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ABSTRACT

Acid and base are ..............................................................................................(introduction).


The objectives of the experiment are ................................................................ (objectives).
The methodology employed is ................................................................................. (method).
At the end of the experiment, it was observed that ......................................... (results/findings).
In conclusion, ............................................................................................... (conclusion).

1.

INTRODUCTION

Put some introduction on the topics related to the experiment, in 3 to 4


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2.

OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this experiment are:
i) ...........................................................................................................
ii) ............................................................................................................................

3.

THEORY

Put some theories related to the experiment, in 3 to 4 paragraphs. You may want to
include
some
equations
or
formula
that
will
be
used
here. ..............................................................................................................................................
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4.

METHODOLOGY

4.1

Materials and Apparatus


The materials and apparatus used in this experiment are:
..........
..........
..........
..........

4.2

Procedures
1.
2. .......................................
3. .......................................
4. .......................................
5. .......................................

(For procedures, use passive sentences: The pH meter was switched on.)
(Avoid using number to start the sentences, or you may want to write as in this example:
1. Forty mL (40 mL) of NaOH was added into the beaker.

5.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The pH of the unknown acid was recorded with every 1 mL titration of NaOH, in three
replicates. The titration curves were then plotted to obtain the equivalence and halfequivalence points, as shown in Figure 1 3.
1000
100
10
1
0.1
0.01

100

10000

1000000

Fig. 1. Titration curve for replicate 1


1000
100
10
1
0.1
0.01

100

10000

1000000

Fig. 2. Titration curve for replicate 2


1000
100
10
1
0.1
0.01

100

10000

Fig. 3. Titration curve for replicate 3

1000000

In Figure 1, the equivalence point is observed at 9.5 mL addition of NaOH to the


unknown
acid.
The ................................................................................................... ...........................................
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6.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

From the findings of this experiment, it can be concluded that .......................................


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A few recommendations is suggested on the techniques employed during the
experiment. ..................................... ............................................ ...................................
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Also,
for
future
studies,
it
is
recommended
to
use
a
different
approach ......................................................................................................................................
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....... .

REFERENCES
(References below serve as examples only)
[1] Alothman M., Bhat R. and Karim A.A. (2009). Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content
of selected tropical fruits. Food Chemistry. 115, 785788.
[2] Spigno G. and De Faveri D.M. (2007). Antioxidants from grape stalks: Influence of
extraction procedure on yield, purity and antioxidant power of the extracts. Journal of Food
Engineering. 78, 793801.
[3] Michel C.M., Nesseem D.I. and Ismail M.F. (2011). Anti-diabetic activity and stability
study of the formulated leaf extract of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) wild with the influence of
seasonal variation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 133, 5362.
[4] Kumar A.Y., Nandakumar K., Handral M., Talwar, S. and Dhayabaran D. (2011).
Hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activity of stem bark extracts Erythrina indica in normal and
alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 19, 3542.
[5] Dioufa P.N., Stevanovica T. & Boutin Y. (2009).The effect of extraction process on
polyphenol content, triterpene composition and bioactivity of yellow birch extracts. Industrial
Crops and Products 30, 297-303.
[6] Peschel W., Dieckmann W., Sonnenschein M. and Plescher A. (2007). High antioxidant
potential of pressing residues from evening primrose in comparison to other oilseed cakes and
plant antioxidants. Industrial Crops and Products. 25, 4454.