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SUBJECT INDEX

KEY
page number font boldface main subject treatment
italic figure
f figure
suffixes ff and pages following
bold suffixes ff main entry, and pages following
(box) boxed item
g graph
n footnote
p photograph
r review section
s screen shot (scope or spectrum analyzer)
t tabular
T table

1-wire bus, see computer, data bus acquisition time, see ADC, see aperture time, delta-sigma, see delta-sigma
1/ f , see noise see sample-and-hold differential-input, 374, 380, 382
1T1C cell, 1019 acronyms, 1166 flash, 902, 903, 903908, 986r
2s complement, see number, codes active driving (design example), 906, 904907
3-state, see logic ballast, 113, 113, 213, 214 folding, 904
3-terminal regulator, see voltage regulator clamp, see clamp for thermocouple, 1084
3-way switch, see switch device, 71 half-flash, 903
3.58MHz subcarrier, see video, composite filter, see filter integrating, 912938
6T cell, 1016 load, see also load, 85, 98, 105, 123, 147, as lowpass filter, 940
8b/10b code, 1041 158, 167, 243, 266, 266, 496 dual-slope, 902, 914ff, 915, 986r
rectifier, see also op-amp, 238ff, 289r, 634 multislope, 902, 919, 921t, 918922
555, see one-shot, see oscillator resistor, see also AoE 2nd ed., p 257, 416, normal-mode rejection, 915
8051, see microcontroller 416 powerline rejection, 915, 919
active-HIGH, active-LOW, see logic single-slope, 902, 914, 914, 986r
abbreviations, 1166 Adafruit, 1082, 1095r introduction, 879881
ABEL, see programmable logic device (PLD) ADC, see also converter, AD/DA, 879, latency time, see latency
absolute temperature sensor, see PTAT, see 900955, 1053, 1061, 1070, 1071, 1082, low-power shootout, 941
sensor, temperature 1087, 1095r micropower, 916t, 941
absolute-value circuit, 257, 257, 288r ac monitor, 943 noise
abuse, see argument acquisition time, see aperture time filtering out-of-band, 911
ac line filter, 629ff analog switches in, 916 sampling vs integrating, 940
fuse mandatory, 630 application examples, 907, 910, 932, 936, parallel, 903908
ac power, see power, powerline 946, 987r pipelined, 904
ac power control bridge-sensor oriented, 945, 947 pipelined flash, 903
microcontroller, 10621065 charge redistribution, 909, 950n precision, in microcontroller, 1071
ac powered choosing, 938, 987r resolution
dc power supply topologies, 630 comparison, 938 effective, 935n
ac solid-state relay, see SSR data-acquisition system (DAQ), 946955 noise-free, 935n
academics, 332n isolated SPI, 950 RF
acceleration, see also sensor multiplexed 16-channel SAR, 946ff, 948 driving (design example), 906, 904907
algorithm, 1069 parallel 8-channel , 952, 954 selected, 905t
accelerometer, see sensor parallel 8-channel SAR, 950, 951953 sequencer, 945
acoustic ranging, 207

1194
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1195

shootout, 939t maximum gain of, 98 single-ended output, 377


ADCs, SAR vs , 939 nonlinearity, 94, 9496s slew rate, 385
low-power, 941 revisited (Ebers-Moll), 93 speed, 385
specialty, 942, 942t composite, 332, 333, 365, 543547, 920, supply voltage, 383
subsystem, 1084 920 use with ADCs, 380, 382
successive approximation, 902, 908, 908s, slew rate of, 920 use with single-ended input, 376
910t, 908912, 986r vs single-stage, 546 distortion
block diagram, 911 current, see transimpedance amplifier barn-roof, 95
design example, 912, 910912 current-feedback, 375t, 378, 384386, 513, SPICE simulation, 1148
SPI timing, 911 544 equalization, 380, 381
switched-capacitor, see ADC, charge current-sensing, 278 error, 598, 604 (box), 642, 699, 700r
redistribution difference, 348, 347387, 390r in linear regulator, 597
system design examples, 946955 applications, 349ff in switchmode regulator, 646, 651
tables, 905t, 910t, 916t, 921t, 937t, 939t, as current source, 350, 351 fully differential, see amplifier, differential
942t bandwidth, 355 funnel, 376n
techniques, 902 BJT, 102ff gain, predictability of, 117
timing example, 1088, 1088g CMRR, 355g general purpose, 274
pseudocode, 1089 CMRR trim, 356, 357 grounded-base, 115
touchscreen digitizer, 944 common-mode input range, 354 grounded-emitter, 94
tracking, 909 configurations, 356 high-voltage, 209, 696
transformer input coupling, 382 current sensing, 349, 350 hybrid, low-noise, 534
undersampling filter node, 355 input errors, 301, 388r
deliberate, 907 ground-loop isolation, 349, 350, 584 input impedance
V to f , 434, 902, 912ff, 986r input impedance, 352, 354 effect of feedback on, 118
nonlinearity, 914g line driver, 351 input protection, 210
adder, see logic offset trim, 355, 357 instrumentation, see instrumentation
admittance, 69, 90n performance parameters, 352ff amplifier
aging tricks, 349 isolation, 585ff, 847
crystal, 451, 471r differential, 115, 124, 129r, 373ff, 375t, capacitive, 586
MOV, 632 347387, 390r, 1070 JFET, 146ff
voltage reference, 683 as comparator, 105 differential, 152
alias, see also filter, 395, 901, 931g as dc amplifier, 104 low noise, 509520
digital oscilloscope, 442n, 1164 bandwidth, 385 op-amp hybrid, 151, 153g, 155g, 343,
in switched-capacitor filter, 417 bias pin, 378 344, 534
undersampling conversion, 907 biasing, 104 series-feedback pair, 150, 151g
AM radio, 55, 56s BJT, 102ff with cascode, 148
waveforms, 55g, 56s choosing, 383ff laboratory, 298
amp, 2 CMRR, 347, 376, 384 laboratory, general-purpose, 274
amplifier common-mode input range, 378, 381, 384 logarithmic, see AoE 2nd ed., pp 212216
autonulling, 298 common-mode output impedance, 379 low-noise, 496, 498, 500, 505, 506
autonulling (design example), 297 common-mode output voltage, 380 MOSFET power, 221r
input errors, 306 compensation, 378 noise, see also noise, 481
balanced audio, 376 current-feedback, 375t in inverting amplifier, 521
clamping output, 383 current-mirror load, 105, 105, 153, 496 in noninverting amplifier, 520
class-A, 106n, 107 distortion, 386, 386g measurement, 555ff
class-AB, 108, 108, 310 filtering, 385 total, vs Rs , 526g
class-B, 107n gain of, 103 total, vs frequency, 531g
distortion, 309 gain setting, 384 noise model, 481, 492
class-D, 109, 109s, 673 gain-setting resistor, 378 op-amp, see op-amp
CMRR, 347ff input impedance, 384 BJT hybrid, 534
common-base, 91, 549, 549 input impedance matching, 382 JFET hybrid, 153g, 534, 545
common-emitter, 87ff, 91, 128r input impedance of, 376 low-noise, 522524t
biasing, 95, 96ff JFET, 152ff low-noise, choosing, 525533
bootstrapping, 112 no Miller effect in, 114 single-supply, 261
bypassed emitter resistor, 96 noise, 386, 496, 520 operational transconductance, see OTA
distortion, 95s offset voltage, 384 (operational transconductance amplifier)
emitter resistor as feedback, 96 output voltage, 383 output errors, 307
gain of, 93 phase splitter, 105 output impedance
input impedance of, 95 settling time, 385 effect of feedback on, 119
1196 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

inductive, 120n in conversion applications, 916ff balanced amplifier, see amplifier


patch clamp, 552 logic-family, 916ff balanced line, see audio
peaking, 152, 153g, 154, 154g, 378, 385, multiplexer, 173, 361, 361, 413, 945, 1062 ballast, 113, 113, 138, 146, 192, 201, 214
385g nonlinearity, 177 balun, 379, 380
photodiode, 233, 547, 548 transmission gate, see logic bandgap, see voltage reference
photomultiplier, 843 analog vs digital, 703 bandwidth
piezo, 208, 209 analog-to-digital, see ADC limit, 1162, 1165
programmable gain (PGA), 946 anti-alias, see filter narrowing, 574ff
programmable-gain (PGA), 370, 370, 371t antisaturation, see also comparator lock-in detection, 398, 563, 576,
sense, 1016, 1018 antisaturation circuit, 717n, 812 575578, 593r, 852
STM, 553 aperture time, 904, 911, 940 lock-in modulation, 577
summing, 234 in Hororan circuit, 982 modulation feedthrough, 577
switchable gain, 182 jitter, 905t synchronous detection, 852
switching, 109, 109s, 673 apodization, 420 of difference amplifier, 355
transconductance, see transconductance arbitrary function generator, 18, 1152 of noise, 477
transformer in feedback, 285, 536 Arduino, see also microcontroller, 1053, of op-amp, 308
transimpedance, see transimpedance 1087n, 1092, 1094, 1095, 1096r signal averaging, 576
amplifier argument, see also abuse, see also computer, bangbang control, 608, 644n, 645, 645, 649,
video and RF, 274, 351, 374, 380, 381, 533, 993 650, 700r, 1070
862, 862 immediate, 993 base resistance, see BJT, rbb
voltage, 90 ARM, see microcontroller base spreading resistance, see BJT, rbb
voltage-feedback, 378 Armstrong, Edwin, 969n baseband, 395
wideband analog link, 352, 380 Art of Electronics BASIC Stamp, 1087
worlds quietest, 505, 507g, 508t logo wristwatch, 448p battery, 2, 9, 686ff, 688p
amplitude ASCII, 706 alkaline, 196n, 753
modulation, see modulation ASCII code, 1039, 1040t backup, 36
peak-to-peak, 14 ASIC, 714, 777, 787, 788r characteristics, 687, 689t
rms, 14, 47, 68r assertion-level logic, 713 choosing, 688
do not add, 479 assign, in Verilog, 777 Diehard, 983
noise, 474ff, 475t ASSP, 714, 788r, 1031, 1093 discharge curves, 687g
square wave, 16 asynchronous, see also logic, see also memory, energy density
analog multiplexer, see analog switch, 1016 vs capacitor, 690g
multiplexer, see multiplexer communication, 771 energy storage
analog multiplier, see multiplier RS-232, 1038ff vs capacitor, 690t
analog switch, 176t, 946 ATSC, 1133, 1137n Li-ion
4053-style, 916ff, 917t attenuator, 17 charging, 688
charge injection, see also charge injection, digital, 1067 power density
176t, 180, 181g matched impedance, 1123, 1124t vs capacitor, 690g
vs RON , 182g audio primary, 686
FET, 171184 analog, 1131 choices, 687
applications, 182184 balanced driver, 351, 351, 376, 380, 383 rechargeable, see battery, secondary
capacitance, 178181 balanced impedances, 355n secondary, 686
charge injection, 180 balanced line, 348 charging, 687
CMOS, 172 digital, 1131 choices, 687
feedthrough, 179g sampling rate, 902 series resistance of, 8
gate drive, 173 autocorrelation baud, 872
JFET, 172 of LSFR, 977 Baudot, 708
latchup, 174 of PRBS, 978g BCD, see number
leakage current, 181, 256, 947, 948 autozero, see op-amp bead, see ferrite
limitations, 174 avalanche, see also MOSFET BeagleBoard, 1053n
multiplexer, 173, 946 in BJT, 982, 988r bench instrument favorites, 1152
nonlinearity, 177 in diodes, 70r Bessel, see filter
ON resistance, 171, 172, 173g, 177g, in JFETs, 199 beta, see BJT
178g, 175178 in zener diodes, 674n BGA, 789r
protected, 175 photodiode, 609, 831 (box), 877 bias cancellation, see op-amp
speed, 178 AVR, see microcontroller bias tee, 836
substrate effects, 173n Ayrton-Perry winding, see Chapter 1x bias-current cancellation, see op-amp
T-switch, 179 biasing
in ADCs, 916ff backlight, see LED bad, 85, 125
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1197

of emitter follower, 83 logic with, 123 Blackman-Harris, see window, sampling


with compensated VBE drop, 97 low-noise, 501t bleeder resistor, 211, 634
with dc feedback, 98 challenge, 505ff blocking capacitor, see capacitor
with LED, 86n replace with JFET, 500 Blu-ray, 703n, 852, 992, 1135
bibliography, 1154ff selecting, 500505, 507 Bluetooth, 1053, 1061, 1077
bifilar, 656n low-noise amplifier, see also amplifier, 495, BNC, see connector
binary 496, 498, 500, 505, 506 Bode plot, 247g, 281g, 280285, 311g, 899,
number, see number challenge, 507g, 508t 961g, 963g
search, 908 low-noise design with, 492509 boost, see switchmode
biology example, 495 bootstrap, 111ff
electrical engineers view of, 805 low-noise dual, 502t cascode, in TIA, 550
biphase code, 1041, 1041 manufacturing spread, 508g leakage cancelation, capacitor, 897
bipolar transistor, see BJT noise, 481ff, 591, 592r of capacitor, 682, 683
bit from NF, 489492 of collector load, 112
effective number of, 928, 929g measuring, 508 of guard shield, 359, 548, 587
error rate, 975 model, 481, 488 of JFET drain, 343, 344
grooming, 1138n resistance, 494 of op-amp follower, 233
hidden, 1048 test circuit, 557 of power supply, 359
scrambling, 975 vs JFET, 517 of TIA, 547, 550
stuffing, 1041, 1044 noise resistance, see noise resistance twin-T filter, 414
bitstream, see delta-sigma operating modes, 126r bounce, see switch
BJT (bipolar junction transistor), 71ff paralleling, 112 boxcar integration, see bandwidth, narrowing
active ballasting, 113, 113 pin labels, 126r branch
amplifier building blocks, 105ff pinouts, 72, 502 youre sitting on, sawing off, 1091
as transconductance amplifier, 90 polarities, 126r breakdown, see also second breakdown, 627
base resistance, see BJT, rbb power, 106t base-emitter, 82
base-emitter breakdown, 77n, 82, 238, 535, pulse generator, 458, 459s MOSFET gate, 199
815 rbb , 481ff, 483g, 501, 502t, 503, 505ff, 535 brickwall, see filter
basic circuit topologies, 90 representative, 74t bridge, see also diode, see also rectifier
basic circuits, 91 rules of thumb, 91, 127r ac drive, 946
beta, 72, 74g, 501, 502t, 504g saturation, 73ff, 81, 115, 123, 165n amplifier for, 306, 372n, 1070
capacitance, 74t, 113ff, 114, 130r, 548ff vs FET Ron , see MOSFET, RON converter, 656, 659, 700r
collector output resistance, 93n saturation current, IS , 91 diode, 454, 612
current noise, 483, 493g series connection of, 697 in oscillator, 431
vs current, 484g simple model, 72 full, see also H-bridge, 655, 889, 1077, 1085
vs frequency, 484g limitations of, 90 half, 655
current ratio, 102g single-stage voltage gain, 93n, 98, 105n inductance, 405
current sharing in, 112 storage time, 458 measurement system, 945
current source, 128r superbeta, 111, 252, 303t, 323, 326 ratiometric, 884
Darlington, 109ff, 129r, 610, 752, 817, 1081 switch, 73ff, 91, 126, 127r rectifier, 630, 699r, 805
beta vs current, 110g Sziklai connection, 110ff, 111, 129r, 148, active, 634n
complementary, see Sziklai connection 207, 214n, 229, 600n, 610 dual-voltage input, 660
optocoupler, 845 table of, 74t, 106t, 501, 502t resistive, 297, 608, 945, 1070
saturation, 109, 752, 752 terminal notation, 71 strain gauge, 347, 364, 941
Early effect, see Early effect transconductance, 126, 127r switch configuration, 206, 655
EbersMoll model, 90ff, 127r VBE spread, 508g Wheatstone, 123
emitter ballast, see ballast VBE tempco, 92 Wien, 436ff, 437, 438, 452t, 847
emitter ballasting, 113, 113, 138, 146, 192, voltage noise, 481ff, 493g brownout, 1064
201, 214, 495, 508 calculation (circuit example), 486 buck, see switchmode
emitter follower, see emitter follower charting, 493ff, 494, 495g, 504g buffer
emitter impedance of, 92 figure of merit, 505n logic, 23, 218t
emitter resistance from in through Rs , 483 ring, 747n
intrinsic, 9299, 122, 128r, 148 vs rbb , 483g unity-gain, 275, 311, 588, 843
not a real resistor, 481n vs current, 481483g, 485, 486g bulk capacitor, see capacitor, storage
gain-bandwidth product, 549g vs frequency, 485, 486g, 504g, 519g burn-in, 683
IC vs VCE , 92 vs power MOSFET and IGBT, 201, 202t, burst mode, 643n
improved model, 90ff 208t bus, see also computer, 1029t
inductive load, 74 Black, Harold, see also feedback, 116, 118 multidrop, 990
LED driver, 76 Blackmans impedance relation, 120 point-to-point, 990
1198 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

Butterworth, see filter MOSFET, 164, 165, 187, 188191t, 197g, parallel, 21
byte, 706, 990 197ff, 205 piezoelectric effect in, 682n
multiplier, 537, 557, 578, 579g power density
cable of analog switch, 178181 vs battery, 690g
cat-5, 352, 380, 381, 864, 1117 of current source, 150n powerline rated, 631, 631p, 664p, 668, 671
cat-6, 352, 864 of op-amp, 532 discharge resistor, 632
coax, 380, 11161122 power-dissipation, 719, 719g RC circuit, 21ff
counterwound helix, 1130p, 1130s sensor, 1086 reactance of, 42, 45, 49g
driving with logic, 859, 859s, 860, 860s, transmission line, 1116ff reactive current, 47g
861s, 862, 862s, 863, 863s, 864s, trimmer, see trimmer ripple current, see also current, 634, 635s,
858864, 1120 capacitive 659
driving with video, 862 coupling, 581 series, 21
pre-emphasis, 864 isolator, 586 speedup, 74n, 808s
reflections, 859, 859s, 860, 860s, 861s, capacitive load, see load storage, 32, 55, 69r, 665, 699r
862, 862s, 863, 863s, 864s, 858864, capacitor, 18ff, 20p, 68r ripple current, 634
1116g, 1118, 1119s active, 645n storage, in power supply, 633
terminating, 859, 859s, 860, 860s, 861s, air, 326 super, 689
862, 862s, 863, 863s, 864s, 858864, as microphone, 682n surface-mount, 20p, 65, 66p, 758, 759
1117ff blocking, 19, 43, 69r switched, see filter, switched-capacitor
video, 1140 in H-bridge, 659 switched, filter, 415ff, 436
differential, 864870 bootstrap to suppress leakage, 682, 683 timing, 55, 69r
digital signals through, 856ff, 877r bulk, see capacitor, storage types, 20
driving, 856ff, 877r bypass, 19, 54, 69r, 222, 758, 759, 857, 1056 variable, 64
equalization, 864 resonances, 857n X and Y types, see capacitor, powerline
pre-emphasis, 864 ceramic, 438 rated
shielded, see also cable, coax, 587 ESR and stability, 561, 617n CAPZero, 632
STP, 864 compensation, 283, 307, 308, 700r CAS , 1020
television, 1134 current through, 19, 46 cascode, 102, 114, 115, 146, 148ff, 345, 369,
terminated dielectric absorption, 28, 300, 301g, 326, 377, 502, 534, 544, 548, 549, 550
capacitance disappears, 860 388r, 422, 915, 920 folded, 149, 377, 498, 537
termination digital, 1082 in TIA, 548
back, 739, 862, 1118, 1122 double-layer, see AoE 2nd ed., pp 820, 934, inverted, see cascode, folded
double-ended, 861, 1122 689 regulated (RGC), 551, 552
far end, 860 electrolytic, 20p, 232n, 301g, 393, 579, 599, regulator, for HV, 693
series, 739, 862, 1118 633ff, 661, 690t, 856 series, for HV, 697
twisted-pair, 864870 dc coupling eliminates, 496 catalogs, 1153
UTP, 352, 864 energy density cathode
velocity factor, 1117 vs battery, 690g ray tube (CRT), 1142
calculus, 1099 energy storage CD audio, 902
calibration vs battery, 690t CDMA, 975
data in EEPROM, 1067 energy storage in, 19, 671, 688 CDR, 971
CALL, 996 ESL, 28, 646 ceramic resonator, 450, 1063
CAN bus, see also computer, data bus, 1043, ESR, 28, 561, 599n, 611, 646, 671, 689 cesium, see oscillator, atomic
1043ff, 1044, 1061, 1081 filter attenuation, effect on, 393g CFB, see op-amp, current feedback
isolated, 1045 increased ripple from, 639n chain rule, 1100
levels, 1044 film, 19, 20p, 279, 300, 326, 422, 438, 631p charge
capacitance, see also BJT; FET; JFET flying injection
bootstrapped, 542, 548 driving MOSFETs, 822, 847 in autozero op-amp, 334, 339
CMOS switch, 178ff in power conversion, 184, 638ff integrator (Coulomb counter), see also AoE
disappears in terminated cable, 860, 1116 HV discharge circuit, 211 2nd ed., pp 640643, 933
effective power-dissipation, 754 international notation, 5n MOSFET gate, 197g, 198s, 221r
equivalent (switching), 719 leakage, 260, 300, 682, 683, 897 pump, see also capacitor, flying, see also
feedback, see also Miller effect, 113 bootstrap cure, 897 switchmode, 175n, 183, 638, 699r, 872
gate, 197g, 197 leakage compensation, 298, 298 redistribution
isolation, 843, 849 Miller, 282, 283, 597 ADC, 909, 950n
JFET, 153, 157, 164, 170 multiplier, see capacitance charge injection
JFET switch, 178ff mylar, 19, 20p absence of, 843
junction, 114, 130r, 153, 157 non-ideal, 28, 388r in ADC, 911
in filter, 392
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1199

in analog switch, 176t, 180, 181g, 300, 947, trim, 356, 361, 515 pole-zero, 284, 545
948n coax, see cable complex
vs RON , 182g digital signals through, 1116ff conjugate, 1098
in integrator, 918 driving, 1116ff numbers, 1097
in sample-and-hold, 256g codec, 1140n plane, 1098
in switched-capacitor filter, 418 coil driver, precision, 897, 898 compliance, see also current source, 8
charge transfer, see charge injection cold atoms, 365 components
Chebyshev, see filter Coldfire, see microcontroller best avoided, 63p
choke, see also inductor, 29 collector, see also BJT confusing markings, 65p
common-mode, 585 open, see open collector itty-bitty, 65p, 269, 627p, 712n, 821n
chopper, see op-amp saturation, 73ff passive, 56ff
chrominance, see video, composite color burst, see video, composite through-hole, 65, 196, 268, 269, 432n, 500,
cigar, see cigar command bit, see computer, programmed IO 601, 603, 617, 714, 715, 715p, 720, 769,
circuit command register, see computer, programmed 772, 782, 785, 786, 788, 789r
BJT, basic, 90, 91 IO where to buy, 1150
breaker, 630 common-mode, see also amplifier, see also composite amplifier, see amplifier, composite
diagram choke, see also comparator, see also composite video, see video, composite
how to draw, 1101ff op-amp, see also transmission line, compression, 1136
integrated, see IC differential artifacts, 1137n
linear, 14 pickup, see also CMRR, 583 bitrate reduction, 1137
loading, see loading torture test, 866s, 869s lossless, 1137
parallel, 2 common-mode rejection ratio, see CMRR lossy, 1137
RC compact disc (CD), 992, 1131 computer, see also microcontroller, 1053
discharge waveform, 21g Compact Flash, 1061 architecture, 990993
Thevenin simplification, 23 comparator, see also Schmitt trigger, 23, 129r, Harvard, 991
resistor 173, 173, 236, 267, 289r, 700r, 812t, 813t, von Neumann, 991
shortcuts, 6 809817, 876r, 1061, 1081 assembly language, 993, 1087
resonant, 52ff antisaturation circuit, 812 BASIC, 1087
series, 2 cautions, 816 block diagram, 991
parallel, 5 digital magnitude, 728, 728 bus-oriented, 991
resistor, 5 driving logic from, 806ff C/C++, 1087
clamp, see also SCR, 257 hysteresis CPU, 990
active, 257 internal, 815 data bus, 990, 992, 1029t, 1049r
active reset, in SMPS, 657 input 1-wire, 1035, 1036, 1082
diode, 36 common-mode range, 812 2-wire, 1061
input transient, in SMPS, 669 input characteristics, 812ff ADDRESS , 992, 997
op-amp, 912, 913 input current, 814, 814g ATA, 1027, 1062
power supply, 692 input stage, 814 bidirectional, 1001
Clapp, see oscillator output current, 811, 811g bridge, 1089
clearance, 663, 663 output stage, 811 CAN bus, 1043, 1043ff, 1044, 1045,
clipping, 81 output swing, 810 1050r, 1061
clock response time, 816g contention, 721
and data recovery (CDR), 971 saturation voltage, 811g control lines, 992
feedthrough, 417 schematic, LM393, 270 DATA , 992, 997
generation with PLL, 972 speed, 815 differential, 1031n
inputs and hysteresis, 808 supply voltage, 815 EISA, 1027n
real-time, 1061, 1084 voltage eSATA, 1028, 1037, 1050r
recovery, 1037 differential, 815 Ethernet, 1045ff, 1050r, 1053, 1061
skew, 757, 757, 759 offset, 812 Fastbus, 1027n
clock skew, see also logic window, see also AoE 2nd ed., p 669, 429 FireWire, 1042, 1050r
CMOS, see analog switch, see logic, see with hysteresis, 237 Firewire, 871n, 992, 1027
op-amp, see oscillator without hysteresis, 237 Front Side, 990n
CMRR, 103, 388r, 515, 583 zero-crossing, see zero-crossing Futurebus, 1027n
and source impedance, 365 compensation GPIB, 1031, 1050r
at high-frequency, preserving, 359 active I2 C, 1034, 1034ff, 1035, 1036, 1051r,
differential amplifier, 376 of op-amp phase error, 314, 315g, 315t 1053, 1061, 1095r
ground-loop isolation, 583 dominant-pole, 282ff I2 C vs SPI, 1035
instrumentation amplifier, 364, 364g, 367 of transimpedance amplifier (TIA), 537, IDE, 1027, 1050r, 1062
vs frequency, 364 539ff, 540542g, 545 IEEE-488, 1031
1200 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

ISA, 990n software, 1010 card-edge, 61


JTAG, 1036, 1036, 1051r Java, 1088 circular, 61p
MicroChannel, 1027n keyboard bus interface, 1002, 1003, 1005, DIN, 61p
Multibus, 1027n 1006 DisplayPort, 1145
multidrop, 1014, 1027 machine language, 993 DVI, 1145
NuBus, 1027n mass memory, 991 HDMI, 1144
overview, 1027 memory, see also memory, 991, 10141027, Lemo, 61, 62p
parallel, 1027, 1028, 1050r 1051r, 1061 MHV, 62p
PATA, 1027, 1031, 1050r cache, 991, 1049r microphone, 61p
PC104/ISA, 992, 1012, 1027, 1044, 1049r read cycle, 1017, 1019, 1021, 1022 Microtech EP-7S, 61p
PCI, 990n, 992, 1027, 1030, 1050r, 1053, SD, 1061 miniDIN, 61p, 1144
1061 write cycle, 1017, 1019, 1021, 1022 MS, 61p
PCIe, 990n, 992, 1027, 1030, 1037, 1041, multidrop bus, 1014 multipin, 61
1044, 1050r, 1053, 1061 number storage in memory, 1048 phono, 63p
PCMCIA, 1044, 1053, 1061 object code, 993, 996 photographs of, 6062p, 1144p
PLD address decoder, 1000 PC104, 997p, 1013, 1014, 1015p pin jack, 61p
point-to-point, 1027 signals, summary of, 1012 RCA, 62p, 1143
printer port (Centronics), 1031 port, 992 rectangular, 60p
Q-bus, 1027n program RF and shielded, 62p
read cycle, see memory counter, 990, 1049r RJ45, 1064
RS-232, 771, 804, 1027, 1051r example, 996 SC (fiber), 62p
SAS, 1027, 1028, 1037, 1050r programmed IO, 9981005 shielded-cable, 59
SATA, 1027, 1031, 1037, 1041, 1050r, command bit, 1050r SHV, 62p
1053, 1062 command register, 1004 SMA, 62p
SCSI, 1031 data in, 1001 SMB, 62p
serial, 1027, 10321046 data out, 998, 999 ST (fiber), 62p, 841p
signals, 1013t, 9971013 read cycle, 1001, 1049r Supericon, 61p
signals, summary of, 1012 status bit, 1002, 1050r TNC, 62p
SPI, 1032, 1032ff, 1033, 1036, 1051r, status register, 1002 type N, 62p
1053, 1061, 1095r write cycle, 998, 1049r type-F, 63p
SPI vs I2 C, 1035 progress in, 990p UHF, 62, 63p
STD bus, 1027n pseudo-op, 996 video, 1143ff, 1144p
STROBE , 997 Python, 1088 XLR, 61, 62p, 348
Unibus, 990n, 1027n real-time IO, 992 continuous mode, see conduction, see
USB, 871n, 992, 1027, 1042, 1042, 1044, register, 990, 994, 1049r switchmode
1050r, 1053, 1059, 1061, 1062 SBC, 997p, 1013 control
VAX BI, 1027n serial port, 1038 bangbang, 608, 644n, 645, 645, 649, 650,
write cycle, see memory software interrupt, 1010 700r, 1070
direct memory access (DMA), 1010, 1050r source code, 996 proportional, 1070
flags, 990, 1049r stack, 995 control loop
IBM650, 1n pointer, 990, 995, 1049r block diagram, 1069
instruction, 990 subroutine, 996, 997 PID, 1069
instruction decoder, 990, 1049r terminology, 989 converter, see also ADC, see also DAC, see
instruction set, 1049r UART, see UART also power, 30
addressing modes, 994 word, 990 AD/DA
argument, 993 xy vector display, 999, 999 errors, 880
jump, 996 block diagram, 1000 linearity, 899
POP, 995 conductance, 6 performance parameters, 879880, 985
PUSH, 995 conduction power, see power supply, see switchmode,
subroutine, 996, 997 angle, 613, 631, 633, 635, 662s see voltage regulator
x86, simplified, 994t, 993997 continuous mode, 637n, 642, 644ff boost, see also switchmode, 30
interrupt, 10051010, 1050r discontinuous mode, 637n, 642, 645, 666 buck, see also switchmode, 30
acknowledgment, 1009 confusion central, 65p charge-pump, 183
autovectored, 1009 connector flying-capacitor, 183
handler, 1006, 1064, 1096r audio, 62p time-to-amplitude, see also AoE 2nd ed.,
hardware, 1006 avoid these, 63p p 1035, 914
mask, 1010 banana, 61p V to f , 912
polling, 1008 BNC, 56, 59, 62p, 264, 1116 nonlinearity, 914g
shared, 1008 insulated, 274, 275, 555, 583, 805 correlated double sampling, 553, 571n
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1201

coulomb, see also charge, integrator, 2, 18 PIN diode, 497, 500 2-terminal, 622
counter, 933 ridiculously low, 1023, 1025 3-terminal regulator as, 620, 620, 621g
counter, see also logic, 733 solid-state relay, 1062 bandwidth of, 254
timing with, 465 specifications too conservative, 296, 388r, bipolarity, see also current source, Howland,
cow 1055n 229, 230, 894, 896
spherical, 804 limiting, 286, 351, 597, 700r, 823, 824 BJT, 85, 87, 91, 146, 534
cPLD, see programmable logic device (PLD) foldback, 286, 693, 694, 694g, 823, 824, compliance, 8, 27, 28, 86, 895
creepage, 663, 663, 664 824g deficiencies of, 87
crest factor, 568, 981 of outboard pass transistor, 695 depletion-mode
crossover distortion, see distortion load-sensing, 277 FET as, 211, 622, 623g, 696
crossover, input, see op-amp loop, 1038, 1084 difference amplifier as, 350, 351
crosstalk, 581, 588 mirror, see current mirror discrete, 622
crowbar, see also voltage regulator, 598 mode, see switchmode floating, 895, 894897
overvoltage, 598, 672, 690ff, 691, 700r, 702r noise, see noise high voltage, 622, 696
crystal, see oscillator probe, 1161 high-voltage floating, 897
converter, see switchmode
Cuk pulsation in SMPS, 650, 651 Howland, 229, 230
CUPL, see programmable logic device (PLD) pulsation in switchmode converters, 649 IC, 621, 622g
current, 1, 68r quiescent, 83 instrumentation amplifier as, 367
class-A, 754, 1073 BJT, 84ff JFET, 142, 623g
comparator input, 814, 814g blocking capacitor preserves, 182 JFET and BJT compared, 145
comparator output, 811, 811g JFET, 145, 156 nanoamp
conveyor, 99 lateral MOSFET, 215 programmable wide-compliance, 894,
critical, in SMPS, see switchmode of logic families, 719 896
dark, 537n, 1059 stabilized with emitter resistor, 96 pulsed, 555
defined, 2 reactive, 41 noise of, 487ff
differential drive, 865 ripple, 634, 635s op-amp, 228230, 242, 254, 344, 367, 622,
discontinuity in boost converter, 647 623, 895
in switchmode converters, 649, 651 in bridge converter, 659 oscillation in, 442
divider, 698 in buck converter, 644 output resistance, 93n
dynamic, 164, 186, 186, 793 in storage capacitor, 634 precision, 351, 367, 897, 898
of digital logic, 186, 186, 719 in zener bias, 598 resistor as, 85
feedback, see feedback saturation, 132, 165n slew rate of, 367
gate leakage, 163 sensing, 278, 349, 350, 365, 754, 760 symbols, 9
impact-ionization, 164 shoot-through, 186, 186, 222, 660, 754, 760, transistor, see current source,
input 760g, 856, 942n BJT/JFET/depletion-mode
of digital logic, 795 shunt, 277, 365, 944, 944 current transformer, see transformer
of instrumentation amplifier, 362 source, see current source curve tracer, 1115
of op-amp, 244 spy, 754, 754 cut-and-try, 597, 835, 963
inrush, 637, 651, 661, 668 steering, see also DAC
Junction leakage, 253 sawtooth generator, 917 DAC, see also converter, AD/DA, 879,
junction leakage, 70r, 91, 109 suppression, 573 881900, 1053, 1061, 1065, 1081, 1095r
Kirchhoffs current law, 2 transfer ratio, 844, 1062 1-bit, see delta-sigma
leakage, see also analog switch, FET, see transformer, 944, 944 application examples, 891899, 985r
also capacitor, see also FET, gate current, transient audio, 939t
see also FET, leakage, see also JFET, gate output-stage, 856 charge redistribution, 904, 909, 909, 911
current, see also MOSFET, gate leakage, current limiting, see also power supply, see choosing, 891, 986r
see also op-amp, input current, 163g, 327 also voltage regulator, linear, see also code-change glitch, 892
cancelling, 894 voltage regulator current-steering, 883, 883886, 985r
CMOS logic, 463, 466, 795 current mirror, 99, 100, 101ff, 123, 124, 128r, generating voltage output from, 885, 885
diode, 70r, 160, 294, 294n, 634 146, 369, 431, 960 delta-sigma, see delta-sigma
FET, 163 active load, 105, 153, 496, 544 exemplary, six, 886, 887, 889t
floating gate, 1023 compliance, 101, 104 for DDS, 1065
gold doping, 458 Early effect in, 101 for offset correction, 949
guarding, 572, 573n, 587 fix, 102, 102, 148 for zero correction, 949
JFET, 163 IC, 622 frequency-to-voltage, 890, 985r
measuring, 299n input offset adjust, 244 introduction, 879881
MOSFET, 163 VCO programming, 960 multiplying, 413, 884, 894t, 985r
PCB, 554n Wilson, 102, 102, 146, 546 PWM as, 888, 888, 890, 985r
photodiode, 841, 877r current source, 8, 85ff, 431, 620ff, 623g, 702r PWM to, converter, 889
1202 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

R2R, 882, 883, 985r ENOB, 928, 929g cable, 864870


resistor string, 881, 882, 985r even simpler, 932 logic signal, 705n
selected, 893t fast multichannel IC, 955, 956 output, creating, 372, 373
switched-capacitor, 904, 909 idle tones, 931, 932, 932t pseudo, 583, 947
tables, 889t, 893, 894t mitigating, 932 signal, 347ff
types, 985r simulation, 933g differential amplifier, see amplifier
video, 885, 1086 industrial ADC, 936, 937 configurations, 376378
Darlington, see BJT magic in the modulator, 927 differentiation, 1099
photo, 842 microcontroller, implemented with, 932, 933 differentiator
data bus, see bus, see computer modulator, 924, 925 bridged, 415
data-acquisition system, see ADC higher order, 928, 929 op-amp, 260
datasheet monotonicity, 931 RC, 25, 26s, 51
too big, 1063n noise shaping, 927g, 927ff digital, see also logic
dB, 15ff, 68r, 351 powerline rejection, 953955, 955g conquest over analog, history of, 703, 703n
desert island, 15 pro-audio ADC, 936, 940 filtering, 419
dB per octave, 5152 pros and cons, 931ff measurement, 140g
dB$ , 15n simplest, 922 meets analog, 879988
dBm, 15 simulation, 929g, 930g, 928930 multimeter, 10
dc spectrum, 930g potentiometer, 63, 184
blocking capacitor, 43 suntan monitor, 922ff signal processing (DSP), 418ff
power switching, 202 the paradox, 924 sampling, 419
restoration, 37 time delay, 931 television
supply splitter, 262 vs the competition, 938 broadcast, 1138
dc-dc converter, see power supply, see DeMorgans theorem, 713 cable, 1138
switchmode depletion mode, see current source, see satellite, 1139
DCE, 1038 MOSFET spectrum, 1136s
DDR, 1021 derivative, 1099 vs analog, 703
DDR2, 1021 desaturation protection, 847, 847 digital-to-analog, see DAC
DDR3, 1021 desensitivity, 117, 118 DIN
DDR4, 1021 design review, 1059 rail mount, 686
DDS, see also oscillator, 1066, 1067 Designs by the masters diode, see also rectifier, 12, 31, 31ff, 70r
phase control, 1068 instrumentation amplifier, 359 AND gate, 711
debouncer, see also switch, 1064 Keysights multislope converters, 919, as log converter, 37
debugging 918922 back, see also diode, tunnel, see AoE 2nd
microcontroller, in-circuit, 1092 nanoamp programmable current source, 896 ed., pp 49, 891, 904
decibel, see dB paralleling MOSFETs, 213, 214 bridge, 431
decoder, see logic powerline SMPS, 595p, 667s, 665672 catch, 642
decompensated, see op-amp precision DMM, 342ff clamp, 36
degeneration, see emitter, see source SR560 preamp, 512ff, 514 current-regulator, 143g, 623g
delay equalizer, 415 desoldering station drop compensation, 35
delay line favorite, 1152 fast recovery, 671
lumped element, 1126, 1128p, 1129 detector fault protection, 606, 607, 619
impedance of, 1127 AM, 970 forward current, 294, 295g
transmission line, 1128p, 1130s demodulation, 969 forward drop, 31
delay time, of filter, 400 FM, 969 freewheeling, 642
delta-sigma, 902, 987r homodyne, 970 gate, 36
20-bit ADC, 934, 934 optical, see optoelectronics I vs V , 92
24-bit ADC, 934, 936, 936, 937, 937 phase, see PLL inductive clamp, 38
ADC, 935t, 922941 quadrature FM, 969 input protection, 37, 37, 159, 160, 210, 266,
digital filter in, 924, 926 device programmer, 769 269, 294, 362, 362, 532, 804
micropower, 941 diac, 428 JFET as, 294
application examples, 932ff diagram, ugly, 1102 laser, see laser diode
audio ADC, 902n, 937t Dicke switch, 577 leakage current, see current, leakage
block diagram, 924 dielectric LED, see optoelectronics
charge integrator, 933 absorption, see also capacitor, 300, 301g limiter, 37
DAC, 888, 930, 931, 938, 985r constant, 18, 1116 MOSFET body, 199
demystifying, 923930 isolation, 175 operating point, 1112
dynamic range, 925 difference amplifier, see amplifier, see op-amp photo, 537n, 539, 841, 841p, 842
vs OSR and m, 929g differential, see also amplifier amplifier, 547, 548
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1203

wideband amplifier, 540 of phase-shift oscillator, 439 detector, 26


PIN, 837p of photoconductive cell, 437 leading, 25
protection array, 805 of switched-capacitor sinewave, 436 trailing, 25
representative, 32t of Wien-bridge oscillator, 437, 438 triggered, 458ff, 957, 1010
reverse current, see current, leakage test circuit, 332 flip-flop, see logic
reverse recovery, 634, 635n, 670, 671 ultra-low, oscillator, 437, 438 EEPOT, see also potentiometer, 63, 1067
Schottky, 32t, 35, 199n, 222, 608, 634, 642, dithering, 382n, 636s, 658t, 968, 969 EEPROM, see memory
643, 645649, 651, 655, 657, 665, 666, divider egg
671, 696, 717, 757, 792, 912, 913 Kelvin-Varley, see AoE 2nd ed., p 1025 Easter, see if you can find all eight
protection with, see input, see op-amp, voltage, 7 electrical engineer
input protection DMM, 10, 1152 view of biology, 805
suppression, 75 Agilents accurate, 342ff electrical tape, 63p
tunnel, 7, 1113 block diagram, 343 electrolytic capacitor, see capacitor
varactor, 64, 435, 440, 441, 960, 969, 971 current sink, 344 electromagnetic interference, see EMI
capacitance vs voltage, 441g front end, 343, 344 electrometer, 10n, 259, 297, 570ff
zener, see also voltage reference, 12ff, 82, gain block, 345 electromotive force, see EMF
199, 670, 674, 696698, 701 ranging, 345 electrostatic discharge, see ESD
3-terminal, 680 favorites, 1152 elliptic filter, see filter
as voltage regulator, 595 Dobkin, Bob, 604 (box), 679 EMF, 2
biasing, 675 dogs, 63p back, 28
buried, 546 dominant pole EMI, 649, 668
compensated, 674 compensation, 282ff in instrumentation amplifiers, 365
dissipation, 82 double buffering, 1000 emitter, see also BJT, see also optoelectronics
drift, 675 doughnut, 29 degeneration, 88, 96, 98, 116, 126r, 128,
dynamic resistance, 13, 675g DPCP, 1145 129r, 308, 502
for crowbar, 690 drain, see also FET, see also JFET, see also emitter ballast resistor, see BJT, see resistor
IC, 676ff MOSFET emitter follower, see also BJT, 79, 7985, 91,
low voltage, 13g open, see open-drain 128r
noise, 676n output impedance, see JFET, output ability to source/sink, 81
programmable, 677t, 680 conductance, see JFET, output resistance ac coupled, 84
tempco, 675g DRAM, see computer, see memory, dynamic as voltage regulator, 82
the astonishing LTZ1000, 675 dry switching, see switch base-emitter breakdown, 77n
DIP (dual in-line package), see IC, packages DSL, 1141 biasing, 83
direct digital synthesis, see oscillator, DDS DTE, 1038 cancelling offset, 85, 87
direct memory access, see computer DTL, see logic current flow in, 81
discharge dual-slope example, 84
curves, of battery, 687g conversion, see ADC gain, 93
of high-voltage supply, 211 dual-tracking, see voltage regulator impedances of, 80
RC, 21 duty cycle, 643 JFET current-sink pulldown, 144
discontinued parts, 273 (box) duty-cycle noise of, 487ff
discontinuous mode, see conduction, see limiting, 465 output impedance, 84
switchmode DVD, 703n, 852, 992, 1135 output impedance of, 94
display DVI, see also connector, 1062 push-pull, 81, 106108
LCD dynamic RAM, see memory revisited (Ebers-Moll), 93
interface timing, 1028 dynamic range with split supplies, 84
xy vector of delta-sigma converter, 925 en , see noise, density, voltage, see noise
interface, 999, 999 of numbers, 1048 en -C, see transimpedance amplifier
display devices, see optoelectronics of switched-capacitor filters, 418 encoder, see also logic
DisplayPort, see connector vs precision, 292 flash, 903
distortion, see also op-amp, distortion Gray code, 708
barn-roof, 95, 95s Early effect, 92, 93n, 99, 99n, 101g, 127r, 151n keyboard, 803
crossover, 286, 309, 311 configurations that avoid, 102, 127r, 148 logic, 727
effect of feedback, 235s in current mirror, 101 quadrature, 844p
in push-pull follower, 107 Early voltage, see voltage, 502 rotary, 844p, 852, 1066
of differential amplifier, 386, 386g EbersMoll model, see also BJT, 90ff video, 1030, 1030
of filtered sinewave, 436 ECL, see logic energy
of modified sinewave, 674 Eden density
of op-amp, 329ff, 331, 332g garden of, 549 battery vs capacitor, 690g
rail-to-rail, 318 edge in capacitor, 19
1204 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

in inductor, 28 output-current sensing, 120 threshold voltage (Vth ), 136n, 137ff, 137,
storage PID, 1069, 1069, 1074, 1077 138g, 147
battery vs capacitor, 690t circuit, 1075 transconductance (gm ), 132, 141t, 146, 219r
ENOB (effective number of bits), 900, 905t, convergence, 1076g transfer characteristics, 135g, 137g, 139g,
928, 929g, 985r tuning, 1069, 1074 142g
envelope, 54, 55, 55g, 55s, 970, 973, 974, 978, predictability of gain, 117 types, 134
979, 1163 series, 118 V I curves, 132, 133g
EPROM, see memory shunt, 119 VGS spread, 140g
equalization, see also amplifier, 40g, 223, 284, split, 263, 286, 913 FEXT (far-end crosstalk), 581
380, 381, 864, 870, 870, 871s, 873g stability, 120 FFT, 422, 560s
equivalent series inductance, see capacitor, see in switchmode converters, 650 fiber optics, 852ff, 853p, 877r
resistor with inductive load, 899 integrated transceiver, 853p, 855, 856
equivalent series resistance, see capacitor ferrite, 29, 29p, 51, 579, 581, 584, 585, 655, ST/SC, 853p, 855
error 670 TOSLINK (EIAJ), 852, 853, 853p, 854s
budget, 293, 295299, 307, 388r bead, 51, 212, 366, 582, 669672, 696698, Versatile Link, 853p, 854
component, 299, 388r 921 field-effect transistor, see FET
eSATA, see computer, data bus FET, see also JFET, MOSFET, 115, 131ff FIFO, see logic
ESD, see also human body model, see also analog switch, see analog switch filter
spike, 200, 200t, 804 basic circuits, 140 active, 396399, 405415, 423r
input protection, 258, 362 capacitance, 132, 148, 163, 164, 170, 178, bandpass, 411ff
ESL, see capacitor, see resistor 187, 188191t, 192ff, 194, 197ff, 202t, lowpass, 241, 400ff
ESR, see capacitor 204, 206t, 207, 222, 511, 516t, 662, 670 Sallen and Key, 242g
Ethernet, see also computer, data bus, 867, depletion-mode universal, 416, 417, 417, 418
992, 1027, 1041, 1045ff, 1061, 1064, as current source, see also current source, allpass, 415
1081, 1089, 1095r 622 analog FIR, 983
3-level signaling in, 1040n, 1046 drain characteristics, 137g, 137, 139g anti-alias, 395, 901ff
4b/5b coding in, 1040n, 1046 dynamic gate current, 164 attenuation
8b/10b coding in, 1041, 1046 enhancement and depletion, 135, 219r degraded by ESR, 393g
Manchester coding in, 1040 family tree, 134, 136 bandpass
power over (PoE), 1046n gate current, 163, 220r noise bandwidth, 564t, 565g
Euler, Leonhard, 1098 gate drive, 137 Bessel, 402g, 403, 409g, 423r
excluded state, see logic gate leakage current, 163, 303 VCVS, 408
exclusive-OR, see logic, gates Gmax , 141t biquad, 411, 423r
eye diagram, 870, 870, 871, 872s, 975, 988r, interdigitation, 140 brickwall, 391g, 477, 902
1027, 1028s JFET and MOSFET, 134 equivalent bandwidth, 477, 561, 561,
leakage, 530 563ff
failure circuit cure for, 259ff bridged differentiator, 415
pattern sensitive, 857 linear region, 137, 137g, 220r Butterworth, 401, 401, 402g, 409g, 423r,
fan, see also AoE 2nd ed., p 858, 627 linear switch, see analog switch 902
fanout, see logic manufacturing spread, 140g, 138140, 145g, LC, 1109ff, 1110t
farad, 18 157, 158, 169, 169g VCVS, 408
feature size matching, 139 Cauer, 402
scaling, 793n operating regions, 219r characteristics, 400, 401g, 423r
feedback, 115ff, 130r, 223ff polarities, 131, 136, 219r Chebyshev, 401, 402g, 409g, 423r
BJT examples, 121 probe, 810p phase and amplitude, 400g
Blackmans impedance relation, 120 quadratic region, 132, 137, 137g, 138, 147, VCVS, 408
closed-loop gain, 117 165ff vs RC, 396g
compensation, 120 resistive region, 132 comparison, 402g
current, see also op-amp, 118120, 150, saturation current, IDSS , 136, 139g, 361 continuous-time, 397, 406, 423r
308, 378, 513, 521, 524t, 527, 544, 593 saturation region, 132, 137g, 137, 147, delay equalizer, 415
effect on amplifier circuits, 117ff 165ff, 219r delay time, 400
effect on input impedance, 118 similarity to BJT, 132 digital, 419ff, 424r
effect on output impedance, 119 square law, 137ff, 165 in delta-sigma, 924, 926
gain equation, 116 subthreshold region, 138, 139g, 166, 167g, of PRBS, 979
improved frequency response, 118 168, 220r response, 421g
in PLL, 960, 961 switch, 132, 171, 220r discrete-time, 418, 423r
loading by the feedback network, 120 tempco of ID , 138g, 138n eco-friendly, 1073
nonlinear, 276 terminal nomenclature, 131 effect of component tolerances, 402g
nonlinear control, 1075 effect of non-ideal capacitors, 392
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1205

electrically tunable, 412 worst-case impedance of, 44 frequency


elliptic, 402, 403g, 1068 recursive, 419 analysis of reactive circuits, 41ff
equiripple, 401, 402 ringing, 400 angular, 14
finite-impulse-response (FIR), 419, 421g, ripple, 399 beat, 973, 974
424r rise time, 400 compensation, 280ff
frequency response Sallen and Key, 399, 409, 423r in linear regulator, 597
comparison, 409g settling time, 400 dithering, 649n, 969
frequency-domain characteristics, 399 skirt, 399 intermediate (IF), 562, 1139
Gaussian, 404 specifying, 403g log sweep, 1069
highpass state-variable, 410ff, 423r modulation, see modulation
approximate, 43 bandpass, 411 multiplier, 961, 962
exact, 48 step response, 405g, 406t shifting, 395
VCVS, 408 comparison, 405g, 406t spurs, 966, 967, 971, 1066, 1067
implementation, 405418, 423r switched-capacitor, 397, 406, 415ff, 423, synthesis, 394, 451, 471r, 966969
inductorless, see filter, active 424r, 436 synthesizer, 17, 1082, 1152
infinite-impulse-response (IIR), 419, 424r advantages, 416 microcontroller, 10651069
LC, 54g, 54p, 55s, 393, 423r configurations, 417 to voltage converter, 890
brickwall bandwidth, 561 drawbacks, 417 translation, 562
multisection, 394 noise, 418g unity-gain, see op-amp
linear-phase, 400, 404 sine from square, 436, 436s fT , see op-amp, gain vs frequency, see op-amp,
linearity, 422 Thomson, 403 unity-gain frequency
lowpass time delay, 404g full duplex, 1033, 1042, 1051
after transimpedance amplifier, 542 time-domain characteristics, 400 function generator, 17
anti-alias, 395 tracking, 436, 577 arbitrary, 18
approximate, 42 twin-T, 414, 423r favorites, 1152
dc-accurate, 418 types, 400ff low-distortion, 1152
exact, 50 VCVS, 407, 408, 408t, 407410, 423r fuse, 630, 699r
FIR, 420 effect of op-amp Zout , 414g rating, 631
IIR, 420 highpass, 408
in switching amplifier, 109, 673 finite state machine (FSM), see logic GaAs, 135n, 793, 841p
of PRBS, 979 FIR, see filter, digital gain
VCVS, 407 FireWire, see computer, data bus amplifier, see amplifier, see BJT, see JFET,
maximally flat, 401 firmware, 1056 see op-amp
multiple-feedback, 413 first-in, first-out, see logic loop, see loop gain
effect of op-amp Zout , 414g flash GAL, see programmable logic device (PLD)
node of difference amplifier, 355 conversion, see ADC galvanic isolation, 843, 873
noise bandwidth, 564t, 565g memory, see memory CAN bus, 1045
notch, 53g, 414, 423r flicker, see also noise, 1/ f Garwin, R. L., 571n
overshoot, 400 of ADC code, 935 gate
passive, 391396, 423r flip-flop, see logic charge, see JFET, see MOSFET
performance parameters, 399 floating gate, see memory, non-volatile, see delay
phase shift, 404g voltage reference, MOSFET floating gate vs power, 792g
phase-sequence, 455, 456, 456g floating point, see number vs voltage, 794g
power-supply, 32, 699r flowchart, 1056 input current, 795g
powerline, see also ac line filter, 631 fluctuation-dissipation theorem, 475 logic
RC highpass, 69r flyback, see inductor, see switchmode as pulse generator, 459
approximate, 43 flying CMOS, 185
exact, 48 amplifier, 367 speed
RC lowpass, 69r capacitor, see capacitor vs power, 719g, 792g
approximate, 42g foldback, see power supply, see voltage vs voltage, 719g, 794g
exact, 50 regulator universal, 715, 717
phase shift of, 50g follower, see emitter follower, see op-amp, see Gaussian, see filter, see noise
phasor diagram, 51 source follower GBW, see BJT, gain-bandwidth product, see
switchable, 182 forgettory, 991 op-amp, gain vs frequency
RC, 402g, 423r forward generalized impedance converter, 398
brickwall bandwidth, 561 converter, see switchmode op-amp bandwidth, effect on, 399g
loading by, 44 Fourier transform, 395n Gilbert cell, 162
phase shift, 393g FPGA, 788, 789r, 1031, 1036, 1053n, 1060, glitch, see also logic, see also runt pulse, 738
response, 392g 1090p, 1093, 1096 ground-bounce, 856
1206 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

in 555 output, 429 insulating, 626 340, 443p, 664, 715p, 758, 765p, 861,
in active clamp, 238 LED, 834, 835p 1059
in analog switch, 180 PCB foil as, 626, 627g SMT, 73p, 224p, 225, 269, 340, 443p,
in counter, 743s sizing, 626g 715p, 758, 765p, 861
in crowbar, 691 sizzle test, 625 parallel interface, see also computer, data
in DAC, 882, 892, 893t, 939 thermal resistance of, 626g bus, 1028, 1030
in logic MUX, 756 heel example, 1028, 1030
in logic one-shot, 463, 759 Achilles, 536n serial interface, see also computer, data bus,
in logic race, 738 henry, see inductor 10321046
with slow transitions, 808 heterodyne, 562, 563 IEC power entry, 629
GLONASS, 451n Hewlett, William, 437n IEEE 1394 (FireWire), see computer, data bus
glossary, 1166 hex file, 1059 IEEE 488 bus (GPIB), see computer, data bus
GPIB, see computer, data bus hex number, see number IEEE number format, 1047
GPIO, 1084 hexadecimal, see number IGBT (insulated-gate bipolar transistor), 207,
GPS, 451, 1053, 1061 hibernate, 755 222r, 695
Gray code, 708 high side, see MOSFET, power, see switching desaturation, 847
binary conversion, 711 high voltage I2 C, see also computer, data bus, 887, 1028,
ground, 2 amplifier, 696, 696 1030, 1061, 1081, 1089, 1094
bounce, 758s, 759, 793, 856, 856, 877r clearance distance, 663 address selection, 952, 953
inductance, 758 creepage barrier, 665p bridge, 1084
loop, 442, 582 creepage distance, 663, 664, 665p in DAQ, 954
isolation, 349, 350 current source, see also current source microcontroller peripherals, 1085,
mecca, 582 current source in SMU, 897 10841086
noise, 856, 856 discharge circuit, 211 immediate argument, 993
oscilloscope probe, 1161 electrostatic, 200, 200t impedance, 40ff, 68r
plane, 581, 758, 759, 857, 1117 in SMPS, 662 audio, 351
sensing, 316 MOSFET isolated switches, 205 characteristic, of transmission line, 1116
separate analog and digital, 915 op-amps, 272t converter, generalized (GIC), 398
grounded coplanar waveguide, 1117 pulse generator, 333, 917, 918 op-amp bandwidth, effect on, 399g
grounding, 579ff, 582ff, 593r, 758 regulator, 609, 609, 693, 693, 695ff, 696 converter, negative (NIC), 397
between instruments, 583 resistor, see resistor in parallel, 46
blunders, 582 high-voltage in series, 46
group delay, 400 amplifier, 209 input
guard, see also current, leakage, 358, 360, 587 hold time, see logic, flip-flop of difference amplifier, 352, 354
Gummel plot, 92g, 127r, 500 hot carrier diode, see diode, Schottky of differential amplifier, 376
Gummel-Poon, 93n hour of power, 466, 467, 469 of op-amp, 245
gyrator, 393n, 397ff hour of power (design example), 466 loading effect of, 11, 11g, 69r, 99, 105, 861,
Howland current source, see op-amp, current 862
H-bridge, 655, 659, 889, 1077, 1084, 1085 source matching, 1120
half duplex, 1034, 1042, 1084, 1084n human of LC, 52, 444n
Hall effect, 1161 body model (HBM), 200, 804ff, 805, 872, of RC, 49g
Hamming, see also window, sampling, 975 875r of common-emitter amplifier, 88
handshake, 1017, 1029t, 1031, 1033, 1038, system interface (HI), 1059, 1096r of emitter follower, 80
1039t humidity of sources and loads, 79
Hanning, see window, sampling and MOSFET damage, 200 of transmission line, 1120
hard disk (hdd), 1135 effect on ICs, 684 output
Hartley, see oscillator hybrid of op-amp, 309
Harvard architecture, see computer, signal isolator, 1046 of RRO op-amp, 316
architecture hysteresis, see also Schmitt trigger, 237 output, of op-amp, 246
HDCP, 1145 clock inputs, 808 small-signal, 12, 50, 81
HDL, see programmable logic device (PLD) in tunnel diode, 1114 transmission-line matching, 1122
HDMI, see also connector, 1041 thermal, 683 in , see noise, density, current
HDTV, 1137 hysteretic in-phase, 395n
headroom, see also voltage regulator, SMPS, see switchmode inductance
low-dropout, 195, 277, 351, 497, 579, leakage, 30, 633635, 656, 659, 664, 667,
600, 600n, 604 (box), 636, 936 IC 667n, 668
heat, 623ff, 701r discontinued, 273 (box) disadvantages, 633n
heatsink, 236, 600, 623ff, 625p, 701r, 834 packages energy in, 669
air flow, 627 DIP, 3p, 57p, 65p, 73p, 224p, 225, 269, in powerline transformer, 633
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1207

snubber, 634, 656, 659, 669 integrated circuit, see IC maximum gain Gmax , 166
spike, 634, 659 integrating with cascode, 148
spike from, 667 ADC, see ADC as diode, 294
symbols, 665n conversion, see ADC as variable resistor, 161ff, 437, 438
magnetizing, 30, 656, 666, 667, 669 integrator linearizing, 161, 162, 162g
of coil, 28 droop, 257260 biasing, 150, 150n, 156, 513
of op-amp output, 250g in active filter, 406 capacitance, 157, 164, 170, 510, 519
sensor, 1084 in PLL, 960 care and feeding of, 346
inductive in quadrature oscillator, 453 characteristic curves, 143g
kick, see also spike, 38 op-amp, 230, 231s, 257260 current noise, 511g, 511, 591r
loads, 38 RC, 26, 51 current source, 142, 623g
inductor, see also ferrite, 28ff, 29p, 68r reset, 230, 231, 288r, 388r, 552 as BJT follower pulldown, 144
active, 397, 398, 399g, 645n amusing story, 573 self-biased, 143g, 145g
AL value, 670 switched-capacitor, 416 deep subthreshold region, 166, 167g
drawbacks of, 396 interdigitation, 140, 515 differential amplifier, 152, 343, 512, 513
flyback, transformer as, 655, 656 interface, see computer, data bus, see logic dual, 139, 515
international notation, 5n interference, 478, 579ff dynamic gate current, 164
reactance of, 44, 45, 49g intersymbol, 870 gate charge, 164
some magic with, 29 interlace, 1133n gate current, 146, 157, 163g, 325, 509, 511,
stored energy, 689, 700r Internet 511g, 591r, 593r
in switchmode converter, 636, 655, 666 video streaming, 1140 impact ionization, 164g, 546
variable, 64 interrupt, see computer Gmax , 141t
volt-second balance, 30, 643 inverter hybrid amplifier, 151, 153g, 155g, 343, 344,
input ac power converting, 673, 673s 512, 513, 544
protection, 37, 37, 159, 160, 175, 175, 210, charge-pump, 183 compensation, 154, 154g
266, 269, 294, 294, 362, 532, 804, 805, flying-capacitor, 183 vs FET op-amp, 155
946, 949 logic impact-ionization current, 164, 538
logic, 804, 804 CMOS, 185 in Wien bridge oscillator, 437, 438
robust, 362 nMOS, 185 leakage, see JFET gate current
inrush current, see current op-amp, 225 linear circuits, 142ff
instrumentation amplifier, 273, 288r, 297, 306, optional, 232 low distortion, 346
363t, 390r, 512, 1070, 1071 pMOS, 185 low noise
accuracy, 306 inverting hybrid op-amp, 534
as current source, 367 switchmode converter, see switchmode low-noise, 516t
autozero, 342, 370 IP, see programmable logic device (PLD) selecting, 515
bootstrapped power supply, 359, 359 ISA, see computer, data bus manufacturing spread, 140g, 138140, 145g,
classic, 357 isolation 157, 158, 169, 169g
CMRR, 306, 347, 358, 363t, 364, 364g, 367 amplifier, 585ff, 847 mini-table, 141t
vs frequency, 364 barrier in offline SMPS, 663 noise, 346, 500, 509520, 591r, 593r
CMRR depends on gain, 358 coupler, see also optocoupler, 847 reduction by paralleling, 509
CMRR vs Rsource mismatch, 366g power switch, 203, 205 vs BJT, 517
common-mode range, 367, 1071 op-amp, see also op-amp
configurations, 357, 368, 368ff, 369 jam-load, see also logic, counter, see also fast, 155t
discrete, 361 logic, flip-flop, see also logic, register, operating point, 156, 1112
EMI, 365 730, 742, 748, 751 oscillator, 155, 441
hybrid, 513 jetpack, 1095r in PLL, 395
in DAQ, 948 JFET spectrum, 442g
input current, 362 source ballasting, 547n output conductance, 148n, 166
JFET-input, 512 JFET (junction field-effect transistor output resistance, 148n, 166, 517
miscellany, 362 bootstrapped drain, 343, 344 pinch-off reference, 680, 680
noise, 362 JFET (junction field-effect transistor), see also pinch-off voltage tester, 240
noise depends on gain, 358 FET, 134, 217t pinch-off voltage, VP , 136
offset drift, 306 1/ f noise, 510, 517g schematic symbols, 135
offset trim, 366, 366 amplifier series-feedback pair, 150, 151g
offset voltage, 306 biasing, 220r source follower, see source follower
PGA, 370, 370, 371t common-source, 149 subthreshold region, 166g, 167g, 168g,
resistor matching, 358 gos gain error, 167 166170
roll-your-own, 359 instrumentation, 512, 513 switch, 220r
signal guards, 358 low noise, 346, 509520
1208 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

threshold voltage (Vth ), 137, 147, 166, 167g, DAC, 882, 883 driver ICs, 833t
169g replaced by charge redistribution, 909 driving
transconductance, 132, 141t, 146 lamp, 62, 437 series string, 832
vs drain current, 168g, 169, 169g as a problem load, 694 driving from comparator, 13, 14
vs drain voltage, 170, 517 neon, 428 driving from logic, 817ff, 833
within a family, 169, 169g Lantronix XPort, 1064 driving from MOSFET, 206, 465, 466
transfer characteristics, 135g, 137g, 139g, Larkin, John, 360 driving from TTL, 718n
142g, 165ff, 166169g laser diode, 830p, 834, 835, 836s, 973, 973 forward drop, 76g, 827g
trimming offset with DAC, 345 current, 835s high-current driver, 835s
VGS spread, 140g driver, 835n, 836 lamp (design example), 833
voltage noise, 346, 509511, 518520g linearizing, 836s multiplexed display, 751, 751752
theory vs measurement, 509g modulating, 836 multiplexed drive, 744n
vs frequency, 510g laser trimming, 244, 305, 352, 357, 416 organic, see OLED
vs transconductance, 509g latch, see logic panel-mount, 832t
voltage reference, 680, 680 latchup pulsed, 466, 835s
vs MOSFET, 170g in analog switch, 174 synchronous detection of, 577
jitter, see also oscillator, see also slew rate, in CMOS, 754, 759 voltage budget, 752
427, 457g, 457, 464, 870, 907, 964, 966, latency wavelength, 76
971 in ADCs, 903ff, 905t, 931, 937, 938, 940, Lehrer, Tom, 1099
rejection in PLL, 974 985987r LFSR, 558, 771, 771, 975, 975ff
Johnson noise, 474ff, 475g, 475t, 482g, 494g, none, 903, 916t Li-ion battery, see battery
526g, 569, 590r in FIFOs, 747 lighting, see also LED, see also optoelectronics
as noise source, 557 in processors, 1011 theater, 1081
calculation example, 486 in RAM, 1014n, 1021, 1021ff lightning detector (design example), 497
gain resistor contribution, 152, 352, 358, LC, see also filter, 52 limiter
379, 384, 906 Butterworth filter, 1109ff, 1110t diode, 37
greater at low gain, 387 damped oscillation, 53g line driver
in differential amplifier, 520 filter, 54g, 54p, 55s difference amplifier, 351
in JFET channel, 509 filter examples, 1109ff linear
in TIA feedback resistor, 537ff impedance of, 52, 444n circuit, 14, 68r
eliminating, 552 notch, 53 linearity
joule, 2 oscillator, see oscillator converter, 880, 899
joy parallel, 52 DNL warning, 900
and pain, 65 resonant circuit, 52, 69r INL vs DNL, 899, 899
JTAG, see also computer, data bus, see also series, 52 linearizing
memory, nonvolatile, see also tank, 53 JFET resistor, 162
microcontroller, 764, 769, 787r, 1028, trap, 441n optocoupler, 849
1036, 1061 LC via lookup table, 1067, 1096r
bootloader, 1091 series, 394 Little Logic, see mini-logic
jump, 996 LCD, see optoelectronics LMOS, see mini-logic
junction LCR meter, 1152 LO, see oscillator, local
capacitance, see capacitance LDO, see voltage regulator, low-dropout load
leakage current, see current leakage, see also capacitor, see also current, active, see also active load, 85, 105, 158,
see also JFET, 420, 1062 266, 266, 496
Karnaugh map, see logic cancellation, 298, 897, 898 capacitive
KCL, KVL, see Kirchhoffs laws spectral, 420 logic, 857, 857
Kelvin connection, 277, 294n, 350, 365, 898, leakage inductance, see inductance op-amp, 263s, 264, 264
1070 leap year, 967n dump, 618
Kelvin-Varley divider, see AoE 2nd ed., p 1025 Lebowski, see egg inductive, 38
keyboard, 1064 LED, 13, 62, 575, 830p, 829834, 876r, 1062 load lines, 145g, 156, 156g, 1112ff
parallel bus interface, 1003, 1005 angular illumination, 830g, 832g loading, 10ff, 11g, 69r, 79
keypad, 1081 arrays, 832 lock-in, see bandwidth, narrowing
hex, 1068, 1069 as bias reference, 86n lockup, see logic, pathology
Kirchhoffs laws, 2, 68r, 1107 backlight, 1084 logarithmic
BJT driver, 76 amplifier, see amplifier
L network, 1123 constant-current drive, 832 frequency sweep, 1069
laboratory power supply, see power supply current-source drive, 622 logic
ladder desklamp, 834, 835p 0 and 1, 704
R2R, 234 driver, 1086 1-of-8 decoder, 727
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1209

4-bit full adder, 728 divide-by-2, 731, 732 type-D, 731, 732
Verilog code for, 729 divide-by-3, 734, 743, 743s type-JK, 731
5V-tolerant, 798 asynchronous glitch, 743s type-T , 731
8-input multiplexer, 726 synchronous, 735 floating input, see logic, unused input
active-HIGH, active-LOW, 704, 714 Verilog code for, 736 FPGA, see FPGA
adder, 728 double transitions, 759 gate, see also buffer, logic, see also
arithmetic logic unit (ALU), 728, 990, 1049r driving mini-logic, 708724, 762r
assertion-level, 713 external loads, 721, 818, 817829, 875r 2-input select, 724, 725
asynchronous, 733, 734, 734s, 743s from comparator, 806 AND , 709, 709
BiCMOS, 714, 717n from op-amp, 808 circuits, discrete, 711
buffer, see buffer pre-emphasis, 864 example, 712, 714
capacitive load, 857, 857 driving ac loads from, 821, 822 exclusive-OR, see logic, gate, XOR
class-A current, 186, 186, 754 driving negative loads from, 821, 822 interchangeability, 713
clock DTL, 790 inverter, 709, 710
global, 777 dynamic current, 186 NAND , see also memory, nonvolatile, 186,
clock skew, 757, 757, 759, 801
ECL, 714, 717n, 718, 718, 722, 750, 790 710, 710, 1024
CML, 874 edge rate, 801, 801s NOR , see also memory, nonvolatile, 710,
CMOS, 221r, 714, 790794 enable, 720, 752 710, 1024
characteristics, 718ff encoder, see also encoder, 727 NOT , 709, 710
circuits, 791 excluded states, 735 OR , 709, 709
failure modes, 760 expansion, 726, 726, 727 standard, 709
input current, 795g families, 704n, 706t, 714, 717ff, 763r transmission, 172, 725, 725
minimizing power, 754 characteristics, 718ff universal, 715, 717, 800
open inputs with, 759, 760 choosing, 719, 794, 875r XOR , 710, 710, 737, 753, 771, 782, 957,
output current, 798g chronology, 790794 975, 982
output voltage, 797g circuits, 791 XOR realization, 722
pathology, 759 CMOS, 790794 glitch, 738, 739, 743s
shoot-through current, 760, 760g DTL, 790 in one-shot, 759
speed vs power, 792g ECL, 790 glue, 793
speed vs voltage, 794g input, 718, 795, 797g, 875r GTL, 857
threshold skew, 760 input current, 795, 795g hardware description language, see also
threshold voltage, 797g interconnecting, 799, 798802, 875r programmable logic device, see logic,
transfer characteristics, 796g life cycle, 715g HDL, 711
weak outputs, 827 logic levels, 706 (box), 718 HDL, see also programmable logic device,
combinational, 708728, 762r output, 718, 796, 797, 798g, 875r 711
combinatorial, 708 RTL, 790 HIGH and LOW , 704
contention, 721, 722, 730 speed and power, 719 hold time, 732
counter, 742t, 741744, 762r speed vs power, 719g, 792g IC packages, 715p
asynchronous, 733, 734, 734s speed vs voltage, 719g, 794g identities, 722t
modulo-n, 748ff, 750 supply voltage, 718 input characteristics, 795
modulo-n, timing, 750g threshold voltage, 796, 797g input overdrive, 806
ripple, 733, 734, 734s transfer characteristics, 796g input protection, 804, 804
synchronous, 737, 737s TTL, 790793 inputs, 795
up-down, 736, 742, 909 fan-out, 711, 720, 794ff, 795n current, 795, 795g
current none in transmission gate, 725, 726 driving, 802
class-A, 754, 760, 760g FIFO, 747 overcurrent, 806
D-register flip-flop, 196, 728ff, 762r pulldown, 805
Verilog code for, 741 clocked, 730, 732 pullup, 805
data bus, 720, 721 debouncer, 802, 802s unused, 806
DCL, 790 edge-triggered, 731 voltage, 797g
decoder, 726, 751, 838 hold time, 732 interfacing, 790874
expansion, 727 master-slave, 732 between logic families, 799, 798802
Verilog code for, 727 metastability, 732, 733g, 733s isolator, 823
delay multiple inputs, 730 Karnaugh map, 723
vs power, 792g propagation time, 732 keeper circuit, 802, 803
vs voltage, 794g RS, 729 latch, 740
demultiplexer, 726 setup time, 732 level translator, 800, 802
digital vs analog, 703 setup time violation, 733g, 733s levels, 17, 706 (box), 762r
diode, 711 toggling, 731, 732 CAN bus, 1044
1210 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

symmetrizing, 978 synchronous, 743 loop gain, 111, 117, 118120


life cycle, 715g reset/supervisor, 756t loss
lockup, 755 ringback, 759n switching, 662
LVDS, see also LVDS, 794 robust link, 1120 loudspeaker
LVPECL, see LVPECL RTL, 711n, 712, 790 as microphone, 486
magnitude comparator, 728, 728 runt pulse, see runt pulse low dropout, see voltage regulator, low-dropout
metastability, 732, 733g, 733s, 756 SCR latchup, 759 low-voltage differential signaling, see LVDS
Mickey-Mouse, 468 sequential, 728745, 762r LSB, see also number, 705, 711, 734, 737, 751,
micropower design, 753 miscellaneous, 746 882, 903, 909
mini, 712n, 715n, 793 timing example, 748 LVDS, 705n, 794, 864, 869, 869s, 868870,
minimization, 723 setup time, 732 870, 871s, 878r, 1030
MOSFET, 184 violation, 733g, 733s, 756n levels, 873
multiplexed display, 751, 751ff shift register, 762r, 1081 power, 874g
multiplexer, 724 feedback PRBS, 975 rates, 873g
expansion, 726, 726 linear feedback, see LFSR signal conditioning, 870, 871s
race condition in, 756, 756 noise source, see also LFSR, 558 torture test, 869, 869s
Verilog code for, 726 RAM as, 745, 745, 746g LVPECL, 794, 874
multiplier-accumulator, 728 timing, 746g
NECL, 718, 718n speed, 710s macrocell, see programmable logic device
negative-true, 704n, 714 vs power, 792g (PLD)
nMOS, 712 vs voltage, 794g magazines, 1153
driving LED, 827g, 828 standard, 763r, 793 magnet controller, 365
driving loads, 828 combinational ICs, 724 man
input characteristics, 828 gates, 715, 716t transistor, 75
interfacing, 826ff sequential ICs, 740 Manchester code, 1041
output characteristics, 827 when to use, 782 Manchester coding, 1039ff
output circuit, 827 startup reset, 755, 755 mantissa, 1048
open-collector, 721, 800, 807, 811, 817, 993 state machine, 734, 734 MARK and SPACE , 771n
as level translator, 721 Mealy, Moore, 736 Mark (RS-232), 871
open-drain, 721, 721, 800, 807, 811 states, 704, 797g math review, 10971100
output characteristics, 796 strobe, 725 maximal length shift register, see LFSR
voltage vs current, 798g SUHL, 790 MDAC, see DAC, multiplying
parity generator, 728 switch, 725, 917t mecca, see ground
pathology, 755760, 763r switch input as pulldown, 729n memory, see also computer, see also logic, see
unspecified rules, 757 synchronizer, 737, 738 also microcontroller, 745, 990, 991,
PECL, see also PECL, 718, 718n synchronous, 734, 743s, 777 10141027, 1051r
positive-true, 704n, 714 syntax, 711t 1T1C cell, 1019
power three-state, 720, 720, 993 6T cell, 1016
dynamic, 754 through cables, 856ff, 877r, 1117 access time, see also memory, dynamic, see
minimizing, 754 comparison, 874 also memory, static, 746g
preload timing skew, 737n burst mode, 1021
asynchronous, 748, 752 toggling, 196 cache, 990, 991
synchronous, 748 toggling flip-flop, 731 computer, 991
priority encoder, 727 Verilog code for, 732 configuration, for FPGA, 769
probing, 808, 809s, 810p transmission gate, 172, 725, 725, 917t, 1016 double data rate, see DDRn
programmable, see programmable logic bidirectional, 725, 727 dynamic, 991, 1019, 10181021, 1051r
device truth table, 708 asynchronous, 1018, 1020, 1021
propagation time, 710s, 732 TTL, 714, 790793 latency, 1021
pulse generator characteristics, 718ff synchronous, 1021, 1022
design example, 739 noise in, 758 timing, 1021, 1022
with flip-flops and counters, 739 output characteristics, 827 endurance, 769
quiet, 759, 793 unspecified rules, 757 EPROM, 769
race, see also runt pulse, 724n, 738, 748, 756 unused input, 718, 738, 754, 759, 760, 806 flash, 769, 991, 1082, 1094, 1096r
register, see also computer, 740, 762r, 990 LVDS trick, 800 HDD, 991
power, 819, 819t wired-AND, 722, 1082 multilevel cell (MLC), 1025
shift, 744, 744 wired-OR, 721, 722 non-volatile, 764, 769, 770, 772, 779, 787r,
removal time, 758 lookup table, 735 1051r
reset loop nonvolatile, 10211027, 1067
asynchronous, 743 second-order, see PLL
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1211

EEPROM, 1023, 1051r, 1053, 1064, bypassing, 1056 Java, 1088


1082, 1084, 1094, 1096r C-language code Python, 1088
EPROM, 1023 for PRBS generator, 784 special-function register, 779
ferroelectric, 1022, 1025 PRBS generator, 782 ST6/7, 1061
flash, 1022, 1024ff, 1051r, 1053, 1089, code download, 1059 stabilized platform (design example), 1077,
1094 Coldfire, 1061, 1090p, 1093 1077p, 1079p
floating gate, 1022, 1023 constraints, 1086 block diagram, 1078
JTAG programming, 1036 debugger, 779, 1095r pseudocode, 1078
magnetoresistive, 1022, 1026 development environment, 10861092, suntan monitor (design example),
mask ROM, 1023 1095r 10541059
NAND flash, 1024, 1025 cost, 1092 C-language code, 1058
NOR flash, 1024, 1024 development kit, 1090, 1090p circuit, 1054, 1055
phase change, 1022, 1026 firmware, 1056 pseudocode, 1056, 1057
PROM, 1023 frequency synthesizer (design example), terminology, 989
page mode, 1019n 1067p, 10651069 thermal controller (design example), 1071,
pseudo-static, 1017, 1017 block diagram, 1066 10691077
RAM pseudocode, 1067, 1068 block diagram, 1069
as shift register, 745, 745, 746g how to select, 1094 control loop, 1074, 1075
read cycle, 1017, 1019, 1021, 1022, 1049r IDE, 779 pseudocode, 1075, 1075
retention, 769 implementing delta-sigma ADC, 932, 933 when to use, 785, 1093, 1096r
ROM in-circuit debugging, 1092, 1096r wrapup, 10921094
in state machine, 735, 736n in-circuit programming, 1053 XMOS, 1061
SSD, 992 instrumentation amplifier frontend, 1071 microconverter, 1070
static, 769, 991, 1016, 10161018, 1051r, JTAG programming, 1036, 1053 microphone
1061, 1094, 1095, 1096r loading code on, 10891092 capacitor as, 682
asynchronous, 1016, 1016, 1017 JTAG bootloader, 1091 loudspeaker as, 486
synchronous, 1018, 1019 parallel bootloader, 1091 ribbon preamp, 505
timing, 1016, 1017, 1019 proprietary bootloader, 1091 micropower, see also ADC, see also logic, see
static vs dynamic, 1015 SPI bootloader, 1091 also op-amp, see also oscillator, crystal
volatile, 991 UART bootloader, 1090 digital design, 753
volatile/nonvolatile, 1014 USB bootloader, 1091 microstrip, see also stripline, 858, 1117, 1119
wrapup, 1026 logic inputs, 1081, 1084 Miller effect, see also capacitor, 105, 113ff,
write cycle, 1017, 1019, 1021, 1022, 1049r MIPS, 1061 130r, 153, 164, 197, 197g, 198s, 511
MEMS, 446n MSP430, 1061 and differential amplifier, 114
metastability, see logic object code, 779, 1096r configurations that avoid, 115, 148, 152n
meter, 61 output characteristics, 798g Millmans theorem, 6, 1108
mho, 6 output current, 798g mini-logic, 715n, 715p, 772n, 800n
microcomputer peripheral ICs, 10781086 MiniGate, see mini-logic
terminology, 989, 1049r direct connection, 1080, 10791082 mixer, 395, 562, 563, 1139
microcontroller, 747, 749, 763r, 797, 887, I2 C connection, 1085, 10841086 M2 L, see logic, Mickey-Mouse
10531094, 1095r SPI connection, 1083, 10821084 modem, 873
8051, 1060, 1067, 1087, 1090p, 10911093 peripherals modified sinewave, 673s
ac power control (design example), 1063, on-chip, 1061ff modulation
10621065 PIC, 1060 8-VSB, 1138n
pseudocode, 1064, 1065 popular families, 10591061 8PSK, 1139
ADC timing example, 1088, 1088g PowerPC, 1061 amplitude (AM), 55, 56s, 970, 1134
pseudocode, 1089 PRBS generator, 777ff, 782 homodyne, 970
ARM, 1036, 1060, 1087, 1090, 1090p, precision ADC in, 1071 synchronous, 970
10911093, 1094n, 1095r Propeller, 1061 BPSK, 970
as debouncer, 803, 804 PSoC, 1061 delta, 910
as timer, 469 Rabbit, 1060 frequency (FM), 969, 1134
assembly code realtime constraints, 1088 demodulation with PLL, 969
for PRBS generator, 783 SH-4, 1061 Foster-Seeley detector, 970
PRBS generator, 779 simulator, 779, 1095, 1096r quadrature demodulation, 969
assembly language, 779 software, 1086ff quieting in, see AoE 2nd ed., p 898
AVR, 1036, 1055, 1059, 1060, 1087, assembly code, 1087 ratio detector, 970
10891093, 1095r assembly language, 1095r slope detector, 970
Blackfin, 1061 BASIC, 1087 pulse-code (PCM), 703, 971
block diagram, 1054 C/C++, 1087 QAM, 970
1212 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

QPSK, 970, 1139 high-side switching, 202ff, 204 multiplier, see also Gilbert cell
quadrature amplitude (QAM), 1138n high-voltage, 202, 662, 695 analog, 162, 562, 575
synchronous detection, 575, 576 lateral, 214g capacitance, see capacitance
video, 1133 light-at-night, 206 frequency, see frequency
modulator linear applications, 208 logic, see logic, multiplier-accumulator
delta-sigma, 924, 925 logic-level, 192, 193 multiply
magic in, 927 paralleling, 201, 212ff, 214, 222r how to, 761
monostable multivibrator, see one-shot piezo amplifier, 208 multiplying DAC, see DAC
monotonicity piezo driver, 207 multislope conversion, see ADC
converter, 880 power rating, 199
Monticelli output circuit, 318, 330 protected switch, 204 Nakamura, Shuji, 62
Moores law, xxix, 748, 989n, 990p, 1018n push-pull follower, 214 NAND , see logic, see memory, nonvolatile
MOSFET, see also FET, 134 source ballasting, 192, 212ff, 213, 214 narrowcast, 1142
as pullup, 828 switch, 206t, 221r, 1073 negative-impedance converter, 397
avalanche rated, 819n, 1073, 1073 switch examples, 206 negative-true, see logic
capacitance, 164, 165, 187, 188191t, 197g, switching applications, 195, 196, netlist, see programmable logic device (PLD)
197ff, 205 192196 network
construction, 134 switching cautions, 196 local-area (LAN), 1046
depletion-mode, 209, 210t, 222r, 698 thermal runaway in, 214 neutral, see powerline, wiring
as current source, 622 thermal stability, 187 NEXT (near-end crosstalk), 581
as input protection, 210, 949 vs BJT and IGBT, 201, 202t, 208t night light, 206
current source, 211 RDS(ON) , 139, 188191t, 199, 221r NMR, 577
extending regulator VIN , 211, 693 RON vs VCE(sat) , 201, 202t node, 2
HV discharge, 211 RON vs temperature, 187, 199, 213g noise, see also amplifier, see also avalanche,
dynamic gate current, see also MOSFET, RON vs voltage, 202, 662 see also op-amp, 15, 326, 473481, 636s,
gate driver, 164 schematic symbols, 134 637
floating-gate reference, see voltage reference series connection of, 697 1/ f , 337, 476g, 476, 491, 520, 590r
gate capacitance, 197g, 197ff source ballasting, 192, 214 cancellation of, 485n
gate charge, see also MOSFET, power, 164n switch, 1081 corner frequency, 566
gate driver, 194, 194, 218t, 222, 222, 753, floating, 203 filtered bandwidth, 564t
797, 798g, 823, 828, 833, 861, 1073, high-side, 825, 826t, 1082 forever?, 566, 567s
1095r protected, 824, 825, 825t, 1082 integrated, 566g
optocoupler, 206 protecting, 823ff JFET, 510, 517g
gate leakage, 163, 1059 switching examples, 193, 204, 205, 820 op-amp, 324, 324g, 530
gate threshold, 137 transfer characteristics, 212g analog
handling precautions, 200 vs BJT, 202t filtered PRBS, 975, 977982
gate damage, 201p vs BJT and IGBT, 201 averaging time, 574
high-voltage vs JFET, 170 band-limited, 477
creepage barrier, 665p motor driver, 1078, 1079p bandpass filters
isolated power switch, 203, 205 motorboating, 287 response, 565g
lateral, 213 mouse, 1064 bandwidth, 477, 561ff
logic switch, 184 MOV, see varistor multisection RC, 561
maximum current, 221r MP3, 1137n of LC, 561
maximum ratings, 221r MPEG, 1093 of an average, 562
noise, 519, 520g MPEG-2, 1137n bistable, 477s
on-resistance, see MOSFET, RON and MPEG-4, 1061, 1137n BJT, see BJT
RDS(ON) MSB, see also number, 705, 711, 734, 737, test circuit, 557
polarity, 134 751, 882, 903, 909 burst, 477, 477s, 590r
power, 187ff, 188191t MSP430, see microcontroller capacitively coupled, 581
applications, 202ff multichannel scaling, see bandwidth, common-mode choke, 585
ballast, see also ballast, 213 narrowing crest factor, 568, 981
body diode, 199 multimeter, 2, 10 (box) current
drain capacitance, 198 true rms, 631 density, 483
floating switches, 205 multiplex measuring, 569ff
gate breakdown, 199 video, 1138 of bias-canceled op-amp, 327, 527
gate capacitance, 197g multiplexer, see also analog switch, see also ultra-low measurement, 571, 572
gate charge, 188191t, 197g, 197, 198s, logic, 724 current source, of, 487ff
202, 205, 221r FET analog switch, 173 density, 474, 479, 590r
gate protection, 199 in DAQ, 946 voltage, 481ff
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1213

differential amplifier, 520 power supply, 578ff, 580g, 580t, 593r, 618, integer
digital 913 formats, 1047
generation with PRBS, 974982 capacitance multiplier, 557, 578, 579g justification, 1046
emitter follower, 487ff pseudorandom, see PRBS signed, 707t, 1046
en -C, see also transimpedance amplifier, quantization, 927g unsigned, 1046
532, 538, 538ff, 540542g, 542s, 543g quantization error, 574 MSB in, 707ff, 1046ff
equivalent power (NEP), 537n quick guide to, 473 not a, 1048
exceedance probability curve, 574g red, 477s, 563ff of the beast, the, 666
excess, 475ff, 590r rejection in PLL, 974 offset binary, 707
figure, 479, 480g, 493g, 519, 592r resistance, 494, 501, 502t, 522t, 528, 569, overflow, 708
contour plot, 490g, 492, 493g 592r packed BCD, see AoE 2nd ed., pp 736, 741
conversion to SNR, 480 rms vs magnitude, 574 sign-magnitude, 707
example, 492 shaping, see also delta-sigma, 927, 927ff signed, 707
filtered shot, 327, 475ff, 476t, 482g, 511g, 590, 591r storage in memory, 1048
over decades, 567s equivalent to Johnson noise, 482, 509, nybble, 990
filtering out-of-band, 911 525n Nyquist, see also sampling, 395, 419
flicker, see noise, 1/ f suppression of, 476, 487ff, 488 noise, 474
floor, 418 source Nyquist criterion, see sampling
Gaussian, 475g, 482, 590r, 979, 981 PRBS circuit, 980 Nyquist noise, see also Johnson noise
generator, 559 sources, 558ff, 590r, 592r
pink, 559 switchmode power supply, 636g, 636s, 637 Odroid, 1053n
pink, spectrum, 560s telegraph, 477s off-axis pole, see pole
PRBS, 558 temperature, 480, 519, 592r offline, see ac powered
immunity, 705, 754 threshold-crossing rate, 574 offset binary, see number, codes
in inverting amplifier, 521 true random, 982, 988r Ohms law, 4
in noninverting amplifier, 520 circuit, 984 generalized, 46
instrumentation amplifier, 362 types of, 474, 477s, 558, 590r not obeyed by diode, 31
integrals, 564t units of, 474 ON resistance, see analog switch, FET, see
integrated unspecified, 503, 504g, 507, 517, 517g, 519, MOSFET
calculating, 563 535 one second per hour (design example), 467
of op-amps, 338g, 530, 531g, 531t voltage one-shot, 77, 242, 459, 460, 463t, 461465,
interference as, 478 from filtered PRBS, 978 471r, 739, 762r
JFET, see JFET voltage reference, see also voltage reference, 555, 460, 460
Johnson, see Johnson noise 677t, 682g, 682 application examples, 465
low-frequency specification, 564 white, 474ff, 477s, 563ff cautions, 462ff
magnetically coupled, 581 zener, 676n circuit, 461
maxima, 574 nonlinearity problems with, 462ff
measurement, 555ff, 568, 592r converter error, 880, 899 protecting pulsed power devices with, 465
hot-cold, 557 nonmonotonicity reset, 462
RF, 558 converter error, 880 retriggerability, 462
transistor test circuit, 557 NOR , see logic, see memory, nonvolatile timing coefficient, 464g
MOSFET, see MOSFET Norton equivalent circuit, 66, 69r, 1108 op-amp, 223ff, 224p
mosquito, 1137n notch, see LC, see filter 1/ f noise, see noise
Nyquist, see Johnson noise NRZ, 1041 absolute-value circuit, 257
of switching power supplies, 649 NRZI, 1041 ac amplifier, 226
of voltage regulator, 618 NTSC, 1062, 1132n, 1134, 1136 biasing, 261, 262
filtering, 619, 620 number accuracy vs linearity, 313
op-amp, 522t, 523t, 524t, 528g, 529g, 532s, 2s complement, 707, 1046 active clamp, 257, 289r
520533 arithmetic in, 708 active peak detector, 254
autozero, 333ff, 334s, 568g, 570g, 572s BCD, 706 active rectifier, 238ff, 257, 289r
choosing, 525533 codes, 705708, 880, 10461048 effect of slew rate, 238
spectrum, 568g, 568s, 570g, 572s denormalized, 1048 as voltage regulator, 235
vs Cin , 532g dynamic range, 1048 autozero, 254, 272, 295, 333ff, 334, 335t,
peak vs rms, 532, 564, 568, 935n floating-point, 708n, 1047 370, 388, 389r, 528g, 933
phase, see phase formats, 1047 common-mode input range, 340
pink, 477s, 559, 563ff, 566 formats, 1047 external, 341, 341
popcorn, 477s, 478g, 590r Gray-code, 708, 709 input current, 339
potpourri, 574 binary conversion, 711 instrumentation amplifier, 342
hex, 705 integrated noise, 338g
1214 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

noise, 336g, 336, 337s, 569t detailed look, 242253 input current, 225, 244, 303, 303g, 304,
noise current, 339, 569, 570g, 572s die (LT1028), 527p 304g, 325, 325g, 339
noise voltage, 339, 568g difference amplifier, 227, 288r, 347387 noise, 526g, 531, 531g, 568g
offset voltage, 339 bandwidth, 355 RFI, 369n
overload recovery, 337 CMRR trim, 356, 357 slew rate, 308g
selecting, 338ff configurations, 356 JFET hybrid, see op-amp, hybrid amplifier
self-calibrating, 341 filter node, 355 with JFET
settling time, 340 offset trim, 355, 357 limitations, effect on circuits, 249254
slew rate, 340 differential amplifier, 347387 linearity, 251
supply voltage, 338 differential input range, 232, 246, 535 low input-current, 303t
bandwidth, 247, 249, 290r, 308, 328, 329g differentiator, 260, 288r low noise, 522524t
basic circuits, 225231, 288r distortion, 329ff, 331, 332g choosing, 525533
bias canceled, 125, 252, 266 slew-rate, 248s hybrid, 534
better than JFET, 303g vs frequency, 311g micropower, 273
current noise of, 327, 527 driving logic from, 808 Monticelli output circuit, 318, 330
BJT, 163, 244, 244n, 245t, 248n, 290, 522t, electrometer, 259, 289, 290r noise, 289r, 528g, 529g, 520533, 592r
524t, 525, 569 feedback at dc, 232 0.00110Hz, 1/ f , Vn(pp) , 531g
bias canceled, 327 follower, 227, 288r 0.0110Hz, 1/ f , Vn(pp) , 564
input current, 244, 290, 303, 303g, 304, with bootstrap, 233 1/ f , 528, 529g
304g frequency compensation, see op-amp, autozero, 333ff, 334s
noise, 337, 526g, 568g compensation impedance, 326
RFI, 366, 369n gain, 249, 290r integrated, 338g, 530, 531g, 531t
slew rate, 308g vs frequency, 281g, 281ff, 282284g, low-frequency, 530ff, 532s, 564
Bode plot, 290r 311g, 328, 329g measuring, 568
capacitive load, 332 gain error, 312, 312g vs Cin , 532g
driving, 264 gain nonlinearity, 312ff, 313 noise current, 326ff, 336g, 530, 570g, 572s
stability, 265g measuring, 313 measuring, 569ff
stabilizing, 263s, 264 golden rules, 225, 288r of autozero, 339
cautions, 231, 289r high-power, 272t noise resistance, 528
chopper-stabilized, see also op-amp, high-speed, 310t noise spectrum, 568g, 568s, 570g, 572s
autozero, 340, 340, 1070 high-voltage, 272t noise voltage, see also noise, 323, 324g,
clamping, 912 hybrid amplifier with JFET, 151, 153g, 336g, 337, 535, 568g
CMOS, see also op-amp, autozero, see also 155g, 343, 344, 534, 545 measuring, 567
op-amp, input current, 163g, 245t, 258, ideal, 243, 288r of autozero, 339
265, 290r, 296t, 389r, 523, 524t, 525 input capacitance, 532 noise voltage and current, 249, 526
input current, 225, 244, 259, 289r, 303, input current, 163, 163g, 244, 252, 289r, of bias-canceled, 327
304g, 325, 325g, 339 295, 302, 325, 388r, 530, 535 vs supply current, 525g
noise, 526g, 531, 531g, 568g BJT better than JFET, 303g noninverting amplifier, 226, 288r
CMRR, 305, 328 common-mode voltage, variation with, noise, 520
CMRR and PSRR, 249 304, 304g, 306g nonlinear circuits, 236, 289r
common-mode input range, 245, 290r effect on integrator, 257 offset trim, 306, 534
of autozero, 340 measuring, 325ff offset voltage, 244, 251, 289r, 304, 306, 323,
of difference amplifier, 354 of autozero, 339 388r
compensation, see also op-amp, temperature, variation with, 295, 303g, effect on integrator, 257
overcompensation, 247, 280ff, 283, 290r, 307, 325g, 530 of autozero, 339
308 input impedance, 245, 250, 301, 306 test circuit, 323
compensation pin, 320, 321t input offset current, 244, 252 offset voltage drift, 244, 289r
clamping, 912, 913 input protection, 258, 294, 362 optional inverter, 232
current feedback, see also feedback, 270, instrumentation, see instrumentation oscillator
271, 272t, 308, 310t, 331g, 375t, 378, amplifier precision VCO, 267
384386, 513, 514, 521, 524t, 548 integrator, 230, 231s, 257260, 288r, 933 output current, 251, 272t, 290r
peaking vs gain-setting R, 379g resistor stabilization, 259 output errors, 389r
current source, 228230, 242, 254, 344, 367, inverting amplifier, 225, 288r, 316n output impedance, 246, 250, 290r, 309
622, 623, 895 noise, 521 effect on MFB filter, 414g
Howland, 229, 230 JFET, 140, 155, 163, 163g, 226, 245t, 252, effect on VCVS filter, 414g
current-to-voltage converter, 233 274, 296t, 389r, 492, 523, 524t, 525, 532g vs frequency, 250g, 311, 312g
decompensated, 283, 283g, 308, 328, 515, fast, 155t output range, 231
542, 550, 553 impact-ionization input current, 538 output swing, 246, 290r
departure from ideal, 243249, 289r vs frequency, 251g, 307g
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1215

vs load resistance, 246g split feedback, 263, 264s, 265 image sensor, 841p, 1061
output voltage stuck-node tracer, 276g interrupter, 844p, 851, 877r
vs load current, 247g summing amplifier, 234 IrDA, 1061, 1081
overcompensation, 263, 285, 542, 571 summing junction, see summing junction laser diode, see laser diode
parameters, 245t supply rail splitter, 262 LCD, 836, 837p, 840, 1061, 1066, 1095,
unspecified, 295 stability, 263, 263s 1096r, 1142
peak detector, 289r supply voltage, 248, 322 interface timing, 1028
resetting, 255 of autozero, 338 LED, see LED
phase error, 314, 315g, 315t supply-rail bypass, 232 LED backlight, 1084
active compensation, 314, 315g, 315t tables of, 271272t, 296t, 302, 303t, 310t, LED stick, 839
phase reversal in, 275, 361n 320, 321t, 335t, 522524t light-to-frequency, 1081
phase shift, 247, 290r track-and-hold, 256 miscellaneous, 837p
vs frequency, 311g transconductance, see OTA (operational multicharacter display, 839
photodiode amplifier, 233 transconductance amplifier) OLED, 836, 1082, 1143
photometer, 265 transimpedance amplifier, see optocoupler, see optocoupler, 1081
pinch-off voltage tester, 240 transimpedance amplifier photo-Darlington, 842
pinout, 225 triangle oscillator, 239 photoconductive, 437, 438n, 844p
power, 588 uncompensated, see also op-amp, photoconductive mode, 842
power and high-voltage, 272t decompensated, 283 photodiode, see also avalanche, 841
power booster, 234 unity-gain frequency, 247, 247g, 281g, photomultiplier, 837p, 842, 842
precision, 292ff, 320, 321t, 388r 281ff, 282284g, 328, 329g amplifier, 843
choosing, 319 voltage feedback, 385 phototransistor, 841
representative, 302t voltage gain, 247 photovoltaic mode, 842
vs speed, 329 vs frequency, 247g photovoltaic stack, 204, 849, 850
programmable pulse-width generator, 241 zero-crossing detector, 269 PIN diode, 837p, 973
PSRR, 306, 328, 533 open collector, 173, 173, 721, 799, 807, 811, plasma, 1143
push-pull booster, 234 817, 818 proximity detector, 851, 877r
rail-to-rail, 236, 246, 266, 277, 289, 290r, open drain, 721, 799, 807, 811 rotary encoder, 1066
315ff, 389r open frame, see power supply, modular smart display, 839
distortion, 317g, 318 optocoupler, 805, 837p, 844p, 845, 846, 847, codes, 840
gain, 318g 848, 850, 851, 843851, 852, 877r, 915, synchronous detection, 578
input circuit, 316 1062, 1064, 1081 VFD, 836, 1066, 1067
input crossover, 316, 317g analog, 586, 847 optointerrupter, see optoelectronics
output circuit, 317 as variable resistor, 437, 438n optoisolator, see optocoupler
output impedance, 316, 318g current transfer ratio (CTR), 844ff, 845, 852 orthogonal
output saturation, 317 for isolated feedback, 663 adjustments, 515
output swing, 247g gate drive, 206, 846 oscillation
VOS shift, 316g linearizing, 849 damped, 53g
relaxation oscillator, see also oscillator, logic output, 844 parasitic, 426, 427s, 442
relaxation, 425 photoconductive parasitic oscillations in, 427s
representative, 271t linearity, 437 slow logic transition, from, 801s
sample-and-hold, 256, 289r phototransistor output, 844 oscillator, 289r, 425457, 470r, 700r, 1081
schematic signal isolator, 586 555, 429, 430t, 428432
LF411, 243 optoelectronics, 829856, 876r 50% duty-cycle, 429
TLC271, 266 16-segment display, 838 full-range duty-cycle, 430
self heating, 306 5x7 matrix display, 839 sawtooth, 430, 430
sensitive millivoltmeter (design example), 7-segment display, 838, 838 triangle, 431, 432
253, 293, 296t angle encoder, 877r atomic standard, 451
series damping, 263, 263s APD, 877 blocking, 656
settling time, 308ff, 311g, 320, 321t, 328 coupler, see optocoupler ceramic resonator, 450, 471r
of autozero, 340 detectors, 837p, 840, 841p, 876r Clapp, 440, 441
sign of feedback, 232 display CMOS, 426
single-supply, 245, 261, 265270, 289r, 322 LED, multiplexed, 751, 751ff, 838 Colpitts, 440, 440, 447
slew rate, 248g, 251, 290r, 307, 328, 329 multiplexed, 443, 751, 751 crystal, 439, 443p, 443450, 471r, 1063
distortion, 248s display technology, 1142 a caution, 449
of autozero, 340 displays, 62, 830p, 836ff, 837p, 876r, 1081 aging, 451, 471r
vs fT , 308 emitters, 830p, 829840 circuits, 447, 447
vs input differential, 308g family tree, 829, 831 (box) equivalent circuit, 444
smorgasbord, 232 fiber optics, see fiber optics micropower, 448, 449g
1216 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

modules, 449 Wien bridge, see oscillator, sinewave, 847 coupling, see capacitive coupling
pulling, 435 with integrated divider, 434 oscillation, see oscillation
series and parallel modes, 444, 444g YIG, 434, 435 SCR, see SCR
DDS, 451, 453, 455, 471r, 969, 1065, 1082, oscilloscope, 2, 1158ff parity generator, 728
1089 analog, 1152, 1159 pass transistor, see transistor, see voltage
emitter-coupled, 440 digital, 1152, 1162ff, 1163 regulator, linear
GPS-disciplined, 451, 471r aliasing, 1164 pattern sensitivity, 857, 871s
Gunn-diode, 434, 435 dead time, 1164 PC board design, see AoE 2nd ed.,
Hartley, 440, 440, 442 hints, 1160 pp 816852, 954
inverter chain, 435, 973 probe, 67, 808, 809, 810s, 1160, 1161 PC104, see computer, data bus
JFET, 155 active, 809, 809s, 810p, 1161 PCB
low-noise, 441 current, 1161 ground plane, 759, 857
spectrum, 442g skew, 1164 ground wiring, 758
jitter, 457, 971 OTA (operational transconductance amplifier), PCI, see computer, data bus
LC, 439, 470r 100 PCIe, see computer, data bus
electrically tunable, 440 output PCM, see modulation, pulse-code
local (LO), 395, 562, 971, 1139 comparator stage, 811 peak detector, 156
low-distortion, 437, 438, 1152 comparator swing, 810 active, 254, 255
MEMS, 960, 971 creating differential, 372 passive, 254
microwave, 1152 current, comparator, 811, 811g peak-to-peak
not needed in C example, 1056 current, op-amp, 272t amplitude, 14
OCXO, 968 output current full-power bandwidth, 251g
op-amp critical, in SMPS, see switchmode output swing, 246
triangle wave, 239 oven, 450, 681 PECL, 874
parasitic oscillations in, 426 overcompensation, see also op-amp, 285, 285, permeability, 29
Peltz, 440, 440 286 perpetual motion, 116
phase noise, see phase, noise overcurrent protection, see current, limiting, PGA, see amplifier, programmable gain
phase-shift, 438, 439 see power supply, see voltage regulator phase
Pierce, 447, 447 oversampling, see sampling control in DDS, 1068
PLL, 452, 471r overtemperature detector, see also PLL, 575
precision, 1152 sensor, see also sensor, 13, 14, 203, 602, equalizer, 415
precision VCO, 267 604, 604 (box), 608, 671 error
programmable, 267 absent, 695 of op-amp, 314, 315g, 315t
quadrature, 454, 454s, 453456, 470r overvoltage, see also switchmode, OVP, 691 margin, 247, 263, 276, 282
quartz crystal, 443450 shutdown, see also crowbar, see also power noise, 966, 968, 971
ratiometric, 431 supply, 598, 658t, 672, 687, 691, 702r, sequence filter, 455, 456, 456g
relaxation, 267, 432, 425435, 470r 825 shift, see phase shift
555, 429 OVP, see overvoltage, see switchmode splitter, 105
CMOS logic, 426, 427, 559 with discrete BJTs, 88
diac, 428 packet, 1138 phase shift
high-voltage, 428 switching, 1141 and feedback stability, see also Bode plot,
neon, 428 PAL, see programmable logic device (PLD), 281285, 285
op-amp, 425, 426 1062 control in SMPS, 659
unijunction, 427, 428 PALASM, see programmable logic device filter comparison, 404g
resistor-programmed, 433, 433g (PLD) oscillator, 438
ring, 960 parallel, 2 RC lowpass, 50g
SAW, 450, 471r, 960, 971 bootloader, 1091 phase shifter
sawtooth, 430, 430, 917, 918 capacitors, 21 constant-amplitude, 89, 89
silicon, 432, 433t conversion, see ADC phase-locked loop, see PLL
sinewave, 435443, 470r impedances, 46, 69r phase-sequence filter, see filter, see phase
Wien bridge, 436ff, 437, 438, 452t, 470r JFETs to reduce noise, 509 phasor, 51, 52g, 89
TCXO, OCXO, 450, 471r MOSFETs, 201 photoconductive mode, 537n, 831 (box), 841n
triangle, 239, 267, 431, 432 port, 9991002, 1063, 1066, 1067, 1069, photocoupler, see optocoupler
tuning-fork, 441 1081, 1084, 1095r photodiode, 841
types, 452t resistors, 5 photometer
varactor-tuned, 441 resonant crystal mode, 444, 444g, 446g single-supply, 265
VCXO, 446, 471r, 960, 965, 969, 971 parameters photomultiplier, 842, 842
voltage-controlled, 267, 434ff, 470r, 959 unspecified, 295 amplifier, 843
in PLL, 959 parasitic
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1217

photon counting, see avalanche photodiode, see signal regeneration, 971 from logic levels, 192
optoelectronics, APD some realities, 964 with MOSFETs, 192200
photoresistor, 206, 844p spur removal, 395 with outboard driver, 237
phototransistor, 841 VCO, 959 too hot!, see heatsink, sizzle test
photovoltaic mode, 537n, 831 (box), 841 4046-type, 959, 959s tradeoffs
photovoltaic stack, 204, 849, 850 VCO variability, 964 noise, 483g, 509g, 525g
PHY, 871 with JFET oscillator, 394 speed, 792g
pi network, 1109, 1124 PMT, see photomultiplier train, see switchmode (SMPS)
PIC, see microcontroller pod, 745, 769, 1036, 1053, 1059, 1090, 1091, transfer, 11
pickup, 59, 442 1096 transistor, 624ff
common-mode, 583 polar coordinates, 1098 series connection, 697
PicoGate, see mini-logic pole, 52, 69r power dissipation
PID loop, see feedback off-axis, 393 capacitance, 719, 719g
Pierce oscillator, see oscillator splitting, 114 power supply, see also voltage regulator, 594ff,
piezo, 24, 1054, 1055 pole-zero, see compensation 595p
piezo amplifier, see amplifier POP, 995 auxiliary, 668
piezo driver, 207, 333 popcorn clamp, 692
piezoelectric effect noise, 477, 478g commercial modules, 684, 685p
capacitor, in, 682n positive-true, see logic current limit, 597
crystal, 443 pot, see potentiometer foldback, 693, 694, 694g
pink noise, see noise pot core, 29, 581 of outboard pass transistor, 695
PLA, see also programmable logic device potential difference, see voltage favorites, 1152
(PLD) potentiometer, 7, 8p, 63 filtering, 32
platinum RTD, see sensor, temperature digital, see also EEPOT, 63, 184, 412, 1082 flying capacitor
PLD, see programmable logic device (PLD) taper, 739 droop, 639g
PLL, 435, 452, 972t, 955974, 987r, 1066, power, 2 ripple, 639g
1072 ac detect, 1081 high voltage, 695ff, 696, 1152
AM demodulation, 970 ac monitor, 1082 kick-start, 669
block diagram, 956 an hour of (design example), 466 laboratory, 608, 608, 611, 1152
Bode plot, 961g, 963g density linear
BPSK demodulation, 971 battery vs capacitor, 690g compared with switchmode, see also
capture and lock, 964 design, 623ff switchmode, 635ff
capture transient, 964, 965 dynamic, see current, 754 topology, compared with SMPS, 630
clock generation, 972, 1072 entry module, 629, 630, 631, 699r low noise, 578ff, 580g, 913
cut and try, 963 factor, 47 low-noise, see also AoE 2nd ed., p 375
design, 960964 correction in offline SMPS, 668, 699r modular, 684, 685p
first-order loop, 960 in offline SMPS, 661, 699r noise, see noise
FM demodulation, 969 in unregulated supply, 635 offline, see switchmode, offline
frequency multiplier (design example), five minutes of, 196 overvoltage protection, 598, 690ff
961964 in ideal capacitor, none, 19, 47 pass transistor, see transistor, pass
circuit, 962 in reactive circuits, 47 power-factor correction, 661
frequency synthesis, 442, 966969 in resistor, 6 programmable, see programmable
fractional-n, 966, 966 micro, see micropower rectifier, 634
rational-approximation, 968, 968 minimizing, in CMOS design, 754 damping spikes, 634
laser offset locking, 973, 973 one minute of, 23 regulated, 123
loop phantom, 1046n regulator, 34
block diagram, 961 precision source, 285 resonant charging, 40
loop filter, 395, 960, 961, 988r quiescent ripple voltage, 33
loop gain, 962, 962 (box) in CMOS, 185, 718, 719g, 790 sequencing, 912
loop stability, 960, 961 in ECL, 719 spike, 635n
phase detector, 957, 957g, 957ff, 957t, 958g, in FPGAs, 769 spikes, 633n, 634
958s, 959g, 987r in nMOS inverter, 185 split, 34, 630, 639
anti-backlash, 959 in push-pull stage, 106ff, 107, 108, 215 storage capacitor, see also capacitor, 633
backlash, 958 in TTL, 718, 719, 758 ripple current in, 634
dead zone, 958 semiconductor packages, 628, 629p supervisor, see power
pulse synchronization, 971 spectrum switchmode, 636ff
rejection of noise and jitter, 974 from PRBS, 977, 979g ac-powered, see also power supply, see
sampling clock, 907 supervisor, 613, 691, 755, 755, 803, 1079 switchmode, offline
second-order loop, 960 switching, 755 compared with linear, 630, 635ff
1218 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

controller ICs, 658t printer port (Centronics), see computer, data programmable oscillator, 267
current-mode ICs, 654t bus programmable-gain amplifier (PGA), see
programmable, 1086 priority encoder, see logic amplifier
voltage-mode ICs, 653t probe propagation time, 710
uninterruptible, 673, 673s active, 810p protection, input, see input protection
unregulated, 630, 699r for logic signals, 808, 810p proximity sensor, see sensor
bench vs SPICE, 634, 635s probing pseudo-differential, 275, 583
from ac powerline, 628ff digital signals, 808, 809s, 810p pseudo-op, 996
power factor in, 635 program pseudo-random bit sequence, see PRBS
voltage multiplier, 34 multiplex video, 1138 pseudocode, 1056
power-on reset, see reset, logic startup programmable (with voltage) PSoC, see microcontroller
powerline current source, 228230, 367, 896 PTAT, see also bandgap, 92n, 104, 431n, 604
capacitor, 631, 668 oscillator, 267 (box), 606, 621, 679, 680
discharge resistor, 632, 668 power supply, 605, 607, 610 pullup
controller, 1063 pulse generator, 918 active, 270, 717, 720, 721
entry, 629 timer (one-shot), 242 current-source, 85, 696
filter, 631 voltage source, 195 passive, 185
monitor, 1082 programmable logic device (PLD), see also resistor, 5 (box), 185, 209, 237, 623, 712,
monitor IC, 943, 943 logic, 728, 737, 745, 763r, 765p, 787r, 720, 721
rejection in integrating ADC, 914, 934 764789, 797, 1036 pulse, 16
switch, 631 ABEL, 764, 775, 776 code, see modulation, pulse-code
transformer, 632 address decoder, 1000 duty-cycle
leakage inductance in, 633 advice, 782ff, 788r limiting, 465
rating, 632 applications, 787r forming network, 1126
wiring, 628ff, 943 cPLD, 764, 766, 789r from step, 77, 458ff, 459s
PRBS, 558ff, 762r, 770782, 974982, 988r PRBS bit generator, 772777 generator, 17
8051 assembly code for, 783 CUPL, 764 high-voltage, 333, 917, 918
ABEL code for, 776 FPGA, see also FPGA, 764, 768, 787r, 1031 long pulses, 740
analog noise from, 975, 977982 configuration memory, 769 n-pulse, 752, 753
analog noise voltage, 978 logic element, 770 programmable pulse-width, 241
C-language code for, 784 GAL, 764 single, 739
chipping sequence, 975 HDL, 745, 764, 765, 787r single-pulse, 739
digital behavioral coding, 777, 778 triggerable (design example), 739, 740
filter, 979 structural coding, 777, 779 with discrete BJTs, 7779
eye diagram, 871s HDL entry, 775ff, 787r with flip-flops and counters, 739
feedback shift register, 975, 976, 979 advantages, 777, 787r height analysis, 914
properties, 976 in-circuit programming, 764, 769, 774 limiting width of, 465
taps, 976t macrocell, 764 runt, see also logic, see runt pulse, 757
noise generator, 559, 771 mixed-signal, 769 spectrum of, 941g
spectrum, 560s netlist, 769, 787r stretcher, 194
noise source noise generator, 981 synchronization
circuit, 980 output characteristics, 798g with PLL, 971
power spectrum, 977, 979g packages, 765p width modulation, see PWM
Verilog code for, 778 PAL, 764, 765768 PUSH, 995
VHDL code for, 780 circuit, 766, 767 push-pull
with cPLD, 772 macrocell, 768 BJT output stage, 81, 106108, 129r
with discrete logic, 559, 771, 772 PALASM, 764 biasing, 108
with ECL logic, 981, 983p PLA, 768 crossover distortion, 107
with microcontroller, 777ff, 782 place and route, 769, 773, 787r thermal stability of, 108, 214
assembly code, 779, 783 pod, 745 MOSFET output stage
C-language code, 782, 784 programmer, 769, 773, 1152 thermal stability of, 214
with PLDs, 981 programming, 787r op-amp power booster, 234
wrapup, 981 schematic entry, 745, 773, 773ff, 774, 787r PWM, see also switchmode, 470r, 645, 699r,
pre-emphasis, 864, 870, 870, 871s, 873g advantages, 775, 787r 1061, 1062, 1072, 1077, 1094, 1095,
precision software, 769 1096r
vs dynamic range, 292, 388r Verilog, 775, 778 analog vs digital, 1072, 1072
prefixes, 4 (box) VHDL, 745, 765, 775, 777, 780 as digital-to-analog converter, 888, 888, 890,
printed circuit WebPACK, 770n 985r
SMT vs through-hole, 268, 269 when to use, 782ff digital, 1072
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1219

in class-D amplifier, 109s active, 238ff, 289r, 634, 634n active, see also AoE 2nd ed., p 257, 416, 416
in switchmode converters, 642, 645ff, 656, bridge, 32, 33, 612, 613, 630, 662s, 699r, bleeder, 211, 634
665 805 carbon, 5 (box), 300, 476, 591, 696, 1105
in thermal control, 1070 active, 634n nonlinearity, 697, 698g
light dimming, 834 dual-voltage input, 660 chip
rate multiplier as, 890 fast-recovery, 670 sizes, 4n
thermal controller, 10691077 forward drop, 31 color code, 1105t
to DAC converter, 889 full-wave, 32 current-sensing, 754, 760
torque-motor control, 890 active, 257 digital, 1082
pyroelectric detector, 841p full-wave center-tapped, 33 discharge, for powerline capacitor, 632
half-wave, 32 E96 series, 1104t
Q (quality factor), 53g, 53ff, 54g inrush current in, 651 emitter-ballasting, 113, 113, 138, 146, 192,
of crystal, 443 power supply 201, 214, 508
spoiling, 53 spikes, 633n, 634 excess noise in, 476
QAM, 456 Schottky, see diode high-voltage, 698, 1104, 1105
quadrature, 395n signal, 35 nonlinearity, 697, 698g
detector, 969 soft-recovery, 670 in parallel, 5
encoder, 844p, 852, 1066 synchronous, 289r, 634 in series, 5
FM demodulation, 969 reference international notation, 5n
oscillator, 454, 454s, 453456, 470r design, 671 Kelvin, 277, 294n, 350, 365, 898, 1070
RF, 455 reflection coefficient, 1117 metal-film, 5 (box), 300, 476, 679, 696,
square waves, 455 refresh, see also memory, dynamic 1105
quadrature-amplitude modulation, see QAM display, 1001 negative temperature coefficient, see also
quantization register, see logic sensor, temperature, thermistor, 661
noise, 927g regulation noninductive, 696
quiescent, see current, see power cross, 672 nonlinearity, 697, 698g, 1106t
quieting line, 595n positive temperature coefficient, see AoE
in FM, see AoE 2nd ed., p 898 load, 595n 2nd ed., p 216
secondary, in SMPS, 671 power in, 6
R2R, see ladder regulator, see voltage regulator power package, 3p
Rabbit, see microcontroller series pass, 598 precision, 293, 300, 345, 348350, 696,
radio relay 1105
AM, 55, 56s driver, 194 precision divider, 679
waveforms, 55g, 56s driving from logic, 817ff properties of, 300, 388r
radiofrequency, see RF electromechanical, 59, 818 pullup, 5 (box), 209, 237, 623, 720, 721
rail splitter, 262, 277 latching, 459, 515, 819 logic input, 805
rail-to-rail, see op-amp low-level, 515 MOSFET as, 828
ramp, 15 optocoupled, 843ff on demultiplexer, 727
generator, 27 solid-state, see SSR series damping, 263, 263s, 264, 264
random walk, 981 reset source-ballasting, 192
RAS , 1019 logic startup, 691, 755, 755, 1079 standard values, 1104
Raspberry Pi, 1053n of core, in SMPS, 657 suppression, 573
raster, 1132 resistance T-network, 259
rate multiplier base-spreading, see BJT, rbb tempco, 300, 679, 1106t
as PWM, 890 dark, 206, 537n, 1059 thick-film, 1105
ratiometric, 123, 431, 739, 884, 1072 dynamic, see also BJT, emitter resistance, 12 thin-film, 1105
rbb , see BJT internal, 10 types, 1104ff, 1106t
RC circuit, 21, 21g, 21ff leakage, 10 variable, 63
RC snubber, see snubber negative, 7, 397, 646, 650n, 1113 JFET, 161
RCA, see connector noise, see noise resistance stability, 679
reactance, 40ff of analog switch, 175, 948n voltage coefficient, 697, 1106t
graph of, 49g ON, see analog switch, FET, see MOSFET voltage rating, 697, 697n
reactive circuits, 40ff small-signal, 12 wirewound, 3p, 5 (box), 8p, 476, 591, 1070,
power in, 47 source, 10 1105
read cycle, see computer, programmed IO, see thermal, see thermal resistance resonance, see LC, see capacitor, bypass, see
memory trimmer, see trimmer oscillator, crystal; oscillator, LC, see
reading and references, 1154ff resistor, 3ff, 3p, 5 (box), 68r power supply, resonant charging
rectification, 31ff 4-wire, 294n resonant
rectifier, see also diode, 12, 31ff, 32t, 634 accuracy, 1106t charging, 39, 40
1220 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

circuit, 52ff s-plane, 52 logic input, 801, 801s, 802


reverse polarity protection, 616, 665, 671 S/H, see sample-and-hold speedup capacitor, 808s
RF S/PDIF, 1061 transfer function, 237g
driving cable, 862 safe operating area (SOA), 113n, 192g, 216, with discrete BJTs, 79
noise measurement, 558 603n, 604 (box), 627, 702r Schottky, see diode, Schottky
RFI (radiofrequency interference), 582, 668 Sallen and Key filter, 399, 409 SCPI, 1065n
ribbon microphone, 505 sample SCR, 691, 1062
ring buffer, see buffer PLL clock, 907 latchup, see also AoE 2nd ed., Fig. 14.41,
ring detection, see AoE 2nd ed., p 985 sample-and-hold, see also op-amp, 156, 183, 222, 759, 795
ringback, 759 183, 256, 256g, 301g, 342, 388r, 843, overvoltage crowbar, 598, 672, 690ff
ringing 849, 904, 950 SCSI, see computer, data bus
capacitive loads, 263s, 264 sampling, 419, 900ff, 901, 907 SD card, 1082
in SMPS, 668, 668n bandpass, 907 SDR, 1021
logic signals, 809s, 856ff, 877r depth second breakdown, 113n, 187, 216, 627, 702r
ripple, 635, 636s, 639g, 699r and dynamic range, 900 second-order loop, see PLL
current, 644 direct IF to digital, 907 Seebeck effect, see thermal EMF
effect of capacitor ESR, 639n images, 931g sensor
effect of switchmode frequency, 641 Nyquist criterion, 900, 901 ac power, 943, 944
filtering, 619 over, see also delta-sigma, 901, 901, 902n, acceleration, 1077, 1079p, 1082, 1084,
in unregulated supply, 599, 632 924, 928 1095r
of filter, 399 ratio (OSR), 924 atom, 553ff
switchmode power supply, 636s rate charge, 933
rise time, 16 and aliasing, 900, 901 current, 943, 944
of RC, 22 and bandwidth, 900 force, 1077
of filter, 400 rate and aliasing, 931g grasp, 372
slow causes failure, 426, 757, 801 under, 901, 907 gyro, 1077
RLL, 1041 band conversion, 907 inductance, 1084
rms amplitude, see amplitude window, see window light, 498, 548, 578, 837p, 841p, 844p
Rogowski coil, 944, 944 SAS, see computer, data bus lightning, 497
rotary encoder, 1066 SATA, see computer, data bus magnetic field, 1082
RS-232, see also computer, data bus, 771, satellite proximity, 1084
872s, 871873, 1038, 1038ff, 1039s, geostationary, 1139 rotation, 1077, 1082, 1095r
10611063, 1066, 1081, 1089, 1095r saturation, see also antisaturation, see also sound, 486, 505ff
and cable length, 873 BJT, see also comparator, see also FET strain, 297ff, 347, 348, 588, 937
driver ICs, 872 current, 132, 165n suntan, 278280, 922, 10541059
levels, 873 current (IDSS ), see also FET, drain temperature, see also PTAT, 13, 14, 671,
mark, 1038 characteristics 1070
power, 874g current (IS ), see also BJT absolute, 621, 680
pseudo-random byte generator, 770 Darlington, see BJT RTC, 1071
rates, 873g IGBT desaturation, see IGBT RTD, 347n, 1070, 1070n
signals, 1039t in BJT, 73 semiconductor, 621, 680, 1070
START bit, 1038 Schottky clamp prevents, 717n thermistor, 123, 372, 661, 1070
STOP bit, 1038 in oscillator, 437 thermocouple, see also AoE 2nd ed.,
timing ambiguity in, 1038 of magnetic core, 657, 659 pp 988992, 337, 341t, 367, 675n, 937,
to USB adapter, 871n, 1064 of output, see op-amp, rail-to-rail 1070, 1084
RS-422, 864, 865, 865ff, 865s voltage, 165n SEPIC converter, see switchmode
levels, 873 sawtooth, see oscillator SERDES, 855, 870, 870, 874
power, 874g scaling serial, see computer, data bus, see logic
torture test, 866, 866s of IC feature size, 793n series, 5
RS-485, 865, 865ff, 865s, 1038ff, 1061 scary stuff, 1025 capacitors, 21
isolated, 867, 868 schematic damping, 263, 263s, 264, 264
levels, 873 diagram feedback, see feedback
power, 874g how to draw, 1101ff impedances, 46, 69r
rates, 873g entry resistors, 5
RTC, 1084 in SPICE, 1146 resonant crystal mode, 444, 444g
RTD, see sensor, temperature ugly, 1102 series-feedback pair, 122, 286
rubidium, see oscillator, atomic Schmitt trigger, 128r, 237, 237, 237g, 267, 269, with JFET, 150, 151g
runt pulse, see also logic race, 738, 743s, 748, 270, 279, 279, 289r, 459, 717, 754, 755, servo, 1069, 1074
753n, 757 801, 801s, 803s, 805, 807, 807, 808s SETI, see also AoE 2nd ed., p 1038, 973
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1221

settling time, 309g digital generation, see DDS source


of RC lowpass, 309g from square wave, 394s, 435, 436s degeneration, 148, 159, 160, 169, 346, 367
of filter, 400 inverter, 673s sinewave, 41
of op-amp, 308ff, 320, 321t modified, 673, 673s source follower
setup time, see logic oscillator, see oscillator, sinewave JFET, 156ff
SH-4, see microcontroller Single Gate, see mini-logic gain, 157
Shannon sampling theorem, see Nyquist single pulse, 739 input impedance, 157
criterion single slope low distortion, 160, 161g
shielded twisted-pair, see STP conversion, see ADC output impedance, 157
shielding, 579ff, 581, 593r single-ended tutorial, 159
magnetic, 581 logic signal, 705n with active load, 158
shift register, see logic signal, 347 operating point, 156
shoot-through, see current sizzle test, 625 output impedance
shootout skepticism vs BJT follower, 157
ADCs, SAR vs , 939 of fourth fundamental element claim, 18n push-pull power MOSFET, 214
at the ADC corral, 939t of parts-per-billion claim, 437 source-measure unit, see SMU
JFET vs BJT, 517 skew source-measure unit (SMU), 897
low-power ADC, 941 clock, see logic Space (RS-232), 871
shot noise, see noise probe, see oscilloscope SparkFun, 1082, 1095r
shrinkage factor, 391n threshold, see logic spectrum
shunt, 294n timing, see logic analyzer, 567, 1152
current, 277 skin depth, 1122g spreading, 649, 975
feedback, see feedback slew rate, see also op-amp, 328 SPI, see also computer, data bus, 887, 1028,
shutdown, see also overcurrent, see also and jitter, 457 1030, 1032ff, 1061, 1066, 1081, 1086,
overvoltage, 272t, 524t, 600, 653t causes interference, 581, 587, 705 1087, 1094
fault, 847, 847 filtered, 1073 ADC SAR example, 909
regulator failure during, 606, 619 in oscillators, 426 bootloader, 1091
thermal, 235, 602, 604 (box), 671, 825 of composite amplifier, 920 bridge, 1084
siemens, 6, 90n, 147 of current source, 367 in ADC, 937, 943, 945
sign extend, see AoE 2nd ed., p 794 of differential amplifier, 385 in DAQ, 946, 947, 954
sign-magnitude, see number of op-amp, 248, 307, 328, 329, 515, 862 isolation in DAQ, 950
signal of signal, 362 microcontroller peripherals, 1083,
amplitude, 68r reduced, 222, 607, 650, 759, 820, 865, 871 10821084
averaging, 575, 576 too slow, 757, 808 SPICE
bandwidth reduction by, 562, 575 slope amplifier analysis, 314, 315g, 1148
differential, 347ff, 705n compensation, 650 comparison with bench, 459s, 635s
generator, 17 SMA, see connector crystal analysis, 444ff, 445, 446g
guard, 358, 360, 587 small-signal, 12, 80, 147 filter analysis, 393g, 399g, 414g, 456g, 560g
mixed impedance, 81, 245 fun with, 93n
PLD, 769 symbol for, 80, 90, 1097 MOSFET models, 168n
protector, 175 transistor, 74t power supply analysis, 633635, 635s
regeneration SMB, see connector primer, 1146ff
with PLL, 971 SMBus, 1061 pulser analysis, 459s
sampling, 419 Smith chart, 1121 simulation
single-ended, 347, 705n smoke, 672n comparison with bench, 1148s
slew rate of, 362 smoothness transistor model, 482n
to-noise ratio, see SNR silky, 505n unregulated power supply
transformer, see transformer SMU, 554, 1115 bench comparison, 634
signals, 13ff favorites, 1152 spike, see also charge injection, 17
signed number, see number SNR, 478ff differentiated edge, 26s
significand, 1048 snubber, 39, 630, 634, 656, 659, 660, 669 from discharge, 200
Silicon Valley, law of, 750g SOA, see safe operating area from flyback, 38, 193
silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR), see SCR SoC, 1031 from hard switching, 668
SIM Card, 1061 soft start, 606n, 607, 645, 650 from leakage inductance, 669
simulation, see SPICE solar cell, 2 from snapoff, 199, 633n, 634
SINAD, 985r soldering iron ground-current, 856
sinewave, 14 favorite, 1152 in frequency domain, 978
3-level, 673 solenoid, 29 in power supply rectifier, 633n, 634
arbitrary phase, 456 sound pressure level (SPL), 505ff in SMPS driver, 669, 669
1222 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

logic driving capacitive load, 857, 857 268, 269, 432n, 601, 603, 627p, 789r, hard, 659, 671
spur, see frequency 793, 1104, 1152 high-side, 77, 193, 195, 196, 820, 820ff,
removal, 394 size compared, 3p, 20p, 29p, 65p, 269, 269 821, 821, 823, 825, 826, 828
square wave, 16 sizes, 4n, 269n loss, 662, 671, 1073
converting to sinewave, 394s susceptance, 90n soft, 671
quadrature, 455 sweep generator, 17 synchronous, 32n, 643
SRAM, see computer, see memory, static switch, see also analog switch switchmode (SMPS), see also power supply,
SSR, see also zero-crossing, see also 3-way, 59 see also voltage regulator, 609, 636ff,
zero-voltage switching, 24, 59, 823, analog, see analog switch 699r
848ff, 850, 851, 875r, 877r, 1062, 1063, as digital input, 802, 802, 1081 basic topologies, 641ff, 642
1081, 1095r bounce, 729, 802, 802, 803s boost, 30, 647, 647, 700r
leakage current, 1062 break-before-make, 179, 920 bridge converter, 659, 700r
stabilized platform cold-weld sticking, 573 buck, 30, 642ff, 700r
microcontroller, 1077, 1077p, 1079p debouncer, 753, 802s intrinsically regulated, 643
microcontroller (design example) built-in, 803 buck, examples, 644ff, 645, 646
block diagram, 1078 clocked, 803, 803 buckboost, 649, 651, 700r
standing-wave ratio, see VSWR keeper circuit, 803 burst mode, 643n
star network, 1042 latch as, 730, 802, 803 compared with linear, 630, 635ff
START and STOP , 771 slowdown plus Schmitt, 802, 803, 803s continuous-conduction mode, 644, 670n
state machine, see logic software, 803, 804 controller ICs, 658t
state-variable filter, 410ff SR flip-flop, 802, 802 core
status bit, see computer, programmed IO SR flip-flop as, 730 gapped, 656, 670
status register, see computer, programmed IO supervisor as, 803 core reset, 657
step, 17 debouncing, 729, 802 critical conduction mode, 643
response DIP, 57p critical output current, 643
filter comparison, 405g, 406t dry-switching, 58, 804, 817 cross regulation, 672
stepping motor, 1084 floating, 203
Cuk, 649, 700r
STM (scanning tunneling microscope), 553ff form A, 58, 803 current discontinuity in, 649, 651
image of Si crystal, 554p form C, 58, 803 current pulsation, 649651
storage capacitor, see capacitor high-side, 825, 826t current-mode, 642, 649, 651, 651ff, 701r
STP, 583, 1117 matrix, 1068, 1069, 1081, 1095r pros and cons, 652, 701r
strain gauge, see sensor mechanical, 56, 57p current-mode ICs, 654t
stripline, see also microstrip, 456, 858, 871s, MOSFET, see MOSFET, see switchmode design equations, 644, 647, 648, 656, 657,
1117, 1119n opto-interrupter, 851 659
stuck node PCB-mounting, 57p discontinuous-conduction mode, 645, 666,
tracer, 276g powerline, 631 670
subroutine, see also computer, instruction set, protected, 175, 824, 825t duty cycle, 643
996 protecting, 823ff efficiency, 636, 637, 646, 672
subthreshold region, see FET, see JFET pushbutton, 58 feedback stability, 650, 669
successive approximation, see ADC reed, 573 flux balance, 659
summing amplifier, see op-amp rotary, 58 flyback, 655, 657, 665, 700r
summing junction, 225, 225, 230, 250ff, 270, self-wiping, 804 power train, 671
288r, 297, 298, 319, 369, 384, 497, 511, simple logic with, 58 transformer in, 670
547, 550 SPDT, 56, 58, 803 forward converter, 656, 700r
bias current, 257ff SPST, 56, 58, 803 H-bridge, 655, 659
capacitance of, 547 T-switch, 179 hysteretic, 644, 644, 700r
impedance of, 251 toggle, 57p inductorless, 638ff, 639g, 640t, 699r
suntan monitor toggling, 195 regulated, 641
delta-sigma, 922ff switched-capacitor ripple, 639n, 641
microcontroller, 10541059 ADC, see also ADC, charge redistribution, internally compensated, 645ff
op-amp, current divider, 279 see also switchmode, inductorless inverting, 648, 648, 700r
op-amp, integrating, 278 filter, 415ff isolated, 653ff, 700r
op-amp, two-step, 279 integrator, 416 flyback, 655
with ADC, 922 resonator, 454 topologies, 655
with microcontroller, 10541059 switching LED driving, 832
superbeta, see BJT active, 32n, 643 loss, 662
supervisory, see power, supervisor amplifier, 109, 109s, 673 low-noise, 649, 673n
surface acoustic wave, see oscillator, SAW cold, 75, 725 minimum output current, 643, 672
surface-mount technology (SMT), 3p, 65, 66p, dry, see switch negative input resistance, 646, 650n, 672
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1223

noise, 636s, 637, 649, 672, 673n T network, 259, 1109, 1124 transistor, 87, 97, 102
noise spectrum, 636g tables, see Table of Contents zener diode, 674
non-isolated, 641ff, 642 take-back-half, 1075 temperature controller, see thermal controller
boost, 647, 647 convergence, 1076g temperature sensor, see sensor
buck, 642ff tank circuit, see also AoE 2nd ed., p 883, see termination
buck, examples, 644ff LC of transmission line, 739, 858ff, 1117
buck-boost, 651 tape texting, 707n
design equations, 644, 647, 648 electrical, 63p Thevenin equivalent Circuit, 69r
hysteretic, 644 helical, 1135 Thevenin equivalent circuit, 9ff, 69r
internally compensated, 645ff Kapton, 626 examples, 1108
inverting, 648, 648 taper, 739 Thevenins theorem, 1107ff
waveforms, 643, 647, 648, 652 TCP/IP, 1094, 1140 generalized, 55
wrapup, 649ff Teensy, 1053n thermal controller, 123
offline, 637, 656, 657, 660ff Teflon, 299n, 301g, 326 microcontroller, 10691077
dual-voltage, 660 television thermal EMF, see also op-amp, autozero, 339,
feedback, 662 analog 340, 675n
input filter, 646, 650n, 660, 661, 665, 668, broadcast, 1134 thermal hysteresis, 683
672 recording, 1135 thermal resistance, 216, 603n, 624ff, 701r
input transient, clamp, 669 spectrum, 1136s of heatsinks, 626g
inrush current, 661, 668 cable, 1134 of PCB foil, 627g
power-factor correction (PFC), 661, 661, switched broadcast, 1142 transient, 628, 702r, 1073
662s, 668 digital, 1136ff thermal runaway, see also second breakdown,
real-world example, 665ff broadcast, 1138 108, 108ff, 112, 187, 212ff, 214, 215
safety, 672 cable, 1138 absent in MOSFET, 138
when to use, 672 recording, 1142 thermal shutdown, see shutdown
wrapup, 672 satellite, 1139 thermistor, see sensor
OVP, 654t spectrum, 1136s thermocouple, see sensors, temperature
phase-shift control, 659 display technology, 1142 three-state, see logic
point-of-load, 637n, 685 HD, 1137 three-terminal regulator, see voltage regulator
PWM, 659, 701r satellite three-way switch, see switch
PWM modes, 651ff uplink, 1140p threshold voltage, see FET, see JFET, see logic,
reference design, 671 spectrum, 1137s see Schmitt trigger
regulation, 630, 637, 637, 641, 642, 645, tutorial, 1131ff thyristor, 208, 581
646, 649651, 656, 657, 659, 659, 662, temperature TIA, see transimpedance amplifier
665, 671, 672, 700r stabilized, 681 time
ringing, 667s, 668 oscillator, 450 delay, see also latency
ripple, 636s, 642, 645, 646, 649 voltage reference, 676, 681 filter comparison, 404g
SEPIC, 649, 700r temperature coefficient in ADC, 903
slope compensation, 650 autozero amplifier, 335t, 339 minimized with DMA, 1010
soft start, 650 bandgap reference, 604 (box), 679 delay circuit, 23
synchronous switching in, 643 BJT base voltage, 140 hold, see logic
topologies, 638, 700r collector current, 92 latency, see latency
compared with linear, 630 crystal oscillator, 450 propagation, see logic
transformer in, 653 FET drain current, 138, 138g, 547n removal, see logic
voltage-mode, 642, 649, 651, 651ff, 701r FET gate current, 163 ripple-through, see logic, counter
pros and cons, 652 FET gate voltage, 140 rise, see rise time
voltage-mode ICs, 653t IC reference, 677, 678t settling, see settling time
waveforms, 643, 647, 648, 652, 666, 667s IC zeners, 676 setup, see logic
wrapup, non-isolated, 649ff MOSFET RON , 187, 192, 202, 212, 213g, standard, 1152
zero-current switching (ZCS), 650, 659 215g storage, see BJT
zero-voltage switching (ZVS), 650, 659, 671 MOSFET drain current, 212, 214, 215 time constant, see also rise time, 22
synchronous, see also logic, see also memory offset voltage, 244, 289r, 306, 388r time-interval measurement, see AoE 2nd ed.,
counter , see logic, counter resistor, 300, 388r, 679, 1105 p 1022
switching, see switching ways to specify, 683g time-to-amplitude converter, see converter
synchronous detection, see bandwidth, zener diode, 674, 675 timer, 457469, 470, 471r, 1096r
narrowing temperature compensation 555, 460, 460
synthesizer, see also frequency, synthesizer, 17 bandgap reference, 604 (box), 679, 701r an hour of power, 466
clock, 1084 crystal oscillator, 446n, 450 camera control (design example), 467
Sziklai, see BJT current source, 87, 431 ICs for, 468
1224 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

microcontroller as, 469 bootstrapped cascode, 550, 550 minimum loss, 1123
one second per hour, 467 bootstrapping, 547 narrowband lossless, 1125
programmable, 241 capacitive feedback, 552, 571 reactive, 1125
timing cascode input, 548ff transformer, 1124
skew, 737n, 1027 commercial, 570 loss, 1121, 1122g
TinyLogic, see mini-logic compensation, 539ff, 540542g matched
toggle, see logic, flip-flop, see switch composite, 543ff, 544 capacitance disappears, 1116
tolerance, 6, 299, 388r noise, 544s pre-emphasis, 864
effect on filter response, 402g current calibrator, 555 reflection, 1027, 1117, 1118, 1119s
tools JFET hybrid, 544 resistive attenuator, 1123, 1124t
favorites, 1152 noise, 499, 511, 532, 593r ringing, 1119s
toroid, 581, 585 en -C, 538, 538ff, 540542g, 542s, 543g termination, 1117ff
common-mode choke, 584 input, 538 back, 1118
totem-pole, 697, 697 reduction by bootstrapping, 547 series, 1118
touchscreen, 1082, 1084 noise calculation, 539 twisted pair, 1117
touchscreen digitizer, 944 noise model, 539 unterminated, 859, 859, 860s, 1119
track-and-hold, see also op-amp, 256, 909 patch clamp, 552 transresistance amplifier, see transimpedance
tracking ADC, 909 regulated cascode (RGC), 551 amplifier
transconductance, see also BJT; FET; JFET, stability, 537, 570 tri-state, see logic, three-state
89, 91 STM, 553 triac, 581, 691, 1062
amplifier, see also OTA, 90, 90ff wideband quadrants, 692n
enhancer, 148 example, 540 triangle wave, 15
transconductor, 99 worlds best, 545 triboelectric effect, 573
transducer, see sensor transistor, see also BJT; FET; JFET; MOSFET trigonometric function generator, see AoE 2nd
transfer function, 7 bias-resistor, 712n, 827 ed., p 293
transform, see Fourier bipolar, see BJT trigonometry, 1097
transformer, 30 BJT switch, 7379, 91 trimmer
balun, 379, 380 diamond, 100 capacitance, 64
bifilar winding, 656 digital, 712n, 827 CMRR, see CMRR
current, see current field-effect, see FET distortion, 438
flyback, see inductor man, 75 frequency, 466
for wideband ADC input, 382 packages, 73p notch frequency, 415
gapped, 656, 670 pass, 594, 596, 597, 598, 695, 699, 700r offset, 244, 251, 304ff, 305, 305g, 355, 515
in feedback loop, 286, 536 protection, 695 resistance, 8p, 63, 66p, 1128p
in switchmode converter, 653, 699r perfect, 99 time, 466
inductance, see inductance photo, 841, 841p voltage, 600, 603, 671
isolated SMPS, see also switchmode, 653ff, power, 624ff truth table, see logic
670 pre-biased, 712n, 827 TTL, see logic
isolation, 672 series connection of, 697 tuned circuit, see LC, resonant circuit
leakage inductance, see inductance superbeta, see BJT tunnel diode, see diode
powerline, 632, 699r switch, 127r TVS, 39, 670
leakage inductance in, 633 thermal resistance of, see also thermal twin-T filter, 414
rating, 632 resistance, 624 twisted pair, see cable
pulse unijunction, 427, 428 wideband analog over, 352, 353
for isolated feedback, 663 transmission gate, see logic
signal, 497, 535537, 1124 transmission line, 1116ff UART, see also computer, 1038ff, 1061, 1063,
signal isolator, 586 and sinewaves, 1120ff 1064, 1067, 1071, 1089, 1090, 1095
toroidal, see also toroid, 29, 29p, 537, 581 characteristic impedance, 1116 bootloader, 1090
variable, 64p derivation of, 1127 ugly
transient computer bus as, 1027 diagram, 1102
averaging, see bandwidth, narrowing delay line, 1128p UHF, see connector
capture, in PLL, 964 differential, 878r unblanking, 1000
suppressor, 632, 670, 699r LVDS, 868870 uncompensated, see op-amp
thermal resistance, 628, 702r, 1073 rejection of common-mode signals, 866, undersampling, see also ADC, see sampling
transient response 866s, 869, 869s undersampling, deliberate, 907
of voltage regulator, 617 digital signals on, 858ff, 878r undervoltage, 691
transimpedance amplifier, 233, 288r, 537, power dissipation, 874g lockout, 701r
537ff, 547549 impedance matching, 1122 unicast, 1142
bandwidth, 537ff broadband lossless, 1124 uninterruptible power supply (UPS), 673, 673s
Art of Electronics Third Edition Subject Index 1225

unity-gain frequency, see also op-amp, gain, vs as complex quantity, 44ff 3-terminal, 678t
frequency burden, 10 accuracy, 683
universe common-mode, see amplifier aging, 683
age of, 771, 988 comparator output swing, 810 bandgap, 104, 599, 602, 604 (box), 606,
unshielded twisted-pair, see UTP compliance, 8 611, 677, 678t, 679, 701r
unsigned number, see number converter as temperature sensor, 680
unused input, see logic flying capacitor, 183 noise in, 679n
up-down counter, see logic, counter defined, 1 current source with, 896
UPS, see uninterruptible power supply divider, 7, 7 drift, 683
USB, see also computer, data bus, 1042, 1042, adjustable, 7 humidity, 684
10621064, 1081, 1089, 1095r equation, 7 in DAQ, 949, 950
bootloader, 1091 generalized, 48 JFET pinchoff, 680, 680, 701r
isolated, 1081 doubler, see also charge pump, 34, 34, 639, line and load regulation, 684
to RS-232 adapter, 871n, 1064 660, 872, 1063 low tempco, 676, 676, 681
UTP, 1117 drop MOSFET floating gate, 681, 701r, 912
of diode, 31 noise, 677t, 682g, 682, 701r
V to f dropout, see voltage regulator precision, 681
conversion, see ADC Early, 93, 151n, 502 PTAT, see PTAT
varactor, see also diode, 64, 435, 960, 969, 971 electrostatic, 200t self-heating, 684
tuned oscillator, 440, 470r gain with RC, 71n series, 674, 678t, 701r
Variac, 64p high, see high voltage shunt, 674, 677t
varistor, 39, 632 inverter, 639, 872, 1063 tempco, 683, 701r
aging, 632 Kirchhoffs voltage law, 2 ways to specify, 683g
VBE , see BJT logic threshold, 796 temperature stabilized, 676, 677t, 681
VCE(sat) , see BJT, saturation mode, see switchmode trim, 683
VCE(sat) vs FET RON , see MOSFET, RON multiplier, 34 VBE , see voltage reference, bandgap
VCO, see oscillator, voltage-controlled noise, see noise x-ray exposure, 684
VCVS, see filter, types, see filter offset, see also amplifier, see also op-amp, zener, 674ff, 701r
Verilog, see also logic, see programmable logic 366 biasing, 675
device (PLD), 711, 745, 765 cancelling VBE , 85, 87 bootstrap biasing, 676
vertical retrace, see video, composite comparator, 812 compared with bandgap, 679
VGA, 1062, 1132n correction with DAC, 949 compensated, 674
VHDL, see programmable logic device (PLD) JFET, 139, 512, 515 drift, 675
Victoreen, 3p, 698 op-amp, 244 dynamic resistance, 675g
video offset in op-amp, see op-amp IC, 676ff, 677t
amplifier, see amplifier power-supply ripple, 33 LTZ1000, the spectacular, 675
analog, 1132 reference, see voltage reference noise, 674, 676n
back-terminated, 315, 352, 859n, 862 regulator, see voltage regulator tempco, 675g
coax, 1140 saturation, see also BJT, see also saturation, voltage regulator, see also power supply, see
composite, see also NTSC, 1133, 1133s 165n also switchmode (SMPS), 34, 82
connectors, 1143ff, 1144p signal, 14, 2127 3-terminal, 700r
DAC, see DAC source, see also SMU, 8 as current source, 620, 620, 621g
digitizer, 1084 8-channel, 893, 895 floating HV, 698
encoder, 1030 low-noise, 891, 892 317-style, 604 (box), 605t, 700r
field, 1133n stiff, 37 adjustable to zero, 605, 607, 608
frame, 1132 source, general laboratory, 891, 892 as current source, 620, 620, 621g
interlaced, 1133n spike, see spike circuit, 606
modulation, 1133 thermal, kT /Q, 136n dual voltage, 612
multiplex, 1138 thermal, kT /q, 91 dual-tracking lab supply, 608
multiplexer, 178 thermoelectric, 341t high-voltage supply, 609
on demand, 1141 threshold hints, 604, 607
over Internet, 1140 of digital logic, 797g proportional fan control, 608
phase compensation, 314, 381, 864 trigger, see also Schmitt trigger, 428 protection, 619
progressive, 1133n triboelectric, 573 schematic, 603, 606
switch, 178 voltage controlled, see programmable (with 337-style
sync, 1133 voltage) schematic, 606
volt, 2 voltage controlled oscillator, see oscillator 7800-style, 602t
voltage, 1, 68r voltage reference, 275, 674ff, 700, 701r 723, 598ff
amplifier, see also amplifier, 88, 117 2-terminal, 677t in defense of, 600
1226 Subject Index Art of Electronics Third Edition

current limit, 619, 693 ramp-up control, 606n in Verilog, 777


foldback, 693 schematic, LM317, 603, 606 long
current-reference, 611 schematic, LM337, 606 digital signals through, 856ff, 877r, 1117
dropout, 599, 600, 700r switching, 609 wired-AND, -OR, see logic
emitter follower as, 82 taxonomy, 699r wirewound resistor, see resistor, wirewound
extending VIN , 211, 693 zener as, 595 Words and Phrases, 714n
fault protection, 619 voltmeter, 2 worlds best
filtering, 619, 620 sensitive (design example), 253, 293 DMM, 918
floating, 698 true rms, 568 frequency-control algorithm, 1068
fully integrated, 600ff VOM, 10 low en amplifier, 505
high voltage, 609, 610, 695ff, 696 von Neumann architecture, see computer, low-distortion oscillator, 437, 438
linear, 699r architecture low-memory capacitor (Teflon), 301g
3-terminal adjustable, see also 317-style, VSWR, 1121 low-noise power supply, 578, 580g
602ff, 603 multichannel fast ADC, 956
3-terminal fixed, 601, 602, 602t wall plug op-amp noise plot, 526g, 531g
adjustable to zero, 605, 607, 608, 611, blades and wires, 628n precision current source, 898
612 wall wart, 637n, 686 precision resistor, 227n, 300, 1105, 1106t
bypassing, 616 wall-wart, 661 PWM DAC, 889
choosing, 613 watchdog, 755, 1059, 1061, 1064, 1067, 1079, transimpedance amplifier, 544, 545
crowbar, 598 1096 voltage reference, 675, 677t, 681, 684, 892n,
current limit, 597 watt, 2 920n
dropout voltage, 606g wave worst-case specifications
error amplifier, 597 standing, 1121 violating, 296, 347, 388r
feedback stability, 597 waveform write cycle, see computer, programmed IO, see
ground-pin current, 616 sampling, 419 memory
high-voltage, 693, 698 Wheelers formula, 29
idiosyncrasies, 613 white noise, see noise X-capacitor, see capacitor, powerline rated
LDO stability, 617, 617g wideband XLR, see connector
noise, 618 analog link, 380 XOR , see logic, gates
pinouts, 613 Widlar, Bob, 97n, 101n, 102, 307, 598ff, 604
reverse polarity, 616 (box), 679 Y-capacitor, see capacitor, powerline rated
taxonomy, 601 Wien bridge, see bridge, see oscillator, yesterday, 273 (box)
transient response, 263g, 263s, 264, 617, sinewave
618s WiFi, 1053, 1062 ZCS, 1062
tutorial, 595ff, 596 Williams, Jim, 316n, 330, 438n, 1074, 1154 zener, see also diode
load dump, 618 Willison, John, 968 active, 692, 692
low-dropout, 561, 599, 700r Wilson mirror, see also current, mirror, 102, zero-crossing, 823
low-dropout (LDO), 610, 610ff, 611, 612g, 102, 146 detector, 269, 269
614, 615t window solid-state relay, 823, 850, 851
excess current near dropout, 616 averaging, 562n, 941g zero-current switching, 650, 823
stability, 617, 617g, 700r comparator, see comparator zero-voltage switching, 650, 823
LT3080-style, 611, 611 quartz, 769, 1023 ZigBee, 1053, 1061
as current source, 620, 620, 621g sampling, 420 ZVS, 850, 1062
op-amp, 235 tradeoffs, 421 ZVS, ZCS, see also switchmode
point-of-load (POL), 685 switch, 573
protection, 606, 607, 619 wire