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,

By

Quetta

II

III

IV

VI

AND

WHAT

SO

EVER

HE

HATH

CREATED FOR YOU IN THE EARTH


OF

DIVERSE

IS

INDEED

HUES,
A

LO!

PORTENT

THERE
FOR

PEOPLE WHO TAKE HEED.


(Al Quran, Nahal:13)

VII

Chapters

Contents
Page

VIII

IX

XI

XII

XIII

XIV

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Background Information

Background Information

Background Information

10

Background Information





11

Background Information

12

Background Information

13

Background Information




14

Background Information

15

Background Information

16

Background Information

17

Background Information

18

Background Information



19

Background Information

20

Background Information

21

Literature Review

22

Literature Review

23

Literature Review

24

Literature Review


25

Literature Review

26

Literature Review

27

Literature Review

28

Literature Review



29

Literature Review

30

Literature Review



31

Literature Review



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Literature Review




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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review







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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

47

Literature Review

48

Literature Review

49

Conjecture of Charge Quantization

50

Conjecture of Charge Quantization

51

Conjecture of Charge Quantization

52

Conjecture of Charge Quantization


ch arg e

p=

53

Conjecture of Charge Quantization

k=

h
=
2

p q .m = k

54

Conjecture of Charge Quantization

c =

55

Conjecture of Charge Quantization



56

Conjecture of Charge Quantization

57

Conjecture of Charge Quantization




58

Conjecture of Charge Quantization

59

Fractional Quantum States

H = E

60

Fractional Quantum States

= R ( r )Yl m ( , ) = R ( r ) l ( ) ( )

2 1 2
1

1
2
{
r
}
+
{sin
}
+
+ V = E (1)

2
2
2
2
2
2m r r
r

r sin
r sin

For water molecule we takeV =

eQ
4 r

and = constant, which leads to

=0

= R (r ) ( )

meQ sin 2 2mE sin 2 2


1 d 2
2 1 d
2 dR
+
=

sin

{
r
}
}r {
}r (2)
{
2
2
2

d
dr 2

R dr

me Q sin 2
1 =

2 h 2

1 =

2mE sin 2

h2

61

Fractional Quantum States

dR
1 d 2
sin 2 2 d 2 R
=

+ 2r } + 1 r 1 r 2 (3)
{r
2
2
d
R
dr
dr
Equating left hand side of Eq(3) to a constant
1 d 2
= - m12 = cons tan t
d 2
or
d 2
= m12 (3a )
2
d
with its solution as

= Ae im (3b)

m1 = 0,1

62

Fractional Quantum States

dR
sin 2 2 d 2 R
2
2
+ 2r
+ 1r 1 r = m
r
R dr
dr

=
=

1
sin 2

sin 2

r2

d 2R
dR
+ 2r
rR + r 2 R R = 0 (3c)
2
dr
dr

m2

sin 2


A series

solution

of the type

R =

n=0

s employed

63

c n r n (4)

Fractional Quantum States

(n + 2)(n + 1)cn+2 r

n+2

n =0

+ 2 (n + 1)cn+1r
n =0

n +1

cn r n
n =0

n =0

n =0

cn r n+1 + cn r n+2 = 0

Cn+2 =

(n + 2)(n + 1)

cn (5)

For different exponents of n, we get the values of c or c1.


After separating c and c1for different exponents of r,

we get three possible soultions of R, .i.e.,


.

R =

2 n

(6 a )

( 2 n )!

( 1) n+ 2

n=0

( 2 n + 1 )!

R =

n=0

R =

( 1) n +1

( ) n

n=0

n ! 2

2 n +1

(6b )

(6 c )

64

Fractional Quantum States

R =

( 1) n +1

n=0

( 2 n )!

2 n

(6 a )

is a meaningful solution for asymtotic function. The generating function of R


is also derived and given by

2n

2n

i r
[(n + 2)(n + 1)]2 2n(2n + 1) + (n + 2)(n + 1)r 2
n = 0 2 n!

R(r ) =

( r , ) =
n=0

(1) n+1 n r 2 n
Ae m (7 )
(2n)!

A=

2n!
(1) n + 2 n

4n + 1

r4 n +1

65

Fractional Quantum States

The

normalised

(r, )

eigen

2n

The

probabilit

P n ( r 4 n ) =

function

4 n + 1 im
e
r 4 n + 1

n=0

4n

(8 )

y function

is

becomes

4n + 1
(9 )
4 n +1
r

En =

(n + 2)(n + 1) 2
2m sin 4

where n = 0,0.1,0.2,0.3....1 (10)

66

Fractional Quantum States

sin 4


ch arg e
l

67

Fractional Quantum States

E =

1
h
2

E n exp( n 2 )
E n = c exp( n 2 )

[ ]

Pn ( r4 n ) = k exp r4 n

k th = r2 n

4n + 1
exp(r2 n ) 2
4 n +1
r

68

Fractional Quantum States

69

Fractional Quantum States

70

71

72

73


74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82








ch arg e

spin

83

84

85

86

87

88

89





90





91

92

93



94

95




96

97

98

99

100

101

102

Color

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Violet
Blue
Purple
Green
Yellow
Orange
Red

Dominant
Wavelength
(nm)
400
453.5
464
538
590
610
644

Hue

Violet
Blue green
Violet
Greenish Yellow
Reddish Yellow
Orange
Red

Purity %

49%
52%
36%
15%
40%
43%
41%

Transmission
%

18%
52%
32%
37%
82%
47%
51%

Table 1.
1.

Dominant wavelength of monochromatic light measured by Hitachi U-2000


UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer, spectral bandwith 0.1nm and
ordinates selected 10.

* Hardy, A.C, 1936, Handbook of colorimetery, Technology Press, Boston, Mass.

103

Wavelength

( ) nm

k =
m

10

d H H = q dl k

p = k

eV C 10 36 eV m 1 10 8

f sec

Eab = hlnexp

1
f = Hz

eV

104

1015 Hz = 2 sec

105

c
=

106

E = h

Wavelength

( )nm

k =
m

10

1
sec
2

f sec

4 2
4
4
1 = 2 sin 2 5 2 = 2 sin 2 30 3 = 2 sin 55
k
k
k
m2

107

m2

m2

108

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Related Interests