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# Fixed

structure
N turns
lg

a
2a

x= 0
Nonmagnetic
bushing
material
( r 1)
Movable plunger
Spring

Agenda:
Relay Basic Definition
Types in terms of Poles & Working
Types in terms of Characteristic
Types in terms of logic
Relay Symbol & Circuit
Examples

12/3/2016

## A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet

to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating
principles are also used.
Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power
signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled
circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.
Relay can be operate AC/DC supply
1. 5-110VDC (Major)
2. 12-230VAC (Major)

In terms of pole
1. Single Pole Single Throw (SPST)
2. Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT)
3. Double Pole Single Throw (DPST)
4. Double Pole Double Throw (DPDT)
In terms of working (Major)
1. Thermal relay
2. Microprocessor based
3. Electromagnetic relay
4. Numerical relay

## Based on Characteristic the protection relay can be categorized as

1. Definite time Relays
2. Inverse time Relays with definite minimum time(IDMT)
3. Instantaneous Relays
6. Programmed Switches
7. Voltage restraint; over current relay
Based on actuating parameter the protection relay can be
categorized as
1.Current Relays
2. Voltage Relays
3. Frequency Relays
4. Power Factor Relays etc.

## Based on of logic the protection relay can be categorized as

1. Differential
2. Unbalance (V,I)
3. Neutral Displacement
4. Directional (Phase Sequence)
5. Restricted Earth Fault
6. Over Fluxing (OV,LF)
7. Distance Schemes
8. Bus bar Protection
9. Reverse Power Relays
10.Loss of excitation (Generator)
11.Negative Phase Sequence Relays etc.
Based on application the protection relay can be categorized as
1.Primary Relay
2. Backup Relay

NO

## Make, or normally open (NO) relay

or single-pole, single throw, SPSTNO
Break, or normally closed (NC) relay
or single-pole, single throw, SPSTNC

NC

NC

## Break, make or single-pole, double throw

SPDT (B-M), or transfer

NO
NC
NO
NC

CT

## Make, break, or make-before-break or

single-pole, double throw SPDT (M-B),
or transfer, or continually transfer

NO
i

## Basic operation of the electromechanical relay: The (small) coil

current i causes the relay to close (or open) and enables
.
(interrupts) the larger current, I
On the left: SPSTNO relay (magnetic field causes relay to close).
On the right: SPSTNC relay (magnetic field causes relay to open).

## Some examples of Mechanical Relay are:

1. Thermal
(a) OT Trip (Oil Temperature Trip)
(b) WT Trip (Winding Temperature Trip)
(C) Bearing Temp Trip etc.
2. Float Type
(a) Buchholz
(b) OSR (Overdrive Sequencer Relay)
(c) PRV (Xmer).
(d) Water level Controls etc.
3. Pressure Switches (Xmer).
4. Mechanical Interlocks (CB with other CB).
5. Pole discrepancy Relay (CB).

Thank you
12/3/2016 ABHISHEK KUMAR
GOYAL BE /MBA / PGDBA

12/3/2016

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