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Technical University Iasi, Ground Vehicles&Engines Dept.

mailing address: Dumbrava Rosie 21, Iasi 6600, Romania

e-mail: rrosca@mt.tuiasi.ro

phone: +40-32156664

ABSTRACT

The paper presents the application of a three component model to the theoretical

study of the combustion process of a Diesel engine fueled with sunflower oil and

sunflower oil - Diesel fuel mixtures. The model assumes that the working fluid consists

of three components: the fresh air, the flame and the burned gases.

The combustion model uses the energy conservation equation:

c Qc d dU dL dQw , [1]

where c is the fuel cyclic dose, Qc is the fuel heating value, = c/c, c is the

quantity of burned fuel up to the moment , U is the internal energy of the working

fluid, Qw is the heat exchanged through the cylinder walls and L is the mechanical

work.

The heat release law was assumed to be a Vibe type one:

RC 1 exp( 6.9 APm 1 ) (1 RC ) 1 exp( 6.9 A m 1 ) ,

P d

[2]

where :

d d

AP

P d

and A

F d ;

d - start of combustion angle;

f - end of combustion angle;

P - end of rapid combustion angle.

Using equations [1] and [2] we have obtained the cylinder pressure during

combustion, for the vegetable fuels taken into account; the peak values were confirmed

during the experiments.

2

INTRODUCTION

In order to determine the cylinder pressure history we used a zero-dimensional combustion

model. The model assumes that, during each calculation step, a new element of burned gases is

formed; as a result, during combustion, the working fluid consists of the following components:

fresh fluid;

burned gases;

the element of burned gases formed during the current calculation step.

After formation, each element of burned gases evolves independently, being mixed with the air

available inside the combustion chamber.

The model was developed for a D.I. Diesel engine with the following features:

no. of cylinders: 3;

bore: 95 mm;

stroke: 110 mm;

compression ratio : 17.0;

cylinder volume: 0.779 dm3;

length of the connecting rod: 182 mm;

output power: 33.08kW/ 2400 min-1.

The calculation step was =10 C.A. Because at the moment some parameters are still

unknown, the computation process is a two stage one: for the first stage the calculations for the

current step are made using the values obtained for the - step; in the second stage, the entire

calculation process is repeated, using the previously obtained parameters.

We have taken into account three types of vegetable oils, obtained during the sunflower oil

production process:

oil 1 heavy fractions, obtained through sedimentation from the crude sunflower oil;

oil 2 fatty acids, separated from the crude sunflower oil;

oil 3 crude sunflower oil.

Blends containing 50% Diesel fuel + 50% vegetable oils were also considered. Table 1 presents

some characteristics of the fuels taken into account.

The combustion model uses the energy conservation equation:

c Qc d dU dL dQw , (1)

where c is the cyclic fuel delivery, Qc is the fuel heating value, = c/c, c is the quantity of burned

fuel up to the moment , U is the internal energy of the working fluid, Qw is the heat exchanged

through the cylinder walls and L is the mechanical work.

1. Heat release rate

The cumulative heat release rate was assumed to be a Vibe type one (fig. 1), defined by the

equation [1, 4]:

P

RC 1 exp( 6.9 APm 1 ) (1 RC ) 1 exp( 6.9 A

d

m 1

) (2)

where:

mP and md shape factors;

QI

RC ;

QI QII

QI and QII the heat released during the rapid combustion phase r and moderate combustion

phase, m;

2

3

d d

AP ,A

p d f d .

2. Internal energy

As previously mentioned, at any moment the fluid inside the cylinder consists of three

elements: fresh fluid, combustion gases and the newly formed element of burned gases.

Consequently, the internal energy is:

dU dU ai dU ga dU ga , (3) j

where dUai refers to the fresh fluid, dUga refers to the combustion gases and dU gaj refers to the new

j element of burned gases, which was formed during the current calculation step. In order to

calculate the internal energy, we assumed that:

a part (mais)of the overall air quantity (mai) is used for stoichiometric combustion, while the rest

(maia) is available for mixing with the combustion gases:

mai maiS maia ; (4)

the mass of each newly formed element i (mgai) consists of the results of the stoichiometric

combustion (mgasi), to which air (mgaai) is added:

mgai mgasi mgaai . (5)

Using molar weights and taking into account that:

C gas

, (6)

C gas

where:

- C is the fuel delivery [kmoles/stroke];

- gas is the quantity of combustion gases that results during the combustion of C kmoles of fuel;

- gas is the quantity of combustion gases that results during the combustion of C kmoles of fuel;

we get the following relations:

air available for combustion at the moment :

ai 1 ai ;ai C LO

s s

(7) s

total amount of air available at the moment :

ai 1 ai ai ;

S

(8) a

gaS gaS ; (9)

mass of element i at moment :

ga d ga ga .

i

(10)

S ai

Regarding the dilution of combustion gases with air, we assume that to each element is

transferred a quantity of air proportional to its weight in the total amount of combustion gases:

ga

dgaai i daia . (11)

ga

Using these relations, we can now evaluate each component of the internal energy:

U ai 1 ai ai uai ;

S

(12)

a

j 1

U gai d gaS gaai u gai ; (13)

i 1

U ga j d j gaS u fl (14),

where j is the newly formed element, ufl is the specific flame energy.

Finally, we get the following equation for the internal energy:

3

4

j1

dU gaS ufl aiS uai d gai dugai 1 aiS aia duai (15)

i1

The specific energies are determined with the equations:

du ga cV dTga ,

i gai (16) i

1

1

p mga

where Tga Tga ; (17)

i i d

p d

duaii cVai dTai , (18)

1

1

p mai

where Tai Tai ; (19)

d

p d

for the new element j we also use an energy conservation equation:

dQC dI fl dI ai , (20)

which finally leads us to:

aiS u fl C QC d aiS uai 1986

. aiS T fl Tai , (21)

where is the coefficient of molar variation during combustion ( = gas/is). Flame temperature was

calculated using the following relation [4]:

Tfl 2260 0.5 Tai 0.9 0.002 Tai p 25 [K]

3. Heat transfer

Heat transfer was calculated using the convective transfer formula [1, 4]:

dQW cc A T Tw d ,(23)

where cc is heat transfer coefficient, A is heat transfer area, T is the fluid temperature and Tw is the

temperature of the cylinder wall.

As the working fluid has two main components (fresh fluid and combustion gases), we

assume that:

dQw = dQwai + dQwga. (24)

We define the ratio q as:

0.66

dQwai ai Tai TW

q Kr , (25)

dQwga ga Tga TW

where Kr is a distribution factor, with values between 5 and 8 [4]. Using q , the above mentioned

components of the heat transfer become:

q 1

dQWai dQW , dQWga dQW (26)

1 q 1 q

In the meantime, in a polytropic process,

k m

Q 1986

. L, (27)

k 1

where L is the mechanical work, k is the adiabatic exponent and m is the polytropic exponent.

The heat transfer coefficient is defined with the following relation:

4

5

p0.8

cC 0.0042 n 0.1 0.57 , 0.8

(28)

V T

where n is the engine speed, p is the pressure inside the cylinder, V is the chamber volume and T is

the mean temperature of the working fluid.

Using these equations, we evaluate the heat transfer for each calculation step.

4. Mechanical work

In order to calculate the mechanical work we used the classic formula:

dL p dV (29).

The volume is given by the equation:

D2

V VC r 1 cos 1 cos 2 , (30)

4 4

where VC is the combustion chamber volume, D is the cylinder bore, S is the piston stroke, = r/l, r=

S/2 and l is the length of the connecting rod. Using the notation [3]:

2

1 cos 1 cos 2 , (31)

1 4

the volume becomes:

1

V VS , (32)

2

where VS is the cylinder volume.

5. Final equation of the combustion model

Taking into account the energy conservation equation and its components (presented in the

previous sections), we obtain the final equation of the combustion model which gives us the pressure

rate as a function of the heat release rate:

d d p dQW

dp 1986

. ai S

T fl

T ai

d

V S

d 854

d

d 1

1

1 1

1

j 1 m ga 1 1 mga mai 1 1 mai

i 1

Tgai d

m ga p d

gai cVgai p

mga

Tai d

mai p d

ai aiS cVai

RESULTS

The combustion model was used in order to predict cylinder pressure and cylinder pressure

rate starting from the heat release and heat release rate. In order to determine the constant

parameters, which intervene in different equations, we have compared the calculated cylinder

pressure with the real one, obtained with the engine mounted on the test bed.

1. Heat release

The constant parameters for the heat release equation are shown in table 2. The values shown in

table 2 were determined in order to insure the best correlation between the calculated and

experimental results, concerning the maximum cylinder pressure and crankshaft angle (table 5).

The cumulative heat release and heat release rate are presented in fig. 2 and 3.

We notice that oil 1 behaves similar to Diesel fuel; all the other fuels have led to an earlier start of

the combustion.

2. Flame temperature

In order to determine flame temperature when using vegetable fuels, we have used a modified

equation:

T fl A B Tai 0.002 Tai 0.9 p 25

K

The coefficients A and B are presented in table 3. Table 4 shows some of the results concerning flame

temperature.

3. Cylinder pressure history

The calculated cylinder pressure and cylinder pressure rate are shown in fig. 4 and 5. Most of the

vegetable oils have achieved higher peak combustion pressure compared to Diesel fuel; in the

meantime, the peak pressure rate has increased.

5

6

Fig. 6 presents some comparative results between calculated and experimental cylinder pressure

history, for some of the fuels taken into account. We noticed that the calculated pressures are higher

than the experimental ones. The differences rank between 1.26% and 15.08%. The best match

between the model and the experimental results was achieved for Diesel fuel and oil 1, while the

highest difference was recorded for oil 1 + Diesel fuel (15%). For all the other fuels, the differences

between the theoretical and experimental results were lower than 10%.

According to the experimental results, the start of combustion and the maximum pressure were

recorded earlier than predicted by the model, for most of the fuels (see also table 5). This may be due

to the fact that the model uses one of the many available formulas in order to calculate the ignition

delay. The differences between the model and experimental results did not exceed 30 CA.

Figure 7 shows the evolution of the polytropic coefficient for the fresh fluid. We noticed that the

lowest values of this coefficient was registered at 20300C.A. after the start of combustion; this fact

was also reported by other authors [4].

CONCLUSIONS

1. The presented combustion model predicts the cylinder pressure history during combustion for a

D.I. Diesel engine, using the energy conservation and the heat release law as a starting point.

2. In order to increase precision and because at the beginning of the calculation step some elements

are yet unknown, the computation process is an iterative one.

3. The model establishes the values of the coefficients that intervene in the equation of the heat

release rate, when vegetable oils are used as fuels. While for the Diesel fuel the references are

providing enhanced guidelines concerning the values of the different coefficients, the case of

alternative fuels was less studied. The appropriate values of the above mentioned coefficients

were determined through direct comparison between the theoretical and tests results, concerning

the maximum cylinder pressure and crankshaft angle.

4. For most of the vegetable fuels, the differences between the calculated and experimental pressure

values did not exceed 10% (usually 45%); the crankshaft angle differences did not exceed

30CA.

5. A modified formula for flame temperature calculation is proposed; the coefficients were

established in order to insure the best match possible between calculated and experimental

maximum pressure.

6. The theoretical results are in accordance with the results obtained by other researchers.

6

7

REFERENCES

(1) Apostolescu, N., Chiriac, R., Combustion process in the internal combustion engine, Technical

(2) Arama, C. Grnwald, B., Internal combustion engines processes and characteristics, Technical

(3) Grnwald, B., Theory, calculation and design of internal combustion engines, Didactic &

(4) Grnwald, B., Apostolescu, N., Thermal and chemical non-homogeneity of the gases inside the

7

8

Table 1

Physical and chemical properties of the fuels

L0, Composition

Density Viscosity Surface, Inflammation Heating

kmoles

Fuel type at 200C, at 500C, tension, temperature, value,

air/kg C, % H, %

kg/m3 cSt N/m 0

C kJ/kg

fuel

Diesel fuel 839.3 1.293 0.0281 58 41222.3 0.496 85.70 13.30

Oil 1 908.7 23.544 0.0331 198 35020.0 0.405 73.02 11.60

Oil 2 919.3 21.824 0.0336 294 36367.7 0.421 75.73 11.71

Oil 3 908.4 20.937 0.0321 275 37188.0 0.431 76.61 12.09

Oil 1+Diesel

878.4 10.267 0.0306 127 37807.0 0.446 78.90 12.30

fuel

Oil 2+Diesel

888.4 10.258 0.0338 107 38288.3 0.459 80.71 12.50

fuel

Oil 3+Diesel

878.4 10.545 0.0305 146 39153.4 0.465 81.20 12.72

fuel

Table 2

Parameters for the heat release equation

Parameter

Fuel d,

0 f, 0CA p, 0CA RC md mp

CA

Diesel 346 386 360 0.10 5 3.7

Oil 1 346 386 362 0.10 5 3.5

Oil 2 340 373 345 0.12 5 3.5

Oil 3 341 374 370 0.10 5 3.7

Oil1+Diesel 340 377 370 0.12 5 3.7

Oil2+Diesel 340 383 362 0.30 4 3.7

Oil3+Diesel 340 379 360 0.30 4 3.7

Table 3

Coefficients for flame temperature

Fuel

Diesel Oil 1 Oil 2 Oil 3 Oil1+ Diesel Oil2+ Diesel Oil3+ Diesel

A 2260 2260 1800 1415 1820 1590 1535

B 0.5 0.5 0.35 0.25 0.28 0.20 0.20

Table 4

Flame temperature [K]

Fuel Minimum Maximum

Diesel 2419.1 at 3530CA; 2514.5 at 3860CA 2556.9 at 3760CA

Oil 1 2411.4 at 3540CA; 2508.3 at 3860CA 2551.9 at 3750CA

Oil 2 1509.7 at 3430CA; 1562.4 at 3730CA 1570.2 at 3760CA

Oil 3 1889.8 at 3500CA; 1981.5 at 3740CA 1996.0 at 3680CA

Oil 1 + Diesel 1889.8 at 3500CA; 1946.5 at 3770CA 1960.7 at 3690CA

Oil 2 + Diesel 1647.3 at 3480CA; 1667.4 at 3830CA 1678.7 at 3710CA

Oil 3+ Diesel 1589.4 at 3470CA; 1616.0 at 3790CA 1624.4 at 3690CA

8

9

Table 5

Maximum cylinder pressure (full load)

Model Experimental

Fuel Cylinder pressure Crank angle Cylinder pressure Crank angle

[MPa] [0] [MPa] [0]

Diesel fuel 6.34 376 6.26 373

Oil 1 6.26 375 6.10 376

Oil 2 7.15 366 6.40 366

Oil 3 7.28 368 6.56 368

Oil 1+Diesel fuel 8.22 369 6.98 365

Oil 2+Diesel fuel 6.77 371 6.13 370

Oil 3+Diesel fuel 7.06 369 6.40 368

d start of combustion; p end of the rapid combustion phase; f end of

combustion

Diesel fuel

Full load Oil 1

Oil 2

%100 9

Oil 3 %/0CA

Diesel fuel

90 Oil 1+Diesel fuel 8

Oil 1 Oil 2+Diesel fuel

Oil 2 80 Oil 3+Diesel fuel 7

Oil 3

70

6

Oil 1+Diesel fuel Full load

Oil 2+Diesel fuel 60

5

Oil 3+Diesel fuel 50

4

40

3

30

2

20

1

10

0

0

330 340 350 360 370 380 390

330 340 350 360 370 380 390

0

0

CA

CA

9

10

Full load

0.6 dp /d ,

Diesel fuel

Full load p ,

8.5 MPa/ CA

0

oil 1

oil 2

Diesel fuel MPa oil 3

oil1+Diesel fuel

oil1 6.5 oil2+Diesel fuel

oil 2 0.3 oil3+Diesel fuel

oil 3

oil1+Diesel fuel 4.5

oil2+Diesel fuel

oil3+Diesel fuel

2.5 0

330 340 350 360 370 380 0 390

, CA

0

0.5 , CA

330 340 350 360 370 380 390

-0.3

7 9

8

6

7

5

cylinder pressure, MPa

4

5

Full load

Full load

3 4

Diesel fuel, model Oil2+Diesel fuel, model

Diesel fuel, exp. 3 Oil2+Diesel fuel, exp.

2

Oil1, model Oil1+Diesel fuel, model

Oil1, exp 2

Oil1+Diesel fuel, exp

1

1

0 0

330 340 350 360 370 380 390 330 340 350 360 370 380 390

0

, CA 0

, CA

1.37 1.37

1.35 1.35

1.33 1.33

1.31 1.31

m ai

m ai

1.29 1.29

Diesel fuel

1.27 Oil 1 1.27 Diesel fuel

Oil 2 Oil 1+Diesel fuel

1.25 Oil 3 Oil 2+Diesel fuel

1.25

Oil 3+Diesel fuel

1.23 1.23

340 350 360 370 380 390 340 350 360 370 380 390

,0CA ,0CA

10

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