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# ,

By

Quetta

II

III

IV

VI

AND

WHAT

SO

EVER

HE

HATH

OF

DIVERSE

IS

INDEED

HUES,
A

LO!

PORTENT

THERE
FOR

## PEOPLE WHO TAKE HEED.

(Al Quran, Nahal:13)

VII

Chapters

Contents
Page

VIII

IX

XI

XII

XIII

XIV

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Background Information

Background Information

Background Information

10

Background Information

11

Background Information

12

Background Information

13

Background Information

14

Background Information

15

Background Information

16

Background Information

17

Background Information

18

Background Information

19

Background Information

20

Background Information

21

Literature Review

22

Literature Review

23

Literature Review

24

Literature Review

25

Literature Review

26

Literature Review

27

Literature Review

28

Literature Review

29

Literature Review

30

Literature Review

31

Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

45

Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

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Literature Review

49

50

51

52

ch arg e

p=

53

k=

h
=
2

p q .m = k

54

c =

55

56

57

58

59

H = E

60

## Fractional Quantum States

= R ( r )Yl m ( , ) = R ( r ) l ( ) ( )

2 1 2
1

1
2
{
r
}
+
{sin
}
+
+ V = E (1)

2
2
2
2
2
2m r r
r

r sin
r sin

eQ
4 r

=0

= R (r ) ( )

1 d 2
2 1 d
2 dR
+
=

sin

{
r
}
}r {
}r (2)
{
2
2
2

d
dr 2

R dr

me Q sin 2
1 =

2 h 2

1 =

2mE sin 2

h2

61

## Fractional Quantum States

dR
1 d 2
sin 2 2 d 2 R
=

+ 2r } + 1 r 1 r 2 (3)
{r
2
2
d
R
dr
dr
Equating left hand side of Eq(3) to a constant
1 d 2
= - m12 = cons tan t
d 2
or
d 2
= m12 (3a )
2
d
with its solution as

= Ae im (3b)

m1 = 0,1

62

## Fractional Quantum States

dR
sin 2 2 d 2 R
2
2
+ 2r
+ 1r 1 r = m
r
R dr
dr

=
=

1
sin 2

sin 2

r2

d 2R
dR
+ 2r
rR + r 2 R R = 0 (3c)
2
dr
dr

m2

sin 2

A series

solution

of the type

R =

n=0

s employed

63

c n r n (4)

## Fractional Quantum States

(n + 2)(n + 1)cn+2 r

n+2

n =0

+ 2 (n + 1)cn+1r
n =0

n +1

cn r n
n =0

n =0

n =0

cn r n+1 + cn r n+2 = 0

Cn+2 =

(n + 2)(n + 1)

cn (5)

## For different exponents of n, we get the values of c or c1.

After separating c and c1for different exponents of r,

.

R =

2 n

(6 a )

( 2 n )!

( 1) n+ 2

n=0

( 2 n + 1 )!

R =

n=0

R =

( 1) n +1

( ) n

n=0

n ! 2

2 n +1

(6b )

(6 c )

64

R =

( 1) n +1

n=0

( 2 n )!

2 n

(6 a )

## is a meaningful solution for asymtotic function. The generating function of R

is also derived and given by

2n

2n

i r
[(n + 2)(n + 1)]2 2n(2n + 1) + (n + 2)(n + 1)r 2
n = 0 2 n!

R(r ) =

( r , ) =
n=0

(1) n+1 n r 2 n
Ae m (7 )
(2n)!

A=

2n!
(1) n + 2 n

4n + 1

r4 n +1

65

The

normalised

(r, )

eigen

2n

The

probabilit

P n ( r 4 n ) =

function

4 n + 1 im
e
r 4 n + 1

n=0

4n

(8 )

y function

is

becomes

4n + 1
(9 )
4 n +1
r

En =

(n + 2)(n + 1) 2
2m sin 4

66

sin 4

ch arg e
l

67

## Fractional Quantum States

E =

1
h
2

E n exp( n 2 )
E n = c exp( n 2 )

[ ]

Pn ( r4 n ) = k exp r4 n

k th = r2 n

4n + 1
exp(r2 n ) 2
4 n +1
r

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

ch arg e

spin

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

Color

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Violet
Blue
Purple
Green
Yellow
Orange
Red

Dominant
Wavelength
(nm)
400
453.5
464
538
590
610
644

Hue

Violet
Blue green
Violet
Greenish Yellow
Reddish Yellow
Orange
Red

Purity %

49%
52%
36%
15%
40%
43%
41%

Transmission
%

18%
52%
32%
37%
82%
47%
51%

Table 1.
1.

## Dominant wavelength of monochromatic light measured by Hitachi U-2000

UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer, spectral bandwith 0.1nm and
ordinates selected 10.

## * Hardy, A.C, 1936, Handbook of colorimetery, Technology Press, Boston, Mass.

103

Wavelength

( ) nm

k =
m

10

d H H = q dl k

p = k

eV C 10 36 eV m 1 10 8

f sec

Eab = hlnexp

1
f = Hz

eV

104

1015 Hz = 2 sec

105

c
=

106

E = h

Wavelength

( )nm

k =
m

10

1
sec
2

f sec

4 2
4
4
1 = 2 sin 2 5 2 = 2 sin 2 30 3 = 2 sin 55
k
k
k
m2

107

m2

m2

108

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