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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

RAILPROF BACKGROUND
Coenraad Esveld
Director of Esveld Consulting Services

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

ECS ORGANIZATION
Esveld Consulting Services

Consulting

Publications

Equipment

RAILPROF

Chair of Railway Engineering 1993-2006


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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

MODERN RAILWAY TRACK

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Background Information

www.lulu.com
Apple iTunes Stores
Amazon Stores

RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

DAMAGE DUE TO POOR WELD GEOMETRY

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

RAILPROF MEASURING PRINCIPLE


LCD

Vertical ASCII file


x
-600
-595
-590
-585
-580

vert
0.00
0.01
0.02
......
......

hor
0.00
0.02
0.03
.......
.......

Reference line

1000 mm

Sensors based on eddy current principle

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Background Information

RAILPROF WITH PDA

RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

RAILPROF IN FLIGHT CASE

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RAILPROF


1.

Weight: less than 7 kg;

2.

Length: 116 cm;

3.

measurements controlled by PDA through wireless communication via Bluetooth;

4.

Measuring length: 1,000 mm in accordance with the CEN standards for weld geometry; sampling interval 5 mm;

5.

Measuring time: about 10 sec;

6.

Data transfer to PDA and analysis: about 6 sec;

7.

Data storage: unlimited on PDA internal memory or Secure Digital (SD) card;

8.

Data transfer to desktop PC via Active Sync, Windows Mobility Center, memory card, or network (GPRS, or wifi);

9.

Desktop software for presentation of results. Easy to generate reports in, for instance, pdf format;

10. High
a.
b.
c.

accuracy at ambient temperatures between - 5 C and + 40 C (PDA normally 0 C to + 40 C):


Vertical geometry: +/- 0.030 mm;
Lateral geometry: +/- 0.050 mm;
Inclination associated with QI: 0.180 mrad, accuracy +/- 5 %;

11. Measuring principle transducers: eddy current. Results not influenced by moisture, rust, dirt and the real metal
surface is measured;
12. Bottom of RAILPROF is resistant to temperatures up to 150 C;
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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

MAIN APPLICATIONS
Checking and acceptance of flash butt welds, thermit welds and glued insulated
joints;
Positioning of rails before welding;

Production of glued insulated joints;


Assessment of corrugations;
Monitoring of grinding process;
Acceptance of grinding work;
Acceptance of rails for longitudinal geometry, including straightness of rail ends.

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

ANCIENT WELD GEOMETRY STANDARDS


Grind off top

p < 0.3 mm/1 m

Mostly used:
Versine: 0 < p < 0.3 mm
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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

FORCE-RELATED WELD STANDARDS


Dynamic contact force is function of inclination:

Fdyn = Constant * v 2 * Inclination

Inclination: High-Speed < 1.0 mrad


Conventional < 1.8 mrad
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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

DYNAMIC CONTACT FORCE

9 % correlation

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91 % correlation

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUALITY INDEX

QI
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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

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Background Information

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

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Background Information

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Background Information

FORCE-BASED ASSESSMENT
OF
WELD GEOMETRY

RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

QUALITY INDEX
Inclinationmax
QI =
1
Inclinationnorm

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OK

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

WELD GEOMETRY STANDARDS


Standards
Vertical Rail Geometry
Speed [km/h] Inclination [mrad]
250 < V 300
1.0
200 < V 250
1.1
180 < V 200
1.3
160 < V 180
1.4
140 < V 160
1.6
120 < V 140
1.8
100 < V 120
2.0
90 < V 100
2.2
80 < V 90
2.3
70 < V 80
2.4
60 < V 70
2.6
50 < V 60
2.8
40 < V 50
3.0
V 40
3.2

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Standards
Lateral Rail Geometry
Speed [km/h] Versine p [mm]
80 < V 300
-0.5 p 0.5
40 < V 80
-0.7 p 0.7
V 40
-1.0 p 1.0

Standards applied at:


ProRail
Metro & Light Rail companies in NL

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

NEW STANDARDS VERTICAL


Advantages of new standards:
1. Also negative welds allowed;
2. Maximum versines at 140 km/h 2 times larger;
3. Speed dependant.

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

NEW VERSUS OLD NORM


2m
2z0

z0 0.3 mm

z z0 sin

2 x

dz 2

z0
dx

0.3 1.0 mrad


2

Velocity

Versine
[mm]

Inclination
[mrad]

40 km/h

1.02

3.2

80 km/h

0.76

2.4

140 km/h

0.57

1.8

200 km/h

0.41

1.3

300 km/h

0.29

1.0

Old Norm

0.30

1.0

For 80 km/h the new norm is 2.5 times more favorable than the old norm, provided
short waves have been ground off.
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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

HSL-SOUTH
INFRASPEED

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

Short waves on HSL: welds

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In short-wave band: track quality on HSL-South determined by rail welds,


connecting the 120 m straightened rails from Voest;
Welds: mainly flash butt (2647), but also thermite (468);

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

Welds, GWM 550


On two sections, the initial weld quality after manual grinding was unsatisfactory.
These welds were ground with the Plasser GWM 550 grinding train.
1
95%

cumulative frequency

0.8

0.6

0.4
CDF of weld quality
welds with unsatisfactory initial quality
before GWM
after GWM

0.2

QI = 1 0.7 mrad
0
00

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46
4 3
5
Quality Index QI (300 km/h)

10
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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

Speno final grinding: effect on welds


Total HSL-South ground by Speno (RR 24/48). Effect on weld quality for a 6 km
representative double track test section:
1
95%

cumulative frequency

0.8

0.6
CDF of weld quality,
HSL-South, Northern part
test section
West, before Speno
West, after Speno
East, before Speno
East, after Speno

0.4

0.2

1.9

0
0

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3.1
2

QI = 1 0.7 mrad

3.6
4
5
6
Quality Index QI (300 km/h)

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24 kN

40 kN

46 kN

Fdyn = 0.22 V [kN, m/s, mrad]

RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

According to simple S-N approach (fatigue):


3

Lifetimenew Forig.

Lifetimeorig. Fnew
Fwheel Fwheel, stat Fwheel, dyn

Life cycle extension:


- GWM spot grinding 4.9
- Speno finish grinding 1.7

Total lifetime extension (extra to ref. lifetime) (%)

Why is weld quality so important?


700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Total load reduction (% )

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

EXPECTED COST SAVINGS


Due to impact load reduction at welds:
20 40 % of annual maintenance budget;
ProRail budget in The Netherlands:
~ 250 mio for 4,500 single track;
Savings: 50 100 mio total,
or 10 20,000
per km single track.

Renewal
70 %

TOTAL MAINTENANCE AND


RENEWAL COST ON NS

Manual
maintenance
20 %

250 million per year


for 4.500 km track
Price level 2006

Mechanical
Maintenance 10 %
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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Cumulative Frequency

0.8

0.6

Background Information

SELECTION ON PRORAIL
81%

60%

100 welds per group

0.4
31%

Limit at 140 km/h (1.8 mrad)

0.2

Limit at 80 km/h (2.4 mrad)

CDF
Moerdijk - Dordrecht (VSRT)
Delft - Den Haag
Lage Zwaluwe - Hollands Diep

0
0
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3
4
5
6
Weld Quality Index [-] (140 km/h)

9
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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

OLD VERSUS NEW STANDARDS


New Standards
300

140 80 40 km/h

Cumulative Frequency

0.8
73%
0.6

Population 239 welds

58%
46%

0.4

Old Norm (0 0.3 mm)


Independent of line speed
16 % passed

0.2

3%
0

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5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
. Inclination of Weld Geometry (25 mm base) [mrad]
Maximum Absolute

15

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DESKTOP SOFTWARE

RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

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Background Information

All data and graphs can be presented on PC;


Results can be sent in pdf format to Employer.

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GRINDING SOFTWARE

RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

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Background Information

Wavebands: 1-3 cm, 3-10 cm en 10-30 cm;


Per waveband maximum deviation to be set by user;
Calculation of GA, GG en GSD for these wavebands.

GA: Average amplitude;


GG; Average wavelength;
GSD: Average grinding depth.

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EXAMPLE OF WELD HSL

RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

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1 mm

Background Information

QI = 1 1 mrad

All welds of HSL-South were checked with RAILPROF

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RAILPROF INSTRUMENTS

Background Information

RAILPROF Customers
Volker Rail
BAM Rail
Metro Bilbao
AVE
Voest Railpro
Seoul Metro
Metro de Madrid
Strukton Rail
Equipment
Strukton NV
TUC Rail
Kelsan
Sersa
Rheda
2000/Infraspeed
Zagreb University
RailOK

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Netherlands
Netherlands
Spain
Spain
Netherlands
Korea
Spain
Netherlands
Belgium
Belgium
UK
Switzerland

QR
TSTG Schienen
Technik (now Voest)
Sumitomo Metal
Technology
Spitzke
KORAIL
Southwest Jiaotong
University
Fortescue Metals
Group
Yapiray

Australia
Germany
Japan
Netherlands/
Germany
Korea
China

Australia
Turkey

Netherlands
Croatia
Netherlands

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