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Motor operated by frequency inverter

Jrgen Albig L-SR


Manager Control Systems
Division Fan Technology
The use of frequency inverter is incidentially a hazard
potential to damage the motor, depending on the system
configuration

There we have to note to follow limit values


Voltage rise time: dU/dt in Volt/usec
Depending on the normally used power semiconductors (IPM or IGBT) of
frequency inverters
max. voltage peaks at the motor terminal box
Depending on the cable length between motor / frequency inverter
and as we have an parallel operation of several motors
Clock frequency from the used frequency inverter
Depending on the manufacturer of the inverter, modern inverters have a
clock frequency up to 16kHz
Why have failures of motors remarkably increased during the
last 2-3 years?
The main reason are innovations in the frequency inverter
Older generations of frequency inverters had an low clock frequency, slow and
lossy power semiconductors.

A few years ago normally the max. clock frequency was in the range of max.
4kHz, the voltage rise time not over 1000 Volt/usec. Today it is common to get a
clock frequency up to 16 kHz and a voltage rise time of more than 10000
Volt/usec.

By the development of faster power semiconductors the frequency inverter can


be manufactured with an lower power loss,more compact and at least much
cheaper.

The hazard of all kind of motors has considerably increased during the last few
years. This is also confirmed by the manufacturer of the frequency inverters. So
far not known defects have appeared ( for example damage of bearings caused
by bearing currents )
Damage symptoms

Voltage reflection up to 2.000 V damage the motor insulation material system


and cause bearing currents.

Damaged bearing by reflow caused by currend spark,


Damaged winding insulation caused by voltage bearing currents (testing with scanning electron
reflections up to 2.000 V! microscope)
Hazard potential for damage depending on the system
configuration

Stand alone operation: short motor cable

voltage rise time: dU/dt comes unattenuated to the winding.


Cable lengths below 1m are problematic and often
result in an accelerated aging of the windings insulation
voltage peaks up to 3m cable length are normally uncritical.
A hazard of the bearings through bearing currents are high.
Hazard potential for damage depending on the system
configuration
Stand alone operation: long motor cable

voltage rise time: dU/dt comes attenuated to the winding and is reduced to
the resistance of the motor cable
Modern frequency inverters reach the max. voltage peak at the motor
terminal box often after 10 m cabel length.
DC-link voltage reaches double value.
At an main power of 400 V we get: 400 x 1.41 x 2 = 1120 V DC-link voltage

A hazard of the bearings through bearing currents is slightly less, but


it is still given
Hazard potential for damage depending on the system
configuration

Several motors in parallel: always long cable lengths through addition


of all motor cables

Voltage rise time: dU/dt comes attenuated to the winding and is reduced to
the resistance of the motor cable.
Through multiple voltage reflections in the motor cable we get in practice
always actual values from not less than the double DC-link voltage.
Often we get values (max. voltage peaks) from 2000 V and higher.
A hazard of the bearings through bearing currents is slightly less, but
it is still given
Unfavorable motor operation where hazard of motors can only be excluded
by using of special features in combination with frequency inverters .
Hazard potential for damage depending on the system
configuration
In general:

Stand alone operation is possible and unrestricted when we have


special features in the frequency inverter. ( dU/dt limitation,.. )
Dielectric strength of the motor of 1300 -1400 V is sufficient.

In system where several motors are operated parallely on one


frequency inverter we have always high hazard potential for damage of
the motors. A safety operation of several motors is given by using an
all-pole SINE FILTER

A hazard of the bearings through bearing currents is still given. It is only


excluded by using an all-pole SINE FILTER
.
Using standard frequency inverters and normal
motors or fans

Limit values for fans e.G. FE080, motor size 137


voltage rise time: dU/dt approx. 2500 Volt/usec
max. voltage peak: approx. 800 Volt
standard bearings

To pay attention to:


No saftey operation with frequency inverters when cable length is over 3m.
Failures probable by oarallel operation of fans or long motor cables.
Screened motor cable can normally not be connected optimal.
EMC-limitations cannot be keept by a bad shielding to the motor
terminal box
Using standard frequency inverters and motors or fans with
an improved winding insulation system

Limit values for fans with an improved winding insulation system


z.B. FE080, motor size 137

Voltage rise time: dU/dt approx.. 6000 Volt/usec


Max. voltage peak approx.. 1400 Volt
Bearings: alternatively with ceramic bearings
Motor terminal box in aluminium or screened motor cable
To pay attention to :
screened motor cable is still required
higher investment cost like with a standard motor
Depending on the system configuration this motors can have failures also, when
they are operated in parallel. We can get max. voltage peaks up to 2000 V.
Voltage wave form at the motor terminal box
between phase to phase and phase to ground

Voltage peaks min. 1200 V, up to 2000 V possible


Using standard frequency inverter with standard sine filter
e.G. Schaffner FN 510/520 and standard fans

To pay attention to:


Sinus wave voltage between all phases
PWM voltage between all 3 phases to ground
hazard potential for damage is still given (short circuit: all 3 phases to ground
and current over the bearings )
screened cabels between motors an frequency inverter are still needed, you
will have the investment costs for this screened cables also.
Using of ceramic bearings and a aluminium terminal box will prefared.
Voltage wave form at the motor terminal
between phase to phase and phase to ground

phase to ground phase to phase

Voltage peaks min. 1200 V, Voltage peaks like the input


up to 2000 V possible voltage up to 600 V
Using standard frequency inverter with all-pole sine filter
e.G. Schaffner FN 530 and standard fans

To pay attention to:


Sine wave voltage between all 3 phases
Sine wave voltage between all 3 phases to ground
screened motor cables are not necessary
No restrictions on the cable length
Known saftey and cheap components like the normal system configuration
No EMC-risk through a bad shielding or different system configurations
Ideal solution among Fcontrol but not realisable with the most of all frequency
inverters. The sine filter has to agree to the inverter. Normaly you need a
clock frequency of 6 to 8 kHz and a refeeding to the DC-link inside the
frequency inverter is necessary.
Voltage wave form at the motor terminal
between phase to phase and phase to ground

Output voltage peak like the input voltage up to 600 V


Ziehl-Abegg recommend Fcontrol for a stepless and safety control
of fans without additional (electromagnetic) motor noise
By using the integrated all-pole SINE FILTER (phase to
phase and phase to ground), an absolute
parallel control of fans without risk of damage for
motors is possible

Screened motor cables are not required!

Standard Fans can be used, no special features are


required.
The structure
Fcontrol
P

Bedien-/
Anzeigeeinheit

externe 0 - 10
Sollwertvorgabe V

Temperatur, Sensor
1

4-20mA, 0-10V Sensor


2
Betrieb / Strung
Sollwert1/Sollwert2
Zusatzkontakte
Freigabe
Reset
Regeleinheit 0-10
V
Reglerausgang
Begrenzung
Automatik / Hand

externe Strung

3~ 0-100 %
3~ 400 V, Gleichrichter Zwischenkreis Wechselrichter Allpoliger Sinusfilter Motorschutz
50/60 Hz TK / PTC
Fcontrol
The SINE FILTER is integrated into the device and is a
combination between capacitors and chokes

capacitors

chokes
Differences between Ziehl-Abegg Fcontrol or frequency
inverters with all-pole SINE Filter to
frequency inverters without or with simple Sine Filter

9 All-pole Sine filter for unlimited operation of parallel fans (thus no damages of the
motor insulations and no bearings currents)
9 All filters and chokes for keeping the standard EMV class B are integrated in the
housing
9 At current-operated circuit-breaker (all mains sensitive) no earth current problems
(slight leakage currents)
9 High clock frequency (12 to 16 kHz)
9 No screened motor cables are required
9 No limit for the motor cables length (besides by the cables owns resistor)
9 No metal terminal box and EMC connection necessary
9Extended system warranty accordable by use of Ziehl-Abegg components