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CONCEPT MAP: LYME DISEASE

PRECIPITATING FACTORS
Environment
Outdoor exposure
Climate

PREDISPOSING FACTORS
Age
Sex
Race
Geography

Infected Ixodes tick bites human

Spirochete (B. burgdorferi) injected


into the skin

Spirochete enters the human body

Spirochete comes in contact with


dendritic cell

Spirochete rubs its antigens onto


dendritic cell

Dendritic cell processes the antigen

Antibiotics
LYME DISEASE
(EARLY LOCALIZED STAGE)

Helper T-cells pick up processed


antigens

1. ELISA Test
2. Western Blot Test
Spirochete spreads into the
bloodstream

Helper T-cells pass the antigens to


killer T-cells

Erythema migrans
Flu-like symptoms
Headache
Fatigue
Fever
Chills
Sore throat
Muscle aches

1. Acute Pain r/t systemic


effect of toxins, presence
of rash, and inflammation
2. Fatigue r/t altered body
chemistry and states of
discomfort
3. Risk for injury r/t flu-like
symptoms
4. Risk for disturbed body
image r/t biophysical
factors (rashes)

EARLY DISSEMINATION STAGE

Spirochete burrows and spreads


into body tissues and organs

Killer T-cells come in contact with


(spirochete) antigens on healthy
tissues

Spirochete damages inflammatory


response

Molecular mimicry

Killer T-cells hunt down spirochete

Inflammation and destruction of


healthy tissues and organs

HEART
Chest pain
Palpitations
Dyspnea
Syncope
Rapid/slow heart rate
Carditis
Atrioventricular(AV)
block

BRAIN
Hearing loss
Facial paralysis
Neck stiffness
Problems with short-term
memory
Nerve pain
Numbness and tingling in
hands and feet
Meningitis

Additional
erythema
migrans on
different parts
of the body

LATE DISSEMINATION STAGE

JOINTS
Hot, swollen, painful joints
Arthritis
(develops
in
about 60% of patients)

OTHERS
Insomnia
Depression
Dementia

Risk for decreased cardiac


output r/t alteration in
cardiac rate, rhythm, or
conduction

1. Acute/Chronic pain r/t


effects of toxin
2. Fatigue r/t increased
energy requirements,
altered body chemistry,
and states of discomfort
3. Impaired memory r/t
neurological disturbances
4. Risk for injury r/t altered
mobility, sensory
dysfunction, and
autoimmune dysfunction

1. Acute/Chronic
pain r/t
inflammation
2. Risk for
disturbed body
image r/t
biophysical
factors
(rashes)

1. Chronic pain r/t joint


swelling/inflammation
2. Insomnia related to pain,
fear, and anxiety
3. Risk for injury r/t altered
mobility
4. Risk for disturbed body
image r/t biophysical
factors (swollen joints)

LEGENDS

Predisposing Factors
Precipitating Factors
Disease Process
Stages of Lyme disease
Diagnostic Tests
Signs and Symptoms
Medical Treatment
Nursing Diagnoses
Disease Process
This leads to (signs and symptoms, diagnostic tests, medical treatment, nursing diagnoses)