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Multiplication and Division go together

2

(a+b) a +b

So,

and

(a b) a

and

a

a

( )= 2

b

b

(ab) =a b

But

(a+b)

a+b and (a b) a b

(ab)= a b

a a

( )=

b b

and

____________________________________________________________________

Negative power has NOTHING to do with the negative sign of the base

Negative power cannot be brought into the base

2

( 3)

1

1

1

= (

) = ( ) = ( )

3

3

3

---- Notice how the negative sign inside the bracket remains even after the negative power has been removed

by taking the reciprocal.

_____________________________________________________________________

Powers of powers can be multiplied

(23)

2 3

((a) ) = a

= a

2 3 5

(235)

30

(((a ) ) ) = a

= a

4 3

12

( 4 3)

((a) ) = a

= a

____________________________________________________________________

In a simple equation, if powers are equal, the bases are equal and vice versa

n

If a = x , then a= x

y

If m =m , then y=z

____________________________________________________________________

Learn the square table in page 87 of your text book. Will help in Special Identities and Factorisation.

For a successful business, MP > SP > CP

(1) With CP as the base, and applying percentage for Profit or Loss

(2) With MP as the base, and applying Discount

____________________________________________________________________

1. SP of 20 pens is equal to the CP of 25 pens. Find the gain percentage.

So, SP of 20 pens is also = Rs. 100

Which means CP of 1 pen = 100/25 = Rs. 4

And SP of 1 pen = 100/20 = Rs. 5

Profit is Rs. 1 when CP is Rs. 4

Hence calculate gain percentage

2. A dealer allows 10% on MP and still wants to gain 8%. What % above CP must he mark his goods?

So SP is 8% more, which is Rs. 108. [in this case CP is the base for percentage]

MP is above SP ---- meaning, there is a number above 108 which when reduced by the

discount (10%) gives you 108. [in this case SP is the base for percentage].

So MP 10% of MP = 108. Solve this to find MP. MP is Rs. 120.

Now to the last part of the question... CP is Rs. 100, MP is Rs. 120. What's the

percentage? [again CP becomes the base for percentage]. It's 20 percentage!

Simple Interest

SI = PRT / 100

Amount = P + SI

These formulas work ONLY when T is in years!! So if time is given in months or days, convert it to

years. 3 months would be 3/12 years. 70 days would be 70/365 days.... etc. [A year is always taken to

have 365 days]

Interest is calculated from the day after the money is borrowed but including the day the money is

returned.

1. A sum of money put at 9% per annum simple interest amounts to 10160 in 3 years. What will it

amount to in 2 years in 8% per annum.

Substitute values.... P + (P x 9 x 3 / 100) = 10160. Solve for P, which would be 8000

Now that P is found, finish the last part of the question.... SI = (8000 x 8 x 2) / 100.

Add this to Principal (8000) to get the Amount. The answer is 9280.

2. At what rate percentage per annum simple interest will a sum of money treble itself in 16 years?

Treble is 3 times... which means the Amount has to become 300.... which means interest is

Rs. 200.

So from the formula 200 = (100 x R x 16) / 100

Find R.... It is 12.5%

Here are the 4 identities you need to know.

2

(a+b) =a +2 a b+b

(a b) =a

(a+b)(a b)=a

2 a b+b

Typical problems

When numbers are given and asked to solve using identities find the nearest number for which it's easiest to

find the square.

Some Examples....

2

(109) = (100+9)

calculation easier]

2

(46) = (50 4)

calculation easier]

____________________________________________________________________

Typical problems

1.

16m

24mn

And also,

This is of the form 2ab, where a = 4m and b = 3n.

2

Hence b is the term that needs to be added, which is

2

2

16m is (4m)

24mn=2(4m)(3n)

2. If

1

= 2

x

24mn+9n

2

And the perfect square thus obtained is (4m 3n)

, find

x2 +

1

2

x

and

x4+

16m

9n

1

4

x

Simply square both sides of the given equation once, for the first question, and

twice for the second question. Answers are 6 and 34 respectively.

Factorisation

Pull out common terms (proper grouping might be required for this step)

Use Identities

Typical problems

1. Factorise

2. Factorise

Look at the bigger picture..... 25 and 36 are prefect squares

2

2

So this expression can be written as , [5( x y)] [6 (x+ y)] and so is of the

b

The answer is (11 x+ y)( x 11 y)

1 can be pulled out from the second bracket and written as

(11 x+ y)( x+11 y)

form

25( x y) 36( x+ y)

52 m n 117 m n

Pull out common terms and then find which identity can be used.

2

Answer is 13 m n (2 m 3 n)(2 m+3 n)

Linear Equations

Linear Equations are equations that when plotted in a graph would give a straight line.

They can have one or two variables but he power of the variables must always be 1.

Next work on fractions

The group the x terms on one side and the constant terms on the other. [ ALWAYS JUSTIFY moving a

term in one of the following way --- Multiplying or Dividing both sides by_______

Adding ________ to both sides

Subtracting ________ from both sides

Find x.

ALWAYS substitute x in the given equation to see if it satisfies

Don't introduce more than one variable. More variables, more the trouble!!

Solve for x

ALWAYS substitute x in the given English sentences to see if it satisfies.

Graphs

Lines parallel to the X-axis are of the form y = a (examples --- y = 2, y = 3/4, y = 5 etc....)

Lines parallel to the Y-axis are of the form x = a (examples --- x = 5, x = 4/7, x = 7.5 etc....)

y = 0 is the equation for X-axis

Quadrants run anticlockwise

A linear equation with no constant term will ALWAYS pass through the origin

3 x+2=0 ----- Does not pass through the origin [ 2 is the constant term]

2

x+3 y=7 ----- Does not pass through the origin [ 7 is the constant term]

3

4 y=2.5 x ----- Passes through the origin

y=abx 2 ----- Does not pass through the origin [ - 2 is the constant term]

6

y=0 ----- Passes through the origin

7

A set of values (x, y), called ordered pairs, that satisfy a linear equation is called its Solution. And

when plotted, all set of ordered pairs (x, y) that are the Solutions will lie on the line represented by the

equation.

To solve an equation............... 2x 3y = 12

First put x = 0 and find y. (any value can be put, but 0 and 1 are easiest)

Then put y = 0 and find x.

Then put x = 1 and find y.

Tabulate the values thus obtained. These are the ordered pairs

X:

7.5

Y:

Check with more values of x and y to see if they lie on the same straight line

Statistics

'f' is the frequency --- the number of times an observation occurs.

Assume a class where 10 students get >90, and 15 students get >80 and 20 students get >70.

So the frequency of >90 is 10, because >90 has occurred 10 times.

Similarly if the shoe size 12 has been bought by 50 customers, then 50 is the frequency of shoe

size 12.

( f i x i)

( f i)

If Mean is given but one value of the data is missing, you should be able to find the missing data using

the above formula

Drawing Pie charts requires calculation of the Central angle of the Sector in the Circle

360 deg

(total value)or 100

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