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Introduction. Exercise Physiology: An Overview

EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW


What is Exercise Physiology?

Exercise Physiology is the study of the effects of exercise on the body.

Specifically, Exercise Physiology is concerned with the bodys responses &


adaptations to the stress of exercise, ranging from the system level (e.g.,
cardiovascular system) to the subcellular level (e.g., production of ATP for energy).

These modifications can be short term that is lasting only for the duration of the
activity/exercise or long term present as long as the activity is continued on a regular
basis.

Exercise physiologists are interested in both the acute (immediate) & chronic (long-term)
effects & adaptations of exercise on all aspects of body functioning.

Acute adaptations the changes in human physiology that occur during exercise.

Chronic adaptations the alterations in the structure & functions of the body that occur in
response to the regular completion of exercise or physical activity.

Exercise training the repeated use of exercise to improve physical fitness.

Exercise Physiology
The study of how body structure & function is altered by exposure to physical activity
and exercise.

Sport Physiology
The application of the concepts of exercise physiology to training athletes & enhancing
sports performance. (Sport Physiology is derived or evolved from Exercise Physiology)

The Importance of exercise physiology to the practitioner

Knowledge from exercise physiology is used to design effective fitness programs for people
of all ages, to guide the development & implementations of cardiac rehabilitation programs,
to plan programs to help children & youths to incorporate physical activity into their life,
and to structure rehabilitation programs for injured athletes.

Chapter 1. Basic Energy Systems

BASIC ENERGY SYSTEMS


A. Energy

All plants & animals depend on energy to sustain life.


Humans derive this energy from food.
Many forms: chemical, electrical, electromagnetic, thermal, mechanical & nuclear.
All energy forms are interchangeable; e.g. chemical energy used to create electrical
energy stored in battery.
Never lost or newly created it undergoes steady degradation from one form to
another, ultimately becoming heat.
60%-70% of the total energy in humans is degraded to heat.

1. Energy for Cellular Activity


All energy originates from the sun as light energy.
Chemical reactions in plants convert light into stored chemical energy.
Humans obtain energy by eating plants, or animals that feed on plants.
Energy is stored in food in the form of carbohydrate, fats & proteins.
Human cells can break down these 3 basic food components to release the stored
energy.
Energy Sources
Foods are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen (protein).
Molecular bonds in foods are weak & provide little energy when broken.
Food is NOT used directly for cellular activity.
Energy in food molecules bonds chemically released within cells, then stored in the
form of a high-energy compound called adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
At rest, energy that body needs is derived almost equally from the breakdown of
CHO & fats.
Proteins provide little energy for cellular function/activity.
During mild to severe exercise, more CHO is used.
In maximal, short-duration exercise, CHO is used exclusively to produce ATP.
Carbohydrate (CHO)
CHO to be useful must be converted into glucose (monosaccharide) that is
transported to all body tissue via blood.
During rest, ingested CHO taken up by muscle & liver, then converted into glycogen
(a more complex glucose molecule).
Glycogen is stored in cytoplasm until cells use it to form ATP.
Liver & muscle glycogen reserves are limited & can be depleted unless CHO is
increase.
CHO stores in liver & skeletal muscle are limited to < 2,000 kcal of energy.

Chapter 1. Basic Energy Systems

Fats
Fat provides 2 times more energy than CHO but less accessible for cellular
metabolism because it must first be reduced from its complex form (triglyceride)
to its basic components: glycerol & free fatty acids (FFA).
Only FFA are used to form ATP.
Fat is a good source of energy, can be stored exceeding 70,000 kcal of energy.
Protein
Protein can be used as energy source if convert into glucose.
Protein converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis.
In severe energy depletion (starvation), protein can be converted to FFA for
cellular energy through lipogenesis.
Protein can supply up to 5-10% of the energy needed to sustain prolonged exercise.
Protein can be used as energy source in basic form of amino acids.
Energy Yield
1 g of CHO (C6H12O6) yields 4 kcal of energy.
1 g of fat (C16H18O2) yields 9 kcal of energy.
1 g of protein (NH2 + CO2H) yields 4.1 kcal of energy.
(Though 1 g of fat can generate 2.25 times as much as a similar amount of CHO, it also
takes substantially more oxygen to metabolize fat than CHO)

B. Bioenergetics

The chemical processes involved with the production of cellular ATP by converting
foodstuffs (i.e., carbohydrates, fats, proteins) into a biologically usable form of
energy.

ATP Production
An ATP molecule consists of adenosine (adenine joined to ribose) combined with 3
inorganic phosphate (Pi) groups.
When acted on by enzyme ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase), the last phosphate
group splits away from the ATP molecule, rapidly releasing a large amount of energy
(7.6 kcal per mole of ATP). This reduces the ATP to ADP & Pi.
ATPase
ATP

ADP + Pi

Chapter 1. Basic Energy Systems

The process of storing energy by forming ATP from other chemical sources is
called phosphorylation.
Through various chemical reactions, a phosphate (Pi) groups is added to a relatively
low-energy compound, ADP, converting it to ATP.
ADP + Pi

ATP

When these reactions occur without oxygen, the process is called anaerobic
metabolism.
With the aid of O2, the overall process is called aerobic metabolism & the aerobic
conversion of ADP to ATP is oxidative phosphorylation.
Cells generate ATP by 3 methods:
1. ATP-PC system
2. Glycolytic system
3. Oxidative system

1. ATP-PC system: (Anaerobic ATP Production)

Formation of ATP by PC breakdown.


The simplest of the energy system.
Phosphocreatine (PC) is a high-energy phosphate molecule that store in the muscle
cells.
Energy is released when PC is breakdown / separate to Pi and creatine by enzyme
creatine kinase (CK).
This energy is not used directly to accomplish cellular work.
Energy released from the breakdown of PC is used to combine Pi with ADP to form
ATP.
This system is anaerobic that functions to maintain the ATP levels.
1 mole of PC will yield 1 mole of ATP.
Provides energy for short-term and high-intensity exercise that lasting about 315 seconds.
creatine kinase

PC

Pi + C + energy

ADP + Pi + energy

ATP

Figure: ATP-PC system

Chapter 1. Basic Energy Systems

2. Glycolytic system

Occurs in the sarcoplasm of the muscle cells.


Use only carbohydrate as the main source of fuel.
Involves glycolysis the breakdown (lysis) of glucose or liver glycogen to pyruvic
acid via glycolytic enzymes.
Glycogen is synthesized from glucose by a process called glycogenesis & stored in
the liver or in muscle until needed.
Before either glucose 0r glycogen can be used to generate energy, they must be
converted to a compound called glucose-6-phosphate.
Conversion of a molecule of glucose requires 1 mole of ATP.
1 mole of glucose produces 2 ATPs or 1 mole of glycogen produces 3 ATPs.
Provides energy for high-intensity exercise (80-90% max) up to 2 minutes.
If O2 is not available to accept the hydrogen ions in the mitochondria, pyruvic acid
can accept the hydrogen ions to form the lactic acid.
This accumulation of lactic acid is a major limitation of anaerobic glycolysis.
This acidification of muscle fibers inhibits further glycogen breakdown because it
impairs glycolytic enzymes functions.
In addition, the acid decreases the fibers calcium-binding capacity & thus may
impede muscle contraction.

Glucose
(Need 1 ATP)

or

Glycogen

Glucose-6-phosphate
ATP

Pyruric acid

Lactic acid
Figure: Glycolytic system

Chapter 1. Basic Energy Systems

(Lactic acid is an acid with the chemical formula C3H6O8. Lactate is any salt of lactic
acid. When lactic acid releases H+, the remaining compound joins Na+ or K+ to form a
salt. Anaerobic glycolysis produces lactic acid, but it quickly dissociates & the salt
(lactate) is form.)
3. Oxidative system
The bodys most complex energy system, which generates energy by breakdown of
fuels with the aid of O2 (cellular respiration).
Because O2 is used, this is an aerobic process.
Has a very high-energy yield and yields more energy than the ATP-PC or glycolytic
system.
Oxidative production of ATP occurs within the mitochondria.
Main energy production during endurance activities.
Oxidative production of ATP involves:
i. Oxidation of CHO
ii. Oxidation of Fat

i Oxidation of Carbohydrate
Involves 3 processes:
a. Aerobic glycolysis
b. The Krebs cycle
c. The electron transport chain
Aerobic glycolysis
In CHO metabolism, glucose or glycogen is broken down to pyruvic acid via
glycolytic enzymes.
Hydrogen is released as glucose is metabolized to pyruvic acid.
In the presence of O2, the pyruvic acid is converted into acetyl coenzyme A
(acetyl CoA).
1 mole of glucose produces 2 moles of ATP or 1 mole of glycogen produces 3 moles
of ATP.
The Krebs cycle
Once the acetyl CoA is formed, it enters the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle), a
complex series of chemical reactions that permits the complete oxidation of acetyl
CoA.
At the end of the Krebs cycle, 2 moles of ATP have been formed.
The substrate (CHO) has been broken down into carbon (C) & hydrogen (H).
Remaining C then combine with O2 to form CO2.
H+ released combines with 2 coenzymes: NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) &
FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) to enter electron transport chain (Supplies
electrons to be passed through the electron transport chain).
5

Chapter 1. Basic Energy Systems

The Electron Transport Chain


(Respiratory chain or cytochrome chain)
The coenzymes carry the H atom (NADH & FADH) to the electron transport chain,
split into protons & electrons.
At the end of the chain, H+ combines with O2 to form H20 (O2accepting electrons),
thus preventing acidification.
The electrons that were split from the H pass through a series of reactions (ETC)
& ultimately provide energy for the phosphorylation of ADP, thus forming ATP.
This process relies on O2, referred to as oxidative phosphorylation.

Energy yield from Carbohydrate


- 1 mole of glycogen generates up to 39 moles of ATP.
- If 1 mole of glucose, the net gain is 38 ATP (1 mole of ATP is used for
conversion to glucose-6-phosphate before glycolysis).

ii Oxidation of Fat
Muscle & liver glycogen stores provide only 1,200 2,000 kcal of energy.
Fat stored inside the muscle fibers (fat cells) can supply about 70,000 75,000
kcal.
Triglycerides (major energy sources) stored in fat cells in the skeletal muscle
fibers.
Triglycerides break down to its basic units to be used for energy: 1 mol of glycerol
to 3 moles of free fatty acids/FFA (= process lipolysis with lipases enzymes).
FFA can enter blood & be transported throughout the body, entering muscle fibers
by diffusion.

Oxidation
- Upon entering the muscle fibers, FFA are enzymatically activated with energy
from ATP, preparing FFA for catabolism (breakdown) within the mitochondria.
- This enzymatically catabolism of fat (FFA) by the mitochondria = beta oxidation
( oxidation).
- The carbon chain of FFA is cleaved into separate 2-carbon units of acetic acid.
eg. FFA with 16-carbon chain, oxidation yields 8 moles of acetic acid. Each
acetic acid converted to acetyl CoA.

Chapter 1. Basic Energy Systems

The Krebs Cycle & the Electron Transport Chain


- Fat metabolism follows the same path as CHO metabolism.
- Acetyl CoA formed by oxidation enters the Krebs cycle,
- Krebs cycle generates H+ that is transported to the electron transport chain,
along with H+ generated during oxidation, to undergo oxidative
phosphorylation produce ATP, H2O & CO2.
- The complete combustion of FFA molecule requires more O2 because FFA
contains more carbon (C) than a glucose molecule.

More carbon in FFA, more acetyl CoA is formed from the metabolism of fat, so
more enters the Krebs cycle & more electrons are sent to the e. t. chain. (Fat
metabolism generate more energy than glucose metabolism)
Eg. Palmitic acid, 16-carbon FFA. The combine reaction of oxidation, Krebs cycle, &
e. t. chain produce 129 molecules of ATP from 1 mole of palmitic acid. (1 mol of
glucose/glycogen = 38/39 moles of ATP)
40% of the energy released by metabolism is captured to form ATP, 60% is given
off as heat.

4. Protein Metabolism
Proteins (amino acids) are also used as body fuels.
Some amino acids can be converted into glucose (gluconeogenesis)
Some can be converted into various intermediates of oxidative metabolism (such as
pyruvate or acetyl CoA) to enter the oxidative process.
Proteins energy yield is not easy because it contains nitrogen (N).
When amino acids are catabolized, some of the released N is used to form new
amino acids, but remaining N cannot be oxidized by body.
N is converted into urea & then excreted in the urine. This conversion use ATP, so
some energy is spent in this process.
In laboratory, 1 gram of protein = 5.65 kcal of energy.
When metabolized in the body, energy used to convert N to urea, energy yield is
only about 5.20 kcal per gram (8% less than the lab. Value).
Healthy body utilizes little protein during rest & exercise (< 5-10% of total energy
expended).
Estimates of energy expenditure generally ignore protein metabolism.

5. The Oxidative Capacity of Muscle


Oxidative metabolism has the highest energy yields.
Oxidative capacity (QO2) A measure of the muscles maximal capacity to use
oxygen.
Oxidative capacity depends on:
a. Enzyme Activity
b. Fiber-type Composition
c. Oxygen Needs

Chapter 1. Basic Energy Systems

Enzyme Activity
Many enzymes are required for oxidation.
The enzyme activity of the muscle fibers provides an indication of the oxidative
potential.
The enzymes most frequently measured are SDH (succinate dehydrogenase), CS
(citrate synthase) & mitochondria enzymes in the Krebs cycle.
Endurance athletes muscles have oxidative enzyme activities 2-4 times greater
than those untrained men & women.

Fiber-type Composition
Muscles fiber-type composition determines its oxidative capacity.
Slow-twitch (ST) fibers have a greater capacity for aerobic activity than the Fasttwitch (FT) fibers because ST fibers have more mitochondria & higher
concentrations of oxidative enzymes.
More ST fibers, the greater oxidative capacity in the muscle.
FT fibers are better suited for glycolytic energy production.
Elite distance runners have reported to process more ST fibers, more mitochondria
& higher muscle oxidative enzyme activity than untrained individuals.
Endurance training enhances the oxidative capacity of fibers, especially FT fibers.
Training that places demands on oxidative phosphorylation stimulates the muscle
fibers to develop more mitochondria that are also larger & contain more oxidative
enzymes.
By increasing the fibers enzymes for oxidation, this training also enables the
muscle to rely more heavily on fat for ATP production.
With endurance training, even people with large % of FT fibers can increase their
muscles aerobic capacities.
Endurance-trained FT fiber will not develop the same high-endurance capacity as a
similarly trained ST fiber.

Oxygen Needs
Oxidative metabolism depends on an adequate supply of O2.
When at rest, bodys need for ATP is small, requiring minimal O2 delivery.
As exercise intensity increases, to meet the energy demands, the rate of oxidative
ATP production also increases.
In an effort to satisfy the muscle need for O2, the rate & depth of the respiration
increase, improving gas exchange in the lungs, & heart beats faster, pumping more
oxygenated blood to the muscle.

Chapter 1. Basic Energy Systems

C. Causes of Fatigue
1. Depletion of PC or glycogen.
The depletion of PC or glycogen will impairs ATP production, thus fatigue is caused
by inadequate energy supply.
2. Accumulation of metabolic by-products.
Accumulation of hydrogen (H+) decreases muscle pH, causes muscle acidification
(acidosis), which impairs the cellular processes that produce energy (inhibits the
action of glycolytic enzyme, slowing the rate of glycolysis & ATP production) &
muscle contraction.
3. Failure of neural transmission in the muscle fiber. Fatigue may occur at the
motor end plate, preventing nerves impulse transmission to the muscle fiber
membrane, thus cause the neuromuscular block and leads to neuromuscular fatigue.
4. CNS may cause fatigue.
Perceived fatigue usually leads to psychologically exhausted/fatigue and the
exhausted feeling can often be psychologically trauma and may inhibit the athletes
willingness to tolerate further pain or to continue exercise.

Chapter 1. Basic Energy Systems

SUMMARY
1.

About 60% to 70% of the energy in human body is degraded to heat. The
remainder is used for mechanical work & cellular activities.

2.

Humans derive energy from food sources CHO, fats, & proteins.

3.

The energy humans derive from food is stored in a high-energy compound ATP.

4.

CHO provides about 4 kcal of energy per gram, compared to about 9 kcal of energy
per gram for fat; but CHO is more accessible. Protein can also provide energy.

5.

ATP is generated through 3 energy systems:


The ATP-PC system
The glycolytic system
The oxidative system

6.

In the ATP-PC system, Pi is separated from phosphocreatine through the action of


creatine kinase. The Pi can then combine with ADP to form ATP. This system is
anaerobic, and its main function is to maintain ATP levels. The energy yield is 1 mole
of ATP per 1 mole of PC.
The glycolytic system involves the process of glycolysis, through which glucose or
glycogen is broken down to pyruvic acid via glycolytic enzymes. When conducted
without oxygen, the pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. 1 mole of glucose yields
2 moles of ATP, but 1 mole of glycogen yields 3 moles of ATP.

7.

8.

The ATP-PC and glycolytic systems are major contributors of energy during the
early minutes of high-intensity exercise.

9.

The oxidative system involves breakdown of fuels with aid of oxygen. This system
yields more energy than the ATP-PC or glycolytic system.

10.

Oxidation of carbohydrate involves glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron
transport chain. The end result is H2O, CO2, and 38 or39 ATP molecules per
carbohydrate molecule.

11.

Fat oxidation begins with oxidation of free fatty acids, then follows the same
path as carbohydrate oxidation: the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain.
The energy yield for fat oxidation and it varies with the free fatty acid being
oxidized.

10

Chapter 1. Basic Energy Systems

12.

Protein oxidation is more complex because protein (amino acids) contains nitrogen,
which cannot be oxidized. Protein contributes relatively little to energy production,
so its metabolism is often overlooked.

13.

Your muscles oxidative capacity depends on their oxidative enzyme levels, their
fiber-type composition, and oxygen availability.

14.

Fatigue may result from depletion of PC or glycogen. Either of these situations


impairs ATP production.

15.

Lactic acid has often been blamed for fatigue, but it is actually the H+ generated
by lactic acid that leads to fatigue. The accumulation of H+ decreases muscle pH,
which impair the cellular processes that produce energy & muscle contraction.

16.

Failure of neural transmission may be a cause of some fatigue. Many mechanisms


can lead to such failure, & all need further research.

17.

The CNS may also cause fatigue, perhaps as a protective mechanism. Perceived
fatigue usually leads to physiological fatigue, and athletes who feel psychologically
exhausted can often inhibit their willingness to continue exercise or to tolerate
further pain.

11

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

SPS 211 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY

EXERCISE
(Basic Energy System)
Name : _____________________________________

Group : _______________________

1. What is bioenergetics?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

2. Draw the chemical pathway of ATP breakdown during muscular contraction.

3. Name the three (3) methods that cells generate ATP.


i.

_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________

4. What is the role of PC in the process of anaerobic metabolism?


i.

_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________
iv. _____________________________________________________________________________
v.

_____________________________________________________________________________

5. Draw the chemical pathway of PC in maintaining the levels of ATP.

Basic Energy System

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

6. Draw the chemical pathways of the glycolytic system in energy production.

7. Define oxidative system.


i.

____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

____________________________________________________________________________

iii. ____________________________________________________________________________
iv. ____________________________________________________________________________

8. Name the three (3) processes that involve the oxidative of carbohydrate in production of ATP.
i.

____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

____________________________________________________________________________

iii. ____________________________________________________________________________

9. Name the three (3) processes that involve the oxidative of fat in production of ATP.
i.

____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

____________________________________________________________________________

iii. ____________________________________________________________________________
10. List two (2) roles of oxygen in the process of aerobic metabolism.
i.

____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

____________________________________________________________________________

11. List the causes of fatigue.


i.

____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

____________________________________________________________________________

iii. ____________________________________________________________________________
iv. ____________________________________________________________________________

Basic Energy System

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

13. Define the term aerobic metabolism.


________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

14. Define the term anaerobic metabolism.


________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

15. Briefly discuss the function of glycolysis in bioenergetics.


i.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

16. Briefly explain the operation of the Krebs cycle.


i.

____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

____________________________________________________________________________

iii. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

17. What is the role of NAD and FAD in the Krebs cycle?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

Basic Energy System

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

18. What is electron transport chain?


________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

19. Explain briefly the possible causes of fatigue during exercise.


i.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

iv. ________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Basic Energy System

Chapter 2. Metabolic Adaptations To Training

METABOLIC ADAPTATIONS TO TRAINNING


A. Adaptations to Aerobic Training

Aerobic training or cardiorespiratory endurance training, will leads to improved


central & peripheral blood flow & enhanced capacity of muscle fibers to generate
greater amounts of ATP.
The most observable changes with aerobic training are an increased ability to
performed prolonged submaximal exercise & an increased in ones maximal aerobic
capacity (VO2max) or aerobic power.

1. Adaptations in Muscle
Repeated use of muscle fibers stimulates changes in their structure & function.
Endurance training & the changes it produces in

Muscle fiber type,

Capillary supply,

Myoglobin content,

Mitochondrial function, &

Oxidative enzymes.
Muscle fiber type
Endurance training stresses ST muscle fibers more than FT fibers.
Consequently, ST muscle fibers enlarge.
FTb fibers may adopt FTa characteristics with endurance training, but percentages
of ST & FT fibers do not appear to change.
Capillary supply
Aerobic training increases both the number of capillaries supplying each muscle
fiber and the number of capillaries for a given cross-section area of muscle.
Therefore, both changes improve/increases blood perfusion in the muscles, thus
enhancing the exchange of gases, wastes, & nutrients between the blood and muscle
fibers.
Myoglobin content
Muscle myoglobin content increases by 75%-80% with endurance training.
Myoglobin stores O2.
Mitochondrial function
Endurance training increases both in number and size of the skeletal muscle
mitochondria, proving the muscle with much more efficient oxidative metabolism.
Ability to use O2 & ATP production via oxidation depends on the number, size &
efficiency of mitochondria.
1

Chapter 2. Metabolic Adaptations To Training

Study of 27 weeks of training had increased number of mitochondria by 15% and


the average size also increased, by about 35%.

Oxidative enzymes
Aerobic training also increases the activities of many oxidative enzymes.
E.g. succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) & citrate synthase.
Increase in enzymatic activities shows the increases in number & size of
mitochondria and capacity of ATP production.

2. Adaptations to source of energy

Aerobic training increases the storage of carbohydrate (glycogen) & fats


(triglycerides).
Endurance-trained muscle stores more glycogen than untrained muscle.
Endurance-trained muscle also stores more fat (triglyceride) than untrained muscle.
Enzymatic activities involved in -oxidation of fat increases with training, therefore
increase FFA release, hence increase the use of fat as energy source, so sparing
muscle glycogen, postponing exhaustion.
With aerobic training, the body increases the efficiency in using fat as an energy
source for exercise, allows muscle & liver glycogen to be used at a slower rate.
Improvements in muscles aerobic capacity result in a greater capacity to produce
energy, with a shift toward greater reliance on fat for ATP production.
Endurance-trained muscles improved capacity to use fat is caused by the enhance
ability to mobilize FFA & the improved capacity to oxidize fat.
In activities lasting several hours, these adaptations prevent early glycogen
depletion & thus ensure a continued supply of ATP. Thus, endurance performance is
enhanced.

B. Training the Aerobic System


1. Volume of Training (Frequency)
Depends on optimal amount of work in each training session and over a given period
of time.
The ideal training regimen should have a caloric expenditure of about 5000-6000
kcal per week (715 860 kcal per day). Seems to be little benefit if more than this
level.

Chapter 2. Metabolic Adaptations To Training

2. Intensity of Training
Intensity is a critical factor in improving performance. Adaptations are specific to
the speed & duration of training bouts, so those who perform at higher intensities
must train at higher intensities.
Aerobic interval training
Involves repeated bouts of high-intensity performance separated by brief rest
periods. Based on work: rest ratio.
This training, although traditionally considered only anaerobic, generates aerobic
benefits because the rest period is so brief that full recovery cannot occur, thus
the aerobic system is stressed.
Continuous training
Prolonged bout of exercise, therefore athletes find it boring.
However, aerobic benefits of both training interval & continuous are about the
same.

C. Adaptations to Anaerobic Training

Anaerobic training leads to increase muscular strength and a greater tolerance for
acid-base imbalances during highly intense exercise.

1. Adaptations in the ATP-PC System

Activities that emphasize maximal muscle force production (sprinting & weight
lifting) rely most on the ATP-PC system for energy.

Maximal efforts lasting less than 6-s demands on the breakdown & resynthesis of
ATP-PC.

Costill et al. (1979): Maximal knee extensions for training.


- One leg was trained using 6-s maximal work bouts that are repeated 10 times.
(ATP-PC system)
- The other leg was trained with repeated 30-s maximal bouts. (Glycolytic
system)
- Both forms of training produced the same muscular strength gains (about 14%)
& the same resistance to fatigue.
- Activities of muscle enzymes creatine phosphokinase (CPK) & myokinase (MK)
increased as a result of the 30-s training, but were unchanged in the 6-s
training.
- These findings concluded that maximal sprint bouts (6-s) would improve
muscular strength, but contribute little to mechanisms responsible for ATP
breakdown.
3

Chapter 2. Metabolic Adaptations To Training

2. Adaptations in the Glycolytic System

Anaerobic training (30-s bouts) increased the activities of several glycolytic


enzymes. (phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase & lactate dehydrogenase)
The activities of these enzymes increase 10% - 25% with repeated 30-s training
bouts, but change little with the short bouts (6-s).
These enzymes are essential to the anaerobic yield of ATP; such training might
enhance glycolytic capacity & allow the muscle to develop greater tension for a
longer period of time.
This conclusion is not supported by results of the 60-s sprint performance test.
The power output & the rate of fatigue (decrease in power production) were
affected to the same degree after sprint training with both 6-s & 30-s training
bouts.
Performance gains with these forms of training result from improvement in
strength rather than yield of ATP.

# Anaerobic training increases the ATP-PC & glycolytic enzymes but has no effect on the
oxidative enzymes. Conversely, aerobic training leads to increases in oxidative enzymes,
but has no effect on the ATP-PC or glycolytic enzymes.
# This fact reinforces a recurring theme physiological alterations resulting from training
are highly specific to the type of training pursued.

3. Other Adaptations to Anaerobic Training


In addition to strength gains, the changes are improvements in
Efficiency of movement,
Aerobic energetics,
Buffering capacity.
Efficiency of Movement
Training at high speeds improves skill & coordination for performing at higher
intensities.
Training at fast speeds & with heavy loads improves efficiency, economizing use of
the muscles energy supply.
Aerobic Energetics
Anaerobic training does not stress only the anaerobic energy systems.
Part of the energy needed for sprints that last at least 30-s is derived from
oxidative metabolism.
Consequently, repeated bouts of sprint-type exercise (30-s maximal bouts) also
increase the muscles aerobic capacity.
4

Chapter 2. Metabolic Adaptations To Training

This changes is small, this enhancement of the muscles oxidative potential will
assist the anaerobic energy systems efforts to meet muscle energy needs during
highly anaerobic effort.

Buffering Capacity
Anaerobic training improves the muscles capacity to tolerate the acid that
accumulates within them during anaerobic glycolysis.
Lactic acid accumulation is a major cause of fatigue during sprint-type exercise
because the H+ that dissociates from it is to interfere with both metabolism & the
contractile process.
Buffer (such as bicarbonate & muscle phosphates) combine with hydrogen to reduce
the fibers acidity; thus they can delay the onset of fatigue during exercise.
8 weeks of anaerobic training has been shown to increased muscle buffering
capacity by 12% - 25% (Sharp et al., 1986).
Aerobic training has no effect on buffer potential.
With the increased buffering capacity, sprint-trained athletes can accumulate
more lactate in their blood & muscle during & following an all-out sprint to
exhaustion than untrained individuals.
This is because the H+ that dissociates from the lactic acid, not the lactate that
accumulates, leads to fatigue.
With enhanced buffering capacity, muscle can generate energy for longer periods
before a critically high concentration of H+ inhibits the contractile process.

D. Monitoring Training Changes

VO2max is considered to be the best means for evaluating training adaptations. But
the test is too impractical for widespread use, & it cannot measure muscle
adaptations to training.
Multiple measurements of blood lactate levels during an exercise bout of increasing
intensity have been proposed as a good means for monitoring progress of training,
but these tests are also impractical.
Various methods for monitoring training adaptations have been tried, but the
easiest seems to be comparing single blood lactate values taken at various times
during a training period, after a fixed-pace activity is performed. Even with his
method, many questions remain unanswered about what actually happens within the
body in response to the training stimulus.

Chapter 2. Metabolic Adaptations To Training

SUMMARY
1.

Aerobic training stresses ST muscle fibers more than FT fibers. Consequently, the
ST muscle fibers tend to enlarge with training. Although the percentages of ST &
FT fibers do not appear to change, aerobic training may cause FTb fibers to take on
more FTa fiber characteristics.

2.

The number of capillaries supplying each muscle fiber increases with training.

3.

Aerobic training increases muscle myoglobin content by about 75% to 80%.


Myoglobin stores oxygen.

4.

Aerobic training increases both the number and the size of mitochondria.

5.

Activities of many oxidative enzymes are increased with aerobic training.

6.

All the changes that occur in the muscles, combined with adaptations in the O2
transport system, lead to enhanced functioning of the oxidative system & improve
endurance.

7.

Endurance-trained muscle stores more glycogen than untrained muscle.

8.

Endurance-trained muscle also stores more fat (triglyceride) than untrained muscle.

9.

Enzymatic activities involved in -oxidation of fat increases with training, therefore


increase FFA release, hence increase the use of fat as energy source, so sparing
glycogen.

10.

The ideal training regimen should have a caloric expenditure of about 5000-6000
kcal per week (715 860 kcal per day). There seems to be little benefit in the
aerobic system beyond this level.

11.

Intensity is also a critical factor in improving performance. Adaptations are


specific to the speed & duration of training bouts, so those who perform at higher
intensities must train at higher intensities.

12.

Aerobic interval training involves repeated bouts of high-intensity performance


separated by brief rest periods. This training, although traditionally considered
only anaerobic, generates aerobic benefits because the rest period is so brief that
full recovery cannot occur, thus the aerobic system is stressed.

13.

Continuous training is done as one prolonged bout of exercise, but many athletes
find it boring.
6

Chapter 2. Metabolic Adaptations To Training

14.

The aerobic benefits from both interval training & continuous high-intensity
training seem to be about the same.

15.

Anaerobic training bouts improve anaerobic performance, but the improvement


appears to result more from strength gains than from improvements in the
functioning of the anaerobic energy system.

16.

Anaerobic training also improves the efficiency of movement, and more efficient
movement requires less energy expenditure.

17.

Although sprint-type exercise is anaerobic by nature, part of the energy used


during longer sprint bouts comes from oxidation, so muscle aerobic capacity can also
be increased with this type of training.

18.

Anaerobic training, allowing the achievement of higher muscle & blood lactate
levels, increases muscle-buffering capacity. This allows the H+ that dissociates
from lactic acid to be neutralized (the bicarbonate & muscle phosphates combine
with H+, decreasing the acidity), thus delaying fatigue.

19.

Changes in muscle enzyme activity are highly specific to the type of training.

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

SPS 211 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY

EXERCISE 6
(Metabolic Adaptations to Training)
Name : _______________________________________

Group : _________ Date : _______________

Answer ALL questions.

1. Define aerobic training.


________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
2. Define anaerobic training.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

3. Explain briefly the adaptations that occur in the muscle as the result of aerobic training.
a. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

b. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

c.

____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

d. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

e. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

f.

____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

Metabolic Adaptations to Training

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

4. What effect does aerobic training have on the energy sources used during exercise?
a. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

b. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
5. Describe the changes in muscle buffering capacity resulting from anaerobic training. How might this
improve performance?
a. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

b. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

Metabolic Adaptations to Training

Chapter 3. Muscular Control of Movement

MUSCULAR CONTROL OF MOVEMENT


A. The Structure & Function of Skeletal Muscle
1. The Muscle Fiber

A single muscle cell is known as a muscle fiber.

Number of muscle fibers depends on the muscles size and function.

A muscle fiber is enclosed by a plasma membrane called the sarcolemma.

The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber is called the sarcoplasm.

Sarcoplasm contains proteins, minerals, glycogen, fats & other organells. It differs
from other cytoplasm because it contains high glucose and myoglobin ( O2- binding
compound found in the muscle).

The extensive tubule network found in the sarcoplasm includes T tubules


(transverse tubules), which allow communication & transport of substances
throughout the muscle fiber.

Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are extensive network that runs longitudinally through
the muscle fiber. Its main function is to store calcium (Ca++) ions essential for
muscle contraction.

2. The Myofibril

Each muscle fiber contains hundreds to thousands of myofibrils - the contractile


elements of skeletal muscles.

Myofibrils are composed of sarcomeres, the smallest functional units of a muscle.

A sarcomere is composed of filaments of 2 protiens (myosin & actin), which are


responsible for muscle contraction.

There are striation consisting of the A-band (dark region/zone) and the I-band
(light region/zone).

Chapter 3. Muscular Control of Movement

Myosin
A thick filament, folded into a globular head at one end.
Composed of 2 protein strands twisted together.
Each myosin head protrudes from the filaments to form cross-bridges, which also
contains binding sites for ATP & ATPase.
Actin
Consists of 3 different protein molecules: Actin contains active sites to which myosin heads can bind.
Tropomyosin during rest lie on top of active sites.
Troponin work together with ca++ ions to maintain relaxation or initiate action of
the myofibril.
One end of each actin filament is attached to a Z disk.

3. Muscle Fiber Action

Each muscle fiber is innervated by a single motor nerve, ending near the middle of
the muscle fiber.

A single motor nerve & all the muscle fibers it supplies/innervates are collectively
termed a motor unit.

The synapse between a motor nerve & a muscle fiber is referred to a


neuromuscular junction. This is where communication between the nervous &
muscular system occurs.

Muscle action is initiated by a motor nerve impulse. The motor nerve releases Ach
(acetylcholine), which opens up ion gates in the muscle cell membrane, allowing
sodium to enter the muscle cell (depolarization). If the cell is sufficiently
depolarized, an action potential is fired and muscle action occurs.

The action potential travels along the sarcolemma, then through the tubule system,
& eventually causes stored calcium to be released from sarcoplasmic reticulum.

Calcium binds with troponin, & then troponin lifts the tropomyosin molecules off of
the active sites on the actin filament, opening these sites for binding with the
myosin head.

Once it binds with the actin active site, the myosin head tilts, pulling the actin
filaments so that the two slide across each other. The tilting of myosin head is the
power stroke (The sliding filament theory).
2

Chapter 3. Muscular Control of Movement

Energy is required before muscle action can occur. The myosin head binds to ATP, &
ATPase found on the head splits ATP into ADP & Pi, releasing energy to fuel the
contraction.

Muscle action ends when calcium is actively pumped out of the sarcoplasm back
into the sarcoplasmic reticulum for storage. This process, leading to relaxation,
also requires energy supplied by ATP.

B. Skeletal Muscle and Exercise


Endurance & speed during exercise depend on the muscles ability to produce energy
and force.
1. Slow-Twitch & Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers

Most skeletal contain both ST and FT fibers.

Muscle Fiber Classification

Slow-Twitch (ST) fibers / Type I / SO (Slow Oxidative) fibers.

Fast-Twitch (FTa) fibers / Type II a / FOG ( Fast Oxidative Glycolytic) fibers.

Fast- Twitch (FTb) fibers / Type II b / FG (Fast Glycolytic) fibers.


* (System 3 classifies the fibers based on the fibers contraction speed &
primary mode of energy production.)

On average most muscles are composed of roughly 50% ST fibers, & 25% FTa.
Remaining 25% are mostly FTb.

Chapter 3. Muscular Control of Movement

Classification of Muscle Fiber Types

System 1
System 2
System 3
Characteristic:
Oxidative capacity
Glycolytic capacity
Contractile speed
Fatigue resistance
Motor unit strength

ST
Type I
SO
High
Low
Slow
High
Low

Fiber classification
FTa
Type IIa
FOG
Moderately high
High
Fast
Moderate
High

FTb
Type IIb
FG
Low
Highest
Fast
Low
High

Structural & Functional Characteristics of Muscle Fiber Types

Characteristic:
Aerobic capacity
Anaerobic capacity
Motor unit force
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
development
Type of myosin ATPase
Nerve conduction velocity
Motor neuron size
Fiber per motor neuron
Contractile speed

High
Low
Low
Low

Fiber type
FTa
Moderate
High
High
High

Low
High
High
High

Slow
Slow
Small
10-180
50

Fast
Fast
Large
300-800
110

Fast
Fast
Large
300-800
110

ST

FTb

Characteristics of ST & FT Fibers

The different fiber types have different ATPases.


(ATPase is the enzyme that located on the myosin head, splits the ATP to yield
energy that used to bind myosin head to the actin filament)

The ATPase in the FT fibers acts faster, providing energy for muscle action more
quickly than the ATPase in ST fibers.

Chapter 3. Muscular Control of Movement

FT fibers have a more highly developed sarcoplasmic reticulum, enhancing the


delivery of calcium needed for muscle action than ST fibers.

Motor neurons supplying FT motor units are larger and supply more fibers than do
neurons for ST motor units. Thus FT motor units have more fibers to contract and
can produce more force than ST motor units.

The proportions of ST and FT fibers in an individuals arm and leg muscles usually
quite similar.

ST fibers have high aerobic endurance and are well suited to low-intensity
endurance activities.

FT fibers are better for anaerobic activity. FTa fibers are well utilized in explosive
bouts of exercise. FTb fibers are not well understood, but it is known that they are
not easily recruited into activity.

Fiber Type & Exercise

ST Fibers
High level of aerobic endurance, therefore ST fibers are very efficient at
producing ATP from the oxidation of carbohydrates & fats.
Recruited at low-intensity and long duration exercise.
Therefore, mostly used during high muscular endurance exercise such as
marathon running or channel swimming.

FT Fibers
Anaerobic
FTa - > force that ST but fatigue easily, therefore recruited mostly during high
intensity exercise that last for short period of time e.g. 1-mile run, 400m swim
FTb not easily recruited. Therefore only during very high intensity and
explosive events e.g. 100m dash/sprint & 50m sprint swim.

Chapter 3. Muscular Control of Movement

2. Muscle Fiber Recruitment

Motor units give all-or-none responses. For a unit to be recruited into activity, the
motor nerve impulse must meet or exceed the threshold. When this occurs, all
muscle fibers in the motor unit act maximally. If the threshold is not met, no fibers
in that unit act.

More force is produced by activating more motor units, and thus more muscle
fibers.

In low intensity activity, most muscle force is generated by ST fibers. As the


resistance increases, FTa fibers are recruited, and if maximal strength is needed the FTb are activated. The same pattern of recruitment is followed during events
of long duration.

3. Fiber Type & Athletic Success

World champions in marathon have been reported to posses 93% to 99% ST fibers
in their gastrocnemius muscles. World-class sprinters, however, have about 25% ST
fibers in this muscle.

4. Use of Muscle

Muscles involved in a movement can be classed as:


Agonists (prime movers), muscles primarily responsible for the movement.
Antagonists (opponents), muscles that oppose the prime movers.
Synergists (assistants), muscles that assist the prime movers.

Flexion of elbow requires shortening of brachialis & biceps brachii muscles


(agonists) and relaxation of the triceps brachii (antagonist). The brachioradialis
muscle (synergist) assists the brachialis & biceps brachii in their flexion of the
joint.

Agonists produce most of the force needed for any particular movement.
Synergists assist the agonists & sometimes are involved in fine-tuning the direction
of movement. The antagonists play a protective role.

Chapter 3. Muscular Control of Movement

Types of muscle Action

The 3

main types of muscle action are:


Concentric action, in which the muscle shortens
Static action, in which the muscle acts but the joint angle is unchanged.
Eccentric action, in which the muscle lengthens.

Generation of force

Force production can be increased by recruiting more motor units.

Force production can be maximized if the muscle is stretched 20% prior to action.
At this point, the amount of energy stored & the number of linked actin-myosin
cross-bridges are optimum.

All joints have an optimal angle at which the muscle crossing the joint function to
produce maximum force. This angle varies with the relative position of the muscles
insertion on the bone & the load placed on the muscle.

Speed of action also affects the amount of force produced. For concentric action,
maximum force can be achieved with slower contractions. The closer to get to zero
velocity (static) the more force can be generated. With eccentric actions, however,
faster movement allows more force production.

Generation of force depends on:

Number of motor units activated


Types of motor units activated
Size of muscle
Muscles initial length when activated
Angle of joint (angle of force application AFA)
Muscles speed of action

Chapter 3. Muscular Control of Movement

SUMMARY
1.

An individual muscle cell is called a muscle fiber.

2.

A muscle fiber is enclosed by a plasma membrane called the sarcolemma.

3.
4.

The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber is called the sarcoplasm.


The extensive tubule network found in the sarcoplasm includes T tubules , which
allow communication & transport of substances throughout the muscle fiber and
sarcoplasmic reticulum , which stores calcium.

5.

Myofibrils are composed of sarcomeres, the smallest functional units of a muscle.

6.

A sarcomere is composed of filaments of 2 protiens (myosin & actin), which are


responsible for muscle contraction.

7.

Myosin is a thick filament, folded into a globular head at one end.

8.

An actin filament is composed of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin. One end of each
actin filament is attached to a Z disk.

9.

Muscle action is initiated by a motor nerve impulse. The motor nerve releases Ach,
which opens up ion gates in the muscle cell membrane, allowing sodium to enter the
muscle cell (depolarization). If the cell is sufficiently depolarized, an action
potential is fired and muscle action occurs.

10.

The action potential travels along the sarcolemma, then through the tubule system,
& eventually causes stored calcium ions to be released from sarcoplasmic reticulum.

11.

Calcium ions bind with troponin, & then troponin lifts the tropomyosin molecules off
of the active sites on the actin filament, opening these sites for binding with the
myosin heads to bind strongly with them.

12.

Once a strong binding state is established with the actin, the myosin head tilts,
pulling the actin filament so that the two slide across each other. The tilting of
myosin head is the power stroke.

13.

Energy is required before muscle action can occur. The myosin head binds to ATP, &
ATPase found on the head splits ATP into ADP & Pi, releasing energy to fuel the
contraction.

Chapter 3. Muscular Control of Movement

14.

Muscle action ends when calcium is actively pumped out of the sarcoplasm back
into the sarcoplasmic reticulum for storage. This process, leading to relaxation,
also requires energy supplied by ATP.

15.

Most skeletal muscles contain both ST & FT fibers.

16.

The different fiber types have different ATPases. The ATPase in the FT fibers
acts faster, providing energy for muscle action more quickly than the ATPase in ST
fibers.

17.

FT fibers have a more highly developed sarcoplasmic reticulum, enhancing the


delivery of calcium needed for muscle action than ST fibers.

18.

Motor neurons supplying FT motor units are larger and supply more fibers than do
neurons for ST motor units. Thus FT motor units have more fibers to contract and
can produce more force than ST motor units.

19.

The proportions of ST and FT fibers in an individuals arm and leg muscles usually
quite similar.

20.

ST fibers have high aerobic endurance and are well suited to low-intensity
endurance activities.

21.

FT fibers are better for anaerobic activity. FTa fibers are well utilized in explosive
bouts of exercise. FTb fibers are not well understood, but it is known that they are
not easily recruited into activity.

22.

Muscles involved in a movement can be classed as agonists (prime mover),


antagonists (opponents), or synergists (assistants).

23.

The 3 main types of muscle action are concentric, in which the muscle shortens;
static, in which the muscle acts but the joint angle is unchanged; & eccentric, in
which the muscle lengthens.

24.

Recruiting more motor units can increase force production.

25.

Force production can be maximized if the muscle is stretched 20% prior to action.
At this point, the amount of energy stored & the number of linked actin-myosin
cross-bridges are optimum.

26.

All joints have an optimal angle at which the muscle crossing the joint function to
produce maximum force. This angle varies with the relative position of the muscles
insertion on the bone & the load placed on the muscle.
9

Chapter 3. Muscular Control of Movement

27.

Speed of action also affects the amount of force produced. For concentric action,
maximum force can be achieved with slower contractions. The closer to get to zero
velocity (static) the more force can be generated. With eccentric actions, however,
faster movement allows more force production.

10

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

SPS 211 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY

EXERCISE
(Muscular Control of Movement)
Name : _____________________________________________

Group : _____________________

1. List the principal functions of skeletal muscles.


i.

_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________

2. Outline the steps leading to the muscle contraction.


i.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
iv. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
3. List five (5) characteristics of a slow-twitch muscle fiber.
i.

_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________
iv. _____________________________________________________________________________
v.

_____________________________________________________________________________

4. Why slow-twitch muscle fibers better suited to perform low-intensity and long duration events such as
long distance swimming and cross-country running?
i.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

Muscular Control of Movement

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

5. List five (5) characteristics of a fast-twitch muscle fiber.


i.

_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________
iv. _____________________________________________________________________________
v.

_____________________________________________________________________________

6. Why fast-twitch muscle fibers better suited to perform short and explosive events such as
the 100-m dash and 50-m sprint swim?
i.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
7. List two (2) functional differences between the fast twitch and the slow twitch fibers.
i.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

8. Describe the roles of the following classes of muscles.


a) Agonists.
_____________________________________________________________________________
b) Synergists.
_____________________________________________________________________________
b) Antagonists.
_____________________________________________________________________________

Muscular Control of Movement

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

9. Distinguish the following types of muscle contraction.


a) Isometric.
_____________________________________________________________________________
b) Concentric.
_____________________________________________________________________________
c) Eccentric.
_____________________________________________________________________________
10. Describe the function of Golgi tendon organs in monitoring muscle tension.
i.

____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

11. Discuss the role of the muscle spindles in controlling muscle action.
i.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

12. Discuss the primary factors thought to be responsible for generating force during muscular
contractions.
i.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

Muscular Control of Movement

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

NEUROLOGICAL CONTROL OF MOVEMENT


A. The structure & Function of the Nervous System
1. The Neuron

Individual nerve fibers or nerve cells are called neurons


Neuron is composed of three regions:1. The cell body or soma

2. The dendrites

3. The axon

Most neurons contain many dendrites (neurons receivers) receive impulses then
carry toward the cell body.
Most neurons have only one axon (neurons transmitter) conducts impulses away
from the cell body.
Axon splits near its end into branches called axon terminals (terminal fibrils).
The tips of the axon terminals are called the synaptic knobs containing vesicle
(sacs) filled with chemicals, known as neurotransmitter used for communication
between neuron and another cell.

2. The Nerve Impulse

Nerve impulse is an electrical charge is the signal that passes from one neuron to
the next and finally to an end organ.

Resting Membrane Potential (RMP)


The cell membrane of a neuron at rest has a negative electrical potential of about
-70 mV. (mV=milivolt)
That means, the electrical charges found inside and outside the cell were differ by
70 mV, and the inside was negative relative to the outside.
This potential difference (-70 mV) is called the resting membrane potential or
RMP.
It is caused by a separation of charges across the membrane.
When the charges across the membrane differ, the membrane is said to be
polarized.
The neuron (axon) has a high concentration of potassium ions (K+) on the inside and
a high concentration of sodium ions (Na+) on the outside because the sodiumpotassium pump actively moves sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell.
The Na-K Pump moves three (3) Na+ ions out of the cell for each two (2) K+ ions it
brings into the cell. The cell membrane is much more permeable to K+ ions, so some
of the K+ ions may also move to the outside. The Na+ cannot move in this manner.
Therefore, the inside of the cell is more negative than outside, creating the
potential difference across the membrane.
1

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

Maintenance of a constant RMP of -70mV is primarily a function of the Na-K


pump.

Depolarization & Hyperpolarization


If the inside of the cell becomes less negative relative to the outside, the
potential difference across the membrane will decrease. The membrane will be less
polarized. When this happen, the membrane is said to be depolarized.
Thus, depolarization happens any time when the charge difference is less than the
RMP of -70 mV, moving closer to zero. This is result from a change in the
membranes Na+ permeability.
The opposite can also occur. If the charge difference across the membrane
increases, moving from the RMP to an even more negative number, then the
membrane becomes more polarized. This is known as hyperpolarization.

Changes in the membrane potential are signals used to receive, transmit and
integrate information within & between cells.
These signals are of two (2) types graded potentials & action potentials. Both are
electrical currents created by the movement of ions
Graded Potentials
These are localized changes in the membrane potential can be either
depolarizations or hyperpolarizations.
These are triggered by local changes in the neurons local environment.
Action Potentials
An action potential is a rapid and substantial depolarization of the neurons
membrane.
Typically, membrane potential changes from the RMP -70 mV to a value of +30 mV,
and then rapidly returns to its resting value.
All action potentials begin as graded potentials. Action potentials are generated
when enough stimulation occurs to cause a depolarization (at least 15 20 mV).
That means if the membrane depolarizes from the RMP of -70 mV to a value of -50
mV to -55 mV, the cell will experience an action potential.
The minimum depolarization required to produce an action potential is called the
threshold.
Any depolarization less than the threshold value of 15 20 mV will not result in an
action potential. This is the All-or-None Principle.

Sequence of Events in an Action Potential


1. Increased sodium (Na+) permeability through opening of sodium gates,
2. Decreased sodium (Na+) permeability as sodium gates close, &
3. Opening of potassium gates and repolarization.

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

Propagation of the Action Potential


The myelin sheath a fatty sheath that insulates the cell membrane of axons.
The gaps between sheaths which are not insulated are called nodes of Ranvier.
The action potential appears to jump from one node to the next as it traverses a
myelinated fibers. This is referred to as saltatory conduction, a much faster rate
(5-50 times faster) of conduction than in unmyelinated fibers of the same size.

Diameter of the neuron the velocity of nerve impulses transmission is also


determined by the neurons size.
The larger diameter neurons conduct nerve impulses faster because larger neurons
present less resistance to local current flow.

3. The Synapse

A synapse is the site of impulse transmission from one neuron to another.


A synapse between two neurons includes:
1. Axon terminals of the presynaptic neuron (neuron carrying impulse),
2. Postsynaptic receptors on the dendrite or cell body of the next neuron, &
3. Space (synaptic cleft) between the two neurons.

Impulses are transmitted in 1 direction only.


The presynaptic terminals of the axon contain a large number of sac-like structure,
called synaptic vesicles.
Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters chemicals.
When the impulse reaches the presynaptic terminals, the synaptic vesicles respond
by dumping their chemicals into the synaptic cleft.
These neurotransmitters then diffuse across the synaptic cleft to the postsynaptic
neurons receptors.
Once the postsynaptic receptors bind with the neurotransmitters, the impulse has
been transmitted successfully to the next neuron and can be transmitted onward.

4. The Neuromuscular Junction

The neuromuscular junction is where motor neuron communicates with the muscle
fiber.
It involves:1. Presynaptic axon terminals (motor endplates),
2. The synaptic cleft, &
3. Receptors on the sarcolemma of the muscle fiber.
The neuromuscular junction functions much like a neural synapse.

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

5. Neurotransmitters

There are more than 40 identified neurotransmitters.


Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine are the two major neurotransmitters involved in
regulating our physiology responses to exercise.
A nerve impulse causes the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic axon
terminals into the synaptic cleft which then diffuse across the cleft and bound to
postsynaptic receptors.
Once the neurotransmitter binds to the postsynaptic receptors, the nerve impulse
has been successfully transmitted.
Neurotransmitters are then either destroyed by enzymes or return into
presynaptic neuron for reuse when the next impulse arrives.
Neurotransmitter binding at the postsynaptic receptors can cause either
depolarization ( excitation) or hyperpolarization (inhibition).

6. The Postsynaptic Response

The incoming impulse may be excitatory or inhibitory.


An excitatory impulse causes depolarization, known as an Excitatory Postsynaptic
Potential (ESSP).
An inhibitory impulse causes hyperpolarization, known as an Inhibitory Postsynaptic
Potential (IPSP).
A single presynaptic terminal is not sufficient to generate enough depolarization to
fire an action potential.
Multiple signals are needed which may come from numerous axon terminals that
release neurotransmitters repeatedly and rapidly.
Summation is the process of accumulation of the incoming signals. The summation
must reach the threshold for an action potential to be released.

SUMMARY
1.

Nerve impulses typically pass from the dendrites to the cell body and from the cell
body along the length of the axon to its terminal fibrils.

2.

A neurons RMP of -70 mV results from the separation of sodium & potassium ions
maintained primarily by the sodium-potassium pump, coupled with low sodium
permeability & high potassium permeability of the neuron membrane

3.

Any change making the membrane potential more positive is a depolarization. Any
change making this potential more negative is a hyperpolarization. These changes
occur when ion gates in the membrane open, permitting ions to move from one side
to the other.
4

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

4.

If the membrane is depolarized by 15 -10 mV, threshold is reached & an action


potential results. Action potentials are not generated if threshold is not met.

5.

The chain of events for action potential are:


increased sodium permeability through opening of sodium gates,
decreased sodium permeability as sodium gates close, and
opening of potassium gates and repolarization.

6.

In myelinated neurons, the impulse travels through the axon by jumping between
nodes of Ranvier (gaps between the cells that form the myelin sheath). This
process, salutatory conduction, is 5 to 50 times faster than in unmylinated fibers
of the same size.

7.

Impulses also travel faster in neurons of larger diameters.

8.

Neurons communicate with each other across synapses.

9.

10.

A nerve impulse causes chemicals called neurotransmitters to be released from the


presynaptic axon terminals into the synaptic cleft.

11.

Neurotransmitters diffuse across the cleft and are bound to the postsynaptic
receptors.

12.

Once neurotransmitters are bound, the impulse has been successfully transmitted
and the neurotransmitter is then either destroyed by enzymes or actively returned
to the presynaptic neuron for future use.

13.

Neurotransmitter binding at the postsynaptic receptors opens the ion gates in that
membrane and can cause depolarization (excitation) or hyperpolarization
(inhibition), depending on the specific neurotransmitter and the receptors to which
it binds.

14.

Neurons communicate with muscle cells at the neuromuscular junctions.

15.

The neurotransmitters most important to regulation of exercise are acetycholine


and norepinephrine.

synapse involves:
the axon terminals of the presynaptic neuron,
the postsynaptic receptors on the dendrite or cell body of the next neuron, &
the space (synaptic cleft) between the two neurons.

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

B. The Central Nervous System (CNS)

The functional organization of the nervous system

Central Nervous System (CNS)


Brain
Spinal Cord

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)


Cranial Nerves
Spinal Nerves

Sensory Division
(Afferent)

Motor Division
(Efferent)

Autonomic
Nervous
System
(Involuntary)

Somatic
Nervous
System
(Voluntary)

CNS
CNS is composed of the brain and the spinal cord.
CNS houses more than 100 billion neurons.

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

1. The Brain

Subdivide into 4 regions:- cerebrum, diencephalon, cerebellum & brain stem.

Cerebrum
Composed of the right & left cerebral hemispheres.
These are connected to each other by fiber bundles (tracts) referred to as the
corpus callosum, allowing the 2 hemispheres to communicate with each other.
The cerebral cortex (gray matter) forms the outer portion has been referred to as
the site of the mind & intellect.
Cerebral cortex is the conscious brain. It allows us to think, to be aware of sensory
stimuli, & to voluntary control of movements.

Cerebrum consists of 5 lobes: - 4 outer lobes & the central insula (not discuss)
1. Frontal lobe general intellect & motor control,
2. Temporal lobe auditory input & its interpretation,
3. Parietal lobe general sensory & its interpretation,
4. Occipital lobe - visual input & its interpretation.

Diencephalon
Composed of the thalamus & the hypothalamus.
Thalamus is an important sensory integration center.
All sensory input (except smell) enters the thalamus & is relayed to the appropriate
area of the cortex.
Thalamus regulates what sensory input reaches the conscious brain, & thus is very
important for motor control.

Hypothalamus, directly below the thalamus, is responsible for maintaining


homeostasis by regulating almost all processes that affect the bodys internal
environment.
Hypothalamus regulate:1. the autonomic nervous system (BP, HR, respiration, digestion, etc.),
2. body temperature,
3. fluid balance,
4. neuroendocrine control,
5. emotions,
6. thirst,
7. food intake, &
8. sleep-wake cycle.

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

Cerebellum
Located behind the brain stem.
Connected to numerous parts of the brain & has a crucial role in controlling
movement.
Brain stem
Composed of the midbrain, the pons, & the medulla oblongata.
Is the stalk of the brain, connecting the brain & the spinal cord.
All sensory & motor nerves pass through the brain stem as they relay information
between the brain & the spinal cord.
Also contains the major autonomic regulatory centers that exert control over the
respiratory & cardiovascular systems.

A specialized collection of neurons running the entire length of the brain stem,
known as the reticular formation, are influenced by & have an influence on nearly all
areas of the CNS. These neurons help:1. coordinate skeletal muscle function,
2. maintain muscle tone,
3. control cardiovascular & respiratory functions, &
4. determine our state of consciousness (both arousal & sleep).

The brain has a pain control system, called an analgesia system. The enkephalins &
-enorphin are important opiate substances that act on the opiate receptors in the
analgesia system to help reduce pain. Exercise of long duration has been postulated to
increase the natural levels of these opiate substances.

2. The Spinal Cord

Composed of tracts of nerves fibers that allow two-way conduction of nerves


impulses.
The sensory (afferent) fibers carry neural signals from sensory receptors, such
those in the muscle & joints, to the upper levels of the CNS.
Motor (efferent) fibers from the brain & upper spinal cord travel down to end
organs (muscle, glands).

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

C. The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

PNS contains 43 pairs of nerves:

12 pairs of cranial nerves that connect with the brain, &

31 pairs of spinal nerves that connect with the spinal cord.

Functionally, the PNS has 2 major divisions: sensory division & motor division.

1. The Sensory Division

The sensory division of PNS carries sensory information from sensory receptors
toward the CNS.
Sensory (afferent) neurons originate in such areas: blood & lymph vessels, internal
organs, special sense organs (taste, touch, smell, hearing, vision), the skin, and
muscles & tendons.
Sensory neurons in the PNS end either in the spinal cord or in the brain.
The sensory division receives information from 5 primary types of receptors:o Mechanoreceptors that respond to mechanical forces such as pressure, touch,
vibration, or stretch.
o Thermoreceprtors that respond to changes in temperature.
o Nociceptors that respond to painful stimuli.
o Photoreceptors that respond to electromagnetic radiation (light) to allow vision.
o Chemoreceptors that respond to chemical stimuli, such as from foods, odors, or
changes in blood concentrations of substances such as O2, CO2, glucose,
electrolytes, & so on.
The nerve endings of mechanoreceptors, thermoreceprtors & nociceptors are
important for the prevention of injury during athletic performance.
Special muscle & joint nerve endings are of many types & functions, and each type is
sensitive to a specific stimulus:
o Joint kinesthetic receptors located in the joint capsules are sensitive to joint
angles & rates of change in these angles. Thus, they sense the position & any
movement of the joints.
o Muscles spindles sense how much a muscle is stretched.
o Golgi tendon organs detect the tension applied by a muscle to its tendon,
providing information about the strength of muscle contraction.

2. The Motor Division

The motor division of PNS carries motor impulses out from the CNS to
various part of the body (target areas muscles) through the motor (efferent)
neurons.
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Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

The motor division is divided into 2 components: the autonomic nervous system
(involuntary) & the somatic nervous system (voluntary).

3. The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

The ANS controls the bodys involuntary internal functions. Some of these
functions that are important to sport & activity include heart rate, blood pressure,
blood distribution, & respiration.
ANS has 2 major divisions: the sympathetic NS & the parasympathetic NS.
The effects of the two systems are often antagonistic, but both systems are
always functioning together.
The Sympathetic Nervous System

Sympathetic NS is the fight-or-flight system : It prepares the body to face a


crisis (acute stress or physical activity).
When we are excited, our sympathetic NS produces a massive discharge
throughout the body, preparing us for action.
The effects of sympathetic stimulation are important to the athlete:

Heart rate & strength of cardiac contraction increase (Heart muscle).

Coronary vessels dilate, increasing the blood supply to the heart muscle to
meet its increased demands (Coronary blood vessels).

Peripheral vasodilation allows more blood to enter the active skeletal


muscles (Blood vessels).

Vasoconstriction in most other tissues diverts blood away from them & to
the active muscles (Blood vessels).

Blood pressure increases, allow better perfusion of the muscles & improving
the return of venous blood to the heart (Blood vessels).

Bronchodilation improves gas exchange (Lungs).

Metabolic rate increases, reflecting the bodys effort to meet the increased
demands of physical activity (Cellular metabolism).

Mental activity increases, allowing better perception of sensory stimuli &


more concentration on performance (Brain).

Glucose is released from the liver into the blood as an energy source (Liver).

Stimulates lipolysis (Adipose tissue).

Increases sweating (Sweat glands).

Stimulates secretion of epinephrine & norepinephrine (Adrenal glands).

Functions not directly needed are slowed (e.g., renal function, digestion),
conserving energy so that it can be used for action.

Causes vasoconstriction; decreases urine formation (Kidney).

Decreases activity of glands & muscles; constricts sphincters (Digestive


System).
10

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

The Parasympathetic Nervous System

Parasympathetic NS is the bodys housekeeping system : It has a major role in


carrying out such processes as digestion, urination, glandular secretion, &
conservation of energy.
This system is more active when we are calm & at rest. Its effects tend to oppose
those of the sympathetic system.
The parasympathetic division causes:

Decreased HR & the force of the heart muscle contraction (Heart muscle),

constriction of coronary vessels (Coronary blood vessels),

bronchoconstriction (Lungs), &

Increases peristalsis & glandular secretion; relaxes sphincters (Digestive


System).

D. The Sensory-Motor Integration

Sensory-motor integration is the process by which the periphery NS relays


sensory input to the CNS & the CNS interprets this information then sends out the
appropriate motor signal to elicit the desired motor response.

1. Sensory Input
Sensory input can terminate in sensory areas of the brain stem, the cerebellum, the
thalamus, or the cerebral cortex.
An area in which the sensory impulses terminate is referred to as an integration
center. This is where the sensory input is interpreted & linked to the motor system.
2. Motor Control
Skeletal muscles are controlled by impulses conducted by motor (efferent) neurons
that originate from any of 3 levels: the spinal cord, the lower regions of the brain,
& the motor area of the cerebral cortex.
The degree of movement complexity increases from simple reflex control to
complicated movements requiring thought processes.
Motor responses for more complex movement patterns typically originate in the
motor cortex of the brain.
3. Reflex Activity
A motor reflex is a preprogrammed response; any time the sensory nerves transmit
certain impulses, the body responds instantly & identically
Reflexes are the simplest form of motor control. They are preprogrammed
responses, therefore not the conscious response.
11

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

All neural activity occurs extremely rapidly, but the reflex is the fastest mode of
response because the body does not need time to make a conscious decision.

Two reflexes that help control muscle function:


1.
Muscle spindles trigger reflexive muscle action when the muscle spindle is
stretched.
2.
Golgi tendon organs trigger a reflex that inhibits contraction muscles if the
tendon fibers are overstretched.

Muscle Spindles
MS are sensory receptors located in the muscle that senses how much the muscle is
stretched.
A muscle spindle comprises specialized muscle fibers called intrafusal fibers
(inside the spindle) & these fibers are controlled by specialized motor neurons,
called gamma motor neurons.
Golgi Tendon Organs
GTO are encapsulated sensory receptors located in muscle tendon fibers that
monitor tension.
GTO are sensitive to tension in the muscle tendon & operate like a strain gauge, a
device that senses changes in tension.
GTO are inhibitory in nature, performing a protective function by reducing the
potential for injury.

4. The Higher Brain Centers

Most movements used in sport activities involve control & coordination through the
higher brain centers specially:

The primary motoe cortex,

The basal ganglia, &

The cerebellum.
The Primary Motor Cortex
PMC which located in the frontal lobe. Neurons here, known as pyramidal cells, allow
us consciously control movement of the skeletal muscles.
PMC is responsible for the control of fine discrete muscle movements.
The Basal Ganglia
Basal ganglia (nuclei) located in the cerebral white matter, deep to the cortex.
BG are known to be important in the initiation of movements of a sustained &
repetitive nature (such as arm swinging while walking), & thus they control complex
semivoluntary movements such as walking & running.
12

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

BG also involved in maintaining posture & muscle tone.


The Cerebellum
Cerebellum is crucial to control of all rapid & complex muscular activities.
It helps coordinate the timing of motor activities & the rapid progression from one
movement to the next by monitoring & making corrective adjustments in the motor
activities that are elicited by other parts of the brain.
It assists the functions of both the primary motor cortex & the basal ganglia.
It facilitates movement patterns by smoothing out the movement, which would
otherwise be jerky & uncontrolled.

5. Engrams

Specific learned motor patterns appear to be stored in the brain, to be replayed on


request. These memorized motor patterns are referred to as motor programs, or
engrams.

E. The Motor Response


1. The Motor Unit

The motor nerve (neuron) and the group of muscle fibers it innervates form a single
motor unit.
Each muscle fiber is innervated by only one motor neuron, but each motor neuron
can innervates up to several thousand muscle fibers.
All muscle fibers within a single specific motor unit are homogeneous with respect
to fiber type. Thus we do not find a motor unit has both FT & ST fibers.

2. The Orderly Recruitment of Muscle Fibers & the Size Principle

Motor units are generally activated on the basis of a fixed order of recruitment.
This is known as the principle of orderly recruitment.
Motor unit are recruited in an orderly manner, therefore specific ones are called on
each time a specific activity is performed.
The size principle explained that the order of recruitment of motor units is
directly related to their motor neuron size.
Motor units with smaller neurons (ST fibers) will be recruited first before larger
neurons (FT fibers).

13

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

SUMMARY
1.

The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord.

2.

The 4 major divisions of the brain are the cerebrum, the diencephalon, the
cerebellum & the brain stem.

3.

The cerebral cortex is the conscious brain.

4.

The diencephalon includes the thalamus, which reveices all sensory input entering
the brain & the hypothalamus, which is a major control center for homeostasis.

5.

The cerebellum, which is connected to numerous parts of the brain, is critical for
coordinating movement.

6.

The brain stem is composed of the midbrain, the pons, & the medulla oblongata.

7.

The spinal cord carries both sensory & motor fibers between the brain and the
periphery.

8.

The PNS contains 43 pairs of nerves: 12 pairs of cranial nerves & 31 pairs of spinal
nerves.

9.

The PNS subdivided into sensory division & motor division. The motor division also
includes the autonomic nervous system.

10.

The sensory division carries information from sensory receptors to the CNS so
that the CNS is constantly aware of the current status & environment.

11.

The motor division carries motor impulses out from the CNS to the muscles.

12.

The autonomic nervous system includes the sympathetic NS, which is the fight-orflight system, & the parasympathetic NS, which is the housekeeping system.
Though these systems often oppose each other, they always function together.

13.

Sensory-motor integration is the process by which the PNS relays sensory input to
the CNS and the CNS interprets this information then sends out the appropriate
motor signal to elicit the desired motor response.

14.

Sensory input can terminate at various levels of the CNS. Not all information
reaches the brain.

14

Chapter 4. Neurological Control of Movement

15.

Reflexes are the simplest form of motor control. They are not the conscious
response. For a given sensory stimulus, the motor response is always identical and
instantaneous.

16.

The level of nervous system control varies in response to sensory input according to
the complexity of movement necessary. Simple reflexes are handled by the spinal
cord, whereas complex reactions require involvement of the brain.

17.

Muscle spindles trigger reflexive muscle action when the muscle spindle is
stretched.

18.

Golgi tendon organs trigger a reflex that inhibits contraction if the tendon fibers
are overstretched.

19.

The primary motor cortex, located in the frontal lobe, is the center of conscious
motor control.

20.

The basal ganglia, in the cerebral white matter, help initiate some movements
(sustained & repetitive ones) & help control posture & muscle tone.

21.

The cerebellum is involved in all rapid & complex movement processes & assists the
primary motor cortex & the basal ganglia in coordinating the response. It is an
integration center that decides how to best execute the desired movement, given
the bodys current position & the muscles current status.

22.

Though not well understood, engrams are memorized motor patterns, stored in both
the sensory & motor areas of the brain, that are called upon as needed.

23.

Each muscle fiber is innervated by only one motor neuron, but each neuron can
innervates up to several thousand muscle fibers.

24.

All muscle fibers within a single motor unit are of the same fiber type.

25.

Motor units are recruited in an orderly manner, so that specific ones are called on
each time a specific activity is performed.

26.

Motor units with smaller neurons (ST fibers) are called on before those with larger
neurons (FT fibers).

15

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

SPS 211 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY

EXERCISE
(Neurological Control of Movement)
Name : _______________________________________

Group : _________

Date: ______________

1. Nerve impulse is an electrical signals that ______________________________________________


_______________________________________________.
2. An action potential is _______________________________________________________________.
3. A synapse is _____________________________________________________________________.
4. Neuromuscular junction is ___________________________________________________________.
5. The neurotransmitters involved in regulation of exercise are _____________________________ and
______________________________.
6. The CNS is composed of ____________________ and ___________________________________.
7. ______________________ is the conscious brain.
8. ______________________ is the sensory integration center and _______________________ is a
major control center for homeostasis.
9. ______________________ has a critical role in controlling and coordinating movement.
10. The spinal cord composed of ________________________________________________________.
11. PNS contains of _______ pairs of cranial nerves and _______ pairs of spinal nerves.
12. The sensory division carries _________________________________________________________.
13. The motor division carries __________________________________________________________.
14. ____________________ division is the fight-or-flight system, which is more active when we are
involved in physical activity.
15. _____________________ division is the bodys housekeeping system, which is more active when we
are at rest.
16. _____________________ division causes the decreased of heart rate and the force of the heart
muscle contraction.
17. _____________________ division causes peripheral vasodilation and bronchodilation.
18. Reflexes are _____________________________________________________________________.
19. ________________________ are sensory receptors located in the muscle that senses how much the
muscle is stretched.
20. ________________________ are encapsulated sensory receptors located in muscle tendon fibers
that monitor tension.

Neurological Control of Movement

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

21. Describe briefly the significance of the sympathetic stimulation to perform physical activity.
i.

_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
iv. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

22. What is the significance of the parasympathetic division during rest?


i.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
iv. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

23. Identity the major functions of the nervous system.


i.

_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________

iii. _____________________________________________________________________________
iv. _____________________________________________________________________________

24. Discuss the general organization of the nervous system.


i.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

ii.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

Neurological Control of Movement

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

CARDIOVASCULAR CONTROL DURING EXERCISE


A. Structure & Function the Cardiovascular System (CVS)
Major functions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Delivery
Removal
Transport

CV S delivers O2 & nutrients to cells.


CV S removes CO2 & metabolic waste products from every cell.
- CVS transports hormones from endocrine glands to their target
receptors.
Maintenance - CVS maintains body temperature & the bloods buffering
capabilities help control the bodys pH.
Prevention
CV S maintains appropriate fluid levels to prevent dehydration &
helps to prevent infection by invading organisms.

1. The Heart (A Pump)

2 atria acting as receiving chambers.


2 ventricles acting as sending units (discharging chambers).
As a pump that circulates blood through the entire vascular system.

Blood Flow Through the Heart

Blood delivering O2 & nutrients & picking up waste products, returns through the
great veins superior vena cava & inferior vena cava to the right atrium (RA).
The (RA) chamber receives all the bodys deoxygenated blood.
From the (RA), blood passes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle
(RV).
The (RV) chamber pumps the blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve into
pulmonary artery, which carries the blood to the lungs.
Thus, the right side of the heart is known as the pulmonary side, sending the blood
that has circulated throughout the body into the lungs for reoxygenation.
After receiving a fresh supply of O2, the blood exits the lungs through the
pulmonary veins, which carry it back to the heart & into the left atrium (LA).
The (LA) chamber receives all the freshly oxygenated blood.
From (LA), blood passes through the bicuspid (mitral) valve into the left ventricle
(LV).
Blood leaves the left ventricle by passing through the aortic semilunar valve into
the aorta, which sends it out to all body parts & systems.
The left side of the heart is known as the systemic side receives the oxygenated
blood from the lungs then sends it out to supply all body tissues.
1

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

The Myocardium (Cardiac muscle)

Cardiac muscle is collectively called the myocardium.


Left ventricle (LV) is the most powerful of the 4 chambers pump oxygenated
blood out through the entire systemic route.
When the body is standing or sitting, the (LV) must contract with enough force to
overcome the effect of gravity, which tends to pool blood in the lower extremities.
(LV) has the greater size (hypertrophy) of its muscular wall this hypertrophy is
the result of demands placed on it.
With more vigorous exercise intense aerobic activity, which working muscles need
for blood, increases the demands on the (LV) are high.
Over time it responds by increasing it size (hypertrophy).
* The atria receive blood into the heart; the ventricles eject blood from the heart.
Left ventricle must produce more power than other chambers because has to pump
blood to all parts of the body; therefore its myocardium is thicker, due to
hypertrophy.

The Cardiac Conduction System (Intrinsic Control of The Heart)

Cardiac muscle has the unique ability to generate its own electrical signal, called
autoconduction, which allows it contract rhythmically without neural stimulation.
The intrinsic heart rate (HR) averages 70 -80- beats per minute (contractions).
HR can drop below this rate in endurance-trained people.

Four (4) components of the cardiac conduction system:


1. Sinoatral (SA) node
2. Atrioventricular (AV) node
3. Atrioventricular (AV) bundle (Bundle of His)
4. Purkinje fibers

The impulse for heart contraction is initiated in the sinoatrial (SA) node, a group
of specialized cardiac muscle fibers located in the posterior wall of the right
atrium.
This tissue (SA node) generates the impulse at about 60 -80 beats per minutes.
SA node is known as the hearts pacemaker, & the beating rate is establishes is
called the sinus rhythm.
The electrical impulse generated by the SA node spreads through both atria &
reaches the atrioventricular (AV) node, located in the right atrial wall near the
center of the heart.
As the impulse spreads through the atria, both atria are signaled to contract
immediately & simultaneously.
AV node conducts the impulse from the atria into the ventricles.
2

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

The impulse is delayed by about 0.13s as it passes through the AV node, then it
enters the AV bundle.
The delay allows the atria to fully contract before the ventricle, maximizing
ventricular filling.
AV bundle travels along the ventricular septum & then sends right & left bundle
branches into 2 ventricles.
These branches send the impulse toward the apex of the heart, then outward.
These terminal branches of the AV bundles are the Purkinje fibers (Pf).
Pf transmit the impulse through the ventricles 6 times faster than the rest of the
cardiac conduction system.
* Cardiac tissue is capable of autoconduction. Cardiac conduction system has own
conduction system initiates own pulse without neural control.
* SA node is the hearts pacemaker, establishing the pulse and coordinate activity
throughout the heart.

Extrinsic Control of Heart Activity


The heart initiates its own electrical impulse (intrinsic control), their timing & effects
can be altered through 3 extrinsic system:
1. The parasympathethic nervous system
(Autonomic nervous system)

2.

Acts on the heart through the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X).
Parasympathetic stimulation = vagal tone
Vagus nerves has a depressant effect, it slows impulse conduction & thus
decrease the HR.
Maximal vagal stimulation can lower the HR to 20 -30 beats per minute.
Vagus nerve also decreases the force of cardiac contraction.

The sympathetic nervous system


(Autonomic nervous system)

Sympathetic stimulation increases the impulse conduction speed thus increase


the HR
Maximal sympathetic stimulation will allows the HR to soar up to 250 beats
per minute.
Sympathetic input also increases the contraction force.
Predominates during times of physical or emotional stress.
After the stress subsides the parasympathetic system again predominates.
3

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

3.

The endocrine system (hormones)

Hormones released by the adrenal medulla: norepinephrine & epinephrine


(catecholamines).
Stimulates the heart & increase its HR.
Released of these hormone triggered the sympathetic stimulation during
stress & their actions prolong the sympathetic response.

Normal resting HR = 60 85 beats per minute (bpm).


With extended periods of endurance training (months to years), the resting HR can
decrease to 35 beats per minute or less.
A world-class long-distance runner = 28 beats per minute.
Lower RHR are postulated to result from increased parasympathetic stimulation
(vagal tone), with a reduced sympathetic activity probably playing a lesser role.
* Heart rate and contraction strength of the heart can be altered by the autonomic
nervous system or the endocrine system.

Cardiac Arrhythmias

Disturbances in the normal sequence of cardiac events can lead to an irregular


heart rhythm, called an arrhythmia.
Can affect blood circulation.

Bradycardia (slow heart) = resting HR lower than 60 beats per minute.


Tachycardia (fast heart) = resting HR higher than 100 beats per minute.

Symptoms of both arrhythmias include fatigue, dizziness, lightheadedness, &


fainting.
Other arrhythmias: Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVC), which result in the
feeling of skipped or extra beats, result from impulses originating outside the SA
node.
Atrial Flutter, in which atria contract at rates of 200-400 bpm.
Atrial Fibrillation atria contract in a rapid & uncoordinated manner is more
serious arrhythmias, which cause the atria to pump little blood or no blood.
Ventricular fibrillation uncoordinated ventricular contraction cause heart
cannot pump blood & leads to fatal. Use of a defibrillator to shock the heart to get
back normal sinus rhythm.

* Endurance training cause low resting HR (bradycardia)

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

The Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Electrical activity of heart can be recorded to diagnose potential cardiac problems


or to monitor cardiac changes.

The principle involved is simple


Body fluids are good electrical conductors.
Electrical impulses generated in the heart are conducted through body
fluids to the skin, where they can be detected & printed out by a sensitive
machine called an electrocardiograph.
This printout is called an electrocardiogram (ECG).

Three components of ECG represent aspects of cardiac function:


1.
The P wave
2.
The QRS complex
3.
The T wave

The P wave represents atrial depolarization & occurs when the electrical impulse
travels from the SA node through the atria to the AV node.
* Depolarization = a decrease in the electrical potential across a membrane, such
as when the inside of a neuron becomes less negative relative to the outside.

The QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization & occurs as the impulse
spreads from the AV bundle to the Purkinje fibers & through the ventricles.

The T wave represents ventricular repolarization. Atrial repolarization cannot be


seen as it occurs during ventricular depolarization (QRS complex).

Often ECGs are obtained during exercise.


ECGs are valuable diagnostic tests.
As exercise intensity increases, the heart must beat faster and work harder to
deliver more blood to active muscle.
If the heart is diseased, an indication may show up on the ECG as the heart
increases its rate of work.
Exercise ECGs have also been invaluable tools for research in exercise physiology
because they provide a convenient method for tracking cardiac changes during
acute & chronic exercise.

* ECG is a recording of the hearts electrical functioning. An exercise ECG may


reveals underlying cardiac disorders.

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

Terminology of Cardiac Function


Cardiac Cycle

Includes all events occurring between 2 consecutive heartbeats: a relaxation phase


(Diastole) & a contraction phase (Systole).
During diastole, the chambers fill with blood.
During systole, the chambers contract & expel blood.
Diastolic phase is longer than systolic phase.
Eg: An individual with HR = 74 bpm, the entire cardiac cycle takes 0.81s to complete
(60s/74 bpm); diastole accounts for 0.50s (62%) of the cycle & systole accounts
for 0.31s (38%).
As HR increases, these absolute time intervals shorten proportionately.
* (Refer to Normal ECG)
One cardiac cycle spans the time between one systole & the next.
Ventricular contraction (systole) begins during the QRS complex & the ends in the
T wave.
Ventricular relaxation (diastole) occurs during the T wave & continues until the
next contraction.

Stroke Volume (SV)

The volume of blood pumped per stroke (contraction).


A certain amount of blood is ejected from the left ventricle during systole.
At the end of diastole, just before systole, the ventricle has completed filling with
blood. This volume of blood is called end-diastole volume (EDV).
At the end of systole, just after contraction, the ventricle has completed its
ejection phase. This volume of blood left in the ventricle is called end-systole
volume (ESV).
SV is the volume of blood that was ejected, & is the difference between the
amounts originally there & the amount remaining in the ventricle after contraction.
SV = EDV - SDV

EDV = 100 ml
End of ventricle
filling

ESV = 40 ml
End of ventricle
contraction

SV = 60 ml
Blood vessels

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

Ejection Fraction (EF)

The proportion of blood pumped out of the left ventricle at each beat.

EF =

Expressed as a percentage, average 60% at rest. Thus 60% of the blood in the
ventricle is ejected & 40% remains.

SV x 100
EDV

60 x 100
100

60%

Cardiac Output (Q)

The total volume of blood pumped by ventricle per minute.

Q = HR x SV

SV at rest in the standing position averages between 60-80 ml of blood foe most
adults.
Thus RHR = 80 bpm, the resting Q = 4.8 6.4 L/min.

(The product of HR & SV)

Average adult body contains 5 L of blood, so this means all our blood is pumped
through our heart about once every minute.

2. The Vascular System (The Blood Vessel/ A system of channels)

Composed of a series of vessels that transport blood from the heart to the tissue
and back.
Arteries are typically the largest, most muscular, & most elastic vessels, & carry
blood away from the heart to the arterioles.
From the arterioles, blood enters the capillaries, the narrowest vessels.
All exchange between the blood and the tissues occurs at the capillaries.
Blood leaves the capillaries to begin the return trip to the heart in the venules, &
the venules form larger vessels the veins - that complete the circuit.
*Heart has also own vascular system coronary arteries & veins

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

Return of Blood to the Heart

CV system requires assistance to overcome the force of gravity (upright position)


when returning blood from the lower extremities back to the heart.
Three basic mechanisms assist in this process:
a. Breathing pressure changes in the abdominal & thoracic cavities.
b. Muscle pump During skeletal muscle contraction, veins are compressed & blood
is pushed upwards toward the heart
c. Valves within veins - allow blood flow in one direction only.
Blood returns to the heart through the veins, assisted by breathing, the muscle
pump, and valves within the vessels.

Distribution of Blood

Varies depending on the needs of specific tissue & of the whole body.
At rest Most metabolically active tissue receive the greatest blood supply:
27% to liver; 22% to kidneys & only 15% to skeletal muscles.
During exercise blood is redirected to the needed areas. Heavy endurance
exercise, skeletal muscles receive up to 80% or more of the available blood.
After meal digestive system receives more blood.
During heat stress the skins blood supply increases as the body attempts to
maintain normal temperature.
*Blood is redistributed throughout the body based on the tissues needs. The most
active tissues receive the most blood. (The more active the muscle is, the more
blood goes to it.)

Distribution of blood to various areas is controlled primarily by the arterioles.


These vessels have strong muscular wall & respond to the mechanisms that control
blood flow: autoregulation & extrinsic neural control.

Autoregulation (intrinsic control). Causes vasodilation in response to local chemical


changes, thus increases blood flow or supply to the areas where more O2 demand.
Chemical changes also increases in clearing the by-products (CO2, K+, H+ & lactic
acid)

Extrinsic Neural Control of distribution is accomplished by the SNS stimulation


causing constriction of blood vessels (decrease blood flow into that area). But SNS
can also cause vasodilation e.g. during fight or flight response or exercising
(increase blood flow to the skeletal muscle & in the heart).

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

Redistribution of Venous Blood At rest 64% blood in the veins, but during
exercise SNS causes vasoconstriction of these veins, therefore more blood flow to
areas in need.

Blood Pressure

The pressure exerted by the blood on the vessel walls, & the term usually refers to
the arterial blood pressure.
Expressed by 2 numbers: the systolic pressure & the diastolic pressure.
BP =

Systolic BP
Diastolic BP

The higher number is the systolic blood pressure.

Represent the highest pressure in the artery & corresponds to ventricular


systole of the heart.

Ventricular contraction pushes the blood through the arteries with


tremendous force, which exerts high pressure on the arterial wall.

The lower number is the diastolic blood pressure.

Represent the lowest pressure in the artery & corresponds to ventricular


diastole when the heart is at rest.

Blood moving through the arteries during that phase is not pushed along by a
forceful contraction.
*Systolic blood pressure is the highest pressure within the vascular system.
Diastolic blood pressure is the lowest pressure. Mean arterial pressure is the
average pressure on the vessel walls

Hypertension

Constriction of blood vessels increases blood pressure.


Condition in which blood pressure is chronically elevated above normal, healthy
values.
The cause is generally unknown in approximately 90% of cases, but it can usually be
controlled effectively by weight loss, proper diet, & exercise, although appropriate
medication may also be required.

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

3. The Blood
Basic
1.
2.
3.

Functions primary importance to exercise:


Transportation
Temperature regulation
Acid-base (pH) balance

Blood & lymph are substances that transport materials to & from body tissues.
Fluid from plasma enters the tissues, becoming interstitial fluid. Most interstitial
fluid returns to the capillaries, but some enters the lymphatic system as lymph,
eventually returning to the blood.
Blood volume = 5-6 L in males & 4-5 L in females.

Blood Composition
Plasma 55% (90% water, 7% plasma proteins & 3% others)
Formed elements - 45% (> 99% RBC & < 1% WBC & platelets)
RBC (Erythrocytes)
% RBC volume in the blood is hematocrit (normal = 40-45%)
O2 is primarily transported bound to the hemoglobin in RBC.
RBC contains hemoglobin: Protein (globin) & Pigment (heme) that contains iron that
binds O2.
Each RBC contains approximately 250 million hemoglobin molecules, each able to
binds 4 O2 molecules, so each RBC can bind up to a billion molecules of O2.
Average 15 g Hb per 100 ml of whole blood.
Blood Viscosity
Viscosity refers to the thickness or stickiness of the blood.
The more viscous, the more resistant it is to flow.
Viscosity of blood is about twice than water.
Increase viscosity of blood = Increase resistance of blood flow
Increase hematocrit = Increase resistance of blood flow
CV systems normal adaptations to training Increase hematocrit & normal or
slightly increase RBC.

10

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

SUMMARY
1.

The atria receive blood into the heart; the ventricles eject blood from the heart.

2.

Left ventricle must produce more power than other chambers because has to pump
blood to all parts of the body; therefore its myocardium is thicker, due to
hypertrophy.

3.

Cardiac tissue is capable of autoconduction. Cardiac conduction system has own


conduction system initiates own pulse without neural control.

4.

SA node is the hearts pacemaker, establishing the pulse and coordinate activity
throughout the heart.

5.

Heart rate and contraction strength of the heart can be altered by the autonomic
nervous system or the endocrine system.

6.

Endurance training cause low resting HR (bradycardia).

7.

ECG is a recording of the hearts electrical functioning. An exercise ECG may


reveals underlying cardiac disorders.

8.

Blood returns to the heart through the veins, assisted by breathing, the muscle
pump, and valves within the vessels.

9.

Blood is redistributed throughout the body based on the tissues needs. The most
active tissues receive the most blood.

10.

Redistribution of blood is controlled by autoregulation. Autoregulation causes


vasodilation in response to local chemical changes, thus increasing blood flow or
supply to the areas.

11.

Extrinsic neural control of distribution is accomplished by the SNS, primarily


through vasoconstriction.

12.

Blood & lymph are substances that transport materials to and from body tissues.

13.

Blood is about 55% plasma and 45% formed elements,

14.

Oxygen is transported by binding to the hemoglobin in RBCs.

15.

As blood viscosity increases, so does resistance to flow.

11

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

B. Cardiovascular Response to Exercise


1. Heart Rate (HR)

HR is one of the simplest & most informative of the CV parameters.


Measure pulse: Carotid pulse or radial pulse.
HR reflects the amount of work the heart must do to meet the increased demands
of the body when engaged in activity.
HR increases with the increase rates of work.

Resting HR
Averages 60-80 bpm.
In middle-aged, unconditioned, sedentary individuals, RHR can exceed 100 bpm.
High conditioned, endurance-trained athletes, RHR in the range of 28-40 bpm.
RHR affected by environmental factors: RHR increases with extreme temperature
and altitude.
HR During Exercise
As exercise intensity increases, HR increases. The heart ejects blood more often,
thus speeding up circulation.
HR increases directly as increase in exercise intensity, until a point of exhaustion.
As this point is approached, HR begins to level off. This indicates the maximum
value is reached.
Maximum HR (HR max)
HR max is the highest HR value achieve in an all-out effort to the point of
exhaustion.
Estimate of maximum HR can be made based on the age because maximum HR shows
a slight but steady decrease of about 1 beat per year beginning at 10 to 15 years of
age.
Subtracting your age from 220 provides an approximation of your maximum HR.
To estimate maximum HR:

HR

max

= 220 age in years

Eg: 40 years old individual:

HR

max

= 220 40 = 180 bpm

Steady State HR
HR increase during submaximal exercise until reaches a plateau. This plateau is the
steady state HR, & it is the optimal HR for meeting the circulatory demands at that
specific rate of work.
Lower rate of steady state HR shows a more efficient heart.

12

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

2. Stroke Volume

SV increases with the increase rates of work, so the amount of blood ejected
with each contraction increases.
SV is determined by:
1. Volume of venous blood returned to the heart
2. Ventricular distensibility,(the capacity to enlarge the ventricle)
3. Ventricular contractility
4. Aortic or pulmonary artery pressure (the pressure against which the
ventricles must contract)

3. Cardiac Output (Q)

Q increases with the increase rates of work.


Increases in HR & SV increase Q. Thus more blood is forced out of the heart
during exercise than when at rest, & circulation speed up. This ensures that
adequate supplies of the needed materials (O2 & nutrients) reach the tissues & the
waste products, which build up much more rapidly during exercise, ere quickly
cleared away.
Exercise increases Q to match the need for O2 supply to the working muscles.

4. Blood flow
Redistribution of Blood During Exercise
During rest, only 15-20% of the resting Q goes to muscle.
During exercise, the muscles receive up to 80%- 85% of the Q.
During exercise in heat, there is increase blood flow to the skin. More blood is
redirected to the skin to conduct heat away from the core body to its periphery,
promote heat loss to the environment.

The metabolic rate of the muscle tissues rises during exercise. As a result,
metabolic waste products begin to accumulate.
Increased metabolism causes an increase in acidity, CO2 & temperature in the
muscle tissue. These changes trigger vasodilation through autoregulation (effect of
SNS), increasing blood flow through the local capillaries.

Cardiovascular Drift (CV drift)


CV drift is an increase in HR during prolong exercise to compensate for a decrease
in SV. This compensation helps to maintain a constant Q.
Prolonged exercise in the heat causes decrease in blood volume due to water loss
through sweating & a shifting of fluid out of the blood into the tissue, which results
in decrease in SV. HR increases to compensate for the decreased SV, in an effort
to maintain Q.
13

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

CV drift allows the body to continue exercising at low to moderate intensities. At


high intensities, the increase in HR cannot compensate the decreased in SV because
the HR attains its maximal value (HR max) at much lower exercise intensity, HR
begins to level off as this point is reached, thus limiting the maximal performances.

5. Blood Pressure (BP)

BP is pressure exerted by blood against the blood vessels.


Systolic Pressure = highest Pressure in the artery
Diastolic Pressure = lowest Pressure in the artery

With endurance exercise, systolic blood pressure increase in direct proportion to


increased exercise intensity.
Increase systolic BP results from the increased Q that accompanies increasing
rates of work.
Diastolic BP changes little if any during endurance exercise, regardless of the
intensity. Remember that diastolic pressure reflects the pressure in the arteries
when the heart is at rest.

6. Blood

The changes that occur in the blood during exercise demonstrate that the blood is
carrying out its necessary tasks. The major changes are:
1. The arterial-venous oxygen difference (a-vO2 diff) increases. This happens
because the venous O2 concentration decreases during exercise, reflecting
increased extraction of O2 from the blood for use by the active tissues.
2. Plasma volume decreases during exercise. The fluid (water) is pushed out of the
capillaries by increases in hydrostatic pressure as BP increase & is drawn into
the muscle by the increased osmotic pressure that results from waste
accumulation. However, with prolonged exercise or exercise in hot environment,
increasingly more plasma fluid is lost through sweating in an attempt to maintain
body temperature, placing the person at risk of dehydration.
3. Hemoconcentration occurs as plasma fluid is lost. Although the actual number of
RBC might not increase, the net effect of this process is to increase the
number of RBC per unit of blood, which increases oxygen carrying capacity.
4. Blood pH can change significantly during exercise, becoming more acidic as it
move from the slightly alkaline resting value of 7.4 down to 7.0 or lower. The
muscle pH decreases even further. The decrease in pH primarily results from
increased blood lactate accumulation during increased exercise intensity.

14

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Control During Exercise

SUMMARY
1.

As exercise intensity increases, Heart rate increases. The heart ejects blood
more often, thus speeding up circulation.

2.

Stroke volume also increases with the increase rates of work, so the amount of
blood ejected with each contraction increases.

3.

Increases in HR & SV increase cardiac output (Q). Thus more blood is forced out
of the heart during exercise than when at rest, and circulation speed up.

4.

During exercise, cardiac output increases primarily to match the need for increased
O2 supply to the working muscles.

5.

During exercise, the muscles receive up to 80%- 85% of the cardiac output.

6.

Cardiovascular drift is increases in HR during prolong exercise to compensate for a


decrease in SV. This compensation helps to maintain a constant Q.

7.

With endurance exercise, systolic blood pressure increase in direct proportion to


increased exercise intensity.

8.

With increasing rates of exercise, the arterial-venous oxygen difference (a-vO2


diff) increases progressively.

9.

Plasma volume decreases during exercise.

10.

When plasma volume reduces, hemoconcentration occurs as plasma fluid is reduced


and increasing the concentration of the substances that remain in the blood.

11.

Blood pH can change significantly during exercise, becoming more acidic due to
increases in blood lactate.

15

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

SPS 211 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY

EXERCISE
(Cardiovascular Control During Exercise)
Name : _______________________________________

Group : _________ Date : _______________

Answer ALL questions.

1. Define cardiac cycle.


________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
2. Define stroke volume.
________________________________________________________________________________

3. Define cardiac output.


________________________________________________________________________________

4. Name the three principal mechanisms for increasing venous return during exercise.
a_______________________________________________________________________________
b_______________________________________________________________________________
c________________________________________________________________________________

5. Discuss the two (2) mechanisms for returning blood back to the heart when the athlete exercising in
an upright position.
a_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
b_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
6. What is arterial blood pressure?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

7. Define systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.


a_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
b_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

8. Identify four (4) responses that occur in the cardiovascular during exercise.
a________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
b________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
c________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
d________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

9. Estimate the maximum heart rate (HRmax) of a person who aged 32 years old.

10. Calculate the stroke volume in milliliters if heart rate equals 75 bpm and cardiac output equals 4.5 L.
min-1.

11. Calculate the cardiac output in liter per minute when stoke volume equals 75 ml and heart rate equals
80 bpm.

12. Calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI) of an athlete weighing 80 kg and 172 cm tall.

13. Calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI) of an athlete weighing 75 kg and 180 cm tall.

Chapter 6. Respiratory Regulation During Exercise

RESPIRATORY REGULATION DURING EXERCISE


A. Pulmonary Ventilation

Pulmonary Ventilation (breathing) is the process by which air is moved into and out of
the lungs. It has two phases: inspiration & expiration.

1. Inspiration
Inspiration is an active process in which the diaphragm and the external intercostals
muscles increase the dimension, and thus the volume, of the thoracic cage. This
decreases the pressure in the lungs and draws air in.

During forced or labored breathing (such as during heavy exercise), inspiration is


further assisted by the action of other muscles (neck & pectoral muscles). These
muscles help raise the ribs even more than during regular breathing.

2. Expiration
Expiration is usually a passive process. The inspiratory muscles relax and the elastics
tissue of the lung recoils, returning the thoracic cage to its smaller, normal dimensions.
This increases the pressure in the lungs and forces air out.

During forced breathing, expiration becomes a more active process. The internal
intercostals muscles can actively pull the ribs down. This action assisted by the
latissimus dorsi & lumborum muscles. These muscles also pull the rib cage down.

B. Pulmonary Diffusion

Pulmonary diffusion is the process by which gases are exchanged across the
respiratory membrane (alveolar-capillary membrane) in the alveoli (lungs).

The amount of gas exchange that occurs across the membrane depends primarily on
the partial pressure of each gas, though gas solubility and temperature are also
important.
Gases diffuse along a pressure gradient, moving from an area of higher pressure to one
of lower pressure. Thus, oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide leaves it.
The greater the pressure gradient across the respiratory membrane, the more rapidly
oxygen diffuses across it.
Oxygen diffusion capacity increases as the body move from rest to exercise. When
the body needs more oxygen, oxygen exchange is facilitated.

The pressure gradient for carbon dioxide exchange is less than for oxygen exchange,
but carbon dioxides membrane solubility is 20 times greater than of oxygen, so carbon
dioxide crosses the membrane easily, even without a large pressure gradient.
1

Chapter 6. Respiratory Regulation During Exercise

C. Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide


1. Oxygen Transport
Oxygen is transported in the blood primarily bound to hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin),
though a small part of it is dissolved in blood plasma.

Hemoglobin oxygen saturation decreases when :


a)
Partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) decreases,
b) pH decreases, or
c)
temperature increases.
Each of these conditions can reflect increased local oxygen demand. They increase
oxygen unloading in the needy area.

Hemoglobin is usually about 98% saturated with oxygen. This is a much higher oxygen
content than our bodies require, so the bloods oxygen-carrying capacity seldom limits
performance.

2. Carbon Dioxide Transport


Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood primarily as bicarbonate ion. This prevents
the formation of carbonic acid, which can cause H+ to accumulate, decreasing the pH.
Smaller amounts of carbon dioxide are carried either dissolved in the plasma or bound
to hemoglobin (carbaminohemoglobin).

D. Gas Exchange at the Muscle


1. The Arterial-Venous Oxygen Difference
The a-vO2 diff is the difference in the oxygen content of arterial and venous blood.
This measure reflects the amount of oxygen taken up by the tissues.
2. Factors Influencing Oxygen Delivery and Uptake
Oxygen delivery to the tissues depends on:
a)
the oxygen content of the blood,
b) the amount of blood flow to the tissues, and
c)
local conditions (e.g., tissue temperature & PO2)
3. Carbon Dioxide Removal
Carbon dioxide exchange at the tissues is similar to oxygen exchange, except that CO2
leaves the muscles, where it is formed, and enters the blood to be transported to the
lungs for clearance.

Chapter 6. Respiratory Regulation During Exercise

E. The Regulation of Pulmonary Ventilation


1. The Mechanisms of Regulation
The respiratory centers in the brain stem set the rate and depth of breathing.

Central chemoreceptors in the brain respond to changes in concentrations of CO2 and


H+. When either of these rises, the inspiratory center increases respiration.
Peripheral receptors in the arch of the aorta and the bifurcation of the common
carotid artery respond primarily to changes in blood O2 levels, but also to changes in
CO2 and H+ levels. If O2 levels drop too low, or if the other levels rise, these
chemoreceptors relay their information to the inspiratory center, which in turn
increases respiration.
Stretch receptors in the air passages and lungs can cause the expiratory center to
shorten respirations to prevent overinflation of the lungs. In addition, the body can
exert some voluntary control over respiration.

2. Pulmonary Ventilation During Exercise


During exercise, ventilation shows an almost immediate increase, resulting from
increased inspiratory center stimulation caused by the muscle activity itself. This is
followed by a more gradual increase that results from the rise in temperature and
chemical changes in the arterial blood that are caused by the muscular activity.
3. Problems Associated With Breathing During Exercise
Breathing problems associated with exercise include dyspnea (shortness of breath),
hyperventilation (overbreathing), and performance of the Valsalva maneuver.
Valsalva maneuver is referred to a respiratory procedure that is frequently
performed in certain types of exercise and that can be potentially dangerous. This
occurs when the individual:
a)
Closes the glottis (the opening between the vocal cords),
b) Increases the intra-abdominal pressure by forcibly contracting the diaphragm and
the abdominal muscles, and
c)
Increases the intrathoracic pressure by forcibly contracting the respiratory
muscles.

F. Ventilation and Energy Metabolism


1. The Ventilatory Equivalent for Oxygen
During mild, steady-state exercise, ventilation accurately reflects the rate of energy
metabolism. Ventilation parallels oxygen uptake. The ratio of air ventilated to O2
consumed is the ventilatory equivalent of oxygen (VE/VO2).

Chapter 6. Respiratory Regulation During Exercise

2. The Ventilatory Breakpoint


The Ventilatory Breakpoint is the point at which ventilation abruptly increases, even
though O2 consumption does not. This increase reflects the need to remove excess
CO2.
3. Anaerobic Threshold
The anaerobic threshold can be determined by identifying the point at which VE/VO2
shows a sudden increase while VE/VO2 stays relatively stable.
Anaerobic threshold has been used as a noninvasive estimate of lactate threshold.

G. Respiratory Limitations to Performance

More than 15% of the bodys total O2 consumption during heavy exercise can occur in
the respiratory muscles.
Pulmonary ventilation is usually not a limiting factor for performance, even during
maximal effort, though it can limit performance in highly trained people.
The respiratory muscles seem to be better designed for avoiding fatigue during longterm activity than muscles of the extremities.
Airway resistance and gas diffusion usually do not limit performance in normal, healthy
individuals.
The respiratory system can limit performance in people with restrictive or obstructive
respiratory disorders.

H. Respiratory Regulation of Acid-Base Balance

Excess H+ (decreased pH) impairs muscle contractility and ATP formation.


The respiratory system plays an integral role in maintaining acid-base balance.
Whenever H+ levels start to rise, the inspiratory center responds by increasing
respiration. Removing CO2 is an essential means for reducing the H+ concentrations.
CO2 is transported primarily bound to bicarbonate. Once it reaches the lungs, CO2 is
formed again and exhaled.
Whenever H+ levels begin to rise, whether from CO2 or lactate accumulation,
bicarbonate ion can buffer the H+ to prevent acidosis.

Chapter 6. Respiratory Regulation During Exercise

SUMMARY
1.

Pulmonary Ventilation (breathing) is the process by which air is moved into and out
of the lungs. It has two phases: inspiration & expiration.

2.

Inspiration is an active process in which the diaphragm and the external


intercostals muscles increase the dimension, and thus the volume, of the thoracic
cage. This decreases the pressure in the lungs and draws air in.

3.

Expiration is usually a passive process. The inspiratory muscles relax and the
elastics tissue of the lung recoils, returning the thoracic cage to its smaller, normal
dimensions. This increases the pressure in the lungs and forces air out.

4.

Forced inspiration and expiration are active processes, dependent on muscles


actions.

5.

Pulmonary diffusion is the process by which gases are exchanged across the
respiratory membrane in the lungs.

6.

The amount of gas exchange that occurs across the membrane depends primarily on
the partial pressure of each gas.

7.

The greater the pressure gradient across the respiratory membrane, the more
rapidly oxygen diffuses across it.

8.

Oxygen diffusion capacity increases as the body move from rest to exercise. When
the body needs more oxygen, oxygen exchange is facilitated.

9.

The pressure gradient for carbon dioxide exchange is less than for oxygen
exchange, but carbon dioxides membrane solubility is 20 times greater than of
oxygen, so carbon dioxide crosses the membrane easily, even without a large
pressure gradient.

Chapter 7. Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training

CARDIORESPIRATORY ADAPTATIONS TO TRAINING


A. Endurance

Muscular endurance
The ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force repeatedly to sustain a
contractive state over a period of time.
For sprinters, muscular endurance is the ability to sustain a high speed over
the full distance of a 100m 0r 200m race.
In weight lifting, boxing and wrestling, muscular endurance is the ability of a
single muscle or muscle group to sustain high-intensity, repetitive, or static
exercise.
Muscular endurance is highly related to muscular strength and anaerobic
development.

Cardiorespiratory endurance
The ability of the body to deliver oxygen effectively to the working muscle to
sustain prolonged, rhythmical exercise.
Cardiorespirarory endurance is the ability of the body to sustain prolonged,
rhythmical exercise. (e.g., : cycling, distance running & long distance
swimming)
Cardiorespiratory endurance is highly related to the development of the CV
& respiratory system, thus the aerobic development.

B. Evaluating Endurance Capacity

VO2 max: maximal O2 uptake


The highest rate of O2 consumption obtainable during maximal or exhaustive
exercise.
VO2 max representing aerobic power, as the best laboratory measure of CR
endurance capacity & is the best indicator of CR endurance.
VO2 max is measured in ml kg-1 min-1.
1

Chapter 7. Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training

O2 Transport System
Refer to all components of the CV & respiratory systems that are related to the
transportation & delivery of O2.
The functioning of O2 transport system is defined by the interaction of the
cardiac output & the arterial-venous oxygen difference (a-vO2 diff).
Arterial-venous oxygen difference (a-vO2 diff), which is the difference
between the O2 content of the arterial blood & the O2 content of the
venous blood.
Q (SV x HR) tells how much O2-carrying blood leaves the heart in 1 min.
a-vO2 diff tells how much O2 is extracted from the blood by the tissues.
The product tells us the rate of O2 consumption:
VO2 = SV x HR x a-vO2 diff
The active tissues O2 demand increases during exercise. Body endurance
depends on the O2 transport systems ability to deliver sufficient O2 to
these active tissues to meet the high demands.

C. Cardiovascular Adaptations to Training


1. Heart size

Cardiac hypertrophy the left ventricle undergoes the most change in response to
endurance training.
The internal dimensions of the left ventricle increase, mostly in response to an
increase in ventricular filling.
Left ventricle wall thickness also increase, increasing the strength potential of the
chambers contraction. (increases contractility)

2. Stroke Volume

Following endurance training, SV increases during rest, submaximal levels of


exercise, and maximal exercise.
A major factor leading to the SV increase is an increased end-diastolic volume
(EDV), probably caused by an increased in blood plasma.
Another major factor is increased left ventricle contractility. This is caused by
hypertrophy of the cardiac muscle and increased elastic recoil, which results from
increased stretching of the chamber with more diastolic filling.
2

Chapter 7. Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training

3. Heart Rate (HR)

Resting heart rate (RHR)- the HR at rest, averaging 60-80 bpm.


RHR decreased as a result of endurance training. In a sedentary person the
decrease is typically about 1 bpm per week during initial training. Highly trained
endurance athletes often have resting rates of 40 bpm or less.
Submaximal HR also decreases, often by about 20 to 40 bpm following 6 months of
moderate training.
Maximum heart rate (HR max) the highest HR value attainable during an all out
effort to the point of exhaustion.
HR max either remains unchanged or decreases slightly with training. When
decrease occurs, it is probably to allow optimum SV to maximize cardiac output.
HR recovery period the time it take for HR to return to the resting rate after
exercise.
HR recovery period decreases with increased endurance, making this value well
suited to tracking an individuals progress in training. However, this is not useful for
comparing fitness of different people because of the potential influence of other
factor like exercise in hot environment or high altitudes can prolong HR elevation.
Resistance training can also lead to reduced HR; however, these decreases are not
reliable or as large as those seen with endurance training.
(Resistance training is designed to increase strength, power, & muscular
endurance)

4. Cardiac Output (Q)

Q at rest or during submaximal levels of exercise remains unchanged or decreases


slightly after training.
Q at maximal levels of exercise increases considerably. This is largely the result
of the substantial increases in SV.

5. Blood Flow

Endurance training increases blood flow to muscle because:


i.
Increased capillarization
ii.
Greater opening of existing capillaries
iii. More effective blood redistribution.

6. Blood Pressure

Resting BP is decreases with endurance training in those with borderline or


moderate hypertension.
Endurance training has little or no effect on BP during submaximal or maximal
exercise.
3

Chapter 7. Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training

7. Blood Volume

Endurance training causes increased in blood volume, due to increased in plasma


volume which is one of the most significant effects of training.
Increased in RBC count, but the gain in plasma is much higher, resulting in a
relatively greater fluid portion of the blood. (Increased in plasma volume is >,
therefore > fluid, hence decreased in blood viscosity, therefore increased in blood
circulation)
Plasma volume increases because increased in SV and VO2max.

D. Respiratory Adaptations to Training


1. Lung Volumes
Effects of endurance training
In general, lung volumes change little with training.
Vital capacity (VC) increases slightly.
Residual volume (RV) slightly decreases.
Overall, total lung capacity remains unchanged.
Tidal volume is unchanged at rest & during submaximal exercise, but
increases during maximal exercise.
Vital capacity (VC) = the maximum volume/amount of air expelled from the lungs
after maximum inspiration/inhalation.
Residual volume (RV) = the amount of air that cannot be exhaled from the lungs or
remains in the lungs.
Tidal volume = the amount of air breathed in and out (inspired or expired) during
normal respiration.
2. Respiratory Rate

After training, respiratory rate remains steady at rest, decrease slightly with
submaximal exercise, but increases with maximal exercises.

3. Pulmonary Ventilation

After training, pulmonary ventilation is unchanged or slightly decreases at rest &


at submaximal exercise, but increases at maximal exercise due to increased in
tidal volume and respiration rate.

Pulmonary ventilation = the movement of gases into & out of the lungs.
4

Chapter 7. Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training

4. Pulmonary Diffusion

After training, pulmonary diffusion is unaltered/ unchanged at rest and during


submaximal exercise, because of increased in ventilation and increased in lung
perfusion. (More blood is brought into lungs for gas exchange, & at the same time
ventilation is increased, so more air is brought into the lungs) however increases at
maximal exercise

Pulmonary diffusion = the exchange of gases between the lungs & the blood.
5. Arterial-Venous Oxygen Difference (a-vO2 diff)

Training increases a-vO2 diff, especially at maximal exercise because the


increased in O2 extraction by tissues and increased in blood distribution.

* Respiratory system is quite adept at bringing adequate amounts of O2 into the body,
thus it usually does not limit endurance performance.

E. Metabolic Adaptations
1. Lactate Threshold (LT)

Endurance training increases LT, therefore can perform at a higher rates of work
and at a higher rate of O2 consumption without increasing the blood lactate above
resting levels.
The increase in LT is because a greater ability to clear lactate produced in the
muscle, and an increase in skeletal enzymes coupled with a shift in metabolic
substrate.
Maximal blood lactate concentration is increased slightly.

Lactate threshold (LT) = the point during exercise of increasing intensity at which
blood lactate begins to accumulate above resting levels.
2. Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER)

RER reflects the types of substrates being used as an energy source.


After training, RER is decrease at submaximal work rate, indicating a greater
utilization of FFA instead of CHO.
At maximal work, RER increases due to the ability to perform at max levels for
longer periods of time.
5

Chapter 7. Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training

Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) = the ratio of CO2 expired to the O2 consumed at
the level of the lungs.
3. Resting & Submaximal O2 Consumption

O2 consumption can be increase slightly at rest & decreased slightly or unaltered


during submaximal exercise.

4. Maximal O2 Consumption

VO2max increases with training, but the amount of increase is limited in each
individual. The major limiting factor is O2 delivery to the active muscles.

F. Longterm Improvement in Endurance

VO2max has an upper limit. The highest attainable VO2max is usually reached within
18 months of intense endurance conditioning.
Endurance performance can continue to improve for years with continued training.

G. Factors Affecting the Response to Aerobic Training


1. Heredity

VO2max depends on genetic limits which predetermines the range for VO2max.
(25%-50% of the variance in VO2max values)
Heredity also explains for individual variations in response to identical training
program.

2. Age

Age-related decreases in aerobic capacity is partly due to the decreased in activity.

3. Gender

VO2max of highly conditioned female endurance athletes is only about 10% lower
than highly conditioned male endurance athletes.

4. Responders and Non-responders

Response to a training program is also genetically determined.


6

Chapter 7. Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training

5. Specificity of training

The more specific the training program to the sports involved, the more
improvement there will be.
To maximize CR gains from training, the training should be specific to the type of
activity that an athlete usually performs.

6. Crosstraining

Resistance training combines with endurance training does not appear to improve
the aerobic capacity, but may increase short term endurance.

H. Cardiorespiratory Endurance and Performance

Cardiorespiratory endurance is regarded as the most important component of


physical fitness & is an athletes major defense against fatigue.
Even minor fatigue can have a detrimental effect on the athletes total
performance:
Muscular strength is decreased.
Reaction & movement times are prolonged.
Agility & neuromuscular coordination are reduced.
Whole body movement speed is slowed.
Concentration & alertness are reduced.
Therefore, CV conditioning must be the foundation of general conditioning program.
All athletes can benefit from maximizing their endurance.

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

SPS 211 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY

EXERCISE
(Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training)
Name : _______________________________________

Group : _________ Date : _______________

Answer ALL questions.


1. Define muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory endurance.
a._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
b._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

2. Define aerobic power (VO2 max). What determines this maximal oxygen uptake rate?
a.______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
b.______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

3. Explain the cardiovascular adaptations that occur in response to endurance training.


a._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
b._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
c._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
1

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

______________________________________________________________________________
d._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
f._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
g._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

4. Describe the adaptations in the respiratory system that occur with endurance training.
a._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
b._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
c._______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
d._______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

5. Define lactate threshold. Explain briefly the effect of endurance training on lactate threshold.
a._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
b._______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 8. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

HORMONAL REGULATION OF EXERCISE


The Endocrine System

This system includes all tissues or glands that secrete hormones.


Endocrine glands secrete their hormones directly into the blood.
Hormones act as chemical signals throughout the body.
Specific hormone secreted by the specialized endocrine cells & transported via the
blood to specific target cells. Upon reaching their destinations, they can control the
activity of the target tissue.
Some hormones affect many body tissues, whereas others target specific cells of the
body.

A. The Nature of Hormones

Hormones are involved in most physiological processes, so their actions are relevant to
many aspects of exercise & sport performance.

1. Chemical Classification of Hormones


Steroid Hormones

Chemical structure similar to cholesterol & most are derived from it.
Lipid soluble & diffuse easily through cell membranes.
E.g. hormones secreted by adrenal cortex (cortisol & aldosterone), ovaries (estrogen &
progesterone), testes (testosterone), & placenta (estrogen & progesterone).
Nonsteroid Hormones

Not lipid soluble, so they cannot easily cross cell membranes.


Subdivided into 2 groups: protein or peptide hormones & amino acid-derivative
hormones.
Hormones from thyroid gland (thyroxine & triiodothyronine) & adrenal medulla
(epinephrine & norepinephrine) are amino acid hormones.
All other nonsteroid hormones are protein or peptide hormones.

Chapter 8. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

2. Hormone Action

The interaction between the hormone & its specific receptor has been compared to a
lock (receptor) & key (hormone) arrangement, in which only the correct key can unlock
a given action within the cells.
The combination of hormone bond to its receptor is referred to as a hormone-receptor
complex.
Receptors for nonsteroid hormones are located on the cell membrane, whereas
receptors for steroid hormones are found either in the cells cytoplasm or in its
nucleus.
Each hormone is usually specific for a single type of receptor & binds only with its
specific receptors, thus affecting only tissues that contain those specific receptors.
The Mechanism of Action of a Steroid Hormones,
Leading to direct gene activation
Steroid hormones pass easily through the cell membrane.
Once inside the cell, a steroid hormone binds to its specific receptors.
The hormone-receptor complex then enters the nucleus, binds to part of the cells
DNA, & activates certain genes. This process is referred to as direct gene activation.
In response to this activation, mRNA is synthesized within the nucleus.
The mRNA then enters the cytoplasm & promotes protein synthesis. These proteins
may be:

enzymes that can have numerous effects on cellular processes,

structural proteins to be used for tissue growth & repair, or

regulatory proteins that can alter enzymes function.


The Mechanism of Action of a Nonsteroid Hormones,
Using a second messenger within the cell
Nonsteroid hormones cannot cross the cell membrane; they react with specific
receptors outside the cell, on the cell membrane.
A nonsteroid hormone molecule binds to its receptor and triggers a series of enzymatic
reactions that lead to the formation of an intracellular second messenger: cyclic
adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, or cAMP).
Attachment of the hormone to membrane receptor activates an enzyme, adenylate
cyclase, situated within the cell membrane. This enzyme catalyzes the formation of
cAMP from cellular ATP.
cAMP can then produce specific physiological responses, which may include:

activation of cellular enzymes,

change in membrane permeability,

promotion of protein synthesis, or

stimulation of cellular secretions.


Thus, nonsteroid hormones typically activate the cAMP system of the cell, which then
leads to changes in intracellular functions.
2

Chapter 8. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

3. Control of Hormone Release

Hormone released can be fluctuating over short periods (an hour or less) or over longer
periods of time (daily or even monthly cycle: monthly menstrual cycle).
Most hormone secretion is regulated by a negative feedback system.
Secretion of a hormone causes some change in the body, and this change in turn
inhibits further hormone secretion.
Negative feedback is the primary mechanism through which the endocrine system
maintains homeostasis.
The number of receptors on a cell can be altered to increase or decrease that cells
sensitivity to a certain hormone.
Up-regulation (sensitization) refers to an increase in receptors, thus the cell becomes
more sensitive to that hormone because more can be bound at one time.
Down-regulation (desensitization) refers to a decrease in receptors, thus the cell
becomes less sensitive to that hormone because with fewer receptors, less hormone
can bind.

SUMMARY
1.

Hormones can be classified as either steroid or nonsteroid.

2.

Steroid hormones are lipid soluble, and most are formed from cholesterol.
Nonsteroid hormones are formed from proteins, or amino acids.

3.

Hormones are generally secreted into the blood and then through the body to exert
an effect only on their target cells. They act by binding in a lock-and-key manner
with specific receptors found only in the target tissues.

4.

Steroid hormones pass through cell membranes and bind to receptors inside the
cell. They use a mechanism called direct gene activation to cause protein synthesis.

5.

Nonsteroid hormones cannot enter the cells easily, so they bind to receptors on the
cell membrane. This activates a second messenger within the cell, which in turn can
trigger numerous cellular processes.

6.

A negative feedback system regulates secretion of most hormones.

7.

The number of receptors for a specific hormone can be altered to meet the bodys
demands. Up-regulation refers to an increase in receptors, and down-regulation is a
decrease. These two processes change cell sensitivity to hormones.
3

Chapter 8. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

B. The Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones


1. The Pituitary Gland (or the Hypophysis)

Anterior lobe:
Hormone 1: Growth hormone (GH).
Target organ: All cells in the body.
Major functions: Promotes development & enlargement of all body tissues up through
maturation (growth of bone & muscle); increases rate of protein synthesis; increases
mobilization of fats and use fat as an energy source; decreases rate of carbohydrate
use (sparing glucose).

Hormone 2: Prolactin (PRL).


Target organ: Breasts.
Major functions: Stimulates breast development & milk secretion (promotes lactation).
Hormone 3: Thyrotropin or Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
Target organ: Thyroid gland.
Major functions: Controls the amount of thyroxin & triiodothyronine produced &

released by the thyroid gland (promotes release of thyroid hormones).

Hormone 4: Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH).


Target organ: Adrenal cortex.
Major functions: Controls the secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex.
Hormone 5: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
Target organ: Ovaries, testes.
Major functions: Females - initiates growth & maturation of follicles in the ovaries &

promotes secretion of estrogen from the ovaries. Males promotes development or


production of sperm in testes.

Hormone 6: Luteinizing hormone (LH).


Target organ: Ovaries, testes.
Major functions: Females promotes secretion of estrogen & progesterone and cause

the follicle to rupture, releasing the ovum. Males causes testes to secrete
testosterone.

Posterior lobe:
Hormone 1: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin).
Target organ: Kidneys.
Major functions: Assists in controlling water excretion by the kidneys; elevates blood
pressure by constricting blood vessels.
4

Chapter 8. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

Hormone 2: Oxytocin.
Target organ: Uterus, breasts.
Major functions: Stimulates contraction of uterine muscles & milk secretion.

2. Thyroid Gland

Hormone 1: Triiodothyronine (T3) & Thyroxine (T4).


Target organ: All cells in the body.
Major functions: Increases the rate of cellular metabolism; increases rate &

contractility of the heart.

Hormone 2: Calcitonin.
Target organ: Bones.
Major functions: Control calcium ion concentration in the blood.

3. The parathyroid Gland

Hormone: Parathyroid hormone (PTH/parathormone).


Target organ: Bones, intestines, & kidneys.
Major functions: Control calcium ion concentration in extracellular fluid through its

influence on bones, intestines, and kidneys.

4. The Adrenal Gland

Medulla

Hormone 1: Catecholamine (Epinephrine 0r Adrenaline).


Target organ: Most cells in the body.
Major functions: Mobilizes glycogen; increases skeletal muscle blood flow; increases
heart rate & contractility; oxygen consumption.

Hormone 2: Catecholamine (Norepinephrine or Noradrenaline).


Target organ: Most cells in the body.
Major functions: Constricts arterioles & venules, thereby elevating blood pressure.

Cortex

Hormone 1: Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone).


Target organ: Kidneys.
Major functions: Increase sodium (NA+) retention & potassium (K+) excretion through
the kidneys.

Chapter 8. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

Hormone 2: Glucocorticoids (cortisol).


Target organ: Most cells in the body.
Major functions: Controls metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, & proteins; antiinflammatory action.

Hormone 3: Gonadocorticoids (androgens & estrogens).


Target organ: Ovaries, breasts, & testes.
Major functions: Assists in the development of female & male sex characteristics.

5. The Pancreas

Hormone 1: Insulin.
Target organ: All cells in the body.
Major functions: Controls blood glucose levels by lowering glucose levels; increases use
of glucose & synthesis of fat.

Hormone 2: Glucagon.
Target organ: All cells in the body.
Major functions: Increases blood glucose; stimulates the breakdown of fats &
proteins.

Hormone 3: Somatostatin.
Target organ: Islets of Langerhans & gastrointestinal tracts.
Major functions: Depresses the secretion of both insulin & glucagons.

6. The Gonads

Testes

Hormone: Testosterone.
Target organ: Sex organs, muscle.
Major functions: Promotes development of male sex characteristics, including growth
of testes, scrotum, & penis, facial hair, & change in voice; promotes muscle growth.

Ovaries

Hormone: Estrogen & progesterone.


Target organ: Sex organs, adipose tissue
Major functions: Promotes development of female sex organs & characteristics;
provides increased storage of fat, assists in regulating the menstrual cycle.

Chapter 8. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

7. The Kidneys

Hormone 1: Renin.
Target organ: Adrenal cortex.
Major functions: Assists in blood pressure control.
Hormone 2: Erythropoietin.
Target organ: Bone marrow.
Major functions: Erythrocyte production.

C. Hormonal Effects on Metabolism & Energy

CHO & fat metabolism are responsible for maintaining muscle ATP levels during
prolonged exercise.
Various hormones work to ensure glucose & FFA availability for muscle energy
metabolism.

1. Regulation of Glucose Metabolism During Exercise


For the body to meet the energy demands of exercise, more glucose must be
available to the muscle.
Glucose is stored in the body as glycogen, primarily in the muscles & the liver.
Glucose must be freed from storage, so glycogenolysis must increase. So glucose
freed from the liver enters the blood to circulate throughout the body.
(Glycogenolysis = the conversion of glycogen to glucose)
Plasma glucose levels can also be increased through gluconeogenesis.
(Gluconeogenesis = the conversion of protein or fat into glucose)

Plasma Glucose Level


4 hormones work to increase the amount of plasma glucose (involved in both
glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis) are: glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, &
cortisol.
At rest, glucose release from the liver is facilitated by glucagon, which promotes
liver glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis) and glucose formation from amino acids
(gluconeogenesis).
During exercise, glucagon secretion increases.
Muscular activity also increases the rate of catecholamine release from adrenal
medulla, & these hormones (epinephrine & norepinephrine) work with glucagon to
further increase glycogenolysis.
Cortisol levels also increase during exercise. Cortisol increases protein catabolism,
freeing amino acid to be used within the liver for gluconeogenesis.
Thus, all 4 of these hormones can increase the amount of plasma glucose by
enhancing the processes of glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis.
7

Chapter 8. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

Glucose Uptake by the muscles


Releasing sufficient amounts of glucose into the blood does not ensure that the
muscle cells will have enough glucose to meet their energy demands.
The glucose must not only be delivered to these cells, it must also be taken up by
the muscle cells. This job relies on insulin.
Once glucose is delivered to the muscle, insulin facilitates its transport into the
muscle fibers.
Insulin helps the released glucose enter the muscle cells, where it can be used for
energy production. But insulin levels decline during prolonged exercise, indicating
that exercise facilitates the action of insulin so that less of the hormone is
required during exercise than at rest.

2. Regulation of Fat Metabolism During Exercise


During prolonged endurance exercise, CHO reserves become depleted, & the body
must rely more heavily on the oxidation of fat for energy production.
When CHO reserves are low (low plasma glucose & low muscle glycogen), the
endocrine system can accelerate the oxidation of fats (lipolysis) to produce energy.
Lipolysis is also enhanced through the elevation of epinephrine & norepinephrine.

FFA are stored as triglycerides in fat cells & inside muscle fiber.
Adipose tissue triglycerides however must be broken down to release the FFA,
which are then transported to the muscle fibers.
Triglycerides are reduced to FFA & glycerol by a special enzyme called lipase, which
is activated by at least 4 hormones: cortisol; growth hormone; epinephrine, &
norepinephrine.
Cortisol also accelerates the mobilization & use FFA for energy during exercise.
Plasma cortisol levels peak after 30-45 min of exercise then decrease to normal
levels.
Growth hormone & catecholamine (epinephrine & norepinephrine) continue to
activate the mobilization & metabolism of FFA.

D. Hormonal Effects on Fluid & Electrolyte Balance During Exercise

The two primary hormones involved in the regulation of fluid balance are aldosterone &
antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

1. Aldosterone & the Renin-Angiotensin Mechanism


When plasma volume or blood pressure decreases, the kidneys form an enzyme
called renin that converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I, which later becomes
angiotensin II. Angiotensin II increases peripheral arterial resistance, raising the
blood pressure.
8

Chapter 8. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

Angiotensin II also triggers the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.
Aldosterone promotes sodium reabsorption in the kidneys, which in turn causes
water retention, thus increasing the plasma volume.

** The influence of water loss from plasma during exercise leads to a sequence of
events that promotes sodium (Na+) & water reabsorption from renal tubules, thereby
reducing urine production. In the hours after exercise when fluids are consumed, the
elevated aldosterone levels cause an increase in the extracellular volume and an
expansion of plasma volume.
1. Muscular activity promotes sweating and increases blood pressure.
2. Sweating reduces plasma volume and blood flow to the kidneys.
3. Reduced renal blood flow stimulates rennin release from the kidneys. Renin leads to
the formation of angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II.
4. Angiotensin II stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.
5. Aldosterone increases Na+ and H2O reabsorption from the renal tubules.
6. Plasma volume increases & urine production decreases.

2. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)


ADH is released in response to increased plasma osmolarity (= the ratio of solute to
fluid). When osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus sense this increase, the
hypothalamus triggers ADH release from the posterior pituitary.

ADH acts on the kidneys promoting water conservation. Through this mechanism,
the plasma volume is increased, which results in dilution of the plasma solutes. Blood
osmolarity decreases.

** The mechanism by which ADH conserves body water.


1. Muscular activity promotes sweating.
2. Sweating causes loss of blood plasma, resulting in hemoconcentration & increased
blood osmolarity.
3. Increased blood osmolarity stimulates the hypothalamus.
4. The hypothalamus stimulates the posterior pituitary gland to secrete ADH.
5. ADH acts on the kidneys, increasing the water permeability of the renal tubules &
collecting ducts, leading to increased reabsorption of water.
6. Plasma volume increases, so blood osmolarity decreases after exercise and water
ingestion.

Chapter 8. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

SUMMARY
1.

Plasma glucose is increased by the combined actions of glucagon, epinephrine,


norepinephrine, & cortisol. These hormones promote glycogenolysis &
gluconeogenesis, thus increasing the amount of glucose available for use as a fuel
source.

2.

Insulin helps the released glucose enter the muscle cells, where it can be used for
energy production. But insulin levels decline during prolonged exercise, indicating
that exercise facilitates the action of insulin so that less of the hormone is
required during exercise than at rest.

3.

When carbohydrate reserves are low, the body turns more to fat oxidation for
energy, and this process is facilitated by cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine &
growth hormone.

4.

Cortisol accelerates lipolysis, releasing free fatty acids (FFA) into the blood so
they can be taken up by the cells & used for energy production. But cortisol levels
peak & than return to near normal levels during prolonged exercise. When this
happens, the catecholamines & growth hormone (GH) taken over cortisols role.

5.

The two primary hormones involved in the regulation of fluid balance are
aldosterone & antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

6.

When plasma volume or blood pressure decreases, the kidneys form an enzyme
called rennin that converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I, which later becomes
angiotensin II. Angiotensin II increases peripheral arterial resistance, raising the
blood pressure.

7.

Angiotensin II also triggers the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.
Aldosterone promotes sodium reabsorption in the kidneys, which in turn causes
water retention, thus increasing the plasma volume.

8.

ADH is released in response to increased plasma osmolarity (= the ratio of solute to


fluid). When osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus sense this increase, the
hypothalamus triggers ADH release from the posterior pituitary.

9.

ADH acts on the kidneys promoting water conservation. Through this mechanism,
the plasma volume is increased, which results in dilution of the plasma solutes. Blood
osmolarity decreases.

10

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

SPS 211 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY

EXERCISE
(Hormonal Regulation of Exercise)
Name : _______________________________________

Group : _________

Date: ______________

Answer ALL questions.

1. Endocrine glands secrete their _______________________________________________________.


2. Steroid hormones use a mechanism called ________________________________ to cause protein
synthesis.
3. A ___________________________ activates a second messenger (cAMP) system within the cell,
which leads to changes in the intracellular functions.
4. Most hormone secretion is regulated by a _______________________________________ system.
5. ______________________ hormone increases mobilization of fats and use fat as an energy source.
6. ______________________ promotes lactation.
7. ______________________ hormone controls the secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex.
8. ______________________ hormone helps in controlling water excretion by the kidneys.
9. ______________________ stimulates contraction of uterine muscles and initiates labor.
10. ______________________ control calcium ion concentration in the blood when hypercalcemia.
11. ______________________ gland releases the hormone epinephrine when an athlete is exercising.
12. ______________________ increases sodium (Na+) retention & potassium (K+) excretion through the
kidneys.
13. The two primary hormones involved in the regulation of blood glucose are ____________________
and ____________________.
14. _______________________ stimulates the production of erythrocytes.
15. Plasma glucose is increased by the combined actions of ___________________________________
________________________________________.
16. _______________________ helps the released glucose enter the muscle cells, where it can be used
for energy production.
17. __________________ accelerates lipolysis and use free fatty acids (FFA) for energy during exercise.
18. The two primary hormones involved in the regulation of fluid balance are _________________ ____
and _________________________.
19. ______________________ increases sodium (Na+) and water reabsorption from the renal tubules.
20. ______________________ acts on the kidneys promoting water conservation.
Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

QUESTION 1
List and briefly explain the specific action of the two hormones produced and released
by the adrenal medulla.

Two Hormones: 1) _____________________________ &

2) ________________________________

The combined effects include:


1) ________________________________________________________________________________
2)

_______________________________________________________________________________

3)

_______________________________________________________________________________

4)

_______________________________________________________________________________

5)

_______________________________________________________________________________

6)

_______________________________________________________________________________

7)

_______________________________________________________________________________

8)

_______________________________________________________________________________

QUESTION 2
Describe briefly the hormones involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism during exercise.
1) ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
2) ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

QUESTION 3
Describe the mechanism by which antidiuretic hormone (ADH) conserves body water
during exercise.

The ADH Mechanism:


1)

________________________________________________________________________________

2)

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

3)

________________________________________________________________________________

4)

________________________________________________________________________________

5)

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

6)

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTION 4
Briefly discuss the aldosterone and renin-angiotensin mechanism that regulates fluid
and electrolyte balance during exercise.

The aldosterone and renin-angiotensin mechanism:


1)

________________________________________________________________________________

2)

________________________________________________________________________________

3)

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

4)

________________________________________________________________________________

5)

________________________________________________________________________________

6)

________________________________________________________________________________

Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

QUESTION 5
Identify the four (4) mechanisms involved in maintaining the plasma glucose concentration.
1) ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
2) ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
3) ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
4) ________________________________________________________________________________

Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

Chapter 9. Thermal Regulation & Exercise

THERMAL REGULATION AND EXERCISE


A. Mechanisms of Body Temperature Regulation

Humans are homeothermic, meaning that they maintain a constant internal body
temperature, usually in the range of 36.1oC to 37.8oC (97.0oF 100.0oF).

Body temperature reflects the balance between heat production & heat loss.
Whenever this balance is disturbed, the body temperature changes.

All metabolically active tissues produce heat that can be used to maintain the
internal temperature of the body. But if the bodys heat production exceeds its
heat loss, the internal temperature rises.

The ability to maintain a constant internal temperature depends on the body ability
to balance the heat gain from metabolism & from the environment with the heat
that the body loses

Metabolic heat
+
Environmental heat

HEAT GAIN

Conduction
+
Convection
+
Radiation
+
Evaporation

HEAT LOSS

The balance of body heat gain and loss


(at temperatures below 92F)

Chapter 9. Thermal Regulation & Exercise

1. The Transfer of Body Heat

Heat gain from tissue metabolic & environment.


The body heat from deep in the body (the core) is moved by the blood to the skin
(the shell).

Heat can be transferred to the environment by any of 4 mechanisms or avenues:


Conduction transfer of heat from one material to another through direct
molecular contact.
Convection transfer of heat from one place to another by the motion of a gas
or a liquid across the heated surface.
Radiation transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves; the primary
method for discharging the bodys excess heat at rest.
Evaporation transfer heat through the conversion of water (such as in sweat)
to vapor; the primary avenue for heat dissipation during exercise.

Control of heat loss

Higher humidity decreases the capacity to lose heat by evaporation because the air
already contains many water molecules.

2. Control of Heat Exchange

Internal body temperature when at rest is kept at approximately 37oC (99oF), but
during exercise can develop an internal temperature exceeding 40oC (104oF).

The Hypothalamus : The Thermostat


The hypothalamus houses the thermoregulatory center. It acts like a thermostat
monitoring the body temperature & accelerating heat loss or heat production as
needed.

There are 2 sets of thermoreceptors provide & send temperature information to


the thermoregulatory center in the brain:
1. The peripheral receptors in the skin relay information about temperature of
the skin & the environment around it.
2. Central receptors in the hypothalamus transmit information about the
internal body temperature.
2

Chapter 9. Thermal Regulation & Exercise

Hypothermia
Low body temperature

Stimulates thermoreceptors

Hyperthermia
High body temperature

Stimulates thermoreceptors

Impulses go to hypothalamus

Impulses go to hypothalamus

Vasoconstriction
occurs in skin blood vessels

Vasodilation
occurs in skin blood vessels

So less heat is lost


across the skin

Skeletal muscle are activated

Causing
Shivering & generates heat

Body temperature increases

So more heat is lost


across the skin

Sweat glands become more active

Causing
Evaporative heat loss

Body temperature decreases

An overview of the role of the hypothalamus in controlling body temperature

Chapter 9. Thermal Regulation & Exercise

Effectors That Alter Body Temperature


When body temperature fluctuates, the normal body temperature can usually be
restored/alter by the actions of 4 effectors:
1. Increased sweat gland activity decreases body temperature by increasing
evaporative heat loss.
2. Smooth muscle in the arterioles can dilate to direct blood to the skin for
heat transfer, or constrict to retain heat deep in the body.
3. Increased skeletal muscle activity will increases body temperature by
increasing metabolic heat production.
4. Metabolic heat production can be increased by the action of hormone
(endocrine glands) like thyroxine and catecholamines..

3. Assessing Mean Body Temperature

Mean Body Temperature (Tbody) is a weighted average of skin temperature and


internal body temperature.

Body heat content is the total amount of heat in kilocalories that it contains.

Rate of Heat Exchange can be estimated form calculations of body heat content.
If Heat Content remains constant during a long period of exercise therefore
thermoregulatory system is efficient.

B. Physiological Responses to Exercise in the Heat


1. Cardiovascular Function

Exercising in the hot environments set up a competition between the active muscles
& the skin for limited blood supply. The working muscles need blood & the O2 it
delivers to sustain activity; the skin needs blood to facilitate heat loss to keep the
body cool.

To maintain constant cardiac output in this condition where stroke volume has
decreased, resulting in a gradual upward drift in HR. This is known as cardiovascular
drift.

CV drift = An increased in HR during exercise to compensate for a decrease in SV.


This compensation helps to maintain a constant cardiac output.
4

Chapter 9. Thermal Regulation & Exercise

2. Energy Production

Exercise in the heat also increases O2 uptake, therefore increase glycogen use by
working muscle & produce more lactate. Thus exercise in the heat can cause
glycogen depletion and increase muscle lactate, thus leads to fatigue & exhaustion.

Hot environment places greater stress on CV system, which raises the HR & also
increased sweat production and respiration demand more energy, which requires a
higher O2 uptake.

3. Body Fluid Balance: Sweating

Exercise in the heat increases sweating & this can quickly lead to dehydration and
electrolyte loss. To compensate, the release of aldosterone & ADH increases,
causing sodium & water retention, this can expand the plasma volume.

C. Health Risks During Exercise in the Heat

Heat stress involves more than just the air temperature.


In observing the total physiological stress imposed on the body during exercising in
a hot environment. At least 4 variables must be taken into account:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Air temperature
Humidity
Air velocity
The amount of radiation.

1. Measuring Heat Stress

Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) most accurate means to measure heat
stress.

WBGT = A system that simultaneously accounts for conduction, convection,


evaporation, & radiation, providing a single temperature reading to estimate the
cooling capacity of surrounding environment. This apparatus consists of dry bulb, a
wet bulb, & a black globe.

Chapter 9. Thermal Regulation & Exercise

2. Heat-Related Disorders
a. Heat cramps
Severe cramping of skeletal muscles that are most heavily used during exercise.

Probably caused by losses of fluids and minerals results from excessive


sweating.

b. Heat exhaustion
Rise of body temperature, extreme fatigue, breathlessness, hypotension, and a
weak, rapid pulse results from the inability of the CV system to adequately meet
the needs of the active muscles and skin.

Result from the inability of the CV system to adequately meet the needs of the
active muscle & skin. It is brought on by a reduced blood volume, typically
caused by excessive loss of fluids and minerals through prolonged heavy
sweating.

Though it is not in itself life-threatening, it can deteriorate to heat stroke if


untreated.

c. Heat stroke
Rise in internal body temperature to values exceeding 40oC, rapid pulse &
respiration, cessation of sweating, hot & dry skin, hypertension, and total
confusion and unconsciousness caused by failure of the bodys
thermoregulatory mechanisms.

If untreated it will progress and be fatal (death).

Prevention of Hyperthermia
Several precautions must be taken when planning to exercise in the heat.
a.
b.
c.
d.
*

Cancel training or event if WBGT > 28C (82.4F).


Wear proper clothing.
Be alert to the signs of hyperthermia.
Ensure adequate fluid intake.

When exercising in the heat, if the body suddenly fell chilled & goose bumps form
on the skin, stop exercising, get into a cool environment, & drink plenty of cool
fluids. The bodys thermoregulation system has become confused & thinks that
body temperature needs to increase even more! If left untreated, this condition
can lead to heat stroke & death.
6

Chapter 9. Thermal Regulation & Exercise

D. Acclimatization to Exercise in the Heat


Acclimatization natural adaptation to an environmental stress.
1. How can we prepare for prolonged activity in the heat?
2. Does training in the heat make us more tolerant of thermal stress?

Repeated exercise in the heat causes a gradual adjustment that enables us to perform
better in the hot conditions.

Heat acclimatization
Heat acclimatization is an adaptation of gradual improvement in ability to eliminate
excess body heat during repeated exposure to heat stress (prolonged exercise bouts in
the hot environment).

Results in many adjustments in sweating & blood flow.

1. Effects of Heat Acclimatization


a. Increase sweat rate
Therefore, increase heat loss through evaporation, hence reduces skin
temperature, increasing the thermal gradient from the internal to the external
body, promoting heat loss.
b. Sweat is more diluted
Therefore, electrolytes are conserved and body is losing mainly water which can be
easily replaced.
c. SV increases
Therefore, increases blood flow and aids the delivery of more blood to the active
or working muscles and skin when necessary.
d. Reduces the rate of muscle glycogen use for energy
Therefore, more glycogen reserves and less lactate production, hence delaying the
onset of fatigue.

Chapter 9. Thermal Regulation & Exercise

2. Achieving Heat Acclimatization

Heat acclimatization requires exercise in a hot environment, not merely exposure to


heat.

Amount of heat acclimatization depends on :a) Environmental conditions during each exercise session.
b) Duration of heat exposure.
c) Rate of internal heat production.

You can adapt to heat by exercising in the heat for up to an hour or more each day
for 5 10 days. Cardiovascular changes generally occur in the first 3 5 days, but
changes in the sweating mechanisms generally take much longer, up to 10 days.

E. Exercise in the Cold


Cold stress = any environmental condition that causes a loss of body heat that
threatens homeostasis.

Hypothalamus has a temperature set point of 37oC.

A decrease in either skin or blood temperature provides feedback to the


thermoregulatory center (hypothalamus) to activate the mechanisms that will
conserve body heat & increase heat production.

This primary means by which the body to avoid excessive cooling:


a) Shivering
The involuntary muscle contractions increase metabolic heat production to help
the body maintain or increase temperature.
b) Nonshivering thermogenesis
Involves stimulation of metabolism by the sympathetic nervous system & by the
action of hormone thyroxine & catecholamines. Increasing the metabolic rate
increases the amount of internal heat production.
c) Peripheral vasoconstriction
Occurs as a result of sympathetic stimulation to smooth muscle surrounding the
arterioles, which constricts the arterioles & reduces the blood flow to the skin
& prevents transfer of core heat to the skin, thus decreasing unnecessary heat
loss to the environment.
8

Chapter 9. Thermal Regulation & Exercise

1. Factors Affecting Body Heat Loss


a) Body size and composition
Body size is an important consideration for heat loss. Both increased surface area &
reduced subcutaneous fat facilitate the loss of body heat to the environment. So
those who have a small surface-area-to-body-mass ratio & those with more fat are
less susceptible to hypothermia.
b) Windchill
Wind increases heat loss by convection and conduction, so this effect, know as
windchill, must be considered along with air temperature during cold exposure.

2. Heat Loss in Cold Water

Immersion in cold water tremendously increases heat loss through conduction.


Exercise generates metabolic heat to offset some of this loss.

F. Physiological Responses to Exercise in the Cold


1. Muscle Function
When muscle is cooled, it is weak, & fatigue occurs more rapidly.
2. Metabolic Responses
During prolonged exercise in the cold, as energy supplies diminish & exercise intensity
declines, a person become increasingly susceptible to hypothermia.
Exercise triggers release of catecholamines, which increase the mobilization & use of
free fatty acids for fuel. But in the cold, vasoconstriction impairs circulation to the
subcutaneous fat tissue, so this process is attenuated.

Chapter 9. Thermal Regulation & Exercise

G. Health Risks During Exercise in the Cold

Hypothalamus begins to lose its ability to regulate body temperature if that


temperature drops below 34.5oC (94.1oF)

1. Hypothermia
The Hearts SA node is primarily affected by hypothermia, causing HR to drop,
which in turn reduces cardiac output.

Breathing cold air does not freeze the respiratory passages or the lungs.

Exposure to extreme cold does decreases respiratory rate and volume.

2. Frostbite
Occurs as a consequence of the bodys attempts to prevent heat loss.

Vasoconstriction to the skin causes reduces blood flow, so the skin cools rapidly.
This, combined with the lack of oxygen & nutrients, causes the skin tissues to die.

H. Cold acclimatization

Repeated exposure to cold alters peripheral blood flow and skin temperatures,
allowing greater cold tolerance.

10

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

SPS 211 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY

EXERCISE
(Thermal Regulation & Exercise)
Name : _______________________________________

Group : _________ Date : _______________

Answer ALL questions.

1. What are the four major avenues for loss of body heat?
a. __________________________

c. __________________________

b. __________________________

d. __________________________

2. What is cardiovascular drift? Why might this be a problem with prolonged exercise in high
intensities?
a. ________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
b. ________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

3. Differentiate between heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke.


a. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
b. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
c.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
1

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

4. Define heat acclimatization.


________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

5. Discuss the physiological adaptations occur that allow a person to acclimatize to exercise in the hot
environment.
a. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
b. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
c.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

d. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

6. Identify and describe briefly the means by which the body avoids excessive cooling during exercise
in the cold.
a. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
b. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
c.

____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 10. Exercise in Hypobaric & Hyperbaric Environments

EXERCISE IN HYPOBARIC & HYPERBARIC ENVIRONMENTS


Hypobaric environment
Low atmospheric pressure.
Barometric pressure is reduced at altitude. (e.g.: mountain)
Lower atmospheric pressure also means lower partial pressure of oxygen (PO2),
which limits pulmonary diffusion and low O2 transport to tissue.
This reduces O2 delivery to the body tissue, resulting in hypoxia (O2 deficiency).
Hyperbaric environment
High atmospheric pressure. (e.g.: underwater world)
High partial pressure of certain gases can lead to life-threatening complication.
Microgravity
Low gravitational force. (e.g.: environment in the outer space)

A. Hypobaric Environment: Exercising at Altitude

The term altitude refers to elevations above 1500 m (4,921 ft).

Altitude presents a hypobaric environment which the atmospheric pressure is


reduced. Altitudes of 1500 m or above have a physiological impact on the human
body.

Hypobaric Environment an environment, such as that at high altitude, involving low


atmospheric pressure.

1. Conditions at Altitude
i. Atmospheric pressure

At Sea level, the barometric pressure (Pb) averages = 760 mmHg


Summit of Mount Everest, barometric pressure (Pb) = 250 mmHg
Therefore, barometric pressure is low at altitude.

The % of gases in the air remain unchanged at altitude (O2 = 20.93%, CO2 = 0.03%,
& N2 = 79.04%).

The partial pressures of each gas, is reduced in direct proportion to the increase in
altitude.
1

Chapter 10. Exercise in Hypobaric & Hyperbaric Environments

The reduced partial pressure of O2 leads to decreased performance at altitude due


to a reduced pressure gradient that hinder O2 transport to the tissue.
Differences in atmospheric conditions at sea level & at an altitude

Atmospheric Pressure
Partial Pressure of O2
Ambient temperature

At sea level
760 mmHg
159.2 mmHg
15oC

At 8,900m
250 mmHg
48.4 mmHg
-40oC

*Mount Everest (8,848m = 29,028 ft)

ii. Air Temperature

Air temperature decreases as altitude increases. Air temperature drops about 1oC
for every 150m (490 ft) of ascent (Mt. Everest = -40oC).

Cold air holds very little water, so the air at altitude is dry. humidity of the air is
low

The dry air increased evaporative water loss through sweating during exercise at
altitude.

The cold & dry air can lead to cold-related disorders & dehydration through
increased insensible water loss.

iii. Solar Radiation

The intensity of solar radiation increases at high altitude because the atmosphere
is thinner & drier.

2. Physiological Responses to Altitude

The hypoxic conditions (diminished O2 supply) at altitude alter the bodys normal
physiological responses.

Chapter 10. Exercise in Hypobaric & Hyperbaric Environments

i. Respiratory Responses

Pulmonary ventilation (breathing) increases at higher altitudes, when at rest &


during exercise.

Because the number of O2 molecules in air is less, more air must be inspired to
supply as much 02 during normal breathing at sea level.

Ventilation increases to bring in a larger volume of air.

People ventilate greater volumes of air at altitude because air is less dense.

Increased ventilation resulting in hyperventilation state in which too much CO2 can
be cleared & allows blood pH to increase, leading to respiratory alkalosis. In
response, the kidneys excrete more bicarbonate ion, so less acid can be buffered.

Pulmonary diffusion is not hinder by altitude, but O2 transport is slightly impaired


because hemoglobin saturation at altitude is reduced, although by only a small
amount.

The diffusion gradient that allows O2 exchange between the blood & active tissue is
substantially reduced at elevation, thus O2 uptake is impaired. This is partially
compensated for by a decrease in plasma volume, concentrating the RBCs & allowing
more O2 to be transported per unit of blood.

Maximal O2 consumption decreases along atmospheric pressure. As the partial


pressure of O2 decreases, VO2max (Maximal O2 uptake) decreases at a
progressively greater rate.

Maximum O2 uptake decreases since PO2 decreases. At sea level VO2max =


50ml/kg/min but, at Mt. Everest peak, VO2max can be as low as 5ml/kg/min.

ii. Cardiovascular Responses

During submaximal work at altitude, the body increases its cardiac output, by
increasing the heart rate, to compensate for the decrease in the pressure gradient
that drives O2 exchange.

During maximal work, stoke volume & heart rate are both lower, resulting in a
reduced cardiac output. This combined with the decreased pressure gradient
severely impairs O2 delivery & uptake.
3

Chapter 10. Exercise in Hypobaric & Hyperbaric Environments

iii. Metabolic Responses

Because O2 delivery is restricted at altitude, oxidative capacity is decreased. More


anaerobic energy production must occur, as evidenced by increased blood lactate
levels for a given submaximal work rate. However, at maximal work rate, lactate
levels are lower, perhaps because the body must work at a rate that cannot fully
stress the energy systems.
*lactate = A salt formed from lactic acid.

3. Performance at Altitude

Endurance activities are severely affected because oxidative energy production is


limited.

Anaerobic sprint activities (<1 min) are generally not impaired at moderate
altitude. This is because thinner air imposes less resistance to movement. This
explains the amazing performances of sprinters & long jumpers at the 1968
Olympics in Mexico City.

Exhaustive activities at altitude, less lactate is produced (actually should


increase) due to decrease in muscle in muscle enzyme activities and total work.

4. Acclimatization: Prolonged Exposure to Altitude


i. Blood adaptations

Hypoxic conditions stimulate the release of erythropoietin (EPO), which increases


erythrocyte (RBC) production. More RBC means more hemoglobin. These
adaptations improve the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

Although plasma volume decreases initially (within a few hours of arrival at altitude
as a result of fluid shifts and respiratory water loss), which also concentrates the
erythrocytes (RBC) - hemoglobin, this changes also increasing the bloods oxygencarrying capacity.

Chapter 10. Exercise in Hypobaric & Hyperbaric Environments

ii. Muscle adaptations

Muscle fiber areas decrease when at altitude, thus decreasing total muscle area.
Total muscle mass & total body weight decrease. Part of this is from dehydration
and appetite suppression, which leads to protein breakdown in the muscles.
Metabolic enzyme activities in the muscle also decreased.
Capillary density in the muscle increased, which allow more blood & oxygen to be
delivered to the muscle.

iii. Cardiorespiratory adaptations

Increased in pulmonary ventilation both at rest and during exercise. Ventilation is


stimulated by the decreased O2 content of the inspired air.

Decreased in VO2 max with initial exposure to altitude does not improve much (or
improve very little) during several weeks of exposure.

5. Physical Training & Performance

Most studies show that training at altitude leads to no significant improvement of


sea-level performance. The physiological changes that do occur, such as increased
RBC production, are transient but could offer an advantage during the first few
days after returning to sea level. This is still an area of debate.

Athletes who must perform at altitude should do so within the first 24 hours of
arrival while the detrimental changes that occur have not yet become too great.

Alternatively, athletes who must perform at altitude could train at an altitude of


1500 m to 3000 m for at least 2 weeks prior to performing. This allows the body
time to adapt to hypoxic & other environmental conditions at altitude.

6. Clinical Problems of Acute Exposure to Altitude

Acute altitude sickness typically causes symptoms such as headaches, nausea,


vomiting, dyspnea, & insomnia. These usually appear in 6 to 96 hr after arrival at
altitude.
The exact cause of acute altitude sickness is not known, but many researchers
suspect the symptoms may result from carbon dioxide accumulation in the tissues.
5

Chapter 10. Exercise in Hypobaric & Hyperbaric Environments

Acute altitude sickness can usually be avoided by a gradual ascent to altitude;


climbing not more than 300 m per day at elevations above 3000 m. Medications can
also be used to reduce the symptoms.
High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) & high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE),
which involve accumulation of fluid in the lungs & cranial cavity, respectively, are
life-threatening conditions. Both are treated by O2 administration & descent.

B. Hyperbaric Conditions: Exercising Underwater


1. Water Immersion & Gas Pressures

Submersion in water exposes the human body to a hyperbaric environment where


external pressure is greater than at sea level.
Because volume decreases when pressure increases. Therefore, air that is in the
body before it goes underwater is compressed when the body is submerged.
Conversely, the air taken in at depth expands during ascent.
When the body is submerged, more molecules of gases are forced into solution, but
with a rapid ascent, the molecule come out of solution and can form bubbles.

2. Cardiovascular Response to Water Immersion

Water reduces the stress on the CV system, reducing its work load. When the body
is submerged, plasma volume also increases. Because of these factors, resting HR
drops even when the body is only partially submerged. This effect is enhanced by
cold water.
Hyperventilation is often practiced before breath-hold diving to increase how long
you can hold your breath. But this can lead to dangerously low O2 levels, which can
cause you to lose consciousness underwater.
During breath-hold diving, the gases in the body can become pressurized even when
swimming at a depth of only 1 to 2 m below the surface. At greater depths, the
volume of air in the lungs can be reduced to the residual volume, but not smaller.
The depth limit to breath-hold diving is determined by the ratio of the total lung
volume & the residual volume. Those with large TLV:RV ratios can safely dive
deeper than those with smaller ratios.
Scuba diving can alleviate many of the problems faced during breath-hold diving
because you breathe pressurized air while submerged.

Chapter 10. Exercise in Hypobaric & Hyperbaric Environments

3. Health Risks of Hyperbaric Conditions

Breathing gases under pressure can cause the body to accumulate gases in toxic
levels, so precautions must be taken when diving with pressurized gases.

O2 poisoning occurs when PO2 values are above 318 mmHg. Less O2 will be removed
from hemoglobin for use by tissues. This impairs the biding of CO2 to hemoglobin,
so less CO2 is removed by this route. High PO2 also causes vasoconstriction in the
cerebral vessels, which decreases blood flow to the brain.

Decompression sickness (the bends) results from ascending too rapidly. The
nitrogen dissolved in the body cannot be removed by the lungs quickly enough, so it
forms bubbles. The bubbles can form emboli, which can be fatal. To treat this, the
diver must undergo recompression to force the nitrogen back to solution, then
undergo gradual decompression at the rate that allows the nitrogen to be removed
during normal breathing. Tables have been formulated that specify how much time
must be allowed for ascension from various depths, 7 divers must adhere strictly to
these.

Nitrogen narcosis (rapture of the deep) results from the narcotic effects of
nitrogen when its partial pressure is high, such as during depth diving. The
symptoms are similar to alcohol intoxication. Judgment is impaired, which can lead
to fatal mistakes.

Spontaneous pneumothorax (rupture alveoli) & ruptured eardrum are other health
risks associated with the changing pressure experienced when diving.

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

SPS 211 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY

EXERCISE
(Exercise in Hypobaric Environment)
Name : _______________________________________

Group : _________ __ Date : _____________

Answer ALL questions.


1. Define acclimatization, altitude, hypoxia and hypobaric environment.
a. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
b. ____________________________________________________________________________
c.

____________________________________________________________________________

d. ____________________________________________________________________________

2. Discuss briefly the conditions at altitude that limit sport performance.

a. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
b. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
c.

____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

3. What types of activities are detrimentally influenced by exposure to high altitude? Why?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

4. Explain briefly the adaptations that occur in the blood with prolonged altitude exposure.
a. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
b. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

5. Explain briefly the adaptations that occur in the muscle with prolonged altitude exposure.
a. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
b. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
c.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

6. Explain briefly the adaptations that occur in the cardiorespiratory with prolonged altitude exposure.
a. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
b. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 11. Ergogenic Aids

ERGOGENIC AIDS AND PERFORMANCE


Ergogenic aid

Any substance or phenomenon that able to improve performance.

Ergolytic substance

Any substance that able to impair performance.

Placebo

An inactive substance usually provided in a manner identical to an active substance


(real drug), typically to test for real versus imagined effects.

Placebo effect

An effect produced by the subjects expectations after being administered an


inactive substance (placebo).

Ergogenic Aids /Substances classified into :


1. Pharmacological agents
Alcohol
Amphetamines
Beta Blockers
Caffeine
Cocaine
Diuretics
Marijuana
Nicotine
2. Hormonal Agents
Anabolic Steroid
Human Growth Hormone
Oral Contraceptives
3. Physiological Agents
Blood Doping
Erythropoietin
Oxygen Supplementation
Aspartic Acid Salts
Bicarbonate Loading
Phosphate Loading
Warm-up & temperature variations

Chapter 11. Ergogenic Aids

4. Nutrition Agents
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Vitamins & minerals
Water & special beverages
5. Psychological Phenomena
Hypnosis
Mental practice or Covert rehearsal
Stress management
6. Mechanical Factors
Clothing
Equipment
Environment structures & surfaces

A. Pharmacological agents:
1. Alcohol
Classified as a drug because of its depressant effects on the CNS.
Can elicit both stimulant and depressant effects (initial sensation of excitement
and followed by depressive effects).
Used by athletes because of its psychological effects.
It is thought to increase self-confidence, calm nerves, reduce anxiety, increase
mental alertness, and reduce pain & muscle tremor.
Risks: No improvements in physiological functions. Decreases psychomotor
functions. Can negatively affect health.
Can cause physically addictive.
Have ergolytic effects (decrease performance).

2. Amphetamines
CNS stimulant.
Increase concentration & mental alertness, elevate mood, decrease the sense of
fatigue, and produce euphoria.
Used as appetite suppressants in medically supervised weight-loss programs.
Recent studies showed increase in strength, acceleration, and increase maximal
lactate response during exhaustive exercise and increase time to exhaustion.
Risks: increase HR and BP that can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. Excessive use can
cause deaths.
Also cause psychological & physically addictive.
2

Chapter 11. Ergogenic Aids

3. Beta blockers
Block betaadrenergic receptors, therefore preventing neurotransmitters binding.
This reduces the effects of stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system.
Lowers HR, therefore advantage to shooters & archers.
Impair endurance performance, reducing VO2max because cardiac output is
decreased due to decreased in HR.
Risks: cause bradycardia that can lead to heart block, hypotension, bronchospasm,
fatigue and decreased motivation.

4. Caffeine
CNS stimulant.
Increases mental alertness, increases concentration, elevates mood,
enhances catecholamine release, increases free-fatty-acid mobilization, increases
muscle use of triglycerides to spare glycogen, decreases fatigue & delays its onset.
Risks: Can cause nervousness, restlessness, insomnia, tremors, and diuresis.
Diuresis increases the risk of dehydration & heat-related illness when performing
in hot environment.
Disrupt normal sleep patterns, contributing to fatigue.
Can cause physically addictive.

5. Cocaine
CNS stimulant.
Produce euphoria that is thought increase self confident & motivation. Masks
fatigue & pain, increase alertness & cause energetic.
No evidence that has any ergogenic properties.
Risks: Extremely addictive. Trigger major psychological disorder and has numerous
undesirable physiological effects, includes stress to heart function, which leads to
death.

6. Diuretics
Affect the kidneys, increasing urine formation and excretion.
Often used by athletes for weight reduction or maintenance (weight category
sports), and also by those trying to mask the use of other drugs during drug
testing.
Weight loss is proven the ergogenic effect of diuretics, but the weight loss is
primarily from the extracellular fluid compartment, including blood plasma.
Risks: Loss of body fluid leads to dehydration, which can impair thermoregulation &
cause electrolyte imbalances, can cause fatigue & muscle cramping.

Chapter 11. Ergogenic Aids

7. Marijuana
Act on CNS & can elicit both stimulant and depressant effects (initial sensation of
excitement and followed by depressive effects).
No ergogenic qualities & in fact ergolytic.
Impair performance that requires hand-eye coordination, fast reaction time, motor
coordination, tracking ability & perceptual accuracy.
Risks: can lead to personality changes, short-term memory impairment,
hallucinations, & psychotic-like behavior.
8. Nicotine
CNS stimulant.
Ingest by smoking (cigarettes) or in smokeless forms - chewing (chewing tobacco),
& snuff (powdered tobacco).
Thought to increase alertness, better concentration & more calm.
Detrimental to performance & cause several changes in CV, metabolic, respiratory &
hormonal function.
Risks: can lead to cancer & CV disease.

B. Hormonal Agents:
1. Anabolic Steroids
Androgenic-anabolic steroids: include androgenic (masculinizing) & anabolic
(building) properties.
Synthetic steroids have been designed to maximize the anabolic effects while
minimizing androgenic effects.
Proposed to increase muscle mass, strength, and endurance capacity, & to facilitate
recovery from exhaustive training bouts.
Proven can increase muscle mass, and strength.
Do not increase endurance capacity & ability to facilitate recovery from exhaustive
exercise has not been proven.
Risks: personality changes, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, masculinization in
women, breast regression in women, breast enlargement in men, prostate gland
enlargement, testicular atrophy, & reduced sperm count.

2. Human Growth Hormone


Stimulates protein synthesis & nucleic acid in skeletal muscle, increase bone growth,
increase lipolysis (thus decreasing body fats), increase blood glucose levels, and
enhances healing of musculoskeletal injuries.
Limited research that supports its ability to increase fat-free mass & decrease fat
mass, but GH might have little or no effect on increasing muscle mass & strength.
Risks: can cause hypertrophy of internal organs, muscle and joint weakness,
diabetes, hypertension, & heart disease.
4

Chapter 11. Ergogenic Aids

3. Oral Contraceptives
Birth control pills contain synthetic versions of natural estrogens & progesterones.
Proposed as ergogenic aids foe women due to its ability to regulate menstrual cycle
(function as contraceptives by preventing ovulation).
Little research that support as ergogenic aid. May be beneficial for women athletes
who suffer from PMS or dysmenorrheal.
Risks: nausea, weight gain, fatigue, hypertension, liver tumors, blood clots, stroke, &
heart attack.

C. Physiological Agents:
1. Blood doping
An artificial increase in a persons total volume of red blood cells (RBCs) via
infusion of RBCs in effort to increase hemoglobin concentration & O2- carrying
capacity of blood.

Proposed ergogenic benefits


Theoretically, O2 is carried through the body bond to hemoglobin. It seems logical
that increasing the number of RBCs will increase hemoglobin concentration,
available to ferry the O2 to the tissues. Increasing the number of O2 carriers
(hemoglobin) should increase the bloods oxygen-carrying capacity, allowing more
O2 to be delivered to the active tissues. This will results in improvements in
VO2max and aerobic endurance performance.

Recent research found major increase in maximal O2 uptake, longer time to


exhaustion; enhance performance in cross-country skiing & distance running.
Risks:
a) Blood clotting due to blood become too viscous.
b) Heart failure due to clotting.
c) Administration of mislabeled blood & mismatched of reinfused blood could
cause allergic reaction such as chill, fever & nausea.
d) Transmission of hepatitis.
e) Transmission of virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome
(AIDS).

2. Erythropoietin (EPO)
Hormone that stimulate RBC production.
Proposed with the premise that increasing the number of RBCs would increase the
bloods O2-carrying capacity.
Proven increase maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) & increased time to exhaustion.
Risks: very dangerous because we cannot predict the magnitude of the bodys
response to EPO supplementation. Can lead to death if RBCs are overproduced,
because increased blood viscosity can cause clotting and heart failure.
5

Chapter 11. Ergogenic Aids

3. Oxygen Supplementation
During exercise improves endurance performance but is too cumbersome to be
practical.
Supplementation before or immediately after exercise has not been proven
ergogenically effective.
Risks: no serious risks associated with brief (2-3 min) periods of O2 breathing.

4. Aspartic Acid
An amino acid involved in the livers conversion of ammonia to urea. Because excess
ammonia is associated with fatigue, ingestion of aspartates has been postulated to
reduce the ammonia that builds up during exercise, thus delaying fatigue.
Research on its effectiveness as an ergogenic aid & risk is insufficient.

5. Bicarbonate Loading
Bicarbonate is an important component of the bodys buffering system, needed to
maintain normal pH by neutralizing excess acid.
Proposed to increase the bloods alkalinity, thus increasing the buffering capacity
so that more lactate can be cleared. This would delay the onset of fatigue.
Ingest of at least 300 mgkg-1 body weight can delay fatigue & increase
performance in all-out bouts of exercise lasting more than 1 min but less than 7
min.
Risks: cause gastrointestinal distress, including cramping, bloating, & diarrhea.

6. Phosphate Loading
Ingestion of sodium phosphate has been postulated to improve general CV &
metabolic functioning.
During exercise, phosphate loading has been proposed to elevate phosphate levels
throughout the body, which would increase the potential for oxidative
phosphorylation & phosphocreatine synthesis, enhance O2 release to the cells,
improve CV response to exercise, improve the bodys buffering capacity, & improve
endurance capacity.
Research on its effectiveness as an ergogenic aid & risk is limited.

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

SPS 211 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY

EXERCISE
(Ergogenic Aids)
Name : _______________________________________

Group : _________ Date : _______________

Answer ALL questions.


1. Define ergogenic aid and ergolytic substance.
a. _____________________________________________________________________________
b. _____________________________________________________________________________

2. What is placebo? Why must an investigator use placebo treatment to evaluate the effectiveness of
an ergogenic aid?
a. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
b. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

3. What is carbo-loading? Describe its benefit in endurance activities.


a. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
b. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

4. What are beta blockers? What are the ergogenic and ergolytic properties?
a. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
Ergogenic properties
b. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION

Ergolytic properties
c.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

5. What is presently known about the use of amphetamines in athletic competition? What are the
potential risks of using amphetamines?
Recent studies indicate that amphetamines can:
a. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
b. ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
Potential risk of using amphetamines
c.

____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

6. What is blood doping? Describe its benefit in endurance activities.


a. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
b. _____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________