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Original Title: Lab Report 2-Engineering Statics

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OBJECTIVES

This experiment enables the students to investigate an equilibrium system by

combining different forces.

2. INTRODUCTION

An important difference between scalar and vector quantities is how we combine or

add the vectors and scalars. Scalar addition is done by using ordinary arithmetic while

vector addition is slightly different, due to the direction nature of the vector quantity.

The idea of vectors is one of the most fundamental and useful in all physics. There are

many different quantities that can be expressed as a vector, including the force acting

on a particle.

In this experiment we will observe about equilibrium. When all the forces that act

upon an object are balanced, then the object is said to be in a state of equilibrium. The

forces are considered to be balanced if the rightward forces are balanced by the

leftward forces and the upward forces are balanced by the downward forces.

If an object is at equilibrium, that means all forces are balanced. Balanced is the word

that used to describe equilibrium condition. Thus the net/total/resultant force is zero

and the acceleration is 0 m/s2. All equilibrium objects must have 0 m/s2 acceleration. It

extends from Newtons first law,

F=m a

the object is at rest. Object at equilibrium is either at rest or in motion and continuing

in motion with the same speed and direction.

On this experiment, equilibrium will be observed through force table experiment.

A force table is seen in the figure 1. The table consists of a circular table with

markings ticking off 360 . Pulleys can be attached to the edge of the table,

allowing weights to be suspended from strings. Several weights can be hung from a

central ring, leading to several forces acting on the ring. When the forces are balances,

net force is zero, then the ring is at equilibrium. The purpose of this experiment is to

1

determine the conditions for equilibrium and the conditions for non-equilibrium for

several different mass and angle configurations.

For this experiment, only 3 forces will be used to determine equilibrium conditions.

So based on that,

F 1+ F 2+F 3=0

3. SAFETY PRECAUTION

Before entering the laboratory, all students pay attention to this laboratory safety

guide.

Wear a proper attire (shirt, trousers/long pants, shoes)

No food or drink is permitted in the laboratory

Know the location of emergency exits, eyewash stations, safety showers, fire

extinguishers, and first aid kits and how to use them.

Read and follow the instructions in the laboratory manual and those given by the

lecturer.

Read and follow the operating procedures in the use of laboratory equipment.

Keep the table neat and clean after experiment.

4. EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS

Force table, including central ring and center post.

Three Pulleys

Strings/Cords

Three hanging mass rack with masses

%20Writeups/Force%20Table%202.jpg

5. PROCEDURES

The force table was set up on the level surface.

Three masses were tied on the cords ends, and the other ends of cords were

Then the cords were put on the pulleys, while the ring was put in the center of the

table.

The pulleys are lie down on the force table, and they are moveable. Moveable due

The mass can be changed and the pulleys can be moved to adjust the angle due to

Equilibrium condition is determined based on the ring position, if the ring is

located at the center of the table, it is equilibrium. Otherwise, if it is not located in

After the condition was founded, all readings (mass, angle) was noted on the

book.

6. RESULT

Table 1, Data

m1

m2

Equilibrium

m3

1

2

3

(g)

(g)

(g)

(Yes/No)

1.

100

243

100

0

100

126

Yes

2.

150

246

150

0

160

124

Yes

3.

200

218

150

0

120

90

Yes

4.

200

206

320

0

190

148

Yes

5.

300

290

300

0

160

148

No

6.

150

235

150

0

180

70

No

All mass is in gram unit. It should be in kilogram unit, so it is needed to be changed. It

No.

is still in mass, not yet in force. The force magnitude can be founded by using weight

formula.

calculated first.

7. DISCUSSION

a) Sketch all of vector diagram by using the above data

b) Compare both result that obtain by using the calculation method and graphically

method (choose three sets of the data for comparison)

Calculation Method

Magnitude

(N)

Angle

F1

F2

F3

F

0.981

0.981

0.981

243

0

126

F1

F2

F3

F

1.962

1.4715

1.1772

F1

F2

F3

F

1.4715

1.4715

1.7658

DATA

Forces

218

0

90

235

0

70

Fx

Fy

F

cos

F

sin )

(

) (

-0.445

0.981

-0.577

-0.874

0

0.793

-0.041

-0.081

-1.546

1.4715

0

-1.208

0

1.1772

-0.0745

-0.0308

-0.844

1.4715

0.604

-1.205

0

1.659

1.2315

0.454

Table 2, Calculation

Graphical Method

Calculation and graphical method had been applied to the experiment. Based on the

experiment, data 1 and data 3 were in equilibrium condition while data 6 was in nonequilibrium condition. Data 1 and data 3 were in equilibrium condition because at

experiment the ring was centered at the force table, and that means equilibrium.

All data of three forces had been collected. We can just simply apply the formula to

prove it. In equilibrium submission of all forces should be equal to zero.

F 1+ F 2+ F 3=0 .

All forces were pointed to some angle, so it needed to be calculated, the force act on

x-axis and y-axis. The calculation is already had been done on the previous page

(refer to Table 2). Based on the theory, in equilibrium submission of all force is equal

to zero. But it is very clear, the calculation on the table two doesnt give submission of

all forces (

Fx Fx

Fx Fx

With the graphical method we can try to prove the equilibrium condition with adding

all vectors using polygon method. Add all forces by drawing them. In equilibrium

condition

F=0

prove the equilibrium by drawing all forces into polygon. If addition of all forces are

resulting closed traverse, or triangle, it means no resultant force. No resultant force

means

F=0

can see the result. Data 1 and 3 almost resulting closed traverse/triangle. Referred

back to the experiment data 1 and 3 should be in equilibrium where

F=0

As it can be seen on the result (calculation and graphical method), the result is very

close to what it should be (

F=0

mistakes that had been done which causes inaccurately result. Maybe also because

rounding when doing calculation. It might be caused inaccurately result also. Error

6

happens in this kind of experiment. Many things can be happened, just like human

error, instrument error, etc.

8. CONCLUSION

After doing this experiment we can prove that in equilibrium condition submission of

all forces is equal to zero, or the resultant force is equal to zero. Object in equilibrium

condition means that the object has no acceleration; either the object is at rest or the

object in constantly motion.

When doing the experiment it is quite hard to configure the configuration of mass and

angle of the mass. In order to make the ring located in the center, we have to find right

mass and angle configuration.

Collected data and the calculation may be differed a bit compare to each other. It is

caused by error. The error will be given us inaccurately results. Even though it is

error, this theory/calculation still can be used to prove the equilibrium condition.

References

Equilibrium and Statics. (1996-2014). Retrieved February 10, 2014, from The Physics

Classroom: http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/vectors/u3l3c.cfm

Hartsuijker, C., & Welleman, J. W. (2007). Engineering Mechanics: Volume 1: Equilibrium.

Dodrecht, Netherlands: Springer. Retrieved February 10, 2014, from

http://books.google.com.my/books?

id=oPhH90IWW60C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=o

nepage&q&f=false

Riddle, A. (n.d.). Force Table Lab. Retrieved February 10, 2014, from Abi Riddle's Physic

Lab: https://sites.google.com/site/abiriddlesphysicslab/force-table-lab

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