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This Book Is Intended For The Aspirants Of Various Examinations Such As UPSC, PSC, PCS, SSC, IBPS, RRB, SBI etc.
This Book Contains A Huge Collection Of Questions Asked In Various Examinations
With Their Solutions.
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OBJECTIVE MATHEMATICS

For all competitive Exams

J. P. Dixit

by J. P. Dixit

Amar Ujala Publications Ltd.

Published by Amar Ujala Publications Ltd.

and printed at Microtone Printec Pvt. Ltd., B-45, Okhla

Industrial Area, Fase-I, New Delhi-110020

Second Edition : 2013

Price : ` 350/ISBN : 978-93-82948-10-0

z

Due care and diligence has been taken while publishing this

book. However, the publisher does not hold any responsibility

for any mistake that may have inadvertently crept in. The publisher does not accept responsibility for any loss arising out of

the use of this book.

All rights reserved. Neither this publication nor any part of it may

be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission

of the publisher.

courts and forums in Noida only.

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Number Series

Numbers or Number System

Decimal Fraction

Simplification

Problem Based on Numbers

Surds or Radicals

H.C.F. and L.C.M.

Square Roots and Cube Roots

Average

Profit and Loss

True Discount/Discount

Percentage

Simple Interest

Compound Interest

Alligation or Mixture

Ratio and Proportion

Partnership

Time and Work

Time and Distance

Problem on Trains

Boat and Stream

Pipes and Cistern

Area and Perimeter

Volume and Surface Areas (3-Dimensial Figures)

Problems Based on Ages

Stock and Shares

Races and Games

Clocks

Calendar

Tabulation

Bar - Graphs

Pie - Diagram

Line Graphs

Statistics

Permutations and Combinations

Probability

Trigonometry

Height and Distance

15

33

46

62

82

98

111

120

132

146

164

175

193

205

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247

257

272

285

299

305

315

337

364

378

387

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437

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461

467

474

488

Preface

This book is intended for the aspirants of various preliminary as well as final competitive examinations conducted by different service selection commissions and boards

such as UPSC, PSC, PCS, SSC, IBPS, RRB, SBI and managements institutes.

The book contains a huge collection of questions asked in respective examinations

and these questions are solved by shortcut as well as fundamental methods. Nowadays

although short cut methods are required for solving question papers within given time but

fundamental methods are absolutely essential for learning mathematics.

I strongly believe that students learn mathematics well only when they construct their

own mathematical thinking. Information can be transmitted from books to the needful but

mathematical understanding and knowledge come from within the learner as that individual explores, discovers, and makes connections. This understanding is developed

only by clearing the basics of mathematics.

Keeping this in mind due weightage is given to the fundamental and explanatory methods.

Consequently this book does not simply provide content; rather, it facilitates

readers construction of their own knowledge of mathematics.

Here are the salient features of the book:

z

The syllabus and question pattern of almost all the popular exams is covered.

methods according to the needs of examinees and fitting in demand of the particular

question.

questions are included.

z

10 to 15 new questions from the latest examinations are added in the beginning of the

each chapter.

Three new chapters on calendar, Trigonometry and Height and Distance are added.

SSC-FCI

Total No. of

Question

Question of

math

Separate paper

50

Area of Priority

concepts

Number theory: Divisibility, remainders

LCM and HCF, Fractions-comparisons. Basic

Maths: Simplification (BODMAS) Surds,

indices, Roots, squares, Cubes Algebra:

Linear equation, Quadratic equations,

Polynomials, Avg and Ratios Mean, Median,

Mode Wine-Water mix ture (Allegations,

Weighted avg.) Ratio-Proportion-variations,

Partnership STD, Time speed distance,

Trains, plat forms, Boats-streams, Time and

Work,

Pipes and Cisterns Geometry:

Angles, sides, bisectors, circles etc.

Mensuration (area, volume, perimeter)

Trigonometry, Basic % (increase, decrease in

consumption, population) Data-interpretation

cases. Profit, loss, discount, marked price.

Simple and compound interest rate PCP,

Permutation, Combination,

Probability,

Coordinate

Geometry

Progression:

Arithmetic+ Geometry Logarithms.

Separate paper

50 (I)

100 (II)

RBI Grade -B

200

30

and Volume Combination, Probability

Civil Services

(Pre) II

80

7-10

CAT

Separate paper

30

Geometry, Ratio & Proportion, Quadratic

equations, Prime number Permutation Combinations,

BODMAS,

HCF

and

LCM,Data Sufficiency, Data] Interpretation,

Probability

Geometry Ratios and Proportion, Ratios,

Quadratic

Probability,

Permutations

Combinations and linear equations, Algebra,

Profit-Loss,

Averages,

Percentages,

Partnership Number system: HCF, LCM,

Geometric

Progression,

Arithmetic

Progression, Arithmetic mean, Geometric

mean, Harmonic mean, Median, Mode,

Number Base System and BODMAS etc.

NDA

(I) and (II)

Separate paper

120

of sets, Venn Diagrams, De Morgan laws.

Complex number-basic propeties, MATRICES and DETERMINANTS : Types of matrices, Operations on Matrices, Determinant of

a matrix, Basic properties of determinants

TRIGONOMETRY: Angles and their measures in degrees and in radians,

Trigonometrical ratios. Trigonometric identities. Sum and difference formulae. Multiple

and Sub multiple angles. Etc. ANALYTICAL

GEOMETRY OF TWO AND THREE DIMENSION:Rectangular Cartesian coordinate

System. Equation of a line in various forms.

Angle between two lines. Distance of point

from a line. Equation of a circle in stan

dard and in general form. Eccentricity and

axis of a conic. Etc.DIFFERETIAL

CALCULUS: Concept of real value function.

Composite range and graph of a function.

Composite functions, One to One and inverse

INTEGRAL CALCULUS AND DIFFER

ENTIAL EQUATION: Integration as inverse of

differentiation, integration by substitution and

by parts, standard integrals involving algebraic expressions, Evaluation of definite integrals- determination of areas of plane regions

bounced by curves applications.VECTOR

ALGEBRA: Vectors in two and three dimensions, Magnitude and direction of a vectors,

Scalar Multiplication of a vector, Scalar product or dot prodct of two vectors. Vector product or cross product of two vectors. Etc. STATICTICS AND PROBABILITY: Classification

of data, Frequency distribution, Cumulative

frequency, Histogram, Pie Chart, Frequency

Polygon, Measures of Central tendecymean, median, mode. Random experiment,

Outcomes and associated sample space,

events, mutually exclusive and exhaustive

events. Impossible and certain Events. Union

and Intersection and composite events.

Complementary, Elementary and com

posite events. Elementary theorems on probability, Bayes theorem- Simple Problems.

Random variable as function on a sample

space. Etc.

CDS- (I) (II)

Separate Paper

100

Fundamental

Operations

addition,

Subtraction, Multiplication, division, Square

time and distance, time and work, percentages, applications to simple and compound

interest, profit and loss, ratio and proportion,

variation etc.

ALGEBRA: Concept of set, Operations of

sets, Venn Diagrams, De Morgan laws.

Complex number-basic proper

t i e s ,

H.C.F., L.C.M., theory of polynomials, solution of quadratic equations, relation between

its roots and coefficients, Simultaneous linear

equations in two unknown-analytical and

Graphical solution. Etc.

TRIGONOMETRY: sine x, cosine x, Tangent

x when 0 <x< 90 Values of sin x, cos x and

tan x, for x=0, 30,45, 60, and 90 . Simple

trigonometry identities. Use of trigonometric

tables. Simple cases of Heights and distances.

GEOMETRY: Line and angles, plane and

plane figures. Theorems on properties of

angles at a point, parallel lines, sides and

angles of a triangle, Congruency of triangles,

Similar triangles, Concurrence of medians

and altitudes, properties of diagonals of a par

allelogram, rectangle and squares, diagonals

of a parallelogram, rectangle and square,

Circle and its properties including tangents

and normal's etc.

MENSURATION: Area of squares, rectangles, parallelograms, triangle and circle.

Areas of figures which can be split up into

these figure, Surface area and Volume of

cuboids, lateral surface and volume of right

circular cones and cylinders, Surface area

and volume of spheres.

STATISTICS: Collection and tabulation of statistical data, Graphical representation, frequency polygons, histograms, bar charts, pie

charts etc. Measures of central tendency.

NUMBERS OR NUMBER

SYSTEM

BASIC FORMULAE

b)2

a2

b2

(a +

=

+ 2ab +

(a b)2 = a2 2ab + b2

a2 b2 = (a + b) (a b)

(a + b)2 (a b)2 = 4ab

(a + b)2 + (a b)2 = 2 (a2 + b2)

(a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca

a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 ab + b2)

a3 b3 = (a b) (a2 + ab + b2)

l

l

l

l

l

l

+ c2 ab bc ca)

l If a + b + c = 0 then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc.

l

a + b + c = 0 then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc.

SIMPLIFICATION

l

SURDS OR REDICALS

Law of Radicals

The law of indices which are applicable to the

surds also are :

( x)

n

(ii)

(iii)

a if a > o

|a| = a if a < o

x .n y

x

=

y

( x)

(iv)

m n

(v)

=x

xy =

x =

xm

mn

x =n

a b

Law of Surds

(vi) The conjugate surds of

are to be executed, so as to find the value

of a given expression

n B stands for = Bracket

n O stands for = Of

n D stands for = Division

n M stands for = Multiplication

n A stands for =Addition

n S stands for = Subtraction

l Brackets are of four types and they are

operate in the following order,

l Bar or line, (), {}, []

l Thus the complete order of operation will be

, (), {}, [] of , , +,

l Order of + and can be interchanged or

they can be operated simultaneously too.

Modulus of a Real Number : Modulus of

a real number a is defined as

(i)

a + b is+

a+ b = c+ d

(vii) If

Then, a c and b= d

a a

(viii)

(ix)

a a

(x) If

Then,

a...... = a

1

a..... n times = a1 n

2

a+ a+

a...... = x

x(x 1) = a

Method of Prime factors

Write each of the given number as Product

of Prime factors

l Find the product of the highest powers of

all the factors that occur in the given

numbers

l This product, then, is the required L.C.M. of

the given numbers

l

(2)

Important Formulae

H.C.F. of Numerators

H.C.F. = L.C.M. of Denominators

L.C.M. of Numerators

L.C.M. = H.C.F. of Denominators

l L.C.M. of (a, b) H.C.F. of (a, b) = (a b)

l If a number N, when divided by x, y or z leaves

respective remainder P in each case then N is

of the form K L.C.M. of (x, y, z) + P

AVERAGE

Average of Position includes Median and Mode.

l Arithmetic Average is used of all averages.

for example: average income, average profit,

average age, average marks etc.

l It is defined as the sum of all values of items

divided by the total number of items.

l In Individual series.

Average =

Sum of observations

Number of observations

x1 + x2 + x3 ........... + xn

n

l In Discreate series

x =

Or

x1 f1 + x2 f 2 + ........... + xn f n

f1 + f 2 + ........... + f n

l Geometric Mean : Geometric Mean of x1, x2

.....xn is denoted by

Loss % =

(v)

S.P. =

(100 + Gain%)

C.P.

100

(vi)

S.P. =

(100 Loss%)

C.P.

100

(vii)

C.P. =

100

S.P.

(100 + Gain%)

100

S.P.

(100 Loss%)

(ix) If an article is sold at a gain of 35% then

S.P. = 135% of C.P.

(x) If an article is sold at a loss of 20% then

S.P. = 80% of C.P.

(xi) When a person sells two similar items,

one at a gain of say, x% and the other at

a loss of x %, then the seller always incurs a loss given by :

(viii)

C.P. =

Error

l

G.M. = n x1 x2 ....... xn

l Harmonic Mean : Harmonic Mean of x1, x2

.....xn is denoted by

(i.e. the cost price are equal) and one sold

at a profit of x1% and the second is sold at

a profit of x2%, then the overall percentage

of profit

x1 + x2

= 2 100 %

H.M =

Formulae :

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Loss = C.P. S.P.

Gain 100

Gain % =

C.P.

Loss% =

=

10

10

(xii) If a trader professes to sell his goods at

C.P., but uses false weights, then

x =

1 1

1

1

+ ......... +

+

n x1 x2

xn

l Mean : Relation among AM, GM and HM

(GM)2 = (AM) (HM)

Loss 100

C.P.

(iv)

TRUE DISCOUNT/

DISCOUNT

l

MP SP

100

MP

l T.D. = Interest on the P. W. at a given rate

(r) and time (t)

Discount % =

T.D. =

P.W. r t

100

Important Formulae

(3)

100 T.D.

+ T. D.

r t

P.W. r t

= P. W. +

100

100

+ 1

= T.D.

r t

r t

= P. W. 1 +

100

100 + r t

= T.D.

r t

100 r t

= P. W.

100

100 S.D.

P.W. =

100 + r t

Also S. D. = P. W. + T. D.

100 T.D.

P.W. =

r t

S. D. = P. W. + T. D.

A r t

100 + r t

When the sum is put at compound interest,

T.D. =

then P.W =

S.I.T.D

Sum =

S.I. T.D.

Amount

t

1 +

100

S. I. T. D. = S. I. on T. D.

PERCENTAGE

Fractional Equivalents of Important Percentages

1% =

1

= 0.01

100

2% =

1

= 0.02

50

4% =

1

= 0.04

25

8% =

2

= 0.08

25

16% =

4

25

64% =

16

= 0.64

25

96% =

24

= 0.96

25

5% =

1

= 0.05

20

10% =

1

= 0.1

10

20% =

1

5

40% =

2

= 0.4

5

60% =

3

= 0.6

5

80% =

4

5

120% =

6

= 1.2

5

25% =

1

= 0.25

4

3

1

37 % =

8

2

50% =

1

= 0.5

2

2

1

16 % =

3

6

1

1

33 % =

3

3

1

1

12 % = = 0.125

8

2

100% = 1

1

5

83 % = = 0.833

3

6

1

1

8 % =

3

12

1

1

6 % =

16

4

7

1

87 % =

8

2

2

2

66 % =

3

3

1

4

133 % =

3

3

Actual increase

(i) Percentage increase = Original quantity 100

Actual decrease

(ii) Percentage decrease = Original quantity 100

(iii) If percentage increase is x% then the new value

x

= 1 + 100 initial value

(iv) If x1, x2, x3, x4........are successive percentage of

change, then

(initial vlaue)

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