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) Date: ______________

Relationship between Science (S1-3) and NSS Biology (S4-6)

S1

Science (S13)

NSS Biology (S46)

Unit in Junior Secondary

Chapter in New Senior Secondary

Science Curriculum

Mastering Biology

Introducing science

Introducing biology

Looking at living things

Introducing biology

19

Biodiversity

27

Basic genetics

2 (E2)

Human responsibilities for the


environment ()

Cells and human reproduction

The wonderful solventwater

The cell as the basic unit of life

11

Cell cycle and division

13

Reproduction in humans

1 (E2)

Human impact on the environment ()

2 (E2)

Human responsibilities for the


environment ()

S2

S3

Living things and air

10

Common acids and alkalis

11

Sensing the environment

12

A healthy body

Food and humans

Gas exchange in humans

Nutrition and gas exchange in plants

21

Photosynthesis ()

22

Respiration ()

23

Personal health

1 (E2)

Human impact on the environment ()

15

Detecting the environment

16

Coordination in humans

23

Personal health

The cell as the basic unit of life

Food and humans

Nutrition in humans

Transport in humans

23

Personal health

25

Non-infectious diseases and disease


prevention ()

13

Metals

1 (E2)

Human impact on the environment ()

14

Materials of the modern world

2 (E2)

Human responsibilities for the

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environment ()
15

Light, colour and beyond

15

Detecting the environment

NOT required in Combined Science (Biology)


E2Elective Part Book 2

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Apparatus in the laboratory

1
Vocabulary
1

Beaker

Boiling tube

Measuring cylinder

10

Reagent bottle

Bunsen burner

11

Stopper

Dropper

12

Test tube

Dropping bottle

13

Test tube holder

Filter funnel

14

Test tube rack

Flask

15

Tripod

Insulating mat

16

Wire gauze

Exercise 1
1

Write down the name of the following apparatus ().

b
c

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___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

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2

) Date: ______________

Write down the name of each part of the microscope below using the words in the box.
arm ()

base ()

clip ()

condenser ()

diaphragm () eyepiece () mirror ()

objective ()

stage ()

fine adjustment knob ()

coarse adjustment knob ()

f
g

Match the parts of a microscope with their functions by writing i to ix in the blanks below.
Parts of a microscope

Function

arm

to hold the microscope slide ()

clip

ii

to regulate () the amount of light entering the


condenser

condenser

iii

for large adjustments in focusing ()

diaphragm

iv

can be held to carry the microscope from place to place

eyepiece

a lens near the object that can magnify () the


specimen

mirror

vi

for small adjustments in focusing

objective

vii

to reflect light onto the specimen

coarse adjustment knob

viii a lens you look through that can magnify the specimen

fine adjustment knob

ix

to allow the light to focus on the specimen


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a ____ b ____ c ____ d ____ e ____ f ____ g ____ h ____ i ____

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Looking at living things

Vocabulary
1

Amphibian

13

Movement

Backbone

14

Non-flowering plant

Endangered species

15

Nutrition

Excretion

16

Organism

External feature

17

Plant

Feather

18

Reproduction

Flowering plant

19

Reptile

Growth

20

Respiration

Habitat

21

Response

10

Hair

22

Scale

11

Key

23

Vertebrate

12

Mammal

Exercise 2
1

Organisms have seven common characteristics () : _______________, _______________, ____


__________, ______________, ______________, ______________ and ______________.

Organisms are classified () mainly by their ____________________________.

Vertebrates are animals with a _________________.

Vertebrates are divided into five groups as below:


Vertebrates

a i _________ b i __________ c i __________ d i __________ e i __________


Their body surfaces have:

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a ii _________ b ii __________ c ii _________ d ii __________ e ii _________

Plants are classified into ___________________ and _____________________ plants.

A ____________ is useful for identifying () organisms.

_______________________ are those organisms that are in danger of becoming extinct ().

______________ is the place where organisms live.

Write down the groups that the following organisms belong to using the words in the box.
fish amphibians reptiles birds mammals flowering plants non-flowering plants

Cells and human reproduction

3
a ____________________

b ____________________

c ____________________

Vocabulary
1

Cell

14

Penis

Cell membrane

15

Placenta

3
4

Cell wall
d _____________________

Cytoplasm

Egg

18

Sex gland

Fertilization

19

Sexual reproduction

Heredity

20

Sperm

Implantation

21

Sperm duct

Labour

22

Testis

10

Menstruation

23

Umbilical cord

11
12

Nucleus
g ____________________

Ovary

13

Oviduct

16
e ___________________
17

24
h _____________________
25
26

Pregnancy
f ____________________
Scrotum

Urethra
i ___________________
Uterus
Vagina

Exercise 3
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1 a Label the diagram below:

) Date: ______________

iii

i
iv

ii

Which of the above structures () is found in plant cells only?


_______________________________________________________________________

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2

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Complete the following table about human sex cells.


Sex cells

Name

Organ of

production
Quantity

are produced
each day.

Special
feature

g It has a

is produced about every


28 days.

for

h It stores a lot of

swimming.

Label the male reproductive system below:

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Label the female reproductive system below:

Complete the crossword puzzle with the help of the following clues.
a the joining of male and female sex

cells

place

b the organ supplying embryo food

g the structure that controls the cell

and oxygen

activities

c the state of having an embryo


developing inside the uterus

h the basic unit of life


i

d the passing on of characteristics


from one generation to the next
e the rhythmic () muscle
contraction of the uterus to push
the baby out

the process in which the uterine lining


and the unfertilized egg are discharged

the structure that produces sperms

the structure that produces eggs

the structure that receives sperms

b
c

P
R

d
e

D
U

g
h

10

the structure in which fertilization takes

I
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k

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O
N

Respiration and photosynthesis

4
Vocabulary
1

Alcohol

Breathed air

Light energy

10

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

11

Photosynthesis

Chemical energy

12

Producer

Chlorophyll

13

Respiration

Destarching

14

Starch

Food chain

15

Unbreathed air

Iodine solution

Exercise 4
1

Breathed air contains more _____________________ but less _____________________ than


unbreathed air.

We get energy from _____________________.

_____________________ is the process by which organisms release _____________________


energy from food through a series of reactions ().

Respiration takes place in __________________.

During photosynthesis, __________________ energy from the sun is converted () into


chemical energy by plants.

Below is the word equation () of photosynthesis.


light
Carbon dioxide + __________________

food + __________________
________________

Water, __________________, __________________ and __________________ are

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necessary for photosynthesis.
8

) Date: ______________

__________________ is the ultimate () source of energy.

9 In food chains, plants are the __________________ which can produce their own food.
10 The process of removing starch, without damaging the plants is called __________________.
11 The following steps show the test for starch in green leaves.

Step 1

Step 2

hot water

leaf
boiling water

Boil a leaf in water for a minute. This

Put the leaf into a boiling tube of warm

__________________ the leaf.

___________________ in a water bath. This can


remove the ________________________ from the
leaf.

Step 3

Step 4

decolourized leaf
white tile

12

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hot water

Dip the leaf into hot water again to

Spread the leaf onto a white tile. Add a few drops of

__________________ it.

________________ solution to the leaf to test

for

the presence of starch. A __________________


colour shows a positive result.

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Gaseous exchange in animals and


plants

Vocabulary

Air sac

Lung

Bronchus

Nasal cavity

Contract

Nose

Diaphragm

10

Relax

Hydrogencarbonate

11

Rib

indicator

12

Thoracic cavity

Intercostal muscle

13

Trachea

Exercise 5
1

14

Label the human breathing system below:

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h
d
i

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The following diagrams show the breathing mechanism () of humans. Complete the
sentences using the words in the box.
contract

relax

upwards

downwards

increases

decreases

flattens

dome shape () lower

When we breathe IN,

When we breathe OUT,

the intercostal muscles ____________.

higher

the intercostal muscles ______________.


Ribs move ________________ and

________________.

________________.

the f

diaphragm ________________.

outwards

Ribs move ________________ and

b The diaphragm muscles contract and

The volume of the thoracic cavity

d The lungs expand. The air pressure in

The diaphragm muscles relax and the


diaphragm returns to _______________.

________________.

16

inwards

The volume of the thoracic cavity


________________.

theh

The lungs contract. The air pressure in


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lungs is ________________ than
the
the lungs is ________________ than the
atmospheric pressure ().

atmospheric pressure. Air is forced out of

Air goes into the lungs.

the lungs.

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3

) Date: ______________

Answer the following questions by referring to the experiment below.

bench lamp

leaf

aluminium foil

hydrogencarbonate
indicator

After several hours, the colours of the hydrogencarbonate indicator in the test tubes are
observed. Complete the following table.

Before the experiment


After the experiment
b

Tube A

Tube B

Tube C

orange

orange

orange

ii

iii

From the above results, we see that plants take in ____________________________ under
sunlight.

18

Plants carry out ____________________________ both in daytime and at night.

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Sensing the environment

6
Vocabulary
A Biological terms
1

Blind spot

12

Light sensitive cell

Brain

13

Long sight

Cerebellum

14

Medulla

Cerebrum

15

Nerve impulse

Choroid

16

Optic nerve

Colour blindness

17

Pupil

Conjunctiva

18

Retina

Cornea

19

Sclera

Eye defect

20

Sense

10

Iris

21

Sense organ

11

Lens

22

Short sight

B Common expressions
Example
refract ()

The curved surface of cornea helps refract light into the eye.

focus ()

The lens focuses light onto the retina.


... transmit ()...

The optic nerve transmits nerve impulses to the brain.


C Common misspelt words


choroid

X chloroid

lens

X len

blind spot

X bind spot

impulse

X impluse

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20

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Exercise 6A
1

Label the human eye below:

Match the different parts of a human eye with their functions by writing i to ix in the blanks below.
Parts of a human eye

Function

conjunctiva

to regulate the size of pupil

cornea

ii

contains light sensitive cells

lens

iii

to protect the cornea

pupil

iv

to reduce the reflection of light inside the eye

iris

to allow light to enter the eye

retina

vi

to maintain the shape of eyeball

choroid

vii

to refract and focus light onto the retina

sclera

viii to transmit nerve impulses to the brain

optic nerve

ix

a layer behind conjunctiva and helps refract light

a _____ b _____ c _____ d _____ e _____ f _____ g _____ h _____ i _____

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Instructional words
Instructional word

Meaning / Requirement

Explain / Account for ()

Give reasons for

Name / Label ( )

Give the name(s) of (no need to explain or describe but


spelling must be correct)

Using the letters in the diagram

Just give the letters in the diagram instead of writing the

()

name of the structure

Exercise 6B
The diagram below shows the structures of the human brain.

Name structures A, B and C.


___________________________________________________________________________

What are their main functions?


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Heroin ( ) is a pain-killer ( ) that affects the function of the brain. Using the letters in
the diagram, state the part of the brain that heroin has its effect on? Explain your answer.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

22

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Food substances

Vocabulary
A Biological terms
1

Albustix paper

Balanced diet

Calcium

Carbohydrate

Clinistix paper

Constipation

Deficiency disease

Dietary fibre

Energy requirement

10

Energy value

11

Fat

12

Food pyramid

13

Glucose

14

Goitre

15

Iodine test

16

Kwashiorkor

17

Mineral

18

Night blindness

19

Protein

20

Rickets

21

Scurvy

22

Spot test

23

Starch

24

Translucent spot

25

Vitamin

B Common misspelt words


dietary fibre

X diary fibre / daily fibre

cellulose

X cellose

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Exercise 7A
1

Fill in the blanks below.


Food substance
Glucose

Food test
a

Positive result

Using ________________

paper
c

Starch

The test paper changes from


pink to _______________.

________________ test

The solution changes from


brown to _______________.

Fat

________________ test

A _____________________
is left.

Protein

Using ________________

paper

The test paper changes from


yellow to _______________.

Complete the crossword puzzle with the help of the following clues.
Across

Down

a a deficiency disease caused by a

lack of vitamin C in the diet


b a mineral that is essential for the

calcium in the diet


ii a food substance needed for growth and

formation of bones and teeth


c a type of food substance. Iron is an

a deficiency disease caused by a lack of

repair of body tissues


iii a solution which can be used to test for

example

the presence of starch

d stored under skin to keep us warm


e a deficiency disease caused by a
lack of dietary fibres in the diet

ii

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iii

25

Class: ____________Name: _________________________ (


d

) Date: ______________

F
O

O
D

26

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Instructional words
Instructional word
Calculate ()

Meaning / Requirement
Find out the answer by working with numbers (remember to
give a unit to the answer; study the question carefully to see
whether you are required to show the steps)

Suggest ( / )

Put forward ideas, hypotheses, thoughts

Exercise 7B
The table below shows the daily energy requirements of different people.

Person

Age

Gender

Occupation

Daily energy requirement (kJ)

female

pupil

6000

15

male

student

9300

25

female

office worker

8000

25

male

office worker

10 900

25

male

labourer

14 800

Given that the energy value of potato is 300 kJ / 100 g. Calculate the amount of potato that
person B should take if he feeds on potato alone to satisfy his daily energy requirement. Show
your steps.

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
2

Why should not persons A and B feed on potato alone?

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
3

The daily energy requirement of person E is much higher than that of person D. Calculate and
account for the difference.

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

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4 Persons C and D are at the same age and have the same occupation but person D requires more
energy than person C. Suggest a reason for it.

_______________________________________________________________________

28

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Human digestive system

8
Vocabulary
A Biological terms
1

Alimentary canal

11

Glucose

Amino acid

12

Glycerol

Carbohydrate

13

Large intestine

Churn

14

Oesophagus

Digestion

15

Protein

Digestive juice

16

Saliva

Digestive system

17

Small intestine

Enzyme

18

Starch

Fat

19

Stomach

Fatty acid

20

Villus

10

B Common expressions
Example
secrete ()

Stomach secretes digestive juices.


digest ()

An enzyme in saliva digests starch.


is absorbed ()

The digested food is absorbed into the blood.


is swallowed ()

The chewed food is swallowed down the oesophagus.


is broken down into ()

Starch is broken down into glucose.


is used for ()

Amino acids are used for growth and repair.


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C Common misspelt words


pancreas

X pancrease

enzyme

X emzyme

30

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Exercise 8A
1

The human digestive system consists of an __________________________________ as well as


some organs that secrete ____________________________.

Digestion begins in the ______________. An ______________ in saliva digests starch in food.

After chewing, muscles in the _________________ contract to push food down to the stomach.

The stomach secretes digestive juice to digest _______________ in food. ________________ is


also present to kill the germs.

The ________________________________ completes the digestion of starch, proteins and fats.


It absorbs digested food and most water through its wall into the ________________.

After digestion, starch is broken down into __________________, proteins are broken down into
________________ and fats are broken down into _______________ and ________________.

The small intestine ________________ digested food. Its wall has many tiny finger-like
projections called _________________.

After absorption, amino acids are used for _______________ and _______________.

Label the human digestive system below:

a
b

g
e
h

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Instructional words
Instructional word

Meaning / Requirement

Explain / Account for ()

Give reasons for

Name / Label ()

Give the name(s) of (no need to explain or describe but


spelling must be correct)

Describe ()

Give an account of (no need to mention the cause or the


reason)

State ( / )

Answer briefly () and to the point in the form of


statements or a list

Exercise 8B
The diagram below shows a part of the human digestive system.

Explain why digestion is necessary in humans.


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Name the secretion from the mouth that can digest food.
______________________________________________________________________________

Describe how A can help digest food.


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

State one function of B that is not related to digestion.


______________________________________________________________________________

32

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Human circulatory system

9
Vocabulary
A Biological terms
1

Artery

Auricle

Blood pressure

Blood vessel

Capillary

Chamber

Circulatory system

Heart

Heart string

10

Heartbeat rate

11

Muscular wall

12

Septum

13

Valve

14

Vein

15

Ventricle

B Common expressions
Example
pump ()

The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs.


flow ()

When both auricles and ventricles relax, blood flows into the
heart.

contract ()
relax ()

When the auricles relax, blood flows into them. Then the
auricles contract, squeezing the blood into the ventricles.

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C Common misspelt words


aorta

X arota

artery

X artary

capillary

X capiliary

34

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Exercise 9A
1

Our circulatory system consists of ________________ as the transport medium,


____________________________ as the network of tubes and the _______________ as the
pump of the system.

There are three types of blood vessels. They are __________________, __________________
and _________________.

The _______________ carry blood towards the heart.

The heart pumps blood through the _________________ to the body.

The _________________ keep blood flowing in one direction only.

The ________________________ of the heart has the thickest wall.

The valves are held by the heart _________________.

The _______________________ of the heart pumps blood around the body while the
_______________________ pumps blood to the lungs.

The space inside the heart is divided into two sides by a thick wall of muscle called the
_________________.

10 Label the human heart below:

d
a
e
b
f
c
g

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Instructional words
Instructional word
Compare ()

Meaning / Requirement
Give the similarities and differences (sometimes it is
more appropriate to use comparative words like greater,
thicker, larger, etc.)

Briefly ()

Give a short statement of the main points only


(e.g. briefly describe, briefly explain)

Using the letters in the diagram

Just give the letters in the diagram instead of writing the

()

name of the structure

Exercise 9B
The diagram below shows the vertical section of a human heart.

B
C

Using the letters in the diagram, give the parts that can contract.
______________________________________________________________________________

Compare the compositions of blood in chambers X and Y.


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Name the blood vessel which has blood at the highest pressure. Briefly explain your answer.
______________________________________________________________________________

36

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______________________________________________________________________________

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Vocabulary

Carbon dioxide

Tripod

Constipation
Stomach
Plancenta

Large intestine
Cerebrum

Iris

Glucose

Test tube

Test tube holder

Test tube rack

Stopper

Reagent bottle

Food chain

Stage

Nerve impulse

Septum

Cerebellum

Oesophagus

Insulating mat

Flask

Boiling tube
Uterus

Mammal

Alimentary canal

Dropping bottle

Labour

Trachea

Dropper

Chemical energy

Air sac

Filter funnel

Mirror

Oxygen

Testis

Thoracic cavity

Response

Auricle

Choroid

Ventricle

Energy value

Heart

Energy requirement

Hydrogencarbon

Backbone

ate indicator

Vertebrate

Alcohol

Vitamin

Condenser

Enzyme

Artery

Long sight

Eyepiece

Nasal cavity

Menstruation
Bronchus

Bunsen burner

Glycerol

Organism
Producer

Objective

Carbohydrate

Sperm

Reproduction

Excretion

Habitat

Eye defect

Coarse adjustment knob

Cell

Nucleus

Photosynthesis

Cell membrane

Light energy

Cytoplasm

Oviduct

Goitre

Diaphragm

Diaphragm
Starch

Cell wall

Sperm duct

Destarching

Heredity

Vein

Sexual reproduction

Flowering plant

38

Sclera

Protein

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Contract

Rib

Intercostal muscle

Penis

Vagina

Scrotum

Colour

blindness
Blood

vessel

Saliva

Circulatory system

Lens

Rickets

Implantation

Egg

Non-flowering plant

Ovary

Cornea

Conjunctiva

Balanced diet

Pupil

Arm

Deficiency disease

Key

Umbilical cord

Scurvy

Pregnancy

Endangered species

Villus

Chamber

Optic nerve

Amphibian

Fertilization

Retina

Breathed air

Measuring cylinder

Respiration

Medulla

Sex glands

Fine adjustment knob

Reptile

Light sensitive cell

Blind spot

Relax

Mineral

Wire gauze

Churn

Scale

Sense

Lung

Sense organ

Short sight

Iodine solution

Iodine test

Chlorophyll

Answers
Exercise 1 (p. 2)
1

a wire gauze

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tripod

39

c Bunsen burner

e boiling tube

test tube rack

g filter funnel

beaker

i measuring cylinder

flask

a eyepiece

objective

d stage

mirror

g fine adjustment knob

arm

j base

diaphragm

a iv

c ix

g v

iii

test tube

clip
coarse adjustment knob
i

ii

e viii

condenser
f

vii

vi

Exercise 2 (p. 4)
1

growth, nutrition, respiration, movement, response, excretion, reproduction

external features

backbone

a i

fish

d i

birds

a ii

slimy scales

d ii

feathers

b i
e

amphibians

c i

reptiles

mammals

b ii
e

ii

moist skin

ii hard dry scales

birds

hair

flowering, non-flowering

key

Endangered species

Habitat

a mammals

fish

d mammals

flowering plants

g reptiles

mammals

amphibians

non-flowering plants

Exercise 3 (p. 6)
1

a i

nucleus

iii
b
2

40

cell membrane

ii cytoplasm
iv

cell wall

Cell wall

a sperm

egg

c testis

ovary

e Many

One

g tail

food

a sperm duct

urethra

c scrotum

sex glands

e penis

testis

a ovary

uterus

c oviduct

vagina
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E

A C

N T

R E

E D

N A

C Y

T Y

F
L

P
c
d

H
e

A B

U R

U C

C L

E L

L
A

h
i

N S

R U

S T

V A

U S

M
j

T
k
l

Exercise 4 (p. 9)
1

carbon dioxide, oxygen

2 food

Respiration, chemical

cells

light

water, chlorophyll, oxygen

carbon dioxide, chlorophyll, light

producers

11

Step 1

kills

Step 2

alcohol, chlorophyll

Step 3

soften

Step 4

iodine, blue-black

8 Sun
10

destarching

Exercise 5 (p. 11)


1

a nose

intercostal muscle

d air sac

nasal cavity

g lung

rib

a contract, upwards, outwards

flattens

c increases

lower

e relax, downwards, inwards

dome shape

g decreases

higher

a i

purple

ii

yellow

c bronchus
f

trachea

i diaphragm

iii orange

b carbon dioxide
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c respiration

Exercise 6A (p. 15)


1

a conjunctiva

cornea

d lens

iris

g choroid

retina

a iii

ix

c vii

d v

g iv

vi

i viii

j
2

42

pupil
sclera

blind spot

optic nerve
ii

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Exercise 6B (p. 16)


1

a A cerebrum
B cerebellum
C medulla
b

Cerebrum is the site of intelligence.


Cerebellum coordinates muscular movements.
Medulla controls involuntary actions.

A.
The cerebrum receives impulses from receptors and give sensations such as pain.

Exercise 7A (p. 18)


1

a Clinistix paper

purple

c Iodine test

d blue-black

e Spot

f translucent spot

g Albustix

green

2
a

R
I
b

K
c

ii

P
R

iii

O
e

N
E

Exercise 7B (p. 19)


1

(9300 / 300 100) g = 3100 g = 3.1 kg


He should take 3.1 kg of potato.

They are at the age of active growth and they need a lot of proteins.

(14 800 10 900) kJ = 3900 kJ


Person E needs to do heavy manual work which involves a lot of muscular movements.

Person D is a male who has more muscles to contract.

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Exercise 8A (p. 21)


1

alimentary canal, digestive juices

mouth, enzyme

oesophagus

proteins, Acid

small intestine, blood

glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol

absorbs, villi

growth, repair

a mouth

salivary gland

c oesophagus

d liver

small intestine

g pancreas

44

stomach

large intestine

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Exercise 8B (p. 22)


1

The food eaten by us is too large to pass through the wall of the small intestine. Digestion makes the
food suitable for absorption.

2
3

Saliva
Stomach (A) churns and mixes the food with digestive juice. The digestive juice contains enzymes to
digest proteins and acids to kill germs in the food.

Absorption of food

Exercise 9A (p. 24)


1

blood, blood vessels, heart

arteries, veins, capillaries

veins

arteries

valves

left ventricle

strings

left ventricle, right ventricle

septum

10

a right auricle

septum

c right ventricle

left auricle

e valve

heart string

g left ventricle

Exercise 9B (p. 25)


1

B, D, E and G

The oxygen content of blood in X is lower than that in Y.


The carbon dioxide content of blood in X is higher than that in Y.

Aorta. The left ventricle of the heart has the thickest wall and produces the greatest blood pressure to
pump blood around the body.

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