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SCHOOL OF

ENGINEERING

DIPLOMA IN
INDUSTRIAL & OPERATIONS
MANAGEMENT

P01 Utilizing Space

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore.

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING
Utilizing Space
There is presently a theatre building in the city centre, commissioned by the Arts Council, to host
premier arts and cultural events.

After running the facility for two years, there has been feedback from the management of the
theatre building that the facility has not been fully utilized. The management committee has
commissioned your company to propose improvements to the theatres upper level layout. The
main objective is to add vibrancy to the theatre while fully utilizing space.
After some research, your company proposed introducing these features. These are
1) A small video library for visitors to browse and borrow classic and art videos
2) 1 Facilitation room and 1 Conference room for meeting and discussion
3) A visual art gallery to showcase art exhibits.
4) An open-air cafeteria for food and drinks.
Below is the floor layout for the upper level of the theatre. Your team will need to study how the
above features can be incorporated into the layout to achieve the objective that the theatre
management has mentioned.

Utilizing Space.vsd

Your team shall present your proposed layout for the theatre building to the Arts Council for
consideration.

Page 2 of 2

E212 Facilities Planning and Design


P01 Utilizing space

School of Engineering

Facilities Planning and Design


Facilities planning is a complex and broad subject that cuts
across several engineering disciplines - civil, electrical,
industrial, mechanical, etc.
Examples of facilities planning applications:
Building a new hospital
Layout a production line
Retrofitting an existing warehouse
Designing the baggage department of an airport
Facilities planning determines how physical assets support the
facility objective.

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Objectives of Facilities Planning


Effectively utilizing people, equipment, space, energy
Provide for continuous improvement throughout facility
life cycle
Promote user safety and satisfaction
Facilitate productivity gains and cost reduction
Promote ease of maintenance

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Motivations for Facility Planning


1. Productivity gains and cost savings in areas of material
handling, personnel and equipment utilization, inventory
levels.
2. Employee health and safety
3. Energy conservation
4. Community considerations, fire protection, security, etc

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Facilities Planning Hierarchy


Facilities planning covers both facilities location and facilities
design.
Facilities
Location

Facility
System
Design

Facilities
Planning

Facilities
Design

Layout
Design

Handling
Systems
Design

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Facilities Location
Facilities location refers to the place with respect to
customer, suppliers and other facilities with which it
interfaces.
Some factors influencing location:
Proximity to raw material source
Customer markets
Transportation system
Economic development (financial) incentives

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Facilities Design
Facilities design consists of the facility systems, layout and
handling system:
o Facility systems structural, atmospheric, enclosure,
lighting, electrical, communications, safety and sanitation
systems
o Layout equipment, machinery, furnishings and fittings
within the facility envelope
o Handling system the mechanisms needed to satisfy the
required movements within the facility
Material handling is important to the facility design activity. The
choice of material handling equipment will greatly influence the
suitability of the facility design.
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Facilities Planning Process


Applying the engineering design approach:
Steps
1. Define the problem
Define (or redefine) the objective of the facility
Specify the primary and support activities to be performed
in accomplishing the objective
2. Analyze the problem
Determine the inter-relationships among all activities
3. Determine the space requirements for all activities
Generate alternative facilities plans

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Facilities Planning Process


4. Evaluate the alternatives

Evaluate alternative facilities plans


5. Select the preferred design

Select a facilities plan


6. Implement the design

Implement the facilities plan

Maintain and adapt the facilities plan

Redefine the objective of the facility (if needed)

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Facilities Design
Dimensions for Improvement:
o Physical factors fittings, equipment, layout, furnishings,
human factor interactions
o Time factor traffic flows, ingress, egress

o Safety aspect security, hazard avoidance

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10

P01 Sample Solution

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Sample Solution
There is no unique, best solution to this problem,

only many good ones!

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12

Sample Solution
Visual Art Gallery
Purpose: Showcase art pieces for visitors
Effectiveness- Location: Good- visible
Effectiveness- Systems Design: Good- adequate humidity control
Alternative 1 (Visual emphasis)
Physical: Ample lighting on the art pieces for viewing
Time: Use colors to identify different zones of different type of art pieces.
Safety: Art pieces may need to be secure. There should be a mark out zone.
Alternative 2 (Functional emphasis)
Physical: Need to cater space in front of the art pieces for viewing.
Time: Clear direction flow to highlight important art piece.
Safety: Differentiate emergency signs from the surroundings
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13

Sample Solution
Facilitation/Conference rooms
Purpose: Area for discussion and meeting sessions
Effectiveness- Location: Good - accessible
Effectiveness- Systems Design: Well equipped with facilitation equipment
Alternative 1 (Visual emphasis)
Physical: Long table to be at centre of the room. Good lighting for room.
Time: Use colors to identify exit and entrance to room
Safety: All exposed ceilings should be covered. Ample ventilation in the room.
Alternative 2 (Functional emphasis)
Physical: Layout the tables for discussions. Accessible to white board.
Time: Change table design to allow easier movements and discussion
Safety: Increase to two doors for each class to provide emergency exits
Ensure free access for facilitation/conference room at all times
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14

Sample Solution
A video library
Purpose: Place for video storage and retrieval of art and culture material and
discussion
Effectiveness- Location: Good- Spacious, visible, accessible
Effectiveness- Systems Design: Opportunity to explore other alternatives
Alternative (Functional emphasis)
Physical: Discussion tables at the video library section
Newspaper racks should to be located at Level 1 instead
Time:
Use colors to differentiate different section (eg. Reference, Video)
Indicates the direction to other parts of the facilities clearly
Safety: Mark out emergency exit doors clearly
Indicates locations of safety equipment clearly

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15

Sample Solution
An open-air cafeteria
Purpose: Area for food and drink consumption.
Effectiveness- Location: Good Accessible, ventilated.
Effectiveness- Systems Design: Opportunity to explore other alternatives
Alternative (Functional emphasis)
Physical: Install ventilators
Ensure good lighting and space at each tables
Change door swing orientation for toilets
Time:
Ensure all toilets are available at any time
More prominent directions/ signage to the toilets
Safety: Remove swinging doors at the toilets

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16

Learning Objective
Identify different design components of a
facility (location, types of physical
systems)
Recognize different physical systems in a
facility and how they functions
Know the objectives of planning and laying
out a facility

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

DIPLOMA IN
INDUSTRIAL & OPERATIONS
MANAGEMENT

P02 LOCATION! LOCATION!


LOCATION!
E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore.

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING
Location! Location! Location!

Angie has been operating her theme restaurant, Iron Rock Cafe for a number of years and
it has attracted a large number of faithful patrons. She has decided that it is time to expand
her business and she is keen to expand to a neighboring country. This will not only
increase her customer base but it will also serve to increase awareness to her theme
restaurant. After much consideration, she narrows down to 3 possible locations in the
region to expand her restaurant: Perth (Australia), Bangkok (Thailand) and Jakarta
(Indonesia).
Angie wants her new restaurant to start well and be sustainable. She attributes the
success of an F&B business to successful selection of a strategic location for the theme
restaurant.
Instinctively, she considered factors such as human traffic flow, cost and vibrancy of the
sites when she assessed the different locations for her restaurant.
She is still not confident that she has considered all the factors in selecting the most
strategic location. And since some sites are better when she considered one factor, but
not as well when she considered another, she is having difficulty in deciding on the best
site.
What can she do to decide on the best site for her theme restaurant?

Page 2 of 2

E212 Facilities Planning and Design


P02 Location! Location!
Location!

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Location Selection
Recall from P01
Facilities location refers to the place with respect to customer,
suppliers and other facilities with which it interfaces.

General objective when selecting location:


To minimize
regional costs
outbound distribution costs
inbound distribution costs

Type of Analysis
Macro analysis
To evaluate alternative countries, regions, communities

Micro analysis
To evaluate specific sites in the selected community

Factors Affecting Location Selection


Regional factors
International Company = country

National Company = section of country or state


Local Company = country or city
Market location

Important for service firms / manufacturers of fragile or perishable goods


Cost of shipping to customers
Firms that are suppliers for JIT process

Customer identification with firm due to proximity


Location of competitors
Raw material and supplier proximity

For example, manufacturers that use perishable raw materials locate near
source
4

Factors Affecting Location Selection


Transportation facilities (less important now than before 1950s)
Airports, Seaports, Highways.
Labour climate
Labour force is crucial to operation of the firm
Availability: large pool
Skills must match needs of firm
Cost: wage rate in that area; level of unionization
Quality of life
- Customer profile
Government
Taxes & Incentives

Factors affecting Site Selection


Typical engineering considerations
Sufficient land to build and expand
Availability of utilities / infrastructure
Waste disposal
Transportation access
Legal and other impediments
Proximity to supporting industries

Land Lease Cost


Land Zoning

Factor Analysis Technique


Popular, subjective- decision making tool, relatively easy
to use
First assign an appropriate weight to the 5 factors (typically
between 0 to 1) based on the relative importance of each.
Then assign a score (typically between 0 to 100) to each location
with respect to each factor identified in (a)
A weighted score for each factor for each location can then be
obtained by multiplying the weight with the score
Finally, the sum of the weighted scores can be obtained and
selection done based on these scores.

FAT Example
Weight

Factor

Perth

0.30

Lease Cost

80

70

60

65

0.25

Customer volume

60

75

70

80

0.10

Competition in
area

75

65

70

65

0.25

Suitability of
location

85

80

75

90

0.10

Customer profile

70

75

70

85

Kuala
Lumpur

Bangkok

Jakarta

W=1

Pairwise Comparison
(Analytic Hierarchy Process - AHP)
Involves prioritization of potential alternate solutions through
evaluation of a set of criteria element
Elements can be sub divided into sub-elements and so on, forming a
hierarchy tree
Once Hierarchy definition is established, criteria are weighted
individually at each level with each other
Prioritization of the alternate solutions are then evaluated based on
these weights
Software which makes use of AHP Expert Choice

Example of a Hierarchy Structure

10

An Example of Pairwise Comparison


of Factors
Assuming that there are 3 factors: Cost, Availability and
Human Traffic

11

An Example of Pairwise Comparison of


Alternatives
Assuming that there are 3 alternatives: RP, CP and WM

12

Problem Objectives
Identify possible objectives of a facility
Determine factors for selecting a site based on
the objectives of the facility
Select an appropriate site for a facility after
considering the importance of each factors and
how well each alternative site fare for each
factor

13

Factors for F&B Outlet


(Theme Resturant)
More emphasis placed on the customers and location:
1) Customers Volume drive sales
2) Strategic Location (where the place is located)
3) Operation/ Lease Cost
4) Business Sustainability (Long-term survival)
5) Availability of location (Tenure)
6) Accessibility to complementary business / supplies
7) Surrounding Business (Compete vs Complementary)
8) Customers profile

Though there are many factors, not all factors need to be


used.
14

Using FAT
Perth

Choose Jakarta

Weight

Factor

Bangkok

0.30

Lease Cost

80 x
0.30
=24

18

21

19.5

0.25

Customer volume

15

17.5

18.75

20

0.10

Competition in area

7.5

6.5

6.5

0.25

Suitability of
location

21.25

18.75

20

22.5

0.10

Customer profile

7.5

8.5

W=1

Sum of Weighted
Score

74.75

68.75

73.25

77

Kuala
Lumpur

Jakarta

15

Using AHP (Expert Choice)


6) Get Solution!!!
3) Insert Alternatives
4) Select pairwise to
enter numeric pairwise
comparison of factors

5) Enter in numeric pairwise


comparison of alternatives
1) Insert project goal
2) Insert factors by adding
child nodes to Goal or sibling
nodes to Existing factors

Insert description
of project
16

Expert Choice Solution

Choose Republic Polytechnic


Note: The overall inconsistency should preferably be
less than 0.1
17

Conclusion
Angie can use Factor Analysis Technique (FAT) or
Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help her select
suitable location for her restaurant.
Though FAT is relatively easier to use, AHP can capture
both subjective and objective evaluation measures.
In order to do her location analysis, she needs to
decides on her factors and alternatives. Data and
information are also needed to help her in her analysis.
For her problem, she found that Jakarta is the most
suitable location for her next theme restaurant.
18

Learning Objective
Analyze different locations and select a
suitable location for a facility based a set of
selection criteria
Assign weights to different decision criteria
based on their importance (according to
management guidelines and decision)
Select a suitable location for a facility based a
set of selection criteria

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

DIPLOMA IN
INDUSTRIAL & OPERATIONS
MANAGEMENT

P03 SETTING THE LAYOUT

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore.

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING
Setting the layout
It has always been Jasons dream to open a shop selling sandwich to the
masses. Recently, he managed to secure a shop space in an international school
to realize his dream.
He intends to sell sandwiches which allow customer to customize their
combination of meats upfront. Snacks and drinks will also be available at the
payout counter. They will then proceed to pay at the counter before bringing their
food back to the sitting area for consumption.
With the location confirmed, Jason has to decide on the appropriate equipment to
buy for his shop kitchen. As he intends to make the bread for his sandwiches, he
will need to arrange the oven and bread making equipment in a way most
suitable for his business. Salad and salad dressing will need to be prepared in
the kitchen as well.
Jason has never tried doing his own layout before so he thought that a good way
to start is to study how others do their layouts. He recalled two instances:
1. When he was studying in Republic Polytechnic, he always frequent
Subway fast food outlet. He noticed that it offers a lot of varieties of
sandwhich which the customer can choose from. Payment for the food
is at the respective stall counter. There are also seats around the store
where customers can sit down for their meal.

2. Jason remembered his recent trip to a fast food restaurant. He noticed


that the customers can queue via several queues. The customer will
order their food over the counter and the food are prepared in a kitchen
and assembled at the counter itself. After collecting their food, the
customers proceed to pay at the cashier on the particular counter.
Customer will bring their food to their table for consumption.

Page 2 of 3

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

He is not sure which layout is most suitable for his business and he is concerned
that there are other issues which he needs to consider when doing his layout.
Can you help him?

Page 3 of 3

E212 Facilities Planning and Design


P03 Setting the layout

School of Engineering

Layout Decisions
The need for layout decisions:

Support new product or service introduction


Support change in the design of products or services
Remove inefficient operations, e.g. high-cost process
Remove safety hazards

A good layout design is able to:


Support changes in volume of output or mix of products
Support changes in equipment or work methods
Address environmental, legal and other statutory requirements

Layout Decisions
Inputs to the layout decision:
Specifications of system objectives ~ in terms of output and
flexibility
Estimation of product or service demand on the system
Processing requirements ~ in terms of number of operations and
amount of flow between departments and work centers
Space requirements for the elements in the layout
Space availability within the facility itself
Basic layout types: 1. Fixed-position
2. Product
3. Process
4. Cellular
5. Mixed
3

Layout Types
1. Fixed-Position Layout
Layout in which the product remains stationary and workers, materials
and equipment are moved as and when needed
Equipment and tooling costs are low compared to other layout types
Not geared for high-production quantities
Used when the product is bulky, heavy or fragile
High degree of product customization can be achieved
Minimizes the amount of product movement
Examples:Ship building
Aircraft assembly

Layout Types
An example of Fixed-position layout: Ship building

Layout Types
2. Product Layout
Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve
smooth, rapid, high-volume flow
Equipment and tooling costs are generally higher
High levels of labor and equipment utilization can be achieved
Requires balance of time between operations: i.e. line balancing
Provides opportunities for process automation
Can achieve low production cost per unit
Examples:Domestic appliance manufacture
Chemical plating

Layout Types
An example of Product layout: Product Assembly Line

Layout Types
3. Process Layout
For producing a fairly large number of similar products (in batches)
Consists of several well-defined operations

Equipment and tools are less costly than those in product-layouts


High degree of labor specialization by process
Equipment breakdown can be easily managed due to multiple
machines

Frequent set-up of machines to handle product (batch) changes


Examples:Components machining
Semiconductor chip assembly

Layout Types
An example of Process layout: Components machining

Layout Types
4. Cellular Layout
Layout in which machines are grouped into a cell that can handle
items with similar processing requirements
Grouping into part families of items with similar design or
manufacturing characteristics is called group technology
Group technology helps in achieving process standardization when
processing large quantities of different components
Examples:Domestic appliance manufacture
Machine component manufacture

5. Mixed Layout
A combination of product, process and/or cellular layouts across the
entire product manufacturing flow

10

Layout Types
An example of Cellular layout: Machine components manufacture

11

Layout Types

12

Different Approaches to Layout


Planning
Systematic Layout Planning (SLP Procedure)
Apples Plant Layout Procedure
Reeds Plant Layout Procedure

13

Systematic Layout Planning (Muthers)

1. Flow of Materials

2. Activity Relationships

Analysis

Input Data and Activities

3. Relationship Diagram

5. Space Available

4. Space Requirements

7. Modifying Considerations

8. Practical Limitations

Search

6. Space Relationship Diagram

10. Evaluation

Selection

9. Develop Layout Alternatives

14

P03 Sample Solution

Problem Objectives
Analyze a product and determine the process flow in
manufacturing of the product
Identify different types of layout and explain what is the
advantages and disadvantages of each layout
Select a suitable type of layout for the process
Know the process of layout design

16

Sample Solution
Some essential questions for Jason
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

How is the forecasted demand trend?


Are product customization required?
Can the kitchen area take up a big space?
How much fund is allocated for setting up the shop?
Is there any preference for manual handwork over machine
task?

17

Sample Solution
Assumptions when recommending layout type to use
1.

Medium level of demand forecast for different types of food

2.

Forecasted demand are steady and expected to sustain for the


school semester.

3.

Minor product customization

4.

Kitchen area should not be more than 30% of total area as


majority of the area should be for customers to consume food

5.

Budget constraint on equipment purchase

6.

There is no preference for manual handwork over machine


task

18

Sample Solution
A suitable kitchen layout for Jason

A process-layout as some cooking methods share the same


processes and equipment

Limited kitchen area to set up individual lines for each type of


food

Utilization of the kitchen equipment is better

Can cater to some level of customization

Repeat orders may not be processed consecutively as the


same equipment is being used to process other food

19

Developing the layout

In process layout, it is important to reduce the flow of materials in the facility


2 departments with high flow between them should be situated close
together
It is therefore necessary to know the material flow and activity relationship
between departments
The space required for each department have to be ascertained based on:
Equipment (Number of equipment required has to be worked out)
Aisle space
Maintenance/ servicing space
A space relationship diagram can then be developed and detailed layout of
equipment done upon considering practical limitations and other modifying
considerations
Various alternatives can be generated before the best one is chosen

20

Sample Solution
Food
Collection

Process layout for the Kitchen


Dough
Making

Materials Picking
Storage
Shelf

Fridge

Washing
& Cleaning
Kitchen
Sink

Food
Counter

Baking
Oven

Miller

Oven

Snack
Counter

Drink
Counter

Cutting and Preparation


Kitchen
Top

Kitchen
Top

Kitchen
Top

Toasting
Toaster

Assembly
Assembly bench

Mixing
Small mixer

Grilling
Griller

Griller

Assembly bench

21

22

23

Learning Objective
Identify different types of layout and explain
the advantages and disadvantages of each
layout
Select a suitable type of layout based on the
type of process required in the facility
The process of layout design

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P04 KEEP THE SANDWICHES


COMING

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore.

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING
KEEP THE SANDWICHES COMING

Jason has been looking into setting up his own sandwich joint at an international
school. In additional to selling soft drinks and salad boxes, he wants to offer set meals
consisting of: one sandwich, one soft drink and a salad box. There will be 3 types of
sandwiches to choose from: grilled turkey, ham and tuna; all marinated and prepared in
his kitchen.
After conducting some market research, he has finalized the ingredient list for his
different sales items. He formulated a product part list for these ingredients for
inventory tracking purpose. A rough demand forecast was also produced from his
market research.

Product Part List

Product Part List.xlsx

Rough Demand Forecast

Demand
Forecast.xlsx

After obtaining the forecast and process details, Jason proceeded to work out what
equipments to buy for his sandwiches joint. Requirement for his equipment were
obtained from expected output and cycle time as shown below.

Page 2 of 3

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

Equipment List
Equipment
number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Equipment
description
Bread Toaster
Grilling station
Condiments Cabinet/
Storage Shelf
Sink and Assembly
Work desk
Wrapping Work desk
Mixing Station
Sandwich Picking
Station
Storage Area
Drink Dispenser
Cashier

Footprint
(m2)
1.0 x 1.0
2.0 x 1.0

Output/Cycle
2
4

Time/Cycle
(sec)
60
200

3.0 x 1.0

Non-workstation, for materials

2.0 x 1.0
1.0 x 1.0
1.0 x 1.0

1
1
8

20
12
220

Manual station, single operator


Manual station, single operator
Manual station, single operator

1.0 x 1.0
1.0 x 1.0
1.0 x .1.0
3.0 x 1.0

2
-

15
-

Non-workstation, for picking


Non-workstation, for materials
Manual station, single operator
Manual station, 1 to 3 persons

Description
Machine station, single operator
Machine station, single operator

With these data, Jason decided that he has sufficient information to plan the most
appropriate layout type for his shops kitchen. Below is the floor layout of the shops
kitchen. Can you help Jason determine the appropriate layout and equipments
arrangement for his shops kitchen?

2000.00

2000.00

7000.00

2000.00

2000.00

2000.00

2000.00

Kitchen Layout

3000.00

Kitchen Layout (dimension in mm)

Page 3 of 3

E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P04 Keep the


Sandwiches Coming

Flow Planning
Process of arranging activities in combinations of
basic flow patterns (based on flow analysis), both
quantitative (from-to chart) and qualitative (activity
relationship diagram).
Types of flow
Materials
People
Equipment
Documents
Flow can be within workstation, within a department
(intra-cell) or between departments (inter-cell)

Flow within a facility considering the


locations of entrance and exit
At the same location

On adjacent sides

Flow within a facility considering the


locations of entrance and exit (contd)
On the same side but
at opposite ends

On opposite sides

Vertical Flow Pattern

Flow between buildings exists and the


connection between buildings is elevated

Ground level ingress (entry)


and egress (exit) are required

Travel between floors occurs on the Some bucket and belt conveyors and
escalators result in inclined flow
same side of the building

Ground level ingress (entry) and egress


(exit) occur on the same side of the building

Backtracking occurs due to the


return to the top floor
5

Flow Patterns (between departments)

Flow Patterns (within department)


The flow pattern within departments depends on the
type of department.
In a product and/or product family department, the
flow follows the product flow.
1 machine/operator

2 machines/operator

1 machine/operator

More than 2
machines /operator

1 machine/operator

Flow Pattern (within department) (contd)


In a process department, little flow should occur between
workstations within departments. Flow occurs between
workstations and isles.
Uncommon
Aisle

Aisle

Aisle

Aisle

One way

Aisle

One way

Dependent on: - interactions among workstations


- available space
- size of materials
8

Flow Patterns: Flow within Workstation


Many workstations make up a department. Workstation usually refer to
equipments
Motion studies and ergonomics considerations are important. Flow
should be:

Simultaneous: coordinated use of hands, arms and feet.


Symmetrical: coordination of movements about the center of the body.
Natural: movements are continuous, curved, and make use of
momentum.
Rhythmical and Habitual: flow allows a methodological and automatic
sequence of activities. It should reduce mental, eye and muscle
fatigue, and strain.
9

Principles of Flow Planning


Maximize directed flow
Directed flow: uninterrupted flow, does not intersect others
No backtracking of material
Minimize frequencies of flow through work simplification
Deliver directly to the point of use - eliminate waste
Plan appropriate unit of load, use pallets to minimize trips
Combine flows and operations, e.g. Automobile assembly
Minimize cost of flow
Reduce travel distance
Mechanize or automate transfer

10

Uninterrupted Flow Path


Uninterrupted flow paths

Interrupted flow paths

11

Flow Analysis Information


A. Product Structured Parts List
- Provides a listing of all component/parts of a product, includes part
name, part number, drawing references, quantity of parts
- Product structure is a hierarchy referring to the level of product
assembly: such as final product, sub-assemblies.
- Product Structure information and Structured Parts List will make
up the Bill of Materials
B. Operation Process Chart
- Presents information on production method and assembly flow of
the product
- Differentiates between in-house produced part and purchased part
- Can also include information on raw material used, operation
times, inspection stations

12

Flow analysis information


C.

From-To Chart
A matrix that contains numbers representing a measure
(unts, unit loads, etc) of the material flow between machines,
departments, buildings, etc.

D.

Others
Assembly chart
Flow process chart
Multi product process chart
Flow diagram

13

Flow Dominance Measure (FDM)

Notation:
M:

number of activities.

Nij:

number of different types of items moved between activities i and j.

fijk:

flow volume between i and j for item k (in moves/time period).

hijk: equivalence factor for moving item k with respect to other items moved between i
and j (dimensionless)
[all hijk = 1 since assume equal ease of movement]
wij: equivalent flow volume specified in from-to chart (in moves/time period),

N ij

w ij = f ijk h ijk .
k 1

14

Flow Dominance Measure (contd)

Flow dominance measure =

fU f '
fU fL

f=

where
1
2

M M 2
2 2
w

M
w
i 1 j1 ij

2
M

f'
,
w
1
2

M2 M 1
fU M
,

2
(M 1)(M 1)

M M

w ij

w=

i 1 j 1

M2

fL M
2

(M

1)(M

1)

1
2

15

Flow Dominance Measure (contd)


Three cases:

f 0 (a few dominant flows exist) product layout


can use operations process chart as starting point for developing
layout and material handling system design

quantitative measures principal source of activity relationship.

f 1 (many nearly equal flows exist)


any layout equally good with respect to flows .

qualitative measures principal source of activity relationship.

0 << f << 1 (no dominant flows exist) difficult to develop layout


process or product family layout .

both quantitative and qualitative measures important source of


activity relationship.
16

Equipment Requirements Planning


Equipment Capacity Table

- Can have different formats


- Links product forecasted demand with available
equipment to generate equipment requirements
- Contains detailed information on machine/equipment
run-rates, allowances

17

P04 Sample Solution

18

Flow Analysis Information


Structured Parts List

Part Number

Part Description

Part Type

RA00001

Bread Loaf

Raw material

RA00002

Turkey slice

Raw material

RA00003

Ham slice

Raw material

RA00004

Tuna chuck

Raw material

RA00005

Pickles

Raw material

RA00006

Olive

Raw material

RA00007

Tomato

Raw material

RA00008

Lettuce

Raw material

RA00009

Mayonnaise

Raw material

RA00010

Honey Mustard

Raw material

RB00001

Fruits

Raw material

RB00002

Thousand Island Dressing

RC00001

Lemon Tea in barrel

RC00002

Ice

Raw material
Raw material

PA00001

Sandwich wrapper

Packing

PA00002

Salad box

Packing

PA00003

Packing

SA00001

Cups
Sandwich without wrapper

FA00001

Wrapped sandwich

Finished goods

FA00002

Salad

Finished goods

FA00003

Cups of Lemon Tea

Finished goods

Raw material

Sub assembly

19

Flow Analysis Information


Operations Process Chart
Honey Mustard
RA00010

Mayonnaise
RA00009

O-13

Chill

Lettuce
RA00008

O-12

Chill

Tomato
RA00007

Olive
RA00006

Turkey Slice
RA00002

Pickles
RA00005

O-10

Wash

O-08

Wash

O-06

O-11

Cut

O-09

Cut

O-07

Peel

O-03

Preserve

O-04

Bottle

O-05

Store

Bread Loaf
RA00001

O-02

Grill

O-01

Toast

Cut

SA-01
Thousand Island Dressing
RB00002

Fruit
RB00001

Sandwich Wrapper
PA00001

O-14

Mix

Salad Box
PA00002

SA-03
Ice
RC00002

SA-02

SA-04

A-01

Lemon Tea in a Barrel


RC00001

O-15

O-16

Scoop

Dispense

SA-05

Cup
PA00003

20

Flow Analysis Information


Parts-Machine Routing
& Forecasted Demand
Item
Hourly Peak Demand (forecast)
Grilled Turkey Sandwich set
(includes one box of salad and a drink)
32 meals
Ham Sandwich set
(includes one box of salad and a drink)
39 meals
Special Tuna Sandwich set
(includes one box of salad and a drink)
62 meals
Grilled Turkey Sandwich
6 sandwiches
Ham Sandwich
9 sandwiches
Special Tuna Sandwich
16 sandwiches
Salad box
57 boxes
Lemon-Tea
22 cups

Part Number

Part Description

Machine Routing

RA00001

Bread Loaf

3-1-4

RA00002

Turkey slice

3-2-4

RA00003

Ham slice

34

RA00004

Tuna chuck

36-4

RA00005

Pickles

34

RA00006

Olive

34

RA00007

Tomato

34

RA00008

Lettuce

34

RA00009

Mayonnaise

34

RA00010

Honey Mustard

34

RB00001

Fruits

36

RB00002

36

RC00001

Thousand Island
Dressing
Lemon Tea in barrel

8-9

RC00002

Ice

PA00001

Sandwich wrapper

85

PA00002

Salad box

86

PA00003

89

FA00001

Cups
Sandwich without
wrapper
Wrapped Sandwich

FA00002

Salad

6 - 10

FA00003

Cups of Lemon Tea

9 - 10

SA00001

45
5 - 7 - 10

21

From-To Chart (Shows the flow volume)


From
To

=164/3
= 54.7

7.6

Sample calculation

10

From storage (Bread) to toaster:


133 set of meals and 31 sandwiches per
hour (3 bread loaves toast per batch)

3
4

54.7

7.6

94.9

5
6
7

9.8
41

6.6

24

7.6
82

9
10

4.5
95

82

78
22

From-To Chart (Shows the equivalent flow


volume) Taking into account of difficulty
of move
From
To
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

10

54.7
7.6
54.7

7.6

94.9

9.8
42

6.6
7.6

24

82
=2x3.87
5 + 0.62
=8.4

Sample calculation

Assuming moving lemon tea barrel is


twice as difficult, 1 trip with barrel = 2
trips of other items = 3.875 x 2
10

Moving cups is as per normal

95

82

78
23

Flow Dominance Measure (f)


1
2

M M 2
2 2
w

M
w
i 1 j1 ij

2
M M
M

= 3.14658 w ij
i 1 j 1

'
= 6.539
f
,
w=
2
w
M
1
2

M M1
fU M
,

2
(M 1)(M 1)
2

= 3.1958

fL M
2

(M

1)(M

1)

1
2

= 0.335

24

Flow Dominance Measure (f)


fU f
fU fL
'

= 0.01721

0 << f << 1 (no dominant flows exist) difficult to develop


layout
process or product family layout .
both quantitative and qualitative measures important
source of activity relationship.

25

Minimum Equipment Requirement


Equipment

Time/Cycle
Gross Material Equipment
Net
Equipment
(sec)
Output/Cycle Output/hr Scrap Efficiency Output/hr Required

Bread Toaster

60

120

3%

92%

107

Grilling Station
Sink and Assembly
Workdesk

200

72

3%

92%

64

20

180

0%

92%

165

Wrapping Workdesk

12

300

0%

92%

276

Mixing Station

220

131

3%

92%

116

Drink Dispenser
Condiments Cabinet /
Storage Shelf

15

480

1%

92%

437

Burger Picking

Storage Area

Cashier

1
26

Between Stations Flow


From

54.7
7.6

54.7
7.6
94.9

41

24
9.8

82

6.6
7.6

10

To
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

95
82
8.4
78

Very High Flow (> 100)


High Flow (41 - 99)
Medium Flow (16 - 40)
Low Flow (0 - 15)

27

Proposed Layout
A simple layout can be done
based on the from-to chart
Process with high flow are
placed together to minimize
the transportation work
Further modification can be
made to the layout on the left
to reduce the distance
between areas of high flow
Note that the layout will be
affected by actual floor plan

28

Learning Objective
Analyze and determine the process flow of a product from a
flow diagram
Calculate the total flow volume for a particular layout
Identify different areas of inefficiency in a facility and identify
areas of changes in order to reduce the flow volume
Layout different departments within a facility to ensure a
good flow of materials and finished goods

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P05 WHO WILL BE MY NEIGHBOUR?


E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 3

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING
Who will be my neighbour?

E & L Pte Ltd is a third party logistic firm that services multinational companies.
They are expanding rapidly and are shifting all their office operations to a vacant
facility in six months time.
You have been tasked to plan the layout of the new office. You conducted
interviews with the following key personnel of the various departments of E & L.
Based on what they have told you, how would you layout the various departments?

Interview Details
Sam, IT Specialist: We are the nerve centre, managing most of the software
systems in E & L. We are currently using SAP software to manage most of our
transactions in E & L. Accounts and Operations Department will often work with
me to resolve system issues. At times, I will also need to help resolve IT problems
from other departments.
Bee Leng, Account Executive: I work very closely with the planners in the
Operations Department. I will need to ensure that all shipments are billed correctly
to our customers. All incoming invoices will also be directed to our department for
processing. At the end of each month, I will need to balance the accounts and
report the balance sheet to management.
Daisy, Quality Assurance Officer: I work closely with customers on quality
requirements and issues. When there is a complaint received from Sales
Department, I will work with Operations to investigate the case log. We will then
follow up with a corrective action plan to close the complaint.
Janet, Human Resource Officer: I spend most of my time in office. Usually, I
look into payroll matters and coordinate interviews for departments that need
additional manpower.
Emily, Sales and Marketing Executive: When I receive new customers order, I
usually send it over to the planners in Operations Department for processing. At

Page 2 of 3

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING
times, I may need to walk over to discuss customers delivery status with our
planners.
Betty, Receptionist: I know most of the people working in E & L as it is my job to
direct visitors to them. However, I work closely with Human Resources
Department to help arrange candidates for interview.
Yi Ling, Legal Advisor: I manage all legal and contractual matters in E & L. I
spend a lot time working with Sales and Marketing Department to review all new
contracts.
Jackson, Facility Manager: I am in charge of the security and cleanliness within
the company. One of the areas that I am particularly concerned about is the
server room in the IT department, where all our important data is stored and
backed up. For contractual matters, I usually consult Yi Ling when drafting up
new contracts for cleaning companies or security contractors.
Robert Ng, Operations Manager: I have a few groups of people working for me.
When a new customer order is received from our Sales and Marketing
Department, my planner will check with our warehouse for the availability of the
goods. The order will be keyed into our SAP system and Accounts Department
will be notified. Our planners also monitor incoming shipment. If we have orders
for storing finish goods in our warehouse, our SAP system will capture it and notify
our warehouse and Accounts Department. I will need to attend weekly
management meeting with the other department managers. At times, I would also
need to go down to our warehouse to observe what is happening over there.

Page 3 of 3

E212 Facilities Planning and Design


P05 Who will be my
neighbour?

Assignment of Importance
A = absolutely necessary 5 %
E = especially important 10 %
I = important 15 %
O = ordinary closeness 20 %
U = unimportant 50 %
X = undesirable 5 %
Assign the relationship with the ratings shown.
The percentage is a guideline to how much of each
rating should be assigned with respect to the total
number of relationships.
2

Relationship (REL) Chart


A number of factors other than material handling flow (cost) might be of
primary concern in layout.
A Relationship (REL) Chart represents M(M-1)/2 symmetric qualitative
relationships, i.e.

rij {A, E, I, O, U, X}: Closeness Value


(CV) between activities i and j; rij is
an ordinal value

Example of REL Chart for a Hospital

Closeness Value
V(rij) = arbitrary cardinal value assigned to rij,
for example,

V(A) = 125
V(E) = 25
V(I) = 5
V(O) = 1
V(U) = 0
V(X) = -125

Total Closeness Rating


For each department, the Total Closeness Rating
(TCR) is the sum of the values of the relationships
with other departments
Department
Department
1. Reception
2. Emergency Unit
3. Outpatients Clinic
4. Wards
5. Intensive Care
6. Surgery
7. Laboratory
8. Administration
9. Pharmacy

1
U
E
O
U
U
U
A
O

2
U
I
U
A
I
U
U
U

3
E
I
U
U
O
U
U
E

4
O
U
U
U
I
O
U
O

5
U
A
U
U
E
I
U
O

6
U
I
O
I
E
U
U
I

Summary
7
U
U
U
O
I
U
U
E

8
A
U
U
U
U
U
U
O

9
O
U
E
O
O
I
E
O

A
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0

E
1
0
2
0
1
1
1
0
2

I
0
2
1
1
1
3
1
0
1

O
2
0
1
3
1
1
1
1
4

U
4
5
4
4
4
3
5
6
1

X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

TCR
152
135
56
8
156
41
31
126
59

Order
2
3
6
9
1
7
8
4
5

Manual CORELAP Algorithm

The manual CORELAP algorithm is an initial


process layout method which makes use of the
REL chart
The departments to be placed are selected based
on a set of criteria
The departments are then placed one by one
based on the procedures to place departments
The departments are assumed to be squares of
uniform sizes, i.e. actual shape and size are not
taken into consideration when following the manual
CORELAP algorithm
7

Selection of Departments to Place

First department to be placed is the one with the greatest TCR value.
If a tie exists, choose the department with more As
If a department has an X relationship with the first one, it is placed
last in the layout
If a tie exists, choose the one with the smallest TCR value
Second department is the one with an A relationship with the first one
If a tie exists, choose the one with the greatest TCR value
If a department has an X relationship with the second one, it is placed
next-to-the-last or last in the layout
If a tie exists, choose the one with the smallest TCR value
The third department is the one with an A relationship with one of the
placed departments.
If a tie exists, choose the one with the greatest TCR value
The procedure continues until all departments have been placed.

Procedure to Place Departments


Consider the figure on the right.
Assume that a department is placed in the middle
(position 0).
Position 1, 3, 5 or 7 is fully adjacent with
that department
Position 2, 4, 6 or 8 is partially adjacent
with that department
The first department selected would be placed at location 0.
The weighted placement (WP), sum of the numerical values for all
pairs of adjacent departments, is then calculate for each square
around the placed department.
The next department is placed at the location with the highest WP.

Important Notes
Once the department is placed, it is called a permanent facility while the
department yet to be located is called a temporary facility.
In choosing an entering department, it is based on
A, E, I, O, U
If ties exist, the largest TCR value
If ties persist, the largest area (space requirement)
WP is also called PR (Placement Rating) and is defined by the sum of
the numerical values assigned to the closeness ratings between the
entering facility and adjacent permanent ones.
We try to maximize WP. If ties exist, consider
largest boundary length
arbitrary assignment
10

P05 Sample Solution

11

Relationship Chart for the New


Logistics Office

12

TCR Value Computation


CV Values
V (A)
125
V (E)
25
V (I)
5
V (O)
1
V (U)
0
V (X)
-125

Choose the department


with highest TCR
(Department 9) to
start the layout

Partial Adjacency (a): 0.5


Department
Department
1. Accounts
2. Legal
3. Human Resource
4. Information Technology
5. Sales and Marketing
6. Reception
7. Quality Assurance
8. Facility
9. Operations

1
U
U
E
I
O
O
U
A

2 3
U O
U
U
U U
E U
U I
U O
O O
U O

4 5
E I
U E
U U
O
O
I U
O I
U U
A E

6
O
U
I
I
U

Summary
7
O
U
O
O
I
U

8 9
U A
O U
O O
U A
U E
U O
U
U A
U U
U
O A U

A
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
3

E
1
1
0
1
2
0
0
0
1

I
1
0
1
1
2
2
1
0
0

O
3
1
3
2
1
2
3
2
2

U
2
6
4
3
3
4
3
6
2

X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

TCR Order
158
2
26
6
8
8
157
3
61
5
12
7
133
4
2
9
402
1
13

Department 9 with the highest TCR value is placed first.


Department 1, 4 and 7 have A relationship with
department 9. Since department 1 has the highest TCR
value among the 3, the next department to be placed is
Department 1.
62.5 125 62.5
125

125

62.5 125 62.5

Since department 1has an A relationship


with department 9, the box which is directly
adjacent to department 9 has WP of 125.

Assuming a partial adjacency factor = 0.5


The WP of the boxes partially adjacent to
department 9 is 0.5 x 125 = 62.5

Department 1 would be placed at any of the locations with


highest WP

14

Department 4 has A & E relationship with Department 1


and 9. Department 7 have O & A relationship with
Department 1 and 9. Thus, the next department to be
placed is Department 4

Directly adjacent to 9 and partially adjacent to 1

12.5 87.5 137.5 62.5


25

125

12.5 87.5 137.5 62.5

Department 4 has A relationship with 9, add 125


to WP
Department 4 has E relationship with 1, add 0.5 x
25 to WP
WP = 125 + 12.5 = 137.5

Department 4 would be placed at any of the location with


highest WP
15

3) Placing Department 2

1) Placing Department 7 2) Placing Department 5


0.5

2.5

2.5

2.5 22.5

17.5

2.5 18.5
0.5

63.5 125.5 62.5

125.5

0.5

64.5

63.5

0.5

0.5

4) Placing Department 6
0

0.5

1.5

0.5

6.5

5.5

2.5

2.5

25 12.5

28

13.5

25 12.5

0.5

5) Placing Department 3

25

6) Placing Department 8
0

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

2.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

3.5

5.5

0.5

2.5

2.5

16

Initial Layout
7. Quality
Assurance

2. Legal

5. Sale and
Marketing

3. Human
Resource

1. Accounts

9. Operations

8.Facility

6. Reception

4.IT

17

Practical Considerations
Location of building core (Structural columns,
Staircase, AHU(Air Handling Unit))
Size of department
Shape of building
Location of loading/unloading bay (same place,
location of road leading to the office)

18

Ask yourself this:


Why is the department with the highest TCR value
placed first?
Why should the department with A relationship to the first
department be placed next ?
Is the solution always unique?
Is the layout generated the best solution?
What can you tell from the WP value?

19

Learning Objective
Qualitative analysis
Layout different departments within a facility based on
importance of relationships between departments
Construction of initial (process) layout base on relationships
between departments

Construction of REL chart


Manual CORELAP algorithm

20

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P06 SPACE LIMITATION


E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 3

Space Limitation

Jason is a Facility Engineer for Microdrill Laboratory, which specializes in


research of nano-technology for the wafer fabrication industry. He has been
tasked to plan the equipment layout of the new expansion to the sputtering clean
room (with more equipment purchased). In order to understand the sputtering
process and users requirement, Jason spoke to the Research Manager. The
attached document states the Standard Operating Procedure to operating a
sputtering machine.

E212-P06- Space
Limitation-SOP.docx

The Research Manager also requested Jason to speak to Alex, the research
assistant, as Alex has had several concerns with current placement of the
sputtering machines. The attached document lists Alexs feedback.

E212-P06- Space
Limitation-User's Feedback.docx

The dimensions of the new clean room, which Alex will work in, are (L) 12000
mm x (W) 9000mm. It will house 4 sputtering machines, 4 workbenches [(L) 800
mm x (W) 500 mm each], 1 Surface Profiler [(L) 1200 mm x (W) 1200 mm], 1
Atomic Force Meter [(L) 1200 mm x (W) 1200 mm] and 3 metal storage racks [(L)
1500 mm x (W) 800 mm each] for equipment maintenance tools. There will also
be need for 18 magazine storage holders measuring 500 mm each to be
placed in the clean room. Each sputtering machine will need a workbench and 3
magazine storage holders. The remaining magazine storage holders are used as

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING
departmental storage bins. The new clean room floor plan and machine
orthogonal projection are provided below.

Initial Clean room


E212-P06- Space
Layout.dwg
Limitation-Sputter Machine ortho projection.docx

Your task today is to help Jason draft a layout for the new clean room. You will
need to take into consideration all necessary space requirements.

Page 3 of 3

E212 Facilities Planning and Design


P06: Space Limitation

School of Engineering

Space Requirement
Determining the amount of space required in a facility
is perhaps the most difficult determination in facilities
planning
Design lifespan for a facility: typically 5 10 years
Uncertainties:
Technologies
Product mix
Demand level
Organizational designs

School of Engineering

Parkinsons Law
Things will expand to fill all available capacity
sooner than you plan!

Systematic Approach to Space Planning


Manufacturing and Office environments
Determine space for individual workstations
Determine space for department, based on the
collection of workstations in department
Storage and Warehousing activities
Inventory levels, storage units, storage methods
and strategies, equipment requirements, building
constraints and personnel requirements need to be
considered

School of Engineering

Workstation Specification - Equipment

Obtain the following information from machinery data sheets or physical


inventory check:
Equipment actual dimensions
Machine travel
Maximum travel to left and right
Maximum travel towards operator and away from operator
Maximum vertical travel
Machine maintenance requirement and areas
Plant services requirement and areas
Floor area requirement
= Total width (static width plus maximum travel to the left and right)
x Total depth (static depth plus maximum travel towards and away from
operator)
Total machinery area = Floor area requirement + Maintenance and plant
service area

School of Engineering

Workstation Specification - Material

Receiving and storing materials


In-process materials
Storing and shipping materials
Requires information on dimension of unit loads, flow of material
through machine, whether inventory holding zone is within
workstation or department
If inventory holding zone not within workstation, minimum
requirement for space may be 1 unit load to be worked next, one
unit load being worked from, one unit load being worked to, one unit
load completed
Storing and shipping waste and scrap
Storage prior to removal from workstation
Tools, fixtures, jigs, dies and maintenance materials
Depends on whether storage is at department or individual
workstation level

School of Engineering

Workstation Specification - Personnel

Operator
Material handling
Requires knowledge of method of performing operation
Based on motion study and ergonomic study taking into account:
Pick up and discharge with walking or making long/awkward
reaches
Efficient and effective utilization of operator
Minimize time spent on material handling
Maximize operator safety comfort and productivity
Minimize hazards, fatigue and eye strain
Minimal 30-inch aisle to travel pass through 2 stationary objects
Minimal 36-inch aisle to travel pass stationary and moving objects
Minimal 42-inch aisle to travel pass through 2 moving objects
Operator ingress and egress

School of Engineering

Department Specification
Sum of total workstation requirements
Departmental equipment storage
Aisles space allowance between workstations
Aisle Allowance Estimates
Largest Load

Less than 6 ft2


Between 6 and 12 ft2
Between 12 and 18 ft2
More than 18 ft2
a Expressed

Aisle Allowance %a

5 - 10
10- 20
20- 30
30- 40

as a percentage of the net area required for equipment, material and personnel

School of Engineering

Aisle Arrangement
Departmental aisle and main aisle
Recommended Aisle Widths for Various Types of Flow

Types of Flow
Tractors
3-ton Forklift
2-ton Forklift
1-ton Forklift
Narrow aisle truck
Manual platform truck
Personnel
Personnel with doors opening in the
aisle from one side
Personnel with doors opening in the
aisle from two sides

School of Engineering

Aisle Width
(feet)
12
11
10
9
6
5
3
6
8

P06 Sample Solution

School of Engineering

10

Workstation Specification
Equipment:
4 x Sputtering machine footprint: 2410 mm X 1520 mm
4 x Workbench for material preparation : 800 mm X 500 mm
1 Surface Profiler (assume at department level) :
1 Atomic Force Meter (assume at department level)
Machine travel: assume opening of covers and doors within
footprint area
Machine maintenance area: Area at the back of machine required
for maintenance, allow perimeter of 800 mm at the back and side
of the machine for maintenance, allow 1200 mm if next to wall
Plant service area: Clearance area near to power source for
maintenance

School of Engineering

11

Workstation Specification
Material:
Incoming, outgoing and storage materials:
Department storage area
Individual workstation storage area (3 holder)
Assume raw substrate to be held inside wafer magazine
holder
Assume completed item to be placed in a 500 mm
magazine holder
In-process materials: nil
Waste from scrap
Assume dump into 500 mm magazine storage holder
Housekeeping / maintenance materials
Assume at department level only
School of Engineering

12

Workstation Specification
Personnel:

Operator: area of 1500 mm x 1000 mm


Material handling: assume on magazine holder, no extra
space
Aisle space:
Minimal 762 mm (30) aisle to travel pass through 2 stationary
objects
Minimal 914 mm (36) to travel pass stationary and moving
objects
Minimal 1067 mm (42) aisle to travel pass through 2 moving
objects

Operator ingress and egress: nil

School of Engineering

13

Department Specification
Workstation area: 4 x Work areas (3400 mm x 2530 mm)
Department storage area: 6 x Magazine Storage holder ( 500
mm)
Common department test equipment: Surface Profiler (1200 mm
x 1200 mm), Atomic Force Meter (1200mm X 1200mm)
Maintenance Equipment Racks: 3 x Cabinets(1500 mm x 800
mm)
Aisle allowance estimates: 30-40% of total area
Largest Load

Less than 6 ft2


Between 6 and 12 ft2
Between 12 and 18 ft2
More than 18 ft2

a Expressed

Aisle Allowance % a

5 - 10
10- 20
20- 30
30- 40

as a percentage of the net area required for equipment, material and personnel

School of Engineering

14

Aisle Arrangement
Departmental aisle : By personnel = 914 mm (3 feet)
Main aisle: By Narrow Aisle Truck = 1829 mm (6 feet)

Types of Flow
Tractors
3-ton Forklift
2-ton Forklift
1-ton Forklift
Narrow aisle truck
Manual platform truck
Personnel
Personnel with doors opening
in the aisle from one side
Personnel with doors opening
in the aisle from two sides

School of Engineering

Aisle Width
(feet)
12
11
10
9
6
5
3
6
8

15

Initial Layout

School of Engineering

16

Proposed Layout

School of Engineering

17

Learning Objective
Plan for sufficient aisle space for the materials handling
and human flow in a facility.
Determine the minimal space requirement of a
department based on the number of machine required,
machine footprint, minimal aisle space and maintenance
requirement
Define minimal space requirement for the facility based
on the department requirement and common aisle
requirement.

18

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P07 DESIGNING AN OFFICE


E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2

Designing an office
James is the boss of Adilas, a web design company. Apart from web design, his
company also hosts clients website and handles many confidential information.
Recently, Adilas leased a new office space. James was looking at his companys
(Adilas) organization chart and the floor plan of the new leased office. He
recalled complaints by Annie few days ago that her office seat was very
distracting. This is because her desk was near the door where every few minutes
there will be people walking past her. In addition, she mentioned that the office is
not secured without CCTV.
James is also keen to look at open office concept for the new office as he heard
it is commonly practiced in design companies.
Adilass Organization Chart

Director
- James

Web Designers
- May
- John
Office Space

IT
Henry
- Ben
- Jane

HR/ Finance
- Annie

Receptionist
- Kat

15.00
9.60

11.00

2.50

Initial_Office_Layout
.dwg

James will need to submit his office layout plan this week to the estate management
office. Prepare a layout plan for James.

E212 Facilities Planning and Design


P07: Designing an office

Office Facility Planning


Key Consideration of Office Layout Design
Size / Capacity
Adequate work space

Noise / Sound level


Kept to minimum

Proximity to amenities such as lift, door, printer, etc


Productivity
Minimize walking long distances, performing useless work etc

Nature of work activities


Ergonomics
Security / Privacy
Budgets Constraint
Scalability
support business expansion / restructuring

Office Facility Planning


Closed office space
Presence of floor-to-ceiling partition walls (permanent/ temporary) that
segment the office space into smaller rooms
Advantages
Contains noise level well
Conducive for work tasks requiring
concentration/ confidentiality
Assures privacy for staff
Visible status recognition for staff
Disadvantages
Higher maintenance cost due to more built-in structures
and fixtures
Less flexible
3

Office Facility Planning


Open office space
No floor-to-ceiling partition walls exist
Advantages
Promotes staff interaction and communication
Facilitates supervision of staff
Lower maintenance cost

Cooling, ventilation costs are reduced

Less space is required


Layout changes are quicker and less costly
Disadvantages
May present difficulty in controlling noise
Lesser visual and aural privacy
Lacks status recognition for staff
Confidentiality
4

Recent Office Layout Trends


Trends affecting Office Layout

Flexibility and mobility


Easy-to-assemble furniture
Can be configured in a number of ways to fit available space.

Collaborative working environments

70/30 cubicle-to-traditional office ratio

Promote Collaborative space

Hot Desking

Employees do not have their own desks

Sharing of workstation

Office Facility Planning


Steps
Determine office facility objective
Define work activities to be performed
Collect data to establish departmental interrelationships
Generate departmental area requirements
Conduct interviews to verify/ refine office requirements

Office Facility Planning


Typical Area Requirements
Designation

Square feet (ft2)

Square meter (m2)

Director/Presidents Office

250 to 400

23.2 to 47.2

Vice Presidents Office

150 to 250

13.9 to 23.2

Executive Office

100 to 150

9.3 to 13.9

Staff (open space)

80 to 110

7.4 to 10.2

Secretary/Administrator
(open space)

60 to 110

5.6 to 10.2

Conference/Meeting Room 15 to 30 per person

1.4 to 2.8 per person

Reception area

11.6 to 27.9

125 to 300

Office Facility Planning


Example of office space plan (2-D): Open & closed structure

Office Facility Planning


Example
3-D Plan

Office Facility Planning


Security System
Measures should be layered to provide diversity and redundancy
Concentric approach:
a) Outer circle: barriers and intrusion detection systems
b) Inner circle: access control systems
Application and integration of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) into
overall security system

10

Office Facility Planning


Examples of security measures / devices
Outer Circle:

Gates / Doors
Locks
Alarms
Warning signs
Ample lighting
Motion detectors

Inner Circle:

Smart Cards
Biometrics

Integrated:

Closed-Circuit TV
11

Office Facility Planning

Solutions

12

Office Plan (Proposed)


Facility objective: Secured, low capacity office
Planned activities:

Desktop work (can be confidential)


Meeting clients
Document storage (can be confidential)

Office structure:

Closed or Mixed
Fully open structure is not recommended
due to confidential nature of work activities

Amenities:

Meeting Room
Reception

13

Office Plan (Proposed)


Staffing capacity:

Area requirements (suggested):


a) Director (James):
b) 6 Staffs
c) Reception:
d) Meeting Room (Conference):

250 ft2 or 23.2 m2 (1 room)


90* 6 = 540 ft2 or 50.2 m2 (include cabinets)
200 ft2 or 18.6m2 (includes waiting area)
25*8 = 200 ft2 or 18.6m2 (for 8 persons)

14

Office Plan (Proposed)


Security System: Concentric approach with integration
a) Outer circle:
b) Inner circle:
c) Integration:

Doors fitted with lock and alarm


Card Reader
Closed-Circuit TV (round-the-clock)

Proposed office layout can be a modification / adaptation from the


existing plan, incorporating ergonomic considerations, e.g. sound
level, color scheme, privacy, aesthetics, etc.
Data collection is required to determine staff work interrelationships
and verify requirements at this initial layout planning stage.

15

Proposed Layout
2-D Plan

15.00
4.00

2.70

2.75

2.70

2.7000

IT

IT

IT

6.00
Director Office

Web Designer

11.00

HR/Finance

5.00
Reception Area

2.50

3.00

Meeting
Room

16

Learning Objectives
Define the minimal space requirement for an office facility
based on the individual work requirement and departmental
requirement
Draft a office layout plan

17

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P08 AUTOMATION HOUSE


E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2

Automation House
Spark Industry Pte Ltd has recently secured a contract to design and
manufacture automation equipment for their customers. They will need to design,
develop and manufacture a series of automation equipment for their customers
new manufacturing processes which is scheduled to be operational in one years
time. Spark Industry plans to transfer their Research & Development (R&D)
department to a bigger premise of 14.22m x 8.23m in a new building. The R&D
engineers, designers, project manager, procurement and administrative staff
involved in the project would be stationed there. A meeting room for up to 8
people is required for the engineers to hold daily meetings.
You are tasked to develop the layout. You know that every office staff performs a
variety of tasks and it is essential to minimize unnecessary movement flows
when they work. List all your considerations in your layout design.

Initial R&D
Layout.vsd

Staff Information
Name
Belinda
Fatimah

Job title
Procurement Executive
Administrative Executive

Work tasks
Sourcing and Purchasing
Billing/Payment; Administrative matter

Dominic
Samuel
Jasper and
Carol
Mr Tan

R&D Engineer (Mechanical)


R&D Engineer (Electrical)
Integration Engineers

Lewis and
Fiona

Draftsman/Draftswomen

Design and Project Work (hands-on)


Design and Project Work (hands-on)
Assembly Work (hands-on)
Testing and Inspection check
Project management (paperwork);
Approval for payments
Drafting of Drawing and documentation
(paperwork)

R&D Project Manager

E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P8 : Automation House

Systematic Layout Planning : Macro Map


Data Gathered on Work & Information Flows, Volume of work flows,
Sequencing of work, and Critical Timing Issues of work
Work Flows (Work & Information
Flows, Volume of work flows)

Activity Relationships (Sequencing of


work, and Critical Timing Issues of work)

Relationship
Diagram
Space Requirements

Space Available

Space Relationship
Diagram
Modifying Considerations

Practical and Human Limitations


Selected Layout
Adapted from: Muther, Richard. Systematic Layout Planning, second edition

Relationship (REL) Chart


Any effective layout needs to start with an in-depth discussion of
work relationships.
Each of the major office tasks can be listed on the left side of the
relationship chart and related to every other task in the office.
In the relationship chart, these closeness values are placed
based on the following scale:

A = Absolutely Necessary
E = Especially Important
I = Important
O = Ordinary Relationship
U = Unimportant
X = Undesirable

Relationship Chart

Systematic Layout Planning : Macro Map


Data Gathered on Work & Information Flows, Volume of work flows,
Sequencing of work, and Critical Timing Issues of work
Work Flows (Work & Information
Flows, Volume of work flows)

Activity Relationships (Sequencing of


work, and Critical Timing Issues of work)

Relationship
Diagram
Space Requirements

Space Available

Space Relationship
Diagram
Modifying Considerations

Practical and Human Limitations


Selected Layout
Adaptedfrom:
from:Muther,
Muther,Richard.
Richard.Systematic
SystematicLayout
LayoutPlanning,
Planning,second
secondedition
edition
Adapted

Activity Relationship Diagram


Bundle jobs based on the individual who performed the
tasks
E.g. Belinda performs task 1 and 2

Draw Activity Relationship Diagram


Connect the bundles based on the following:
Four lines between activities indicate that it is absolutely
necessary that these activities be close together.
Three lines show an especially important closeness relationship.
Two lines illustrate that it is important that they be in the same
building and floor.
One line shows an ordinary relationship.
In situations where it is undesirable to have activities close
together, we would see a line broken with two hash marks

Initial Relationship Diagram with Bundled


Tasks
Samuel
(Electrical)
7

Dominic (Mechanical)

Belinda
5

6
1

10
3

Jasper/Carol

13

14

12
11

Lewis/Fiona
Mr Tan

Fatimah

Initial Relationship Diagram with Tasks


Samuel
(Electrical)
7

Dominic (Mechanical)
5

Belinda
1

10
3

Jasper/Carol

13

14

12
11

Lewis/Fiona
Mr Tan

Fatimah

Systematic Layout Planning : Macro Map


Data Gathered on Work & Information Flows, Volume of work flows,
Sequencing of work, and Critical Timing Issues of work
Work Flows (Work & Information
Flows, Volume of work flows)

Activity Relationships (Sequencing of


work, and Critical Timing Issues of work)

Relationship
Diagram
Space Requirements

Space Available

Space Relationship
Diagram
Modifying Considerations

Practical and Human Limitations


Selected Layout
Adaptedfrom:
from:Muther,
Muther,Richard.
Richard.Systematic
SystematicLayout
LayoutPlanning,
Planning,second
secondedition
edition
Adapted

Space Requirements for People and Tasks


Space needs for people and task are examined and discussed
during planning
A final output in terms of square feet (or meter) of space desired
for maximum productivity for each person/ task is generated

Physical Space Requirements


Personnel

Area
(Sq meter)

Equipment

Area
(Sq meter)

Administrative :Pay
ment

Drawing Racks

Procurement

Filing Cabinets

R&D engineers (2
person)

2X4=8

Photocopy
Machine

0.5

R&D Project
Manager

Draftsman/
Draftswoman

2X3=6

Room

Area
(Sq meter)

Meeting Room

13.5

Integration
2X4=8
Engineers (2 person)

Systematic Layout Planning : Macro Map


Data Gathered on Work & Information Flows, Volume of work flows,
Sequencing of work, and Critical Timing Issues of work
Work Flows (Work & Information
Flows, Volume of work flows)

Activity Relationships (Sequencing of


work, and Critical Timing Issues of work)

Relationship
Diagram
Space Requirements

Space Available

Space Relationship
Diagram
Modifying Considerations

Practical and Human Limitations


Selected Layout
Adaptedfrom:
from:Muther,
Muther,Richard.
Richard.Systematic
SystematicLayout
LayoutPlanning,
Planning,second
secondedition
edition
Adapted

Draw Space Relationship Diagram


Using a blank diagram of the office building with walls, rest
rooms, and the like indicated, continue the process of moving
toward a more efficient office layout by placing the activity
relationship diagram over the existing office layout blueprint.

Overlay of Space Relationship


Diagram on Office Layout Blueprint

13

4
11

14

12
9

10

Systematic Layout Planning : Macro Map


Data Gathered on Work & Information Flows, Volume of work flows,
Sequencing of work, and Critical Timing Issues of work
Work Flows (Work & Information
Flows, Volume of work flows)

Activity Relationships (Sequencing of


work, and Critical Timing Issues of work)

Relationship
Diagram
Space Requirements

Space Available

Space Relationship
Diagram
Modifying Considerations

Practical and Human Limitations


Selected Layout
Adapted from: Muther, Richard. Systematic Layout Planning, second edition

Detailed Layout
Layout within work station exact list of
equipment required for individuals to be
efficient and effective in their various roles
and responsibilities
E.g. By Job Position, By Job Function

Practical Limitations

Security
Privacy
Confidentiality
Aesthetics
Emergency evacuation
Staff welfare

Final Layout (with Equipment)

Learning Objective
Know the process of layout design using systematic
layout planning
Define the minimal space requirement of a department
based on the number of equipment and personnel
Layout different departments within a facility based on
importance of relationships between departments
Draft a layout plan

20

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P09 SAFETY FIRST


E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2

Safety First
Albert has been recently appointed as a safety consultant for Pretech Pte Ltd, a
precision engineering company. Pretech employs 400 workers per shift for the
manufacturing of precision components, with the expansion plan of adding another 100
workers within the next year.
The existing factory layout is as shown below.
Initial Factory
Layout.dwg

The company has no plans for expansion of floor space however the office and the store
are not fully utilized.
Albert is tasked to assess the adequacy of the companys first aid and welfare provisions
in view of the increase in workers hired. How can Albert ensure that adequate provisions
are provided?

E212 Facilities Planning and Design


P09 Safety First

School of Engineering

Personnel Requirements
Objectives:
Provide an interface between work and private time
Improve safety and health at workplace
Improve personnel productivity by improving personnel
morale

Examples of provisions: first aid, food services, locker


rooms
Extent of provisions depends on government regulations
and managements policy
In Singapore, provisions pertaining to safety and health are
controlled by legislations
Workplace Safety and Health Act
2

Facilities Planning for Personnel


Requirements
Key aspects to consider when doing facilities planning:
Locker rooms proximity to staff entrances, allocation by
gender, ventilation, traffic flow
Restrooms near work area, minimum number required,
privacy, allocation by gender
Food services number of staff, kitchen and dining area
layout, ease of cleaning, aesthetic factors,
location, ventilation
Drinking fountains quantity, location, distribution
Health services first aid room and first aid kits, location,
evacuation routes
Car parks number of staff, space utilization, traffic flow

The Workplace Safety and Health Act


(Singapore)
Came in effect 1st March 2006 as an essential part of the
new framework to cultivate good safety habits in all
individuals so as to engender a strong safety culture in our
workplace.
The Workplace Safety and Health Act (Singapore) can be
found under from the Occupational Safety and Health
Department (OSHD) of the Ministry of Manpower (MOM).
The workplace safety and health (first aid) regulations is
issued by the Occupational Safety and Health Department
(OSHD) under the Ministry of Manpower (MOM).
Website address of MOM: http://www.mom.gov.sg
4

Guidelines To First Aid Provisions


a) Provide first aid boxes, number required according to
number of staff (1 First Aid Box A for 25 employees)
b) Provide a trained first-aider if staff number exceeds 25
c) Provide a first aid room if staff number exceeds 500,
d) Provide flushing point for chemical/toxic substances
According to the WSHA, a first aid room have to be
provided since the number of workers are at 500.
Note: 2 First Aid Box A = 1 First Aid Box B
2 First Aid Box B = 1 First Aid Box C

Guidelines To First Aid Provisions


MOM Workplace Safety and Health Act 2006 (Second Schedule)

Guidelines To Provision Of First


Aid Room
Design to include:

A couch for waiting patients


Moving space for people and equipment
Emergency lighting
Signboard to identify room
First Aid equipment
Total floor space

Location factors:

Near toilets
Near lifts and main passageways
Accessibility to work area
Accessibility to car park

Guidelines To Provision Of First


Aid Room
Items required:

Sink with running potable water


Paper towels
Smooth-topped working surface
Supply of sterile dressings
Stretchers
Splints
Thermometer
Couch with pillow and blanket
Wheelchairs
Personal disinfectants
Garments for first-aider
Refuse bin
Chairs
Any other special requirements
8

P09 Sample Solution

Location Of First Aid Facilities


1) Location for
First Aid Room
(assuming
workforce at 500)

- near toilet
- near entrance
to factory floor
2) Provide
additional four
more First Aid
Kit. Change First
Aid Kit to Type C

10

Layout Of First Aid Room


1) Design factors
- adequate moving space
- quick access for wheelchair,
stretcher and medical supplies
- bedside screen for privacy
- area for medical equipment
2) Required items (not exhaustive)
- phone
- medicine cabinet
- dressing table
- washing sink
- refuse bin
- filing cabinet
- sofa and chairs
- bed for patient
- garments for first-aider
- thermometer
- other medical diagnostic tools
11

Other Welfare Provisions That Could


Be Considered
Convert the empty store into pantry (Break Area)
Provide more lockers for increased number of workers
Provide drinking fountains at closer proximity to workers
but not inside the area (Why?)
Schedule lunch hour to ease possible overcrowding at
canteen due to increased number of workers

12

Lesson Objectives
Plan for safety and welfare provision for workers
Recognize the benefits of maintaining safety and health in workplace
Identify personnel provisions in workplace that can help achieve
safety, health in workplace, as well as improve workers productivity
Know the key areas of personnel provision that are governed by
government guidelines and regulations, and the authorities
controlling them

Know where to find the Workplace Safety and Health Act


and how to interpret them
Evaluate a facility according to its functionality, human
friendliness and accordance to government regulation

13

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P10 HANDLING SYSTEMS


E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2

Handling Systems
Peter works as a warehouse assistant manager for a pharmaceutical company.
Due to expansion, he has been tasked to implement an automated material
handling system, including the safety aspects, at another new distribution
warehouse.
He was provided with the following requirements by his manager:
a. The warehouse should be designed to handle high volume of
pharmaceutical products in small load and unit load such as packed
capsules and drugs with high inventory turnover to maximize the scarce
space of the new warehouse
b. The items should be sorted out properly according to customers during
storage and to be later retrieved easily at the pick deposit station via a
conveyor for packing before pushing them to the unitizing areas.
c. Footprint Area of Warehouse (L x W): 20 m x 20 m
d. Footprint Area of miniload AS/RS (L x W) = 6 m x 2.15 m
e. Footprint Area of Walkie Stacker (L x W) = 2.20 m x 1.18 m
Help Peter plan a layout for an appropriate automated material handling system
for storage and materials handling warehouse facility based on the above
requirements and the below material handling planning chart he has come up
with.

E212-P10-Handling E212-P10-Warehous
Procedures.xls
e.vsd

Justify your layout design.

E212 Facilities Planning and Design


P10: Handling Systems

Material Handling
Is the art and science of moving, storing, protecting
and controlling material.
Means providing the:

Right amount of Material


For the right Condition
In the right Place
In the right Position
With the right Sequence
With the right Cost
Using the right Method
School of Engineering

Materials Handling Principles


Planning Principle

Material handling plan defines the material, the


moves and together they define the method

Standardization
Principle

Less variety and customization in methods and


equipment employed

Work Principle

Ergonomic
Principle
Unit Load
Principle

The measure of work = Material flow (volume,


weight, or count per unit time) x Distance moved
Human capabilities and limitations must be
considered
A unit load is one that can be stored or moved as a single
entity at one time (pallet, container or tote) regardless of
the number of individual items that make up the load
School of Engineering

Materials Handling Principles


Space Utilization
Principle

Space in material handling is three dimensional and


therefore is measured in cubic space

System Principle

A system is a collection of interacting and/or


interdependent entities which form a unified whole

Automation
Principle

Suggests the linking of multiple mechanical


operations to create a system that can be controlled
by programming

Environmental
Principle

Environmental impact and energy consumption must


be addressed

Life Cycle Cost


Principle

Consider all cash flows from first dollar spent on


planning, procurement, installation, training to
implementation until operation
School of Engineering

Material Handling Equipment


Containers

Pallets, Skid & Skid


Boxes, Tote Pans

Unitizers

Stretchwrap, Palletizers

Containers and
Unitizing Equipment

Material
Handling
Equipment

Conveyors, industrial vehicles, Automated


Guided Vehicles(AGVs),
monorails, fork lifts, hoists and cranes

Material Transport
Equipment

Operator-to-Stock
Storage

Storage and
Retrieval Equipment

System

Stock-to-Operator

Pallet / Unit
Retrieval
System

School of Engineering

Pallet / Unit

Quantity

Material Transport Equipment


Conveyors

Automated Guided
Vehicles (AGVs)

Hand Trucks

Power Trucks

Distance
School of Engineering

Material Transport Equipment


- Conveyors
A conveyor is a form of material transport equipment in the same
category as industrial vehicles, hoists and cranes
Conveyors are used when material is to be moved frequently between
specific points over a fixed path
Bases to classify conveyors:
The type of product being handled (bulk or unit) and
the location of the conveyor (overhead or floor)

Such classification systems are not mutually exclusive, that is, the
same conveyor can convey both bulk and unit materials, and can be
located overhead or on the floor
Bulk materials such as grain, dry chemicals, etc. might be conveyed
using flat-belt, chute or vibrating conveyors
Unit materials such as machined parts, materials in carton boxes, etc
might be conveyed using roller, trolley or flat-belt conveyors
Conveyors characterize the product line layout in a continuous
manufacturing environment
School of Engineering

Main Conveyor Types


1. Flat-belt conveyor
A wide belt pulled over a flat framework or rollers by a driving pulley, with the slack taken up
by a driven pulley
The belt can be made from rubber or fabric, or composed of slats or wire mesh, depending
on application requirements
2. Roller conveyor
Commonly used for packaged materials or materials on pallets
The minimum package size is 2 roller width
Gravity rollers (non-powered) can be applied for slight inclines
Conveyor can be powered by running a belt below the rollers
3. Trolley conveyor
Built on I-beam, acting as the track, like a monorail
The lower flange supports wheeled trolleys spaced at regular intervals via a chain
The chain is pulled at constant speed by a drive mechanism located along the conveyor route
Material is moved by placement on hooks, racks, hangers, etc attached to wheeled trolleys
Can act as in-process storage due to conveyor variable height characteristic
The conveyor forms a (variable height) loop within the plant, eventually returning to its
starting point
School of Engineering

Material Transport Equipment


- Main Conveyor Types
Flat-belt
Roller
Trolley

School of Engineering

Storage and Retrieval Equipment


Small Load

Unit Load

Operator-to-Stock
Storage Systems

Stock-to-Operator
Storage Systems

Pallet/Unit Storage
Systems

Pallet/Unit Retrieval
Systems

Bin shelving
systems
Modular storage
drawers/cabinets
Gravity flow rack
Space saving
systems
Mezzanines
Mobile storage
systems

Carousels
1. Horizontal
2. Vertical
Miniload
Automated storage
and retrieval
(AS/RS)

Block stacking
Pallet stacking
frames
Single-deep pallet
rack
Double-deep pallet
rack
Drive-in rack
Drive-thru rack
Flow rack
Push-back rack
Mobile pallet rack
Cantilever rack

Walkie stackers
Counterbalanced
lift trucks
Straddle trucks
Straddle reach
trucks
Sideloader trucks
Turret trucks
Hybrid trucks
Automated storage
and retrieval (AS/RS)
machines

School of Engineering

10

Operator-to-Stock Storage System


- Example: Space Saving System (Mezzanine)

School of Engineering

Operator-to-Stock Storage System


- Example: Space Saving System (Mezzanine)
Nearly twice as much material
can be stored in the original
square footage
Cost: $10-$20 / ft2
Key implementation issue: Slot
the products so that most of the
picking activity takes place at the
floor level

School of Engineering

Stock-to-Operator Storage System


- Example: Automated Storage/Retrieval System
Computer algorithms in the AS/RS control computer determine
storage locations such that total distance traveled is minimized.
When storing materials/parts, the system delivers the items to an
open random location appropriate for the characteristics (i.e.
size, weight, etc.) of the items and records the location for future
reference so that the items may be retrieved.
The items retrieved are accumulated at a staging area, where
they are transferred to various materials handling devices for
delivery to other work areas.
Use AS/RS to
Increase storage capacity
Improve productivity
Improve safety
Improve security
Better inventory control
Increase throughput
School of Engineering

13

Stock-to-Operator Storage System


- Example: Automated Storage/Retrieval System

Miniload AS/RS

Front
View of
AS/RS

Side View of AS/RS

Miniload AS/RS
School of Engineering

14

Stock-to-Operator Storage System


- Example: Automated Storage/Retrieval System
(Miniload)
Pick Rate: 40-200 picks/person hr
Vary in length from 40 to 200 feet and height from
8 feet to 50 feet
Storage containers are transported to and from an
order picking station
Cost: $150,000-$300,000 /aisle
S/R machine: 500 feet/minute horizontal speed
and 120 feet/minute vertically

School of Engineering

15

Pallet Storage System


- Example: Flow Rack

School of Engineering

Pallet Storage System


- Example: Flow Rack
Based on a First-In-First-Out
(FIFO) concept
As the load is removed from the
front of a storage lane, the next
load advances to the pick face.
High-throughput unit storage and
retrieval and good space
utilization
Used for items with high
inventory turnover and with
several units on hand
School of Engineering

Pallet Retrieval System


- Example: Walkie Stacker
Operator steers from a walking
position behind the vehicle
Can stack loads 3 loads high
Offers both pallet retrieval/putaway
and truck loading/unloading
Advantage: Low cost
Disadvantage: Short distances
Used when low throughput, short
travel distances and low vertical
storage height and low cost
requirements
School of Engineering

Suggested Solution
P10: Handling Systems

19

Todays Problem (Handling Method)


1. Peter had applied the Planning Principle when selecting a material
handling method.
2. He planned in a conveyor as the material transport equipment for
small load product.
- The conveyor (floor) can be designed with an angle of elevation
by increasing the friction factor.
3. He had also planned in the following storage and retrieval systems:
Small Load

Unit Load

Operator-to-Stock
Storage System

Stock-toOperator Storage
System

Pallet/Unit
Storage System

Pallet/Unit
Retrieval System

Shelf/ Rack

Miniload
Automated
storage and
retrieval (AS/RS)

Flow rack (FIFO


concept)

Walkie stacker

School of Engineering

20

Proposed Layout
Storage
Area
AS/RS

AS/RS

AS/RS
Manual
Pallet Jack

Pallet

Operator A
Operator
B

Packing
Area

Conveyor
Operator
D

Operator
C

Flow Rack

Operator F

Walkie Stacker
Operator
E

Shelf / rack

Fire extinguisher,
First aid box,
Safety boots &
helmets

Unitization

Operator G

Shipping
Area

21

Learning Objective
Know the objectives of selecting material
handling equipment
Know the different types of material handling
equipment and evaluate their suitability for
the function required
Incorporate the considerations on material
handling equipment for layout planning

22

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P11 OPTIMIZING SPACE


E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2010 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2

Optimizing Space

Bookworld Pte Ltd is a book distributor that distributes different types of books for
local publishing houses in Singapore. Recently they secured business deals with
overseas publishers to distribute their books in the country.
Bookworld Pte Ltd has a small warehouse in an industrial estate which has just
enough storage capacity to support its existing customers. Currently, the space
standard for determining the effective use of space in the warehouse exceeds
300 cubic feet per unit load.
Bookworlds management has decided not to expand the existing warehouse
floor space. The Operations Manager is tasked to increase the existing
warehouse storage by achieving a space standard of 300 cubic feet per unit load.
The warehouse presently employs 1-ton forklifts for material handling.
Below is the existing layout:

Warehouse Layout
A.dwg

Rack type:
Rack size:
Max stack height:
Unit load dimensions:
Storage quantity (Max):

Pallet Rack
12 feet (length) by 4 feet (width)
17 feet
4 feet (width) by 4 feet (depth) by 3.3 feet
(height)
5 unit loads per stack

Help the Operations Manager to propose an alternative material handling


equipment and re-layout the warehouse accordingly. Calculate the additional
storage capacity from your warehouse re-layout.

E212Facilities Planning and Design


P11 : Optimizing Space

Warehousing Storage
Storage and warehousing resources are space,
equipment and personnel.
In designing storage and warehousing systems, it is
desirable to maximize:

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Space utilization
Equipment utilization
Labor utilization
Material accessibility
Material protection

Warehousing Storage
Example of a Storage Analysis Chart used in calculating space requirements

Warehousing Storage
There are 2 major material storage philosophies:
1.

Fixed (assigned) location storage


- each individual stock-keeping unit (SKU) is stored in a specific
location
- no other SKU may be stored there, even though the location
may be empty

2.

Random (floating) location storage


- any SKU may be assigned to any available storage location
- a SKU stored in location 1 might be stored in location 2 the
following month and a different SKU stored in location 1

The amount of space planned for a SKU is directly related to


the method of assigning space.

Warehousing Storage
A space standard is the volume requirement per unit load stored
to include allocated space for aisles and non-usable space.
Total warehouse volume = Storage space + Aisleway space +
Non-usable space
Space standard = Total warehouse volume /Total unit load quantity

Aisle Space Requirement


Dependent on the type of material handling equipment
Recommended aisle width for various types of flow
Type of Flow
Tractors
3-ton Forklift
2-ton Forklift
1-ton Forklift
Narrow aisle truck
Manual platform truck
Personnel
Personnel with doors opening in the aisle
from one side
Personnel with doors opening in the aisle
from two sides

Aisle Width (feet)


12
11
10
9
6
5
3
6
8

Aisle Types (Lift Truck Classification)


Wide Aisle and Narrow Aisle trucks are designed to turn in the aisle
while Very Narrow Aisle trucks do not turn within the aisle
Wide Aisle
Standard forklifts fall into this category of trucks designed to work
in aisles greater than 11' wide.
Narrow Aisle (NA)
Narrow aisle trucks operate in aisles of 8' to 10' and are
generally stand up vehicles such as Reach Trucks.
Very Narrow Aisle (VNA)
Very narrow aisle trucks operate in aisles less than 6' and often
use guidance systems (wire, rail, or optical) to travel within the
aisles

Other Considerations (Material Handling


Selection)

Indoor vs Outdoor use


Lift Capacity and Lift Height
Manual vs Automated
System requirement e.g. guidance system
Cost

P09 Sample Solution

Present Warehouse Layout


The existing aisles
(9 feet) which is the
recommended aisle
width for 1-ton
Forklifts.
There is only 1 type
and size of storage
rack used.

Present Warehouse Layout


Storage quantity per 17 stack height = 5 unit loads
Number of stacks per 12 rack = (12 / 4) 1 = 2
Total number of racks = 24
Maximum number of unit loads that can be stored in warehouse
= 5 unit load/stack x 2 stack/rack x 24 racks
= 240 unit loads
Assumptions:
1.The office, toilet, receiving pallets area, outgoing pallet areas are
non-usable space
2.Forklift can be parked at any aisle in the warehouse.
3.Storage assignment is not location-specific
4.Total horizontal clearance allowance between stacks is 2 feet for
whole length of rack (12 feet)

Present Warehouse Layout


Total storage space (based on 17 feet stack height)
= Individual rack volume x Number of racks
= 12 x 4 x 17 x 24
= 19584 cubic ft
Total warehouse space (based on 17 feet stack height)
= Length x Breadth x Height
= 90 x 51 x 17
= 78030 cubic ft
Total space due to aisles = Warehouse space Storage volume
Non-usable space
= 78030 19584 (6 3x 5 6 + 20 x 8 2 + 2 x 10 7 x 11 11) x 17
= 78030 19584 (39.149 + 178.2101 + 2 x 127.76) X 17
= 78030 19584 8038.94
= 50407.06 cubic ft

Present Warehouse Layout


Space Standard = Total warehouse volume /Total unit load quantity
= 78030 / 240
= 325.16 cubic ft / unit load
The present space standard does not meet the corporate
requirements of < 300 cubic ft / unit load

Percentage loss in space utilization due to aisles


= [Total space due to aisles / Total warehouse space] x 100%
= [50407.06 / 78030] x 100%
= 64.6%

Proposed Warehouse Layout


Replace the 1-ton
forklift with narrow
aisle truck

The aisle width


between racks will be
based on the
recommended value
of 6
Main aisle width is
14.

10 additional racks
can be added.

Proposed Warehouse Layout


Storage quantity per 17 stack = 5 unit loads
Number of stacks per 12 rack = (12 / 4) - 1 = 2
Total number of racks = 34

Maximum number of unit loads that can be stored in warehouse


= 5 unit load/stack x 2 stack/rack x 34 racks
= 340 unit loads
Assumptions:
1.The office, toilet, receiving pallets area, outgoing pallet areas are
non-usable space
2.The narrow aisle truck is within the specifications
3. Storage assignment is not location-specific
4. Total horizontal clearance allowance between stacks is 2 feet for
whole length of rack (12 feet)

Proposed Warehouse Layout


Total storage space (based on 17 stack height)
= Individual rack volume x Number of racks
= 12 x 4 x 17 x 34
= 27744 cubic ft
Total warehouse space (based on 17 stack height)
= Length x Breadth x Height
= 90 x 51 x 17
= 78030 cubic ft
Total space due to aisles = Warehouse space Storage volume
Non-usable space
= 78030 27744 8038.94
= 42247.06 cubic ft

Proposed Warehouse Layout


Space Standard = Total warehouse volume /Total unit load quantity
= 78030 / 340
= 229.5 cubic ft / unit load
The space standard from the proposed layout will meet the
corporate requirements of < 300 cubic ft / unit load
Percentage loss in space utilization due to aisles
= [Total space due to aisles / Total warehouse space] x 100%
= [42247.06 / 78030] x 100%
= 54.14% (reduction of 10.46%)

Proposed Warehouse Layout


Layout factors that support fulfilling of space standard:
1.
2.

3.

Increasing the number of storage racks within the same


space, leading to higher capacity
Use of narrow-aisle truck in place of forklift, resulting in lower
loss in space utilization
Minimal or no wasted spaces

Note that these factors are inter-related.

Lesson Objectives
Determine the storage area profiling based on storage
capacity required and types of unit load
Achieve additional warehouse storage capacity through
facilities re-layout.

19

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P12 DOCKING ARRANGEMENT


E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2010 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 3

Docking Arrangement
Autosmax Pte Ltd is a Distribution Centre (DC) for automotive engineering
products. Due to business expansion, there has been an increase in the volume
of shipment in recent months. The existing receiving and shipping department is
facing difficulty in managing the incoming and outgoing goods of the Distribution
Centre. Recently, there have been incidents where goods are mixed up and
wrong parts are shipped to the customers. Below is the layout of the storage and
warehouse department in the Distribution Centre.

Security Office

OFFICE
81'-6 9/16"

12'-0"

10'-9"

46'-0"

Incoming and
shipment

STORES AREA

Storage Container

Storage Container
Staging Area
Control Station
WAREHOUSE
Storage Container

Storage Container
WAREHOUSE

Existing FacilityA.vsd

There is a central docking bay in the company that supports up to two 40 ft trucks
at any point of time. Currently, all the incoming and outgoing shipment will need
to go through this central docking bay.
At the present moment, your distribution centre is able to handle 10 container
trucks with arrival time following a Poisson distribution which arrived in a Poisson
fashion. The distribution centre operates on an 8 hours day. The loading and
unloading time for each truck is exponentially distributed with a mean of 30
minutes. The chance of a truck having to wait for it turns to berth is less than 5%.

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING
Your company management wants to re-layout the existing receiving and
shipping areas to triple the handling capacity of trucks while maintaining the
service level.
The storage containers as well as the car park lots can be reduced to cater for
additional space. However, for security reasons, transportation access located on
one side of the facility will remain unchanged.
You are tasked to a work team for this re-layout project. A meeting with
management has been scheduled in a weeks time, to look into dock location and
the type of dock configurations to use.
Prepare the discussion materials for this meeting.

Page 3 of 3

E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P12 : Docking Arrangement

Warehouse Functions

Space Requirement for Receiving


and Shipping
To find out total space requirement for warehouse receiving and
shipping areas:
1)
What is to be received and shipped
- Can use an analysis chart comprising:
a) Unit Loads: Type, Capacity, Size, Weight
b) Shipment: Size, Frequency
c) Transportation: Mode, Specifications
d) Material Handling: Method, Time
2)
Number and type of docks
- Number of docks: Waiting line analysis, Simulation
- Type of docks: Flow of carriers, Maneuvering space available
3)
Internal shipping and receiving areas
- For office, receiving hold, disposal, pallets, equipment, staging, etc

Analysis Chart
Example of an Analysis Chart

Receiving and Shipping Docks


Central Dock (single dock for both receiving and shipping)
-

Common equipment and personnel


Better space utilization
Higher incidence of space congestion
Greater risk of material loss
Error in material flow direction, e.g. shipping out a newly-received part by
mistake

Point-of-use Dock (multiple docks for receiving or shipping)


-

Dedicated function, e.g. receiving frequent deliveries from light-duty


carriers or shipping specific category of goods
Often used to support Just-in-Time (JIT) manufacturing set-ups
Usually requires more space than central docking

Warehouse Dock Configurations


Docks are among the first requirements at a site and are vital for
smooth operations. Dock width that is commonly adopted is 12
feet.
For highly busy docks, width of 14 feet is employed.
90o Dock

Requires greater apron depth but less bay width


Larger outside turning area for carriers
Commonly used when outside space is sufficient

Warehouse Dock Configurations


Finger Dock

Requires lesser apron depth but more bay width


Bigger inside maneuvering area for carriers
Used when there is insufficient apron depth to support 90o dock
The largest finger dock angle possible should be selected

Warehouse Dock Configurations


Space Requirements for
90o Dock (12 feet width)

Space Requirements for Finger Dock


(12 feet width, 40 feet carrier)

For finger dock, if tractors will be disconnected when the container is parked,
decrease the required apron space shown in the table by 7.3, 6.7, 5.6 and 4.2
meters for 15, 30, 45 and 60 degrees respectively.

Present Warehouse Layout


The Distribution Centre is a small-sized warehouse with storage
area taking up close to half the total land area. There is a small
back-end office at the back of the facility.
Transportation access is located on one side of the warehouse,
where receiving and shipping activities take place.

The Distribution Centre use a Centre Dock for both it incoming


goods and outgoing shipment. This lead to incident of mixed
shipment to customer. There are also congestion in the shipping and
receiving area.

Warehouse Dock Location


Constraint:
One-side access
R: Receiving
S: Shipping

Dock location
Space between
R and S

Point-of-use
Not Used

Point-of-use

Centralized

Not used

Used

Calculation on the Total Number of


Docks
Given 8 hr day = 480 min and 30 trucks per day
For 30 minutes of loading and unloading time,
No of Trucks in the Distribution centre at any given time = 30/480 *30 = 1.875
Let x be the total number of Docks,
Probability of waiting for a truck = 1 P(x)
= 1 POISSON(x,1.875,TRUE)
Trucks per 8
hour day

Mean Number of
Trucks per Calls per
30mins interval

Total
Number of
Docks

Probability of
waiting

30

1.875

0.2895

30

1.875

0.1211

30

1.875

0.0421

With four docks, the probability of a container truck having to wait its turn at the
Distribution centre is 4.21%.
(11)

Warehouse Dock Layout


Dock need to be change to point-of-use, to avoid mixing of goods for
shipment. The present area should be able to support a maximum of
4 point-of-use docks (2 receiving, 2 shipping) with sufficient internal
maneuvering space for trucks.
Looking at the existing warehouse diagram, the present receiving
and
shipping area does not have sufficient apron depth to support
o
90 dock configuration
if there are need for increasing docking
o
activities. 45 docking configuration is used.
Finger dock, using the 45o angle will be more appropriate. Dock
width of 12 feet should suffice as dock activity is unlikely to be
highly busy. An important assumption will be that external
maneuvering space for trucks (just outside the facility perimeter) is
available, e.g. using part of access road.
Warehouse space expansion planning should not interfere with dock
operations. The direction of space expansion should not cross with
dock operations flow.

Proposed Warehouse Layout


Taking into the consideration of the space requirement of the 45o
dock for 40 feet truck, four trucks can be docked (Point of use)
Existing warehouse layout need only be altered slightly for the
above configuration, from centralized dock to point of use docks.

Lesson Objectives
Identify different types of dock layout
Identify the physical constraints posed by a particular
building design/ layout

Identify the process flow from/to the receiving and shipping


activity
Determine suitable dock configuration based on operations
requirement(s)

14

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P13 MAINTAINING SOUND QUALITY


E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2010 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2

Maintaining Sound Quality

You are the newly appointed Facilities Maintenance Manager for a theatre in the
city centre. Your duties include identifying and establishing strategies for
equipment replacement, outsourcing of services and budgeting.
One of the main equipment in the theatre is its Audio and Visual (AV) system.
The current AV system is reaching the end of it 10 years service life. There have
been several incidents of the AV system breakdown in the past year and the AV
vendor has to be activated for urgent repair as in-house technicians are unable to
resolve. The servicing and maintenance cost over the past year obtained from
records is $25,000 while running costs every year is $10,000.
You have been quoted $200,000 by the vendor for a replacement AV system of
equal capability. The estimated servicing and maintenance costs for the
replacement AV system will be at $10,000 per annum. The new AV system is
expected to incur 15% less running cost per year. You have also managed to
find a bank loan for the capital cost at 6% per annum over 5 years period for the
new AV system.
Alternatively, the AV vendor has proposed to lease an AV system to the theatre
at $50,000 per annum. The vendor will take care of all breakdown repairs and
maintenance cost.
What will be the most viable option for the theatres AV system based on
maintenance strategies? Justify your selection.

E212 Facilities Planning and Design


P13: Maintaining Sound Quality

Facilities Maintenance
- Refers to all the work activities that need to be carried out to keep a
facilitys systems functioning well
- Objective is to ensure system capability at minimal cost
- Examples of maintenance works:
a) in-house maintenance
b) service contract
c) centralized or de-centralized management
d) scheduling of equipment service or inspection
e) preventive maintenance
f) individual or group replacement
2

Facilities Maintenance
- Key terms used in facilities maintenance:
a) Reliability (R)
- probability that an item will function for a given time
b) Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)
- average time between failures of a repairable item
c) Failure Rate (FR)
- reciprocal of MTBF
- Some tactics for good facilities maintenance:
a) constantly improve repair capabilities
b) implement preventive maintenance where feasible
c) improve equipment reliability
d) always cater redundancy for critical equipment

Facilities Maintenance
Breakdown Maintenance
- Remedial, responsive
- Non-routine servicing
- Trigger: equipment failure

versus

Preventive Maintenance
- Pre-emptive, averts failure
- Regular inspection and servicing
- Basis: schedule, control charts

Reliability R for system with n series components:


R(system) = R(1) x R(2) x R(3) . . x R(n)
Reliability R for system with n parallel components:
1/R(system) = 1/R(1) x 1/R(2) x 1/R(3) . . x 1/R(n)

P13 Proposed Solution

Proposed Solution
Assumption for this calculation
Maintenance Cost, Service Cost and Running Cost remain constant
Tax Benefits and Depreciation is not taken into accord for this
calculation.

Proposed Solution
Capital Cost per annum over 5 year for new AV system
Given that the new AV system costs $200,000 at 6% interest.
The cost per annum over a period of 5 year will be
Method 1: Use relation A=P(i(1+i)n/[(1+i)n -1])
A = $200,000((0.06) *(1+0.06)5/[(1+0.06)5 -1]) = $47,479
Method 2: Use table
A = P[A/P , 6%, 5]=$200,000(0.2374) = $47,480
Method 3: Excel Financial Function
A = PMT (6/100, 5, 200000, 0, 0) = ~$47,479
7

Proposed Solution
Cost Analysis
Calculate cost per annum for each option.
Lease AV
System ($)

New AV
System ($)

Variance ($)

Capital cost at 6%
over 5 years p.a.

Nil

47,479

47,479

Servicing and
Maintenance

Nil

10,000

10,000

Running Costs

10,000

8,500

-1,500

Leasing
Agreement with
AV vendor

50,000

-50,000

Total Costs

60,000

65,979

5,979

Proposed Solution
Conclusion

Base on cost analysis, it is cheaper to lease the AV system from the


vendor.
A new AV system will improve the efficiency of the sound quality.

Base on the facility objective, there should be minimum breakdown


as it will cause disruption to performance in the theatre.
Despite the higher annual cost, a new AV system will be the best
option based on the facility objective.

Life Cycle Costing


Life Cycle costing is all about preplanning to anticipate replacement,
applying it at the point that is most beneficial to the organization and
ensuring that there are no consequential risk.
As the facilities manager you will not get this correct all the time, but
with experience of your building activities, plus an increase base point
where it can be contained within a small contingency budget of, say
five to ten per cent.

Active budget monitoring through expenditure variance reports,


presented at least quarterly but preferably monthly, will allow you to
seek additional funding before an overspend occurs.

10

Life Cycle Costing

11

Lesson Objectives
Know the importance of break down maintenance and preventive
maintenance in facility planning
Selecting suitable Maintenance Approach
Calculate the facility maintenance cost and select an appropriate
maintenance plan based on facility objective(s)

12

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P14 Car Park


E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2010 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2

Car Park
Geo medical, a pharmaceutical company based in Australia has decided to build a
flatted factory in Singapore to support their Asian market. The factory building occupied
350m x 50m. A team from the company is tasked to work on this new project.
Kenneth being part of the team was tasked to design the car park 50m x 35m layout for
the new factory. However he is not familiar with the Singapore car park guidelines and
the only information he knows was the factory was conveniently accessible by public
transport.
What advice and car park layout would you recommend him based on the given layout
plan.

Initial_Drawing.vsd

E212 Facilities Planning and Design


P14: Car Park

Vehicle Parking Design


Procedures:
1) Determine the number of vehicles to be parked
2) Determine the space requirement for each vehicle
3) Determine the available space
4) Determine alternative parking layouts for different
parking configurations
5) Modifying alternatives based on any other
requirements
6) Select the most suitable layout

School of Engineering

Vehicle Parking Design in Singapore


The Land Transport Authority (LTA) provides the rules
and guidelines on the requirements for provision of
parking places and spaces
The Parking Places (Provision of Parking Places and
Parking Spaces) Rules stipulate the minimum number
of parking spaces to be provided for the various land
and building uses, the minimum dimensions of such
parking spaces, circulation aisle, access ramps and
other details on the arrangement of the parking place
and spaces. (From Handbook on vehicle parking provision
development proposals, LTA)
School of Engineering

Car Park Design considerations


Parking Provision Standards

Factory
(a) Factory includes office, up to
25% of total floor area, canteen
and ancillary storage
(i) Flatted Type

1 car space per 350 sq.m


1 lorry/loading & unloading space per
3,000 sq.m.

- Local zoning regulations


- Handicapped Parking

Parking Stall Dimensions


Standard Car

The minimum dimensions required of


a car parking stall are as
follows:
Stall width: 2400
Stall length: 4800
Stall length for parallel parking: 5400

All dimensions in mm

School of Engineering

Parking Stall Dimensions


Handicapped Parking Lot
Dimensions of 4800 mm by 3600 mm;
A firm, level surface without aeration
slabs; and
Wherever possible, be sheltered

Where vehicle parks are required to be


provided, the number of accessible
parking lots for vehicles driven by persons
with disabilities
All dimensions in mm

Parking Stall Dimensions


Motor-cycle Parking Lot

Minimum dimensions of motor-cycle parking stall: 800 x 2400


Preferred dimensions of motor-cycle parking stall: 1000 x 2500
Motor-cycle parking stalls can be provided at corners or any
available space within the parking place. They should not obstruct
movement of other vehicles and pedestrians.

All dimensions in mm

Parking Aisle
A parking aisle refers to an access lane or driveway with
adjacent parking stalls.
Parking angle is the angle measured between the longer
side of the parking stall and the line of traffic flow of the
aisle.
Traffic Flow refers to the direction of vehicle movement.
Parking Angle
Traffic Flow

Parking Aisle

School of Engineering

Parking Configurations

90o Parking

Angled Parking

School of Engineering

Parallel Parking

Typical Parking Aisle Dimensions

All dimensions in mm

10

Typical Parking Aisle Dimensions

30 0 -Angled Parking Aisle

90 0 -Angled Parking Aisle

All dimensions in mm

11

Other Considerations
Increasing the area provided for parking decreases
the amount of time required to park
Angular configurations allow quicker turnover
Perpendicular parking often yields greater space
utilization, although it also requires wider aisles
As the angle of a parking space increases, so does
the required space allocated to aisles

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Proposed Solution
Based on parking provision standards,
Minimum car lots = (350 x 50)/350
= 50
Minimum Handicapped stalls
=2
Recommended
Parking stalls allocation is as follows:
Motorcycles stalls 26
Standard car stalls 60
Handicapped stalls 2
Reserved stalls 2

The parking stall dimensions should adhere to a standard


car size
13

Proposed
Solution

14

Learning Objectives
- Know the dimensions requirements for different
vehicles in a parking facility

- Layout a parking facility based according to


government regulations and guidelines

15

SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P15 REVIEIWING THE FACILITY


PLAN
E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2010 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2

Reviewing the Facility Plan

The new Asia-Pacific Youth Games will be held in two years time and your
Polytechnic has been selected as one of the venues for the sports event.
You are tasked to review the existing facility plan of the Sport Complex in your
Polytechnic with regards to its location, layout type, sport facilities and
maintenance.
How will you present your evaluation report? What other considerations do you
need to look into?
How could the existing facility layout be improved to cater for the upcoming
games?

sports_complex_map
.pdf

E212 Facilities Planning and Design


P15 Reviewing the Facility Plan

School of Engineering

Recall: Facilities Planning Hierarchy


Facilities planning covers both facilities location and facilities
design.
Facilities
Location

Facility
System
Design

Facilities
Planning

Facilities
Design

Layout
Design

Handling
Systems
Design

School of Engineering

Recall: Factors Affecting Location Selection


Regional factors
Market location
Raw material and supplier proximity

Transportation facilities
Labour climate
Quality of life
Government

School of Engineering

Recall: Facilities Design


Facilities design consists of the facility systems, layout and
handling system:
o Facility systems structural, atmospheric, enclosure,
lighting, electrical, communications, safety and sanitation
systems
o Layout equipment, machinery, furnishings and fittings
within the facility envelope
o Handling system the mechanisms needed to satisfy the
required movements within the facility

School of Engineering

Recall: Facilities Planning for Personnel


Requirements
Key aspects to consider when doing facilities planning:
Locker rooms proximity to staff entrances, allocation by
gender, ventilation, traffic flow
Restrooms near work area, minimum number required,
privacy, allocation by gender
Food services number of staff, kitchen and dining area
layout, ease of cleaning, aesthetic factors,
location, ventilation
Drinking fountains quantity, location, distribution
Health services first aid room and first aid kits, location,
evacuation routes
Car parks number of staff, space utilization, traffic flow

School of Engineering

Recall: Layout Types


Basic layout types:

1. Fixed-position
2. Product
3. Process
4. Cellular
5. Mixed

Types of flow: Materials, People, Equipment, Documents


Flow can be within workstation, within a department (intra-cell) or
between departments (inter-cell)
Equipment requirements planning is important for layout planning.

School of Engineering

Recall: REL Chart and CORELAP


A relationship (REL) chart shows the relationship
between all the department
The manual CORELAP algorithm is an initial process
layout method which makes use of the REL chart.
CORELAP algorithm attempts to maximize the Weight
Placement (WP) values between the departments.

Example of REL Chart

Recall: Space Requirement


Determining the amount of space required in a facility
is perhaps the most difficult determination in facilities
planning
Determine the space requirement based on
workstation specifications for equipment, materials,
and personnel and departmental specifications.
Aisles has to be taken into account when doing space
planning. Typical aisle space for personnel: 3 feet

School of Engineering

Facility Systems
1) Structural System: Refers to the steel skeleton frame or reinforced concrete
skeleton frame used in most industrial facilities
2) Enclosure System: Refers to the floor, walls and room within a facility
3) Atmospheric System: Refers to systems for heating, ventilation and airconditioning that control the temperature, humidity and cleanliness of a facility
4) Electrical and Lighting System: Refers to electrical mains, switchgear,
transformers, feeders, panel boards and circuits
5) Life Safety System : Refers to systems that are designed to control
emergency situations created by fire, seismic events and power failure
6) Sanitation System : Refers to refuse handling system and plumbing
system

School of Engineering

Recall: Office Facility Planning


Examples of security measures / devices
Outer Circle:

Gates / Doors
Locks
Alarms
Warning signs
Ample lighting
Motion detectors

Inner Circle:

Smart Cards
Biometrics

Integrated:

Closed-Circuit TV

School of Engineering

10
10

Recall: Facilities Maintenance


- Refers to all the work activities that need to be carried out to keep a
facilitys systems functioning well
- Objective is to ensure system capability at minimal cost
- Examples of maintenance works:
a) in-house maintenance
b) service contract
c) centralized or de-centralized management
d) scheduling of equipment service or inspection
e) preventive maintenance
f) individual or group replacement

School of Engineering

11
11

Recall: Materials Handling Equipment


Types of Material Handling Equipment
Industrial Trucks
Automated Guided Vehicles
Monorail
Conveyors
Cranes & Hoists
Fork Lifts
Automated Storage/Retrieval Systems (AS/RS)
Hand Trucks

Material Handling Principles


1) Planning Principle
2) Standardization Principle
3)Work Principle
4) Ergonomic Principle
5) Unit Load Principle

6)Space Utilization Principle


7) System Principle
8) Automation Principle
9) Environmental Principle
10)Life Cycle Cost Principle

School of Engineering

12

Recall: Vehicle Parking Design


Procedures:
1) Determine the number of vehicles to be parked
2) Determine the space requirement for each vehicle
3) Determine the available space
4) Determine alternative parking layouts for different
parking configurations
5) Modifying alternatives based on any other
requirements
6) Select the most suitable layout

School of Engineering

13

Some Guidelines and Regulations for


Facility Plan
1) Workplace Health and Safety Act

2) Environmental Pollution Control Act


3) Singapore Fire Safety Act
4) Provision of Parking Places and Parking
Spaces Rules

School of Engineering

14
14

Example of an Evaluation Report

Extracted from Facilities Evaluation Handbook 2nd Edition


K.L Petrocelly and Albert Thumman,
The Fairmont Press, Inc
School of Engineering

15

Problem Statement: Evaluating the


Existing Facility Plan
When evaluating a facility layout plan, there are some
questions you may want to consider:
1) What is the facility objective(s)?
2) Is the facility suitably located?
3) What is the layout type used?
4) Is the layout type suitable?
5) What are the material handling equipment used?
6) How does the traffic flows within the facility?
7) Does the layout suits the facility objective(s)?
8) Are the sport amenities placed appropriately?
9) Are there sufficient facility system (Example: life safety equipment)
and are they suitably located?
10)Does the facility adhere to various guidelines and requirements?
(Example: aisle space, amenities space and etc.)
11) How will the facility systems be maintained?
12) How could the facility layout and plan be improved?
School of Engineering

16

Facility Plan of the Sport Complex


Strengths:
- There is a large variety of sport amenities in the sport complex.

Weakness:
- Small Parking lots for coach buses and cars.
- Not able to support Track and Field events due to lack of tracks.
- Need to relook into the flow of human traffic during big events.

Potential Area for Improvement:


- Car Park Lot Expansion
- Improve Track and Field facility to met International Standard

Other Area for consideration:


- Accessibility for the handicapped
- Human Traffic Flow during large sporting events
School of Engineering

17

Lesson Objectives
Identify the strengths and weakness of an existing layout
Prepare an evaluation report for an existing layout plan

18