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Nelson Mandela (1918-2013)

Nelson Mandela was an anti-apartheid revolutionary who went on to serve as the


first black president of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. A noted human rights
activist, Mandela led South Africa's fight against segregation and apartheid.

In 1961, Mandela co-founded Umkhonto we Sizwe, a militant wing of the African


National Congress, which opposed the South African government's system of racial
segregation. He served 27 years in prison after he was convicted of sabotage and
conspiracy to overthrow the government. Although he was sentenced to life in
prison, Mandela was released in 1990 after an international campaign successfully
lobbied for his freedom.

Over the course of his life, Mandela received more than 250 honors, including the
Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. Mandela died at the age of 95 on Dec. 5, 2013.

Leadership Theories
The Trait Approach1.Nelson Mandela have several traits that help him to become a great
leader.2.The first traits is optimism and self-confidence because Nelson Mandela think
that SouthAfrica will not have Apartheid sstem forever and he has a strong belief that he can endthe
Apartheid one da.!.The second trait is honest and integrit because Nelson Mandela never
compromised hisintegrit despite the e"treme challenges he faced. #or e"ample$ he has refused
conditionalrelease from prison because he need to renounces violence$ and violent protest that
bringchanges to the political sstem in South Africa. %e also being truthful to his supportersand
followers which make him to be elected b them to become the first black presidentin South Africa.&.The
third trait is drive because Nelson Mandela was motivated b the goal 'end
theApartheid( and fight against the Apartheid consistentl even though he was imprisoned in )ail for 2*
ears because of it.The +ontingenc Approaches1.This approach stated that leadership results
when the ideas and acts of the leader match the needs and e"pectations of the follower in
a particular situation.2.,n #iedlers +ontingenc Model$ Nelson Mandela can be considered
as a relationship-oriented leader which mean the leader is concerned with people. Nelson Mandela
alwastr to engage with the people in South Africa regardless of races to be tolerable andsupportive to
each other. %e cares about the people in South Africa and listen to theirneeds. The situation ma be
moderatel favourable when Nelson Mandela has become president. The reason is the leader-member
relations is good and position power is high.%owever$ task structure might not high as this is the first
time for the part to rule thecountr. According to the theor$ relationship-oriented leader is
more effective in amoderatel favourable situation because human relations skills are important to
achievehigh group performance and can create positive group atmosphere