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NVAREA LA VRSTA COLAR MIC

Oplean Ramona Viorela Andreea


Facultii de Psihologie i tiinele Educaiei, Domeniul tiine ale Educaiei Email: secretariat@fpse.unibuc.ro
Telephone: 031-425.34.45 / 031-425.34.46
Fax: 021.318.15.50

Abstract
Small school period is characterized by an intense request of thought,
knowledge or surrounding truths systematically accepted and verified by society. At
this stage of age, although it remains essentially the concrete thinking, it is a concrete
particularly at the earlier stages, is less immediate, less is detached from direct
perception. It finds a new element in the development of thinking and shift from
intuitive thinking, perceptive to the operative organization that consists of structures
with criteria, classifications, mutual symmetry, reversibility and forms of denial.

Keywords: atenie, repetiie, dezvoltare fizic i psihic, maturitate colar,


amplificarea rolului nvtorului la nivelul familiei.

1. Introduction
Vrsta colar mica se desfasoar ntre 6-7 ani i 10-11
ani;
n ansamblul dezvoltrii, aceast vrst apare ca o etap
cu relativ stabilitate i cu posibiliti de adaptare uor
de realizat. Progresele obinute sunt destul de constante
i se manifest n toate compartimentele psihice i fizice.
nceputul vieii colare este, n acelai timp, nceputul activitii de
nvare, care i cere copilului nu numai un efort intelectual considerabil, ci i o
mare rezisten fizic. Activitatea de nvare desfasurat n coal sub conducerea
cadrelor didactice i cea efectuat n mod independent de ctre elevi, are ca
obiectiv principal insusirea activ a cunotinelor, formarea priceperilor i

deprinderilor, asimilarea experienei sociale ce duce la dezvoltarea personalitii


prin dobndirea de noi capaciti de a aciona i de modificare adaptativ,
progresiv a comportamentului la noile cerine ale vieii i activitii.
Activitatea de nvare realizatla vrsta colar n sistemul de nvamnt
este denumit prin sintagma nvare colar. nvarea de tip colar i are
rdcinile n formele de experien spontan ale vrsei precolare, care se mpletesc
cnd cu manipularea obiectelor, cnd cu jocul, cnd cu unele forme primare
(elementare) de munc.Structural, nvarea se compune dintr-o serie de situaii i
de sarcini care, pentru scolario mci, reclam efectuarea unor aciuni ce vor
rspunde unor sarcni practice concrete.Aceste aciuni pornesc de la contactul
colarului cu obiectul.
In perioada colar mic, se dezvolt caracteristici importante i se
realizeaz progrese n activitatea psihic, datorit contientizrii ca atare a
procesului nvrii.Vorbim, aadar de nvare colar, ca form particular a
nvrii umane.Aici, nvarea devine tipul fundamnetall de activitate.Aceasta
nseamn c activitatea colar va solicita intens intelectul copilului, avnd loc un
proces gradat de achiziii, de cunotine prevzute n curriculele colare i, n
consecint, copilului i se vor organiza i dezvlta strategii de nvare, i se va
contientiza rolul ateniei i repetiiei, i va forma deprinderi de scris-citit i
calcul.Invarea va ocupa un loc din ce n ce mai important n viaa copilului
colar.Aceast condiiei nou i modific existena i acioneaz profnd asupra
personalitii copilului.Volumul mare de cunotine pe care le vehiculeaz scoala
permite s se formeze o continuitate social prin integrarea cultural a
copilului.Din aceast perspectiv, coala i rspunde i dorinei copilului de a fi ca
cei mari (adultrism) ca i nevoii de realizare, de satisfacere i dezvoltarea
curiozitii cognitive.
Section 2 - Psychological Significance of the young children contact
with math concepts
The contact with some mathematical concepts is an essential contribution
to the establishment plan symbolic, abstract-categorical in the mental evolution of
schoolchildren in first grade, provided that the teaching process is not kept learning
mechanics, irrational, isolated development.
Over time units of small school children are trained in solving tasks
characterized by certain variants of the known with the unknown relationships that
have a similar logic diagram. Pupils are familiar with the movement ascending and
descending sequence of natural numbers, as the technique first two fundamental
mathematical operations - addition and subtraction - the limits concentrator 10 and
then to 100; considerably enrich their notional nomenclature. It is a kind of
flexibility and efficiency that cultivate compete automate and increase the speed of
work (for example:? - B = c a -? = C). This strategy has the advantage of preparing
the land purchase by small schoolboy capacity to solve problems.

Failure of internal links between practical and theoretical reflection on the


action rule to make rational action generates two isolated events retrieval. Practical
action, misunderstood and unexplored cognitive and verbal-cognitive structures
obscured act, leading to learning mechanics. Synchronizing these two series of
events wind up with two categories of very positive effect on mathematics learning
under the settlement logical thinking, learning and shortening the release of
reserves for acquiring new knowledge.
Section 3 The dynamic learning processes during small school
In two-fourth grades occurs enrichment and diversification of learning
under the impact of numerous disciplines. The knowledge and skills
learned are skills; increase the difficulty for the student to solve new tasks
and make it grow and mental age level which corresponds to each new
task.
In second grade students should know not only read text, but to be able to
retell the , to memorize, to reproduce and explain them. For the education
process, the problem is that the criteria for determining the real
psychological complexity of the task of stimulating its potential for
development, its relevance to what can pupils. Independence and creativity
in learning is gained and strengthens stages. It distinguishes a first phase of
autonomy Outside, the student is able to work in the absence of the teacher
leading his model is shown in lessons; a genuine internal autonomy phase gradual detachment of external model student - mind this stage begin to
offer the child the ability abstraction, generalization, the comparison, the
logic of memorizing. Putting students in a position to discover mutually
supportive relationships between components of a mathematical shares
reversibility cultivate psychological, mental flexibility, wide field
operation in math and intrinsically motivates students.
Contact with a range of knowledge about nature, animals and plants can
introduce children empirical knowledge order in facilitating their access to
one of the operations involved in the discovery of knowledge about the
living kingdom classification.
Section 4 The dynamic learning processes during small school
Extending the field of learning (class III) makes the student be sought in
several directions, which entails an increase in the probability of dispersion
of attention. Win in important way to learn, the ability to order and
coordinate information, the ability to work with the essentials in different

epistemic contexts. Romanian language offers an intensive land


development and empowerment cognitive and creative enrichment of the
student. The items receiving the highest amount of insurance and
instructional backup and retrieval processes are discriminative ability and
analytical-discursive. Dominance analytical tasks fragmentation, extracting
the fragments of text, the words of expressions contribute to exercising the
function of understanding, educate reversibility, imaginative thinking.
Writing appointment and reading the correct number, ascending and
descending notion generates interference between movement and mental
processes involved. Mathematics field of reversibility becomes a tool to
test and especially the cultivation of student's intelligence. Extending the
field of learning (class III) makes the student be sought in several
directions, which entails an increase in the probability of dispersion of
attention. Win in important way to learn, the ability to order and coordinate
information, the ability to work with the essentials in different epistemic
contexts. Romanian language offers an intensive land development and
empowerment cognitive and creative enrichment of the student. The items
receiving the highest amount of insurance and instructional backup and
retrieval processes are discriminative ability and analytical-discursive.
Dominance analytical tasks fragmentation, extracting the fragments of text,
the words of expressions contribute to exercising the function of
understanding, educate reversibility, imaginative thinking. Writing
appointment and reading the correct number, ascending and descending
notion generates interference between movement and mental processes
involved. Mathematics field of reversibility becomes a tool to test and
especially the cultivation of student's intelligence.
The final stage of primary school, grade IV occupies a sui generis
educational processes in the evolution and becoming pupil's personality.
Reading gives a foundation exercising and stimulate cognitive and creative
potential of the student. Learning concepts of fraction and decimal
ordinary, as the problems of finding the distance, speed and time provides
opportunities to educate mathematical thinking. Geography teacher needs
to introduce students in the cognitive domain, where it combines with
imaginary perceptual.
History, that is about events of the past, the students have not had as assist,
knowledge arising indirectly; learning approach arises as a rediscovery and
reconstruction of the historical event content. It forms a series of skills in
the process of familiarizing with history and correct evaluation of the
perception of time and space; ability to extract meaning from the material
that I teach and work with him. Movement reconstitution in depth
knowledge of history, the actions of exploration, mental processes

discursive act. Triggering current activism or mental - emotional and


cognitive - becomes the support of the approach of acquiring and
transmitting historical fact.
Contribute to the formation of scientific thinking and knowledge about
nature. Situating the forefront of learning dynamics, connections and
interdependencies between phenomena - observing, experimenting,
verbalization, definition, application - get more formative effects:
stimulating the development of thinking causally explanatory
foreshadowing premises and mechanisms of learning in classes next
notions of physics and chemistry ; scientific interpretation of natural
phenomena; correlating knowledge about nature with man, as agent, being
part of nature, it is able to observe, to know, to master and use nature.
Section 5 - The child of 9 years - Stages of Development
Physical development :

Increased coordination;

Trying to overcome physical limitations;

Gets tired easily;

It strikes often has somatic pain;

Search to release some tension rozandu-nails, and hair twisting or


wrinkling his lips.

Social development :

Highly competitive, self-conscious;

Agitated, restless, impatient;

Distant, unhappy, concerned about the issue of honesty;

Viewing unconscious and imperfections adults critic;

Can be sullen and cranky, individualist

Cognitive development :

Hardworking and self-critical;

Less imaginative exhibit intellectual curiosity;

It appears ability to solve problems with multiple variables;

It has problems with abstract notions, periods of time and space.


Visual acuity and small muscle development :

Increased coordination leads to greater control, increased interest


manifested for details; cursive writing is fully mastered; to observe a
tendency to raise pencil in hand louder;

Practice extensive small muscles in the most varied of activities (weaving,


knitting, engraving, drawing);

Can copy from the board, recopy issues home create "beautiful sketches."

Large muscle development

Strives to limit; He likes to take the race with himself, with others or
competing against the clock;

Physical control is problematic, knowing the limits and staying within


them becomes a matter physical and social;

Boys participate more and more in skirmishes; it comes to so-called


"monkey stage";

Cognitive development :

Students work well in groups, but sometimes quarrels, disputes over


activity, rules and guidelines may take longer than the actual work;

Assignments must be justified clearly related to work the next day;


students frequently ask: "Why should we do that?"

Search intense, often with anxiety, explanations of the events, how things
work, why some things happen in a certain way; It is a right age for
scientific explorations;

Student read to learn instead of learning to read;

Prides itself on work in progress, is focused on details, but quickly change


their sphere of interest.

He likes to work with a partner of choice - usually a same-sex partner; is


where form "gangs";

Discussing issues of honor is more common; the student can be extremely


serious in a competition; competition must be presented in a spirit of joke
and good mood;

He likes to negotiate - is the age of "Let's make a deal";

The teacher must be patient in the face of unrest student's school life and
the world; teacher must use clear language when giving guidance, it is very
important that students understand what is expected of them; Avoid
sarcastic humor, children are their most demanding critics;

Give them always a second chance; there is a tendency to give up easily;


edified and encouraged a sense of ability to perform tasks; leading to
complaints and whining insistence, it is best that the teacher laugh with
children this age.

Section 6 - The child of 10 years - Stages of Development


Physical development :

Muscles grow considerably;

The child needs to spend more time outdoors, take part in sports
competitions;

Writing is often more careless than nine years;


Social development :

Esteem issues are not as important and resolve more quickly;

The child is "quick to anger" but quickly forgives;

Generally prevails a sense of gratitude;

They work well in groups, so have fun with the family and with peers,
likes clubs, activities and sports;

It is usually honest; It has a more mature perception of good and evil;

Quickly solve social problems.


Language development :

Listen more carefully than nine years, it is actively responsive;

Voracious reader, expressive, communicative, likes to explain;

Cooperative and competitive, friendly, happy in general.

Cognitive development :

Saving is now a fruitful learning method;

Increased capacity for abstraction, likes rules and logic;

Likes to organize, he is able to focus, to read more;

Good at problem solving, proud of his intellectual activity results.

The child of 10 years in class :

Visual acuity and small muscle development

Is able to concentrate better, focus on tasks that are within reach them;
make progress in spelling, dictation, calligraphy but sometimes lacks
precision;

As well mastered skills of growing small muscles begin to like drawing


and copying;

Using instruments (compass, rapporteur line templates) can be introduced


successfully giving them the students time to practice .

Large muscle development :

He needs physical activity; muscles grow considerably; body strength at


the top is generally low;

During breaks or playing too long generates inappropriate behaviors;

Group activities are very popular, it organizes the relay race, class trips,
sports team, etc.

Cognitive development :

Students are highly productive in school work; usually conscientious in


solving homework;

Pay more attention to form, structure, guidance and organization;

Children are active in the learning process;

Interested in geography, facts and statistics, choruses, songs, poetry and


plays;

Classification, inserierea accuracy are real qualities - performing


collections, experiments and projects are effective methods of learning;

At this age the peak of concrete organizational skills.

Developing behavior :

Group activities are very successful;

The class is very united, students enjoy learning in groups;

It is a right age to start learning the techniques of conflict resolution with


the help of colleagues;\

Issues relating to honor and friendship are followed consistently;

The teacher will use teams in group games and competitions will be
organized to allow practicing social interactions;

The student is generally pleased with himself, he's happy and vulnerable;

The teacher will stimulate the spirit of race and collaboration; It is an age
where he can start to care for younger children;

Participate in projects developed within the community with pleasure and


is rewarded for his efforts;

"Natures chili" have tantrums and crying, but usually they are quickly
ironed out.
1. Conclusions

All these features of our age demonstrates that the creative work of
educating the child's personality is an activity duration, begins early in life
and ends once the school.
According to theories of J.J.Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel and
M.Montessori in educating young children there is hope of social change
and an improvement in the situation in the future. When this hope adult is
accompanied by action, and positive changes occur. We speak of a socalled ethics of social reform. Recognizing the value of childhood were
promulgated laws to ensure the physical well-being, health and
development of children. Begin to feel a new respect for childhood and
children.

REFERENCES
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pentru crile, publicaiile, etc. cu un singur, doi, trei sau patru autori
Goran Bazarea, L. & Sofronea A., 2007. Scolar la 6 ani. Bucharest: Scripta
University Press
web-site-uri

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http://www.creeaza.com/didactica/didacticapedagogie/Particularitati-ale-invatarii-133.php
http://www.creeaza.com/didactica/didacticapedagogie/Particularitati-ale-invatarii-133.php
http://www.referate-scolare.ro/psihologie/InvatareaLa-Varsta-Scolara-Mica--Cititul-Si-Scrisul/
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