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Article

Rheological, physical and sensorial evaluation of


cookies supplemented with dairy powders

Durmus Sert, M Ku
rsat Demir and Nilgu
n Ertas

Abstract
The effect of dairy powders (skim milk powder, butter milk powder, sodium caseinate, yoghurt powder, milk
powder and colostrum powder) on cookie quality was studied. Cookies were tested for aw, calorimetric
energy, diameter, thickness, spread ratio, breaking strength, colour, dough consistency and sensory evalu-
ation. The lowest aw values were obtained for cookies containing colostrum powder; also the highest calori-
metric energy values were obtained from the colostrum powder-added cookies. Diameter values of cookies
with the addition of skim milk powder, butter milk powder, yoghurt powder and milk powder were higher than
that of sodium caseinate and colostrum powder. The lowest spread ratio was measured in the cookie sam-
ples with added skim milk powder. The addition of yoghurt powder gave the highest breaking strength of
cookies. Cookies with sodium caseinate addition exhibited the highest lightness (L*) values than the other
cookies with different dairy powders. Cookies prepared with butter milk powder received the highest scores
for colour, appearance, texture, crispness and overall acceptability.

Keywords
Cookie, dairy powders, dough rheology, sensory properties
Date received: 4 June 2014; accepted: 25 March 2015

INTRODUCTION on a variety of properties, such as functional properties,


Cookies known as at-baked products in the United is of primary importance to food technology and engin-
States are prepared using our, high amount of sugar, eering applications. Generally, the main component of
shortening and low amount of water. However, they dairy powders is protein, which plays a major role in
are known as biscuit in most English-speaking coun- ingredient functionality. Dairy proteins have important
tries. Flour, sugar, shortening, water and salt are the eects on ingredient functional properties, such as pro-
main ingredients in a soft dough cookie formulation tein solubility, foaming capacity and stability, and
(Maache-Rezzoug et al., 1998). Generally, larger diam- water and oil absorption capacity (Arteaga et al.,
eter cookies are produced with soft wheat ours which 1993). Dairy products are added into wheat products
have low protein content and weak gluten strength (breads, biscuits, cakes) for their nutritional and func-
(Hoseney et al., 1988). tional benets. Their nutritional benets are increased
In recent years, additives have come into common calcium content, increased protein content and supple-
usage in the baking industry (Ribotta et al., 2001). mentation of the essential amino acids lysine,
There is a large quantity and variety of dairy ingredi- methionine and tryptophan. The improvement of
ents produced industrially in powder form; spray-dried dough-handling properties and bread quality (avour,
dairy powders are common ingredients in many food
and dairy products. The quality of food powders based
Department of Food Engineering, Engineering & Architecture
Food Science and Technology International 0(0) 17
Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey
! The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: Corresponding author:
sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav n Ertas, Department of Food Engineering, Engineering &
Nilgu
DOI: 10.1177/1082013215583149 Architecture Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya
fst.sagepub.com 42060, Turkey.
Email: dr.nilgunertas@gmail.com

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crust colour, toasting characteristics, shelf life, crumb trays and placed in a baking oven (Arcelik ARMD-
structure and crumb texture) is due to functional bene- _
580; Istanbul, Turkey). These were baked at 205  C
ts of dairy ingredients (Jacobson, 1997; Kinsella, 1984; for 11 min.
Stahel, 1983; Warren et al., 1983). The dairy by-pro-
ducts such as whey protein concentrate (WPC), milk Dimension, spread ratio and breaking strength
powder and skimmed milk powder have been tradition- determinations. A digital micrometer (0.001 mm;
ally used in dierent food applications with unique Mitutoyo, Minoto-Ku, Tokyo, Japan) was used to
functional and nutritional properties (Morr, 1984; measure the dimensions (diameter and thickness) of
Morr and Ha, 1993; Nunes et al., 2009). Sodium case- the cookie samples. The spread ratio was found using
inate (NaCas), attributed to the amphiphilic nature of the following formula (Singh and Mohamed, 2007):
the protein, is used as an emulsier, thickener and
foaming agent and is known to increase water absorp- Spreadratio Diameter=Thickness
tion in our systems. Caseinates have already been used
in some value-added products such as frozen dough The breaking strength was measured using the triple-
(Abrahamsson et al., 1974; Forsum, 1979). beam snap technique of Gains (1991) using Instron
Dairy by-products consist of a decomposed diluted Universal Testing machine (Model 4301) (Instron
solution or suspension of organic matter. Main compo- Ltd., High Wycombe, England) at a crosshead speed
nents, in addition to lactose minerals, proteins and of 50 mm/min and load cell of 250 kg. Force required to
smaller amounts of oil, are other organic materials. break a single cookie was recorded, and the average
Dairy by-products should not be mixed up in waste- value of six replicates is reported.
waters since they are known to cause environmental
pollution. Therefore, these products must be evaluated Colour measurements. Colour measurement was per-
in the manufacture of many things, in terms of prevent- formed using a Hunter Lab Color Quest II Minolta CR
ing environmental and water pollution. In addition, 400 (Konica Minolta Sensing, Inc., Osaka, Japan). The
evaluation of dairy by-product will allow contributing L*, a* and b* colour measurements were determined
adequate and balanced diet, preventing dissipation and according to the CIELab colour space system, where
reduction of cost price (Akyuz, 1979). In this research, L* corresponds to light/dark chromaticity (changing
it is attempted to investigate eects of dairy by-product from 0% dark to 100% light), a* to green/red chroma-
powders as a substitution for skim milk powder (SMP) ticity (changing from 60% green to 60% red) and b*
in cookies produced with dierent dairy powders. to blue/yellow chromaticity (changing from 60% blue

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Materials Table 1. Cookie recipe

Wheat our and sodium bicarbonate were obtained Ingredient Weight (g)
from Saray Biscuit and Food Industry A.S.
Wheat flour 100
(Karaman, Turkey). All-purpose shortening, salt and
Sugar 60
sugar were procured from local market in Konya,
Turkey. Dairy powders were provided by Enka Dairy All-purpose shortening 30
and Food Products Co., Konya, Turkey. Sodium bicarbonate 1.5
Salt 0.4
Deionized water Variable
Methods
Production of cookies. The recipe used for cookies is In each set of experiment the amount
presented in Table 1. Six sets of experiments were per- of dairy powders Weight (g)
formed; dierent dairy powders (SMP, butter milk
SMP 3.0
powder (BMP), NaCas, yoghurt powder (YP), milk
BMP 3.0
powder (MP) and colostrum powder (CP)) character-
ized the sets. All ingredients used for cookie prepar- NaCas 3.0
ation were kept at room temperature. Cookie dough YP 3.0
was prepared in a Hobart mixer (Hobart N50; MP 3.0
Canada Inc., North York, Ontario, Canada). The CP 3.0
dough was sheeted to a thickness of 4.0 mm and cut SMP: skim milk powder; BMP: butter milk powder; NaCas: sodium
into round shapes using a 55-mm diameter dough caseinate; YP: yoghurt powder; MP: milk powder; CP: colostrum
cutter. The cut dough was transferred to aluminum powder.

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Sert et al.

to 60% yellow). Colour measurements of the sample of cookie dough pre-mixed in a Hobart mixer was trans-
were replicated ve times. ferred to the 300 g capacity farinograph mixer bowl and
instrument was run for 10 min and the farinogram
Water activity measurements. Water activity was mea- dough consistency as Brabender Units (BU) was rec-
sured with an Aqualab apparatus (Decagon Devices orded at 0 and 10 min mixing. Farinograph graphic
Inc., Model Series 3TE, USA). Pure water (aw: results of the sample were replicated three times. And
1.000  0.003%) was used as standard for equipment the graph was used containing an average of three
calibration. Water activity measurements of the results.
sample were replicated three times.
Sensory analysis. Cookie samples were evaluated by
Calorimetric energy. The calorimetric energy values of seven panellists, who were familiar with the characteris-
the cookie samples were determined using a bomb cal- tics of cookies. Ages ranged from 23 to 42. Five of them
orimeter (C200; IKA, Werke, Staufen, Germany). were females. All panellists were non-smokers.
Approximately 0.10.2  0.0001 g of the cookie Instructions were previously given in full to panellists.
sample was weighed into a burning crucible placed in The samples were brought to room temperature before
the decomposition vessel of the instrument. To opti- testing. The samples were coded with letters and the
mize the combustion process, the decomposition order of sample presentation was completely rando-
vessel was lled with pure oxygen (99.95%) until the mized for serving to the panellists to guard against any
pressure of oxygen atmosphere reached a maximum of bias. The panellists cleansed their palates with water
30 bar. The cookie sample was ignited by a cotton before rating each sample. The panellists were asked to
thread as an ignition aid. The temperature increase in score the cookie samples in terms of colour, appearance,
the calorimeter system was measured and the specic avour, texture, crispness and overall acceptability using
caloric value of the cookie sample was calculated as a 10-point scale where 12 represented dislike extre-
follows (IKA, 2005; Ylmaz and Karakaya, 2010): mely, 56 represented acceptable and 910 represented
like extremely in a particular attribute.
H0 C  T  QExternal1 QExternal2 =m
_
Statistical analysis. TARIST (version 4.0, Izmir) soft-
where m was the weight of fat sample, C was the heat ware was used to perform the statistical analyses
capacity (C-value), T was the calculated temperature according to one-way ANOVA. Measurements of the
increase of the water in the inner vessel of the measuring sample were replicated three times. Duncans Multiple
cell, QExternal1 was the correction value for the heat Range Test was applied when the analysis of variance
energy generated by the cotton thread an ignition aid indicated signicant dierences in mean values.
and QExternal2 was the correction value for the heat
energy from other burning aids. Calorimetric energy RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
measurements of the sample were replicated three times.
Analytical results
Rheological properties. Rheology of cookie dough Chemical properties of the experimental dairy powders
was measured using a Brabender Farinograph (CW (SMP, BMP, NaCas, YP, MP and CP) used in cookie
Brabender Instruments, Duisburg, Germany), accord- formulation are shown in Table 2. The highest moisture
ing to the method of Olewnik and Kulp (1984). A 300 g and protein content are obtained with NaCas, but the

Table 2. Basis chemical composition of the experimental dairy powders in used cookie samples

Moisture (%) Protein (%) Fat (%) Ash (%) Lactose (%) pH

SMP 3.3 cd** 33.5 b** 0.5 e** 7.2 d** 55.5 a** 6.65 a**
BMP 3.2 d 24.0 c 8.0 c 8.5 b 56.3 a 6.46 b
NaCas 6.0 a 82.1 a 0.1 f 7.9 c 3.9 e 6.50 b
YP 3.3 cd 33.0 b 3.0 d 7.0 e 53.7 b 4.40 c
MP 3.5 c 24.0 c 26.7 b 5.8 f 40.0 c 6.47 b
CP 4.0 b 32.4 b 36.1 a 11.4 a 16.1 d 6.54 b
Means in the same column with different letters as superscripts are significantly different.
SMP: skim milk powder; BMP: butter milk powder; NaCas: sodium caseinate; YP: yoghurt powder; MP: milk powder; CP: colostrum
powder.
**P < 0.01.

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NaCas gave the lowest fat content. Among the dairy addition. This is may be due to high protein and fat
powders, CP had the highest fat and ash content. BMP content of CP.
and SMP gave higher lactose content than the dairy Eects of dairy powders (SMP, BMP, NaCas, YP,
powders. Ylmaz et al. (2010), studied with dairy by- MP and CP) on diameter, thickness, spread ratios and
products and ash, protein and fat content of BMP is breaking strength of cookies are shown in Table 4.
found 8.5, 24.0 and 8.0%, respectively. The lowest pH Diameter values of cookies with the addition of SMP,
is obtained with YP this may be due to the yoghurt is BMP, YP and MP were higher than NaCas and CP.
fermentative product and its pH is lower than other Long diameter and short thickness are the required
dairy products. quality parameters for the customers. Gallagher et al.
(2005) reported that diameter values of biscuits
decreased with the addition of WPC. Signicant dier-
Physical and chemical properties
ences (P < 0.05) were not observed in the thickness
Eects of dairy powders on aw and calorimetric energy values of cookies with the addition of dairy powders.
values of cookies are shown in Table 3. The lowest aw But NaCas addition gave the lowest thickness values of
values were obtained for cookies containing CP because cookies, descriptively. The results agree with those of
of the more bound water in the system. The calorimetric previous studies (Gallagher et al., 2005), which showed
energy values of cookies are 492.5; 490.4; 506.4; 504.4; that as levels of NaCas increased, biscuit thickness
518.5 and 535.1 kcal/ 100g for SMP, BMP, NaCas, decreased. The spread ratios of cookies increased with
YP, MP and CP, respectively. The highest calorimet- the addition of NaCas. The decrease in thicknesses and
ric energy values were obtained with CP increase in spread ratios of cookies may be attributed to
reduction in shrinkage of dough (Manley, 1991). The
lowest spread ratio was measured in the cookie samples
Table 3. Effects of dairy powders on aw and calorimetric with added SMP. Jacob and Leelavathi (2007) reported
energy values of cookies that cookies prepared with sunower oil gave the
higher spread values. There was considerable increase
Calorimetric energy,
Samples aw kcal/100 g () in breaking strength of cookies prepared with YP.
The eects of adding dairy powders on the L*, a* and
SMP 0.398 b** 492.5 e** b* values of the cookie surfaces are shown in Table 5.
BMP 0.403 a 490.4 f Cookies with NaCas addition exhibited the highest L*
NaCas 0.343 c 506.4 c values than the other cookies with dierent dairy pow-
YP 0.298 d 504.4 d ders. YP, MP and SMP addition gave the lower L*
MP 0.281 e 518.5 b values. Also YP, MP and SMP addition gave the
CP 0.210 f 535.1 a higher a* values, probably due to Maillard browning
reactions between proteins and reducing sugars resulted
Means in the same column with different letters as superscripts are to signicantly browner cookie colour. This is previously
significantly different.
explained by Secchi et al. (2011) that browning of
SMP: skim milk powder; BMP: butter milk powder; NaCas: sodium
caseinate; YP: yoghurt powder; MP: milk powder; CP: colostrum cookies is attributable to non-enzymatic browning reac-
powder. tions, inuenced by many variables such as sugar type,
**P < 0.01. aw values, temperature, pH and overall processing

Table 4. Effects of dairy powders on some physical quality of cookies

Diameter Thickness Spread Breaking


Samples (D) (mm) (T) (mm) ratio (W/T) strength (kg f)

SMP 55.54 a** 11.86 a (ns) 4.69 c** 6.40 b**


BMP 56.12 a 11.58 a 4.86 bc 6.43 b
NaCas 54.27 b 10.29 a 5.29 a 6.14 b
YP 56.15 a 11.53 a 4.88 bc 8.43 a
MP 55.78 a 13.50 a 4.95 b 6.26 b
CP 54.69 b 11.04 a 4.96 b 7.05 b
Means in the same column with different letters as superscripts are significantly different.
SMP: skim milk powder; BMP: butter milk powder; NaCas: sodium caseinate; YP: yoghurt powder; MP: milk powder; CP: colostrum
powder; ns not significant.
**P < 0.01.

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Sert et al.

conditions. And the highest b* values were obtained preference and product acceptance. Table 7 lists the
with CP and NaCas addition in cookies. eects of dairy powders on sensory quality of cookies.
In the study of Perez et al. (2013), the replacement Of all the cookies tested for sensory properties, cookies
of wheat our by WPC and soy our in cookie formu- prepared with BMP received the highest scores for
lation aected the development of colour due to the colour, appearance, texture, crispness and overall
Maillard reaction. Perez et al. (2013) explain this acceptability. BMP had the highest lactose content, so
event as the addition of WPC was reduced lysine avail- lactose take important role in textural properties like
ability and increased color development. gelling, lm-forming, foaming and emulsifying proper-
ties of cookies (Kinsella and Whitehead, 1989). Kenny
et al. (2000) reported that the addition of 2 or 4%
Rheological properties
NaCas in bread formulation gave highest sensorial
The eects of adding dairy powders on the farinograph scores among dairy powders (whole and skimmed milk
dough consistency of the cookies are shown in Table 6 powder, NaCas, casein hydrolysate and three WPC).
and Figure 1. The farinograph dough consistency of the Cookies with addition YP gave the highest avour
pre-mixed cookie dough was measured at 0 and 10 min values. Cookies prepared with MP and CP gave lower
mixing, respectively. Olewnik and Kulp (1984) reported texture, appearance and overall acceptability values.
that the large numbers of measured consistency resulted Consumer acceptance is the nal criterion for new
stier dough tenacity properties. The initial farinograph dairy products on the marketplace, and the high failure
dough consistency values of cookie dough prepared with rates for new products introduced on the market show
SMP, BMP, NaCas, YP, MP and CP were 562, 568, 576, that the considerations consumers apply when accept-
583, 541and 526 BU, respectively. The cookie dough with ing or rejecting new products are far from being under-
YP had the highest initial dough consistency of 583 BU. stood. Consumer acceptance of the new food products
The results showed that the cookie dough with CP had and a better understanding of its determinants are
the least initial consistency of 526 BU, which decreased widely recognized as key success factors for market
to 469 BU with continued mixing in the farinograph orientation, consumer-led product development and
(Figure 1). During the mixing period, dough consistency successfully negotiating market opportunities. These
values decreased signicantly by about 71 BU in all products provide consumers a modern way to follow
cookie dough samples and the dough became less sti. a healthy lifestyle, which diers from the convention-
This is due to the well aerated hence less dense dough. ally healthy diet dened by nutrition experts.
This is in agreement with data given by Jacob and
Leelavathi (2007). The highest dough consistency
values after 10 min mixing were obtained with NaCas.
CONCLUSIONS
Several recent studies have showed the successful use of
dairy powders in cereal-based products. In this study,
Sensory properties
the use some of dairy powders (SMP, BMP, NaCas,
Sensory evaluation of the cookie samples was carried YP, MP and CP) in cookie samples were investigated.
out to obtain preliminary information on consumers The lowest aw values were obtained for cookies con-
taining CP. Water aects the textural characteristics
Table 5. Effect of dairy powders on colour of cookies

Colour values Table 6. Effect of dairy powders on the farinograph con-


sistency of cookie dough
Sample L* a* b*
Farinograph dough consistency (BU)
SMP 59.73 cd** 9.09 abc** 27.27 b**
BMP 62.87 b 8.25 c 27.87 ab Samples 0 (min) 10 (min)
NaCas 71.07 a 7.05 d 28.64 a SMP 562 465
YP 59.14 d 9.95 a 27.21 b BMP 568 500
MP 58.88 d 9.31 ab 27.42 b NaCas 576 524
CP 61.87 bc 8.64 bc 28.48 a YP 583 503
Means in the same column with different letters as superscripts are MP 541 467
significantly different. CP 526 469
SMP: skim milk powder; BMP: butter milk powder; NaCas: sodium
caseinate; YP: yoghurt powder; MP: milk powder; CP: colostrum SMP: skim milk powder; BMP: butter milk powder; NaCas: sodium
powder. caseinate; YP: yoghurt powder; MP: milk powder; CP: colostrum
**P < 0.01. powder.

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Figure 1. Effect dairy powders on farinograph consistency of cookie dough.

Table 7. Effects of dairy powders on sensory quality of cookies

Samples Colour Appearance Flavour Texture Crispness Overall acceptability

SMP 7.55 b** 8.45 b** 6.95 d** 6.95 c** 7.00 e** 7.40 c**
BMP 8.00 a 9.25 a 8.25 b 8.25 a 8.65 a 8.45 a
NaCas 6.40 d 7.00 d 7.00 d 7.70 b 7.45 d 7.25 c
YP 7.58 b 7.55 c 8.60 a 7.20 c 8.40 ab 7.75 b
MP 6.80 c 6.70 e 7.55 c 6.10 d 7.95 c 6.50 d
CP 5.75 e 6.10 f 6.55 e 6.30 d 8.10 bc 6.30 d
Means in the same column with different letters as superscripts are significantly different.
SMP: skim milk powder; BMP: butter milk powder; NaCas: sodium caseinate; YP: yoghurt powder; MP: milk powder; CP: colostrum
powder.
**P < 0.01.

like crispness of dry snack foods. So the decrease in ratio was measured in the cookie samples with added
water binding resulted in increase of the crispness and NaCas. YP addition gave the highest breaking strength
also consumer acceptability. Diameter values of of cookies. Cookies with NaCas addition exhibited the
cookies with the addition of SMP, BMP, YP and MP highest lightness values than the other cookies with dif-
were higher than NaCas and CP. The highest spread ferent dairy powders. The cookie dough with YP had

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Sert et al.

the highest initial dough consistency of 583 BU. Kenny S, Wehrle K, Stanton C and Arendt EK. (2000).
Cookies prepared with BMP received the highest sen- Incorporation of dairy ingredients into wheat bread:
sory scores for colour, appearance, texture, crispness Effects on dough rheology and bread quality. European
and overall acceptability according to consumer accept- Food Research and Technology 210: 391396.
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food. Food Technology 38: 3948.
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DECLARATION OF CONFLICTING INTERESTS Nunes MHB, Ryan LAM and Arendt EK. (2009). Effect of
The authors declare that there is no conict of interest. low lactose dairy powder addition on the properties of
gluten-free batters and bread quality. European Food
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138141.

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