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A Comprehensive Numerical Study on Effects of Natural Gas Composition

on the Operation of an HCCI Engine


Author(s): Jahanian, O (Jahanian, O.)[ 1 ] ; Jazayeri, SA (Jazayeri, S. A.)[ 1 ]
Source: OIL & GAS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-REVUE D IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES Volume: 67 Issue: 3
Pages: 503-515 DOI: 10.2516/ogst/2011133 Published: MAY-JUN 2012
Times Cited: 0 (from Web of Science)
Cited References: 39 [ view related records ] Citation Map
Abstract: A Comprehensive Numerical Study on Effects of Natural Gas Composition on the Operation of an HCCI
Engine - Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is a promising idea to reduce fuel consumption
and engine emissions. Natural Gas (NG), usually referred as clean fuel, is an appropriate choice for HCCI engines
due to its suitable capability of making homogenous mixture with air. However, varying composition of Natural Gas
strongly affects the auto-ignition characteristics of in-cylinder mixture and the performance of the HCCI engine. This
paper has focused on the influence of Natural Gas composition on engine operation in HCCI mode. Six different
compositions of Natural Gas (including pure methane) have been considered to study the engine performance via a
thermo-kinetic zero-dimensional model. The simulation code covers the detailed chemical kinetics of Natural Gas
combustion, which includes Zeldovich extended mechanism to evaluate NO Validations have been made using
experimental data from other works to ensure the accuracy needed for comparison study. The equivalence ratio and
the compression ratio are held constant but the engine speed and mixture initial temperature are changed for
comparison study. Results show that the peak value of pressure/temperature of in-cylinder mixture is dependent of
fuel Wobbe number. Furthermore, engine gross indicated power is linearly related to fuel Wobbe number. Gross
indicated work, gross mean effective pressure, and NOx are the other parameters utilized to compare the
performance of engine using different fuel compositions.
Accession Number: WOS:000306618600010
Document Type: Article
Language: English
KeyWords Plus: PERFORMANCE; COMBUSTION
Reprint Address: Jahanian, O (reprint author)
KN Toosi Univ Technol, Dept Mech Engn, POB 19395-1999, Tehran, Iran.
Addresses:
[ 1 ] KN Toosi Univ Technol, Dept Mech Engn, Tehran, Iran

Availability analysis of n-heptane and natural gas blends combustion in


HCCI engines
Author(s): Amjad, AK (Amjad, A. K.)[ 2 ] ; Saray, RK (Saray, R. Khoshbakhi)[ 1 ] ; Mahmoudi, SMS (Mahmoudi, S. M. S.)
[2]
; Rahimi, A (Rahimi, A.)[ 1 ]
Source: ENERGY Volume: 36 Issue: 12 Pages: 6900-6909 DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2011.09.046 Published:
DEC 2011
Times Cited: 2 (from Web of Science)
Cited References: 29 [ view related records ] Citation Map
Abstract: One of the major problems associated with HCCI combustion engine application is lack of direct control for
combustion timing. A proposed solution for combustion timing control is using a binary fuel blend in which two fuels
with different auto-ignition characteristics are blended at various ratios on a cycle-by-cycle basis.

The aim of this research is to investigate the exergy analysis of HCCI combustion when a blended fuel, which
consists of n-heptane and natural gas, is used. In order to accomplish this task, a single-zone combustion model has
been developed, which performs combustion computations using a complete chemical kinetics mechanism.

The study was carried out with different percentages of natural gas in blended fuels and EGR (exhaust gas
recirculation) ranging from about 45 to 85 percent and 0 to 40 percent, respectively. The results reveal that, when
mass percentage of natural gas increases, exergy destruction is decreased increasing the second-law efficiency.
Introducing EGR into the intake charge of dual fuel HCCI engine up to some stage (optimum value) enhances the
second-law performance of the engine in spite of a reduction in work. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Accession Number: WOS:000298894000020
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Author Keywords: Availability analysis; Single-zone combustion model; Chemical kinetics; HCCI engine; Second-
law efficiency
KeyWords Plus: COMPRESSION IGNITION COMBUSTION; DIESEL-ENGINE; 2ND-LAW ANALYSIS;
OPERATION; FUEL; BALANCES; EXERGY
Reprint Address: Saray, RK (reprint author)
Sahand Univ Technol, Fac Mech Engn, Tabriz, Iran.
Addresses:
[ 1 ] Sahand Univ Technol, Fac Mech Engn, Tabriz, Iran
[ 2 ] Univ Tabriz, Fac Mech Engn, Tabriz, Iran

The influence of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on combustion and


emissions of n-heptane/natural gas fueled Homogeneous Charge
Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines
Author(s): Fathi, M (Fathi, Morteza)[ 2 ] ; Saray, RK (Saray, R. Khoshbakhti)[ 1 ] ; Checkel, MD (Checkel, M. David)[ 3 ]
Source: APPLIED ENERGY Volume: 88 Issue: 12 Pages: 4719-4724 DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.06.017
Published: DEC 2011
Times Cited: 4 (from Web of Science)
Cited References: 16 [ view related records ] Citation Map
Abstract: In Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion, a lean premixed charge combusts
simultaneously in multiple sites. Utilizing highly diluted mixtures, and lack of any significant flame propagation, in-
cylinder NO formation is reduced. Making HCCI engine a feasible alternative to conventional engines requires several
challenges to be resolved. Combustion timing control is one of the most important of these items. It should be done in
order that heat is released at the most optimum phasing for efficiency and emissions. In this study, a Waukesha
Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) single cylinder research engine was used to be operated in HCCI combustion
mode fueled by natural gas and n-heptane. The main goal of the experiments was to investigate the possibility of
controlling combustion phasing and combustion duration using various Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) fractions.
For the analysis of the results, a modified apparent heat release model was developed. The influence of EGR on
emissions was discussed. Results indicate that applying EGR reduces mean charge temperature and has profound
effect on combustion phasing, leading to a retarded Start of Combustion (SOC) and prolonged burn duration. Heat
transfer rate decreases with EGR addition. Under examined condition EGR addition improved fuel economy, reduced
NO emissions and increased HC and CO emissions. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
reserved.
Accession Number: WOS:000295387200047
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Author Keywords: HCCI; Dual-fuel; EGR; Heat release; Emission
Reprint Address: Saray, RK (reprint author)
Sahand Univ Technol, Fac Mech Engn, Tabriz, Iran.
Addresses:
[ 1 ] Sahand Univ Technol, Fac Mech Engn, Tabriz, Iran
[ 2 ] Iran Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Mfg Co DESA, Tehran, Iran
[ 3 ] Univ Alberta, Dept Mech Engn, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G8, Canada
E-mail Addresses: morteza.fathi@yahoo.com; khoshbakhti@sut.ac.ir; dave.checkel@ualberta.ca
Publisher: ELSEVIER SCI LTD, THE BOULEVARD, LANGFORD LANE, KIDLINGTON, OXFORD OX5 1GB, OXON,
ENGLAND
Web of Science Categories: Energy & Fuels; Engineering, Chemical
Research Areas: Energy & Fuels; Engineering
IDS Number: 826WV
ISSN: 0306-2619

A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON NATURAL GAS HCCI ENGINE


RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT INITIAL CONDITIONS VIA A THERMO-
KINETIC ENGINE MODEL
Author(s): Jahanian, O (Jahanian, Omid)[ 1 ] ; Jazayeri, SA (Jazayeri, Seyed Ali)[ 1 ]
Book Group Author(s): ASME
Source: ASME INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE DIVISION FALL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE 2009,
PROCEEDINGS Pages: 127-135 Published: 2010
Times Cited: 0 (from Web of Science)
Cited References: 24 [ view related records ] Citation Map
Conference: ASME Internal-Combustion-Engine-Division Fall Technical Conference Location: Lucerne,
SWITZERLAND Date: SEP 27-30, 2009
Sponsor(s): ASME, Internal Combust Engine Div
Abstract: Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is a promising concept to reduce engine
emissions and fuel consumption. In this paper, a thermo-kinetic model is developed to study the operating
characteristics of a natural gas HCCI engine. The zero-dimensional single zone model consist detail chemical kinetics
of natural gas oxidation including 325 reactions with 53 chemical species, and is validated with experimental results
of reference works for two different engines, Volvo TD 100 and Caterpillar 3500, in 5 operating conditions. Then, the
influence of parameters such as manifold temperature/pressure and equivalence ratio on in-cylinder
temperature/pressure trends and start of combustion is studied. Measurements for Volvo engine show that SOC
occurs 3-5 CAD earlier with every 15K increase in initial temperature. These whole results are explained in detail to
describe the engine performance thoroughly.
Accession Number: WOS:000283013000014
Document Type: Proceedings Paper
Language: English
Author Keywords: HCCI; Thermo-Kinetic Modeling; Natural Gas; Initial Conditions
Reprint Address: Jahanian, O (reprint author)
KN Toosi Univ Technol, Dept Mech Engn, Tehran, Iran.
Addresses:
[ 1 ] KN Toosi Univ Technol, Dept Mech Engn, Tehran, Iran
E-mail Addresses: O_Jahanian@alborz.kntu.ac.ir; Jazayeri@kntu.ac.ir
Publisher: AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, THREE PARK AVENUE, NEW YORK, NY 10016-5990 USA
Web of Science Categories: Engineering, Mechanical
Research Areas: Engineering
IDS Number: BRL36
ISBN: 978-0-7918-4363

Effects of fuel additives on ignition timing of methane fuelled HCCI engine


Author(s): Noorpoor, AR (Noorpoor, A. R.)[ 2 ] ; Ghaffarpour, M (Ghaffarpour, M.)[ 1 ] ; Aghsaee, M (Aghsaee, M.)[ 2 ] ;
Hamedani, A (Hamedani, A.)[ 2 ]
Source: JOURNAL OF THE ENERGY INSTITUTE Volume: 82 Issue: 1 Pages: 37-42 DOI:
10.1179/014426009X394053 Published: MAR 2009
Times Cited: 3 (from Web of Science)
Cited References: 21 [ view related records ] Citation Map
Abstract: The control of ignition is one of the most critical issues in HCCI engines. It has been shown that using fuel
additives play a significant role in reducing engine emission to satisfy the mandated EPA regulation. In this paper, the
effect of additives such as hydrogen (H(2)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), formaldehyde (CH(2)O) and ethane
(C(2)H(6)) on the control of ignition in natural gas HCCI engines has been investigated. The SENKIN code used to
simulate the in-cylinder chemical reactions. The overall engine was modelled in the engine cycle simulation code, GT-
Power. Then, the combustion results from SENKIN were transferred to the engine model to investigate the overall
engine performance characteristics of the HCCI engine using a developed interface code that linked the SENKIN to
GT-Power. The computational model was validated by available experimental data. The results showed that the
calculated data were relatively in good agreement with the experimental data. It was found that an additive free
mixture was not ignited the mixture at an intake temperature of 500 K while a mixture containing a small quantity of
additives at the same temperature was able to initiate chemical reaction. For a fixed quantity of additive, it was found
that H(2) addition was effective in advancing the ignition timing as is compared with the other three additives. The
engine peak pressure has been moved to the location before top dead centre. It was also found that the percentage
of additives required in achieving near TDC ignition, increases linearly with an increase in engine speed. It decreases
with increasing equivalence ratio. A small addition of H(2)O(2) ignites the mixture at an intake temperature of 450 K.
Adding ethane does not help to initiate reaction at 450 K.
Accession Number: WOS:000264380600005
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Author Keywords: Homogeneous charge compression ignition; Chemical kinetics; Autoignition; Methane; Additives
KeyWords Plus: COMBUSTION
Reprint Address: Ghaffarpour, M (reprint author)
Univ Tehran, Dept Mech Engn, Fac Engn, Tehran, Iran.
Addresses:
[ 1 ] Univ Tehran, Dept Mech Engn, Fac Engn, Tehran, Iran
[ 2 ] Iran Univ Sci & Technol, Tehran, Iran
E-mail Addresses: mghaffar@uic.edu
Publisher: MANEY PUBLISHING, STE 1C, JOSEPHS WELL, HANOVER WALK, LEEDS LS3 1AB, W YORKS,
ENGLAND
Web of Science Categories: Energy & Fuels
Research Areas: Energy & Fuels
IDS Number: 421TG
ISSN: 1743-9671

A stand-alone multi-zone model for combustion in HCCI engines


Author(s): Kongsereeparp, P (Kongsereeparp, Paitoon); Kashani, B (Kashani, Behzad); Checkel, MD (Checkel, M.
David)
Book Group Author(s): ASME
Source: Proceedings of the 2005 Fall Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine
Division Pages: 265-274 Published: 2005
Times Cited: 4 (from Web of Science)
Cited References: 19 [ view related records ] Citation Map
Conference: Fall Technical Meeting of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division Location: Ottawa, CANADA
Date: SEP 11-14, 2005
Sponsor(s): ASME, Internal Combust Engine Div
Abstract: Because they have the potential for ultra low NOx emissions and high efficiency, Homogeneous Charge
Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have the potential to develop a significant niche. However, a narrow operating
range, (bracketed by severe knock and misfire problems), presents a formidable obstacle to developing usable HCCI
combustion systems. HCCI combustion is influenced by a complex array of operating variables including fuel octane
quality, intake preheating temperature, compression ratio, equivalence ratio, exhaust gas recirculation and engine
component temperature. These variables affect the two critical combustion parameters: ignition timing and
combustion duration. If these two parameters can be controlled by appropriate settings of the operating variables, a
good HCCI combustion scheme could be achieved. Therefore, the theoretical prediction of these two combustion
parameters as a function of the key operating variables is necessary for development of HCCI combustion.

This paper describes a stand-alone, single-zone and multi-zone combustion model which have been developed for
the specific purpose of investigating HCCI combustion control. In the multi-zone model, temperature and composition
in each zone were adjusted in order to study the effect of in-homogeneity which is critical to understanding ignition
timing and combustion duration in real HCCI engines. The models simulated HCCI combustion using two fuels:
hydrogen, (11 species, 23 reactions- from CHEMKIN library), and natural gas, (53 species, 325 reactions- from GRI
mech).

The capabilities of the two models to predict ignition timing, combustion duration and peak pressure were verified
against experimental and simulation results of Fiveland et al [2, 11]. The models were then used to study the effect of
different inhomogeneity levels of equivalence ratio, intake temperature and residual fraction. The single zone model
could only predict ignition timing while the multi-zone model shows the capability to mimic realistic HCCI combustion
phenomena.

The study showed that some degree of in-homogeneity is critical to predicting performance of the homogeneous
charge compression ignition engine. Further, stratification of equivalence ratio was relatively ineffective at changing
combustion while stratification of mixture temperature was very effective. Stratification of the residual fraction proved
to be the most promising method of controlling combustion parameters and the mechanism was primarily thermal.
Accession Number: WOS:000243375300029
Document Type: Proceedings Paper
Language: English
Reprint Address: Kongsereeparp, P (reprint author)
Univ Alberta, Dept Mech Engn, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Addresses:
[ 1 ] Univ Alberta, Dept Mech Engn, Edmonton, AB, Canada
Publisher: AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, THREE PARK AVENUE, NEW YORK, NY 10016-5990 USA
Web of Science Categories: Energy & Fuels; Engineering, Mechanical
Research Areas: Energy & Fuels; Engineering
IDS Number: BFN83