common-cause outages can be quite high
compared to the corresponding event probabilities associated with independent outages
[6]. Therefore, it is not practical to disregard the impact of these outages.
4.3.2.1. Reliability assessment incorporating station originated outages.

The representation of stations as a simple node [20] or disregarding the station originated
outages which could cause a significant impact on the reliability of the system is one of
the simplifications applied in reliability evaluation. As the station originated outages
have a large influence on the reliability of the overall power system, it is not a right
assumption to disregard the stations configurations and their associated outages. The
failure of station component may result in multiple outages of generators and/or
transmission lines [6] and consequently supply interruption to the load points. In
previous case study, it has been assumed that the stations elements are fully reliable,
whilst in this section the unreliable stations elements have been incorporated. Tables 4.7,
4.8 and Figure 4.6 indicate the result for the implemented RBTS test system in NEPLAN.
Table 4.7. Load point annualized indices incorporating station originated outages.

L-2
L-3
L-4
L-5
L-6

Failure
Frequency
[1 yr ]
0.243
0.372
0.478
0.283
0.735

Duration
[h]

12.996
8.859
7.959
11.736
11.783

Probability
[min yr ]

189.607
197.871
228.131
198.949
519.794

38

Power not
supplied
[MW yr ]
4.863
31.643
19.110
5.650
14.705

Energy not
supplied
[MWh yr ]
63.202
280.317
152.087
66.316
173.265

Chapter 4. System studies

Figure 4.6. Load point annualized indices incorporating station originated outages.

As it is evident from the obtained results, when the dependent outages are incorporated,
the scenario of adequacy and inadequacy of the load is changed. In this case, the load
point 6 which was the most adequate load in the system is happened to be an inadequate
one. As it is obvious from the single line diagram of RBTS shown in Figure 4.1, this load
bus is connected to the rest of the system through the single transmission line. Therefore,
any outage combination in which the transmission line 6 is contributed will result in
isolating this bus from the rest of the system. As there is no individual generation unit
available in this bus section, the outage of transmission line results in overall load
interruption connected to this bus. Therefore, it can be concluded that this load bus is the
one which requires more concern during planning phase. Since in such analyses the
dependent outage events have been regarded, the achieved results can provide a sufficient
data regarding the supply adequacy and inadequacy. But note that in this case study only
one kind of dependent outages has been considered. Common mode outages will be dealt
with in next section.
Table 4.8 indicates the annualized indices for the overall power system. As the results
show, the availability of the system when the station components outages are contributed
in evaluation is 99.94. The total load curtailment for the system is 75.972 [MW yr ] and
consequently energy not supplied is 735.88 [MWh yr ] . Such results imply that, even
though there are multiple outages happened in load point, but the supply availability in
the overall system is quite high.

39

Chapter 4. System studies


Table 4.8. Overall system annualized indices incorporating station originated outages

System indices
SAIFI [1 yr ]
SAIDI [min yr ]
CAIDI [h]
ASAI (%)
F [1 yr ]
T (h)
Pr [min yr ]
P [MW yr ]
W [MWh yr ]

0.422
266.870
10.535
99.94
2.055
10.735
1323.755
75.972
735.88

Table 4.9 indicates one of the outage combinations has for the implemented system.
Table 4.9. Sample outage combination under peak load + Station relevant outages

Outage Combination
Event1: Outage Combination 60
Failed Element
Protection tripping

Influenced load
Influenced feeders/generation units

Event 2: Opening switch


After 01:00:00 hour

Type of Element

Element name

Circuit Breaker
Circuit Breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Load point 2
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Disconnect switch

CB21
CB-35
CB-31
CB-14
CB-31
CB-44
CB-43
CB-25
CB-22
CB-31
L-2
GEN11
GEN12
GEN13
GEN14
GEN26
GEN23
GEN22
GEN21
GEN27
GEN25
GEN24
Disc-LIN3

Disconnect switch
Disconnect switch
Disconnect switch

Disc-LIN2
Disc-GEN 22
Disc-GEN 21

40

Chapter 4. System studies

Event 3: closing switch after


01:00:00

Circuit breaker

CB-14

Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker

CB-35
CB-11
CB-31
CB-44
CB-43

As mentioned previously, the outage of the circuit breakers may result in multiple
outages. In this case as a result of a fault occurrence in circuit breaker 21 (circuit breaker
1 in bus 2), the other breakers given in Table 4.9 have been influenced. Load point 2
which is connected to the mid point of the two tripped breakers (circuit breakers 1 and 2
in bus 2) has been disconnected from the rest of the system. Besides, as a result of the
operation of the mentioned breakers in Table 4.9, some of the generators will be
disconnected from the system and consequently the amount of power within a network
has been decreased while the load demand is still the same as before, therefore, the other
available generation unit should increase their generating capacity till the disconnected
generators returned back to the system. If the available generators can not produce a
required energy for satisfying the load demands, load curtailment according to the load
priority should be applied. The affected generation units due to the fault in breaker 21 are
also introduced in Table 4.9. Note that the affected components will be return back to
their operation mode, after removal of the breaker 21, and re-closing the influenced
breakers. This process will take one hour in this case study. A duration which the failed
component requires to return back to the operating mode is its relevant repair time plus
the switching time.
In this outage event the load center 2, is the load point which encounters interruption.
This load will be re-supplied after removal of the failed breakers and re-closing the other
switches. That is re-supplying the load requires an hour which is the switching time of the
breakers.
Although the load point 2, is the most adequate one, when it encounters outages, its
relevant duration is longer than the other load point indices. The reason is due to
interruption duration of the components contributing in the outages combination.
4.3.2.2 Incorporating common mode outages.

In previous case the dependent outages in form of station originated ones, has been
studied. Another kind of dependent outages can be presented in form of common mode
outages. In RBTS reliability test system the transmission lines which are vulnerable to
common mode outages are the lines in common right of way. These circuits are the lines
1, 6, 2 and 7. As shown in single line diagram of RBTS, two transmission lines leave bus
1 and go to busbar 3, and also two lines leave bus 2 and go to busbar 4. There is a
possibility that simultaneous outages occur due to outages in common right of way e.g.
fault in the tower which carries these lines. Table 4.10, 4.11 and Figure 4.7 show the
reliability indices when common mode outages are incorporated.

41

Chapter 4. System studies


Table 4.10. Load point annualized indices incorporating common mode outages.

L-2
L-3
L-4
L-5
L-6

Failure
Frequency
[1 yr ]
0.010
0.190
0.656
0.009
0.009

Duration
[h]

Probability
[min yr ]

1.000
1.010
13.022
2.219
2.219

0.600
11.533
512.888
1.207
1.207

Power not
supplied
[MW yr ]
0.200
16.176
26.258
0.181
0.181

Energy not
supplied
[MWh yr ]
0.200
16.339
341.925
0.402
0.402

Figure 4.7. Load point annualized indices incorporating common mode outages.
Table 4.11. Overall system annualized indices incorporating common mode outages

System indices
SAIFI [1 yr ]
SAIDI [min yr ]
CAIDI [h]
ASAI (%)
F [1 yr ]
T (h)
Pr [min yr ]
P [MW yr ]
W [MWh yr ]

0.175
105.487
10.048
99.98
0.854
10.250
525.298
42.997
359.269

42

Chapter 4. System studies

Comparing the obtained results to the ones when station outages are incorporated, it is
evident that the effect of station components and its configuration on the reliability of
power system is more pronounced [6].
As it is clear from the results, the weakest point in this system is the load center 4 due to
its higher failure frequency and higher unavailability duration. Note that due to load
curtailment philosophy assigned by load priority and the permitted percentage of load
curtailment, the load 3 and 4 are happened to be affected more than the other loads in the
system. The worst case is when lines 1, 6, 2 and 7 are disconnected simultaneously,
which result in isolating the bus sections 3, 4, 5 and 6. Anyhow this case does not occur
in NEPLAN due to restriction in number of simultaneous outages (2 simultaneous
outages).
The results show that the load not supplied in bus 4 is higher than the other buses due to
higher number of failure frequency in this bus. Definitely, this case is not desirable, due
to the cost of compensation given in Table 4.1 for energy not supplied. Therefore, this
load bus is the weakest point in the system, not only from frequency of interruption point
of view but also from cost of energy not supplied standpoint i.e. this bus section is weak
both from customers and suppliers stand points and required more investment during
planning and operating phases.
4.3.2.3 Incorporating the station originated and common mode failures.

In this study case both the station originated and common mode failure are considered in
the assessment. The results are introduced in Tables 4.12, 4.13 and Figure 4.8.
Table 4.12. Load point annualized indices for RBTS incorporating the station originated + common
mode outages.

L-2
L-3
L-4
L-5
L-6

Failure
Frequency
[1 yr ]
0.243
0.537
1.020
0.291
0.744

Duration
[h]

12.996
6.449
11.826
11.422
11.659

Probability
[min yr ]

189.607
207.903
723.418
199.620
520.465

43

Power not
supplied
[MW yr ]
4.863
45.673
40.782
5.825
14.880

Energy not
supplied
[MWh yr ]
63.202
294.530
482.278
66.540
173.488

Chapter 4. System studies

Figure 4.8.

Load point annualized indices for RBTS incorporating the station originated + common
mode outages.

Table 4.13. Overall system annualized indices for RBTS incorporating the station originated +
common mode outage

System indices
SAIFI [1 yr ]
SAIDI [min yr ]
CAIDI [h]
ASAI (%)
F [1 yr ]
T (h)
Pr [min yr ]
P [MW yr ]
W [MWh yr ]

0.567
368.208
10.822
99.93
2.753
11.063
1827.608
112.025
1080.057

As stated before, comparison of the results presented in Tables 4.7 and 4.10 shows that
the station elements reliability effects are more dominant compare to the common mode
outages of the transmission lines, therefore, the results when both outages are considered
must not vary that much from the case when only the station originated outages are
considered. Results in Table 4.12 confirm that idea, while the given results do not differ
that much from the results in Table 4.7.
In the case when only the station originated outages has been considered, the inadequate
load bus was the load connected to bus 6, while in this case the most inadequate load is
44

Chapter 4. System studies

the one connected to bus 4. As it has been mentioned previously, due to contribution of
dependent outages the reliability results may varied extremely from the base case results.
This is even valid for contribution of different kind of dependent outages. Comparing the
results of common mode outages and the one for station originated, one can say that
depend on the focus of the study different judgment over a system adequacy can be
performed. So it is important to know what kind of analyses one prefers to run. Thus
mentioning a priority for the contribution of the different outages is an important issue in
reliability studies which may result in different judgments.
In this case 762 failure combinations have been created and contributed in calculation of
reliability indices. Table 4.14 presents a sample of the outage combination for this case
study.
Table 4.14. Sample outage combination for RBTS under peak load + Station outages

Outage Combination
Event1: Outage Combination
60
Failed Element
Protection tripping

Influenced load
Influenced feeders/generation
units

Event 2: Opening switch


After 01:00:00 hour

Type of Element

Element name

Busbar
Circuit Breaker
Circuit Breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Load point 3
Load point 4
Generation unit

N36
CB-44
CB-13
CB-12
CB-33
CB-34
CB-35
CB-31
CB-14
CB-11
CB-25
CB-21
CB-43
CB-45
CB-25
L-3
L-4
GEN11

Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Disconnect switch

GEN13
GEN12
GEN14
GEN26
GEN23
GEN22
GEN27
GEN21
GEN25
GEN24
Disc-LIN2

Disconnect switch

Disc-LIN6

45

Chapter 4. System studies

Event 3: closing switch after


01:00:00
Involved elements

Disconnect switch
Disconnect switch
Circuit breaker

Disc-GEN 22
Disc-GEN 21
CB-14

Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Load point 3
Generation unit

CB-25
CB-35
CB-11
CB-31
CB-21
CB-13
CB-12
L-3
GEN 11

Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit
Generation unit

GEN 13
GEN 22
GEN 23
GEN 26
GEN 27
GEN 25
GEN 24

Influenced loads
Influenced feeders/generation
units

In case of simultaneous outage in node 36 and circuit breaker 4 in bus section 4, the
mentioned circuit breaker in Table 4.14 are operating. Consequently the load points 3 and
4 and the mentioned generation units are affected. After these failures the corrective
action is applied in order to alleviate the abnormality of the system. After an hour of
delay in switching time, some of the components influenced by occurred faults will be
restored. Load point 4, is the load center which is restored after the switching time, while
load point 3, is the load which is restored after the repairing time of the failed component.
Also, some of the generation units which have been influenced due to these faults can be
return back to their normal operation just after the repairing time of the failed node and
bus bar.

4.4. IEEE-RTS test system


In this part, the simplified IEEE-RTS test system has been taken under consideration. The
station configuration of this test system has been simplified to only one circuit breaker.
Such simplification is not correct, while, as mentioned before, the station configuration
are one of the most dominant contributor in reliability assessment of the power system.
However, this test system was implemented in NEPLAN by considering the mentioned
simplification i.e. the bus configuration has been disregarded and only one circuit breaker
was considered. The results obtained from evaluation are shown in following sections.
The priority order is arranged based on economical issues. The costs of energy not
supplied are presented in Table 4.15 and the corresponding load priority is given in 4.16.

46

Chapter 4. System studies

Table 4.15. Cost of energy not supplied for IEEE-RTS [2]

Bus

Cost of energy not supplied

$
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
13
14
15
16
18
19
20

kWh

6.20
4.89
5.30
5.62
6.11
5.50
5.41
5.40
2.30
4.14
5.39
3.41
3.01
3.54
3.75
2.29
3.60

Table 4.16. Priority of load curtailment for IEEE-RTS [2]

Priority order
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Bus
1
5
4
6
7
8
13
3
2
10
18
20
16
14
15
9
19

In NEPLAN it is possible to mention the priority up to level 10. Therefore, another


simplification, regarding the priority of load curtailment is required. Load buses 10 to 17
mentioned in Table 4.16 are assumed to have the same priority in this analysis.

47

Chapter 4. System studies

For this system, the bus configurations have been disregarded. Therefore, it has been
preferred to not go for the base case analysis and analyze the system for two modes.
These modes are explained in following sections.

4.4.1. System studies incorporating station originated and common cause


outages
4.4.1.1. Incorporating station originated and common mode outages.

In this study case both the station originated and common mode failure are considered in
the assessment. The results are introduced in Tables 4.17 and 4.18.
Table 4.17. Load point annualized indices for Modified-IEEE RTS incorporating the station
originated + common mode outages.

L-1
L-2
L-3
L-4
L-5
L-6
L-7
L-8
L-9
L-10
L-13
L-14
L-15
L-16
L-18
L-19
L-20

Failure
Frequency
[1 yr ]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000321
0.000256
0.000814
0.000
0.000082
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000081
0.000039

Duration
[h]

0.000
0.000
0.000
5.000
5.000
7.78
0.000
1.38
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
3.1181
3.3143

Probability
[min yr ]

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.09616
0.07684
0.3797
0.000
0.0068
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.015216
0.007788

48

Power not
supplied
[MW yr ]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.026093
0.020006
0.1217
0.000
0.015
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.016193
0.0055

Energy not
supplied
[MWh yr ]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.1304
0.100032
0.9468
0.000
0.02125
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.05049
0.01827

Chapter 4. System studies


Table 4.18. Overall system annualized indices for Modified-IEEE RTS

System indices
SAIFI [1 yr ]
SAIDI [min yr ]
CAIDI [h]
ASAI (%)
F [1 yr ]
T (h)
Pr [min yr ]
P [MW yr ]
W [MWh yr ]

0.000094
0.034266
6.096221
99.9993
0.001558
6.154671
0.575339
0.204889
1.267304

As it can be seen from the results presented in Table 4.17 the weakest points of the
system are the load points 4, 5, 6, 8, 19 and 20. Load point 4, 5, 6 and 8 are the innermost
bus sections, which are located in the southern region of the test system where there is a
problem of deficit power. Also, there is no local generation unit available in these buses.
Therefore, due to any outages in which the connections of these buses to the generation
units are affected, the supply of the mentioned loads will be interrupted. Somehow, these
bus sections are the most delicate buses within a system under study. On the other hand,
there are two more weak load buses, which are located in the northern part of the system.
Load buses 19 and 20 which are the innermost buses in the northern part are also exposed
to interruptions. The main reason that these loads might be encountered any interruption
can be described as a result of common mode outages of the transmission lines. These
buses are connected to the generation buses via a transmission line on common right of
way.
4.4.1.2.

Incorporating station originated outages.

In this study case only station originated outages are considered i.e. the circuit breakers
assumed to be not reliable. Tables 4.19 and 4.20 show the results for this case study.
Table 4.19. Load point annualized indices for Modified-IEEE RTS incorporating the station
originated outages.

L-1
L-2
L-3
L-4
L-5
L-6
L-7
L-8

Failure
Frequency
[1 yr ]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000321
0.000256
0.000814
0.000
0.000

Duration
[h]

Probability
[min yr ]

0.000
0.000
0.000
5.000
5.000
7.78
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.09616
0.07684
0.3797
0.000
0.000
49

Power not
supplied
[MW yr ]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.026093
0.020006
0.1217
0.000
0.000

Energy not
supplied
[MWh yr ]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.1304
0.100032
0.9468
0.000
0.000

Chapter 4. System studies

L-9
L-10
L-13
L-14
L-15
L-16
L-18
L-19
L-20

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

Table 4.20. Overall system annualized indices for Modified IEEE-RTS+ station originated outages

System indices
SAIFI [1 yr ]
SAIDI [min yr ]
CAIDI [h]
ASAI (%)
F [1 yr ]
T (h)
Pr [min yr ]
P [MW yr ]
W [MWh yr ]

0.000082
0.032514
6.6256
99.99994
0.001390
6.6256
0.5527
0.1678
1.1772

As the results shown in Table 4.19 imply, when the common mode outages are
disregarded in analysis, the load interruptions in buses 8, 19 and 20 are eliminated. These
results confirm the explanation given in previous part for outages in buses 19 and 20.
This also works for load bus 8. This bus is connected to the rest of the system through a
single transmission lines and 2 transmission lines on common right of way.
A comparatively large number of the components in this system disabled us to perform a
right analysis over this system. However, there are several program, commercial and noncommercial, available which has the capability of evaluating such a large system. Some
of these programs are introduced in Chapter 5. Consider that the commercial version of
NEPLAN has the ability to perform assessment of such a large system.
Due to several simplification applied to the presented composite power systems,
validation of the approach was impossible, since the obtained results are completely
different from the results presented in others research works by applying the same test
systems. Therefore, a small test system, known as Birka system has been implemented in
NEPLAN and the results has been compared to the results from RADPOW, in order to
validate the approach. This test system is presented in up coming section.

50

Chapter 4. System studies

4.5. Birka system study


Another test system which has been considered in this thesis work is a part of the
Stockholm city distribution system, so-called as Birka system. In this work a part of the
system has been chosen and implemented in NEPLAN. The result of the implementation
has been validated by the results available from RADPOW.

4.5.1. Case study Birka system:


Figure 4.6 shows the single line diagram of this system. Three main load points are fed
from this system. Two 33-kV load points referred to Hgalid station (HD) and Statens
Jrnvgar railway (SJ) and the station referred to Liljeholmen station (LHII). The more
data regarding the system can be found in Appendix.
Table 4.21. Load point annualized indices for Birka system.

L-SJ
L-LH
L-HD

Failure
Frequency
[1 yr ]
0.056
0.278
0.057

Duration
[h]

1.727
1.691
1.704

Probability
[min yr ]

5.762
28.207
5.867

Power not
supplied
[MW yr ]
0.044
0.214
0.044

Energy not
supplied
[MWh yr ]
0.200
0.362
0.077

Figure.4.9. Load point indices for Birka system.

As the results in Table 4.21 and Figure 4.7 show, the weakest point in the system is the
load point belongs to Liljeholmen station. This is apparently logical. Considering the
single line diagram of the system, it is obvious that the number of components which
connect the Bredng station to this station is more than the ones for other stations.
Consequently the relevant failure rate will be increased. The unavailability of this load

51

Chapter 4. System studies

point is 28.207 [min yr ] which is not a large value, however, comparing to the
unavailability of the other two stations within the system it is.
Table 4.22. Overall system annualized indices for Birka system

System indices
SAIFI [1 yr ]
SAIDI [min yr ]
CAIDI [h]
ASAI (%)
F [1 yr ]
T (h)
Pr [min yr ]
P [MW yr ]
W [MWh yr ]

0.062
6.286
1.703
99.999
0.308
1.757
32.463
1.578
2.687

Table 4.22 shows the indices for the overall system. As the results show the availability
of the system is high and almost near to 100% (ASAI= 99.999%). This implies that the
system is almost fully reliable. The system average interruption duration index is
6.286 [min yr ] which itself demonstrate the high reliability of the system.
The comparison of the results to the one obtained from RADPOW has been made in
order to be validated. Note that in this comparison, the term of RADPOW refers to
analytical approach of this software and the term of Simulation refers to Simulation
approach of this software.
Anyhow, the results obtained from the mentioned programs, NEPLAN and RADPOW
have been compared, and as the following table show, the results are almost the same.
The differences are almost negligible.
Table.4.23. Failure frequency index obtained from different approach.

Failure
Frequency
L-SJ
L-LH
L-HD

NEPLAN
[1 yr ]
0.056
0.278
0.057

RADPOW
[1 yr ]
0.057
0.279
0.058

Simulation
[1 yr ]
0.057
0.279
0.058

( NEP RAD)

( NEP Sim)

0.001
0.001
0.001

0.001
0.001
0.001

Table.4.24. Unavailability index obtained from different approach

Unavailability
L-SJ
L-LH
L-HD

NEPLAN
[h yr ]
0.0964
0.470
0.0977

RADPOW
[h yr ]
0.097
0.471
0.098

52

Simulation
[h yr ]
0.097
0.471
0.098

( NEP RAD) ( NEP Sim)


0.0006
0.001
0.0003

0.0006
0.001
0.0003

Chapter 4. System studies

Obtaining almost the same results from different approaches shows the correctness of the
approach and consequently the validity of the results. Even though, the implementation of
the composite power systems have not been performed completely and the results
obtained from the analyses were extremely different from the reality, but the approach
has been validated by implementing the comparatively small system. And this is a
valuable result to know that the approach is correct and it can be used to provide the
precise results regardless of various assumptions that have been assigned for its
development.

53

Chapter 5. Alternative reliability tools

5. Alternative Reliability Tools

5.1. Introduction
Various software packages applied for composite power systems and/or transmission
systems reliability evaluation are available. These programs have the capability of
evaluating the system either from adequacy point of view or security standpoint. The
software used for reliability evaluation of generation unit often developed as production
models using Monte Carlo techniques, whilst transmission software developed mainly
using Markov process [18]. In this section it has been tried to introduce and describe
some of these software tools.

54

Chapter 5. Alternative reliability tools

5.2. Composite power reliability tools


5.2.1. MECORE
The MECORE software is the Monte Carlo based program used for composite power
system reliability evaluation developed by power research group in university of
Saskatchewan and enhanced at BC hydro.
The result of the evaluation is presented in form of reliability indices both for individual
load point and the overall system. This software also has the capability of providing the
unreliability cost. MECORE is base on a combination of state sampling (Monte Carlo
simulation) and enumeration techniques (analytical approach). The state sampling
techniques is used to simulate system component states and to calculate annualized
indices at the system peak load level. A hybrid method utilizing an enumeration approach
for aggregated load studies is used to calculate annual indices using an annual load curve
[4], [21], [22], [23]. This software has the capability to handle up to 1000 buses and 2000
branches.
Brief description of the system capabilities are given in this section.
1) Failure modes:
- Independent failures of generators, lines and transformers
- Common cause outages of transmission lines
- Generating unit derating states
2) Failure criteria:
- capacity deficiency
- Line overload
- System separation- load loss
- Bus isolation- load loss
3) Load model:
- Annual, seasonal and monthly load curve
- Multi-step models
- Bus load proportional scaling and flat level model
4) Probability indices:
- System and bus indices
- Annualized and monthly/ seasonal/ annual indices
- Basic and IEEE proposed indices
Basic indices:
Probability of load curtailment (PLC):

PLC = Pi
is

55

Chapter 5. Alternative reliability tools

where Pi is the probability of the system state i and S is the set of all system states
associated with load curtailment.
Expected number of load curtailment (ENLC) [ occ. / yr ]:

ENLC = Fi
iS

where Fi is the system state frequency.


Expected duration of load curtailment (EDLC) [ hrs / yr ]:
EDLC = PLC 8760
Average duration of load curtailment (ADLC) [ hrs / disturbance ]:
ADLC = EDLC EFLC

Expected load curtailment (ELC) [ MW / yr ]:

ELC = C i Fi
iS

where Ci is the load curtailment of system state i .


Expected demand not supplied (EDNS) [ MW ]:

EDNS = C i Pi
iS

Expected energy not supplied (EENS) [ MWh / yr ]:

EENS = C i Fi Di
iS

where Di is the duration of system state i .


Expected damage cost (EDC) [ k $ / yr ]:

EDCL = C i Fi DiW
iS

IEEE proposed indices:


Bulk power interruption index (BPII)[ MW MW yr ]:

BPII =

C F
i

where L is the system peak load in MW.

56

Chapter 5. Alternative reliability tools

Bulk power/energy curtailment index (BPECI)[ MWh MW yr ]:

EENS
L
Bulk power supply average MW curtailment index (BPACI)
[ MW Disturbance ]:

EPECI =

BPACI =

ELC
EFLC

where EFLC is expected frequency of load curtailment and can be obtained from
equation :
EFLC = ( Fi f i )

[occ

yr ]

iS

Modified bulk power curtailment (MBECI) [ MW MW yr ]:

EDNS
L
Severity index (SI) [ system. min yr ]:

MBECI =

SI = BPECI 60

5) Linear programming optimization model.


MECORE program utilizes a linear programming Optimal Power Flow model to
reschedule generation, alleviate line overloads and avoid load curtailment if possible or
minimize total load curtailments if unavoidable

5.2.2. COMREL
As it has been mentioned previously, two different approaches, Enumeration approach
(Analytical) and State sampling (Monte Carlo simulation), are applied for reliability
evaluation and consequently development of relevant computer software packages. A
computer program, COMREL which is the abbreviation of Composite system Reliability,
is the analytical based techniques propagated by power system research group in
university of Saskatchewan.
This program uses the contingency enumeration techniques for the evaluation of
composite systems. This program has the capability of evaluating the system considering
independent outages, common mode outages and station originated outages.
As it has been cited before network solutions are important feature in reliability
evaluation. COMREL is equipped with network solution technique such as AC load flow,
DC load flow.

57

Chapter 5. Alternative reliability tools

Figure 5.1 shows the basic structure of COMREL program.

Base Case system


Analysis
Select contingency
State
Evaluate
Contingency
Problem
NO

Yes
Remedial Action

Problem
NO

Yes
Accumulate
adequecy indices

Figure 5.1.Structure of COMREL program

Brief description of the program capabilities are given in this section:


1) Failure modes:
- Independent failures
- Common cause outages
- Station originated failures
2) Failure criteria:
- Lack of sufficient generation in the system to meet load demands
- Interruption of continuity of power supply to a load point
- Overload of transmission facilities
- Violation of bus voltage
- Generating unit MVAR violation
3) Network analysis
- Network flow
- AC load flow
- DC load flow

58

Chapter 5. Alternative reliability tools

4) Contingency and ranking


- Predetermined contingency level (4 simultaneous generation outages, 3 simultaneous
transmission, and 3 transmission and generation outages)
- Ranking (Credible events)
- Frequency cut off (Neglecting the contingency with frequency of occurrence)
5) Remedial action
- Generation rescheduling
- Handling the bus isolation
- Line overload alleviation
- Correction generation unit MVAR unit
- Correction of bus voltage limit
- Load curtailment
6) Load curtailment policies
- Firm load
- Curtailable load
7) Load model:
- Annual, seasonal and monthly load curve
- Multi-step models
8) Reliability indices:
- Load point indices
- System indices
Load point indices:

Probability of failure
Frequency of failure
Expected number of load curtailment
Expected load curtailed
Expected energy not supplied
Expected duration of load curtailment

Overall system indices:

Bulk power supply average MW curtailment index (BPSACI)


Bulk power interruption index (BPII)
Bulk power energy curtailment index (BPECI)
Modified bulk power energy curtailment index (MBPECI)

The calculations of these indices are indicated in [24].

59

Chapter 5. Alternative reliability tools

5.3. Transmission/distribution reliability tools


5.3.1. RADPOW [13], [25]
RADPOW which is the abbreviation of Reliability Assessment of Distribution Power
System has been developed at the school of electrical engineering, KTH for reliability
evaluation of distribution systems. The first version of this tool developed based on
analytical approach. Recently the module based on simulation approach has been added
to this software package. Figure 5.2 illustrates the overall methodology used in this tool.

System data

Network model

Assign each LPs the events that lead


to failure for that LP
Analytical method

Simulation method

Calculate the reliability indices


for each LP based on predefined formulas

Make a large number of random


experiments to see how these
affect the load point

Calculate the reliability for


the system
Figure.5.2. Flowchart for the analytical and simulation methods used in RADPOW [25]

Figure 5.3 shows the algorithm used in analytical approach of this software.

60

Chapter 5. Alternative reliability tools

Intput data

For each load point

For each failure mode

Evaluate basic reliability indices

i , U i , ri , LOEi

Evaluate load point indices

LP = i , U LP = U i ,

rLP = U LP LP , LOE LP = LOEi

Evaluating the systme indices

N
N
U N
CAIDI =
N
SAIFI =

LP

LP

U N
N
LOE
, AENS =
N

, SAIDI =

LP

LP

LP

LP

LP

LP

LP

LP

LP

LP

Output data
Figure. 5.3. Algorithm for the evaluation of the reliability indices in RADPOW [13]

Note that [occ yr ] represents the expected failure rate, r [h f ] represents the average
outage duration, U [h yr ] illustrates annual expected outage time and LOE [kWh yr ]
shows the average loss of energy.
Detailed explanation on simulation approach of this tool can be found in [25].

61

Chapter 5. Alternative reliability tools

5.3.2. VERA and PROCOSE


VERA (Value-Based Evaluation and System Reliability Assessment) and PROCOSE
(Probabilistic Composite System Evaluation) programs are used in Ontario hydro. VERA
was designed to calculate customer interruption costs and delivery point reliability
indices. PROCOSE was developed to examine the impact of other generating resources
that are available on a system, in mitigating any load cuts required when transmission
elements are out of-service. But it does not consider the impact of transmission grid
configuration, nor does it examine every possible contingency condition [21].

5.3.3. PSS/TPLAN
PSS/TPLAN is a commercial software package designed for reliability evaluation of
transmission system which has been developed by SIEMENS PTI (power transmission
and distribution). The reliability evaluation criteria in this program is completely
different from the ones introduces previously. The previous software packages provide
the adequacy indices, while PSS/TPLAN is analyzing the system from security point of
view, in which the capability of the system to respond to the disturbances is assessed.
Figure 5.4 shows the algorithm of this tool.
Base Case System Analysis
Select Contingency State
Evaluate Contingency
Classifying the Results
NO

Problem
Yes

Local Trouble

System Trouble

Remedial Action

NO

Problem

Yes
Reliability Indices
Figure 5.4.Structure of PSS/TPLAN program [26]

62

Chapter 5. Alternative reliability tools

Brief description of the program capabilities are given in this section:


1) Failure criteria:
-

Local trouble

Overload
Low voltage
High voltage
Islanding
Load shed

System trouble
Voltage collapse
Cascading outages

2) Network analysis
- AC load flow
- DC load flow
3) Contingency ranking
-

Overload ranking
Voltage trouble ranking
Voltage collapse ranking

4) Remedial action
- Preventive action for base case
Adjusting the generators real power
Phase shifter angle
Load shedding

Security constrained preventive action


Adjusting the generators real power
Phase shifter angle
Load shedding

5) Load curtailment policies


- Firm load
- Curtailable load
6) Load model:
- Peak load
- Multi-step models

63

Chapter 5. Alternative reliability tools

7) Reliability indices:
- Probabilistic system trouble indices
Frequency and duration of load shed, overload, low and high voltage and
voltage collapse
Bulk power interruption index, [occ yr ]
BPII =

F L
i

Lt

Where
Fi is event frequency , Li is load lost and Lt is total load of the system
Bulk energy curtailment index [h yr ]
BECI =
-

Energy Curtailed
No min al Load

Costumer impact indices


Un-served energy

8) Cost of unreliability for individual buses [$ yr ] :


N

Cost = Fi
i

$
Li 8760
MWh

Where,
Fi is the frequency of loss of load caused by i th contingency.
[$ MWh] is the cost point corresponding to the duration of the loss of load
Li is the load curtailed on special bus due to i th contingency

5.3.4. CREAM
The program CREAM is the abbreviation of Composite Reliability Assessment by Monte
Carlo. This program has been developed by Electric power research institute (EPRI). The
program utilizes Monte Carlo sampling methodology to randomly select system
conditions from the conditions probability distribution [27].

5.4. Tools applied for HVDC system evaluation


Nowadays, due deregulation of the power systems by employing new techniques such as
FACTS and HVDC system, many software tools which has the capability of evaluating
such systems are developed. Some of these programs which are used in BC hydro in
Canada for HVDC evaluation are presented in this section. This part is taken from [21].

64

Chapter 5. Alternative reliability tools

1) SPARE: This program has the capability of not only calculating the common
reliability indices but also unavailability due to aging failures for each component.
Input data for this case is the mean life and deviation of each component. The
aging failures can be modeled using Weibull or Normal distribution.
2) NETREL: This tool was developed to calculate availability/unavailability of a
network consisting of components in parallel and/or series. This program also
provides the average capacity for a given HVDC configuration. The results from
NETREL take into account both aging related and repairable failure modes
producing a comprehensive reliability picture of HVDC poles that are in the endof-life stage.
3) MCGSR: which is the abbreviation of Monte Carlo Generation System Reliability
is used by means of generating unit reliability evaluation tools.
The presented software packages are not the commercial one and they are patented by
British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro), therefore the detailed information about the
structure of the programs is not available.

65

6.Closure

6. Closure

6.1. Conclusion
The results obtained from reliability studies, provide an appropriate benchmark for
assessing the system performance and identifying the weak point of the system. Verifying
the weak point of the system may make the planners to increase the investment at a
certain load point during the planning phase and consequently reduce the further costs
due to supply interruption in operation stage.
The results illustrated in chapter 4, not only showed the weak points of the system, but
also indicated that depends on the assumptions of the studies the adequacy of the system
at each individual load points may vary. An important result from evaluating the system
in different modes is that the station configuration and its components have a significant
impact on the final results. Therefore, it is not rational to ignore them in reliability

66

6.Closure

evaluation and simplify the stations to the single bus bars which are generally used in the
conventional load flow analysis.
The principal aim of this work was to study the reliability evaluation of the power system
with the main focus on the transmission system and utilization of the NEPLAN tool for
such evaluation. The university version of NEPLAN is not proper software for studying a
comparatively large transmission system including many nodes such as IEEE-RTS.
However, it can be more appropriate tool for distribution systems. The commercial
version of this software as well as the other tools introduced in Chapter 5 could be proper
software for assessing a comparatively large system.

6.2. Future work


As mentioned before, the main focus in the long term research work is to investigate the
transmission system reliability, where new technologies such as HVDC and FACTS are
employed in the system to enhance the efficiency of the overall power system. In this
work the traditional (AC) power system has been taken under consideration in order to
build up knowledge over the reliability of such system. Now as a next stage in this work,
it is of interest to modify the test systems and include the complementary link e.g. a
HVDC link and examine the reliability of a DC system. Comparison of the results for the
modified system to the one illustrated in this assessment can provide a basic knowledge
over the performances of these special AC and DC systems, but still can not provide a
general idea for general power systems i.e. results of such comparison may not work for
all kind of AC and DC systems.
In this work the failure rates and repair time have been considered to be constant during
the evaluation, but this is not a right assumption while an environmental impact has been
disregarded. Environmental conditions have significant impacts on the reliability of a
transmission system; especially overhead lines are more exposed to be damaged due to
fluctuation in weather condition. Therefore, such evaluation can come as a follow up
work of this thesis. So, developing new techniques in which the realistic environmental
conditions can be modeled are required.
One of the basic ideas in this work was to study the possible approaches that can be
applied for reliability assessment of the power systems. In Chapters 2 and 3 the analytical
approach and the applicable commercial software which is based on enumeration
techniques (Analytical approach) were explained. Although the analytical approach is a
fast and an appropriate technique in reliability evaluation, yet the simulation approach
can provide more accurate results. However, such evaluation requires a comparatively
longer computational time. Therefore, as a continuation of this thesis it might be of
interest to study the approach based on simulation and state sampling (Monte Carlo
simulation).

67

References

References
1. Electric power transmission engineering, Turan Gnen, Wiley-Interscience

Publication, 1988.
2. Xiaosu Tang, Consideration in bulk system reliability assessment, Master thesis,

University of Saskatchewan, 2000.


3. Efficient operation and planning of Power systems, Lenart Sder, Mikael Amelin,

Royal institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 2006.


4. Ran Mo, Deterministic/Probabilistic evaluation in composite systems, Master
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

18.
19.

20.
21.

22.

thesis, University of Saskatchewan, October 2003.


Reliability Evaluation of Power system, Roy Billinton, Ronald N. Allan.
Reliability Assessment of Large Electric Power System, Roy Billinton, Ronald N.
Allan, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.
Lina Bertling, Pre-study on reliability modeling and assessment for complex
power system with special focus on HVDC, KTH School of Electrical
Engineering, 2005.
Wei Zhang, Reliability Evaluation of Bulk Power Systems using analytical and
equivalent approaches, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan, 1998.
Fang Yang, Sun Wook Kang, George Stefopoulos, Comprehensive power system
reliability assessment, Final project, Georgia Institute of Technology, April 2005.
Reliability evaluation of engineering system, Roy Billinton, Ronald N. Allan
Roy Billinton, W. Zhang, Algorithm for failure frequency and duration
assessment of composite power systems, March 1998.
R. Billinton, N.D.Reppen, M.P. Phavaraju, Requirements for composite system
reliability evaluation models, IEEE. 1998.
Lina Bertling, Reliability Centered Maintenance for Electric Power Distribution
Systems, Doctoral Dissertation, Royal Institute of Technology, 2002.
www.neplan.ch
Neplan reliability, Math Bollen, STRI AB, Ludvika, Sweden, March, 2006.
Neplan Users guide.
A reliability test system for educational purposes- Basic data, Power system
research group in university of Saskatchewan, IEEE transactions on power
systems, Vol. 4, No 3, August 1989.
The IEEE reliability test system-1996, IEEE transactions on power systems, Vol.
14, No 3, August 1999.
R. Nighot, R. Billinton, Reliability evaluation of the IEEE-RTS incorporating
station related outages, Power system research group, University of
Saskatchewan.
D.S. Arentz, M.Th. Schilling, M. B. Coutto Folho, J.C.Souza, Nodal Reliability,
June 2002.
Michael Emmerton, Don Somatilake, Probabilistic Transmission Planning,
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References

23. Yifeng Li, Bulk system reliability evaluation in a deregulated power industry,

Master thesis, university of Saskatchewan, December 2003.


24. Steve Kwaku Adzanu, Reliability assessment of non-utility generation and

25.

26.
27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

demand-side management in composite power system, PhD Thesis, University of


Saskatchewan, Fall 1998.
Johan Setrus, Development of a simulation module for the reliability computer
program RADPOW, Master thesis, KTH School of Electrical Engineering,
Stockholm, Sweden, 2006.
www.pti-us.net
M. J. Bashir, T. C. Cheng, A.S. A. Farag, Comparison of Monte Carlo Simulation
and State Enumeration Bases Adequacy Programs: CREAM and COMREL, IEEE
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Janak Raj Acharya, Weather effect considerations in reliability evaluation of
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systems with HVDC link using Monte Carlo simulation, IEEE transactions on
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Sastry Kuruganty, HVDC transmission system models for power system
reliability evaluation, IEEE CAT, 1995.

69

Appendix

Appendix
A. Sample test system
Load data:

Load point no.


System
5
6
Load point no.

Total no. of
customers
180
100
80

Industrial
0.0
0.0

4.00
5.00

Load point no.

Total reactive
power per
customer
2.00
2.50

Commercial
0.2
0.2

Residential
0.8
0.8

Customers

Total active
power per
customer

5
6

5
6

Customers

Industrial
0.0
0.0

Commercial
0.3
0.3

Residential
0.7
0.7

Customers
Industrial
0.0
0.0

Commercial
0.3
0.3

Residential
0.7
0.7

Elements reliability data:

Element
Busbar
Cir.Breaker
Transformer
Disc.Switch

Failure rate
Permanent
Active
0.001
0.001
0.02
0.02
0.015
0.015
0.002
0.002

Permanent
2.0
24
15
4.0

Duration
Maintenance
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

Switching
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Appendix

B. IEEE-RTS
Bus Number

101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
113
114
115
116
118
119
120

Bus
no
Bus
type
Bus
no
Bus
type

Bus load data


Load
MW
MVar

Bus Load
% of system
load
3.8
3.4
6.3
2.6
2.5
4.8
4.4
6.0
6.1
6.8
9.3
6.8
11.1
3.5
11.7
6.4
4.5
Total: 100,0

108
97
180
74
71
136
125
171
175
195
265
194
317
100
333
181
128
2850

If Peak load 10% higher


MW
MVar

22
20
37
15
14
28
25
35
36
40
54
39
64
20
68
37
26
580

118.8
106.7
198
81.4
78.1
149.6
137.5
188.1
192.5
214.5
291.5
213.4
348.7
110
366.3
199.1
140.8
3135

24.2
22
40.7
16.5
15.4
30.8
27.5
38.5
39.6
44
59.4
42.9
70.4
22
74.8
40.7
28.6
638

101

102

103

IEEE-RTS-96 Bus data, area A


104 105 106 107 108 109

PU

PU

PQ

PQ

PQ

PQ

PU

PQ

PQ

PQ

PQ

PQ

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

Slack PU

PU

PU

PQ

PU

PQ

PQ

PU

PU

PU

PQ

110

111

112

Appendix

Bus ID
101
101
101
101
102
102
102
102
107
107
107
113
113
113
114
115
115
115
115
115
115
116
118
121
122
122
122
122
122
122
123
123
123

Data for generators at each bus


PG
QG
Unit type
MW
MVAR
U20
10
0
U20
10
0
U76
76
14.1
U76
76
14.1
U20
10
0
U20
10
0
U76
76
14.1
U76
76
14.1
U100
80
17.2
U100
80
17.2
U100
80
17.2
U197
95.1
40.7
U197
95.1
40.7
U197
95.1
40.7
Sync Cond
0
13.7
U12
12
0
U12
12
0
U12
12
0
U12
12
0
U12
12
0
U155
155
0.05
U155
155
0.05
U400
400
137.4
U400
400
137.4
U50
50
-4.96
U50
50
-4.96
U50
50
-4.96
U50
50
-4.96
U50
50
-4.96
U50
50
-4.96
U155
155
31.79
U155
155
31.79
U350
350
71.78

Q max
MVAR
10
10
30
30
10
10
30
30
60
60
60
80
80
80
200
6
6
6
6
6
80
80
200
200
16
16
16
16
16
16
80
80
150

Q min
MVAR
0
0
-25
-25
0
0
-25
-25
0
0
0
0
0
0
-50
0
0
0
0
0
-50
-50
-50
-50
-10
-10
-10
-10
-10
-10
-50
-50
-25

Appendix

From

To

BUS

BUS

km

1
101
101
102
102
103
103
104
105
106
107
107
108
108
109
109
110
110
111
111
112
112
113
113
114
115
115
115
115
116
116
117
117
118
118
119
119
120
120
121

102
103
105
104
106
109
124
109
110
110
108
203
109
110
111
112
111
112
113
114
113
123
123
215
116
116
121
121
124
117
119
118
122
121
121
120
120
123
123
122

4.827
88.495
35.4
53.097
80.45
49.879
0.0
43.443
37.007
25.744
25.744
67.578
69.187
69.187
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
53.097
46.661
53.097
107.803
96.54
83.668
43.443
19.308
54.706
54.706
57.924
28.962
25.744
16.09
117.457
28.962
28.962
44.2475
44.2475
24.13
24.13
75.623

Data for Transmission system


Per outage
Tran
R
X
rate
outage rate
Dur.
PU
P
t Dur. PU

0.24
0.51
0.33
0.39
0.48
0.38
0.02
0.36
0.34
0.33
0.03
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.40
0.39
0.4
0.52
0.49
0.47
0.38
0.33
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.35
0.34
0.32
0.54
0.35
0.35
0.38
0.38
0.34
0.34
0.45

16
10
10
10
10
10
768
10
10
35
10
10
10
10
768
768
768
768
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
111
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11

0.0
2.9
1.2
1.7
2.6
1.6
0.0
1.4
1.2
0.0
0.8
202
2.3
2.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.7
0.8
1.6
1.5
1.3
0.7
0.3
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.4
0.4
0.2
1.8
0.4
0.4
0.7
0.7
0.4
0.4
1.2

0.003
0.055
0.022
0.033
0.050
0.031
0.002
0.027
0.023
0.014
0.016
0.042
0.043
0.043
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.006
0.005
0.006
0.012
0.011
0.010
0.005
0.002
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.003
0.003
0.002
0.014
0.003
0.003
0.005
0.005
0.003
0.003
0.009

B
PU

0.014 0.461
0.211 0.057
0.085 0.023
0.127 0.034
0.192 0.052
0.119 0.032
0.084
0.0
0.104 0.028
0.088 0.024
0.061 2.459
0.061 20.017
0.161 1.044
0.165 0.045
0.165 0.045
0.084
0.0
0.084
0.0
0.084
0.0
0.084
0.0
0.048 0.100
0.042 0.088
0.048 0.100
0.097 0.203
0.087 0.182
0.075 0.158
0.059 0.02
0.017 0.036
0.049 0.103
0.049 0.103
0.052 0.109
0.026 0.055
0.023 0.049
0.014 0.030
0.105 0.221
0.026 0.055
0.026 0.055
0.040 0.083
0.040 0.083
0.022 0.046
0.022 0.046
0.068 0.142

Continuous
rating
MVA
175
175
175
175
175
175
400
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
400
400
400
400
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500

Appendix

Unit
group

Unit size

Generator Data
Unit type
Forced
MTTF
Outage
(Hour)

MTTR
(Hour)

Scheduled
Maintenance
( wks
)
year

U12
U20
U50
U76
U100
U155
U197
U350
U400

12
20
50
76
100
155
197
350
400

Oil/Steam
Oil/CT
Hydro
Coal/Steam
Oil/Steam
Coal/Steam
Oil/Steam
Coal/Steam
Nuclear

0.02
0.10
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.08
0.12

2940
450
1960
1960
1200
960
950
1150
1100

60
50
20
40
50
40
50
100
150

2
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
6

C. RBTS
Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Load
Active
Reactive
0.00
0.020
0.85
0.40
0.20
0.020

From Bus

To bus

1
2
1
3
3
1
2
4
5

3
4
2
4
5
3
4
5
6

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Bus data for RBTS


PG
Q

Qmax
0.50
0.75
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

1.00
1.20
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Qmin
-0.40
-0.40
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Line data for RBTS


R
X
Current
rating
0.0342
0.18
0.85
0.1140
0.60
0.71
0.0912
0.48
0.71
0.0228
0.12
0.71
0.0228
0.12
0.71
0.0342
0.18
0.85
0.1140
0.60
0.71
0.0228
0.12
0.71
0.0228
0.12
0.71

Vmax
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05

Vmin
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97

Failure per
year
1.50
5.00
4.00
1.00
1.00
1.50
5.00
1.00
1.00

Repair
time
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

Appendix

Generator data for RBTS


Rating (MW)
Failure per year
40.0
6.00
40.0
6.00
10.0
4.00
20.0
5.00
5.00
2.00
5.00
2.00
40.0
3.00
20.0
2.40
20.0
2.40
20.0
2.40
20.0
2.40

Bus no.
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Repair time (hours)


45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
60.0
55.0
55.0
55.0
55.0

D: Birka Nt
Load data:

Load point no.


System
LHII (35)
HD (48)
SJ (35)
Load point no.

Total no. of
customers
180
447
23400
1

Industrial
0.25
0.1
0

1.7203.00
0.9829
0.8

Load point no.

Total reactive
power per
customer
0.00
0.00
0.00

Commercial
0.25
0.1
1

Residential
0.5
0.8
0

Customers

Total active
power per
customer

LHII (35)
HD (48)
SJ (35)

LHII (35)
HD (48)
SJ (35)

Customers

Industrial
0.4
0.2
0

Commercial
0.2
0.1
1

Residential
0.4
0.7
0

Customers
Industrial
0.00
0.00
0.00

Commercial
0.00
0.00
0.00

Residential
0.00
0.00
0.00

Appendix

Elements ID number and Type:

ID
no
Type

ID
no
Type
ID
no
Type

10

BU
220

BR
110

TR
220

BR
110

CA
110a

TR
110

BR
33

BR
110

TR
220

BR
110

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

CA
110b
21

TR
110
22

BR
33
23

BU
220
24

BR
33
25

CALH
33
26

TR
33
27

BR
11
28

BR
33
29

CALH
33
30

TR
33

BR
11

BR
33

CALH
33

TR
33

BR
11

BU
11

BR
11

BUS
D

CALH
11

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

BUS
D
42

TR
11
43

FUSE

BUS
D
46

BR
33
47

CAHDa

44

BU
04
45

BR
33
49

BR
33
50

BR
33
52

BR
33
53

CAHD
c
54

BR
33
55

BUS
D
56

BR
33
57

BU
220
58

BUS
D

BR
33

BR
33

BR
33

CA
SJb

BR
33

BUS
D

BR
33

BU
220

ID
31
no
Type CALH
11
ID
41
no
Type CAHD
b
ID
51
no
Type
CA
Sja

48

Elements reliability data:

Element
Bus D
BU220
BU11
BU04
BR110
BR33
BR11
CA110a
CA110b
CALH33

Failure rate
Permanent
Active
0.000
0.000
0.00964
0.00964
0.00867
0.00867
0.000
0.000
0.00870
0.00870
0.00089
0.00089
0.00243
0.00243
0.07012
0.07012
0.07031
0.07031
0.00028
0.00028

Permanent
0.0
1.0
1.0
0.0
24
24
24
168
168
48

Duration
Maintenance
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Switching
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

Appendix

CAHDa
CAHDb
CAHDc
CASJa
CASJb
CALH11
FUSE
TR220
TR110
TR33
TR11

0.02291
0.02285
0.02265
0.00863
0.00837
0.10069
0.01340
0.02610
0.02050
0.01989
0.00331

0.02291
0.02285
0.02265
0.00863
0.00837
0.10069
0.01340
0.02610
0.02050
0.01989
0.00331

48
48
48
48
48
6
4
24
24
24
24

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0